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19

SERVICE MANUAL
RAM TRUCK
1500 - 3500

ft

2 WHEEL DRIVE 4 WHEEL DRIVE


^CHRYSLER W CORPORATION

CHRYSLER CORPORATION
SERVICE MANUAL 1995 RAM TRUCK 1500 - 3500
To order the special service tools used and illustrated, please refer to the instructions on inside back cover.

^WCHRYSLiR w CORPORATION

NO PAET OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED, STORED IN A RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, OR TRANSMITTED, IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC, ME CHANICAL, PHOTOCOPYING, RECORDING, OR OTHERWISE, WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHRYSLER CORPORATION.

Chrysler Corporation reserves the right to make changes in design or to make additions to or improvements in Its products without imposing any ob ligations upon itself to install them on its products previously manufactured. Litho in U.S.A. Copyright 1994 Chrysler Corporation 20M0694

Paper Content 50% Recycled

FOREWORD
- The information contained in this service manual has been prepared for the professional automotive tech nician involved in daily repair operations. This manual does not cover theory of operation, which is addressed in service training material. Information describing the operation and use of standard and optional equipment is included in the Owner's Manual provided with the vehicle. Information in this manual is divided into groups. These groups contain general information, diagnosis, testing, adjustments, removal, installation, disassembly, and assembly procedures for the components, lb as sist in locating a group title page, use the Group Tab Locator on the following page. The solid bar after the group title is aligned to a solid tab on the first page of each group. The first page of the group has a contents section that lists major topics within the group. If you are not sure which Group contains the information you need, look up the Component/System in the alphabetical index located in the rear of this manual. A Service Manual Comment form is included at the rear of this manual. Use the form to provide Chrysler Corporation with your comments and suggestions. Tightening torques are provided as a specific value throughout this manual. This value represents the midpoint of the acceptable engineering torque range for a given fastener application. These torque values are intended for use in service assembly and installation procedures using the correct OEM fasteners. When re placing fasteners, always use the same type (part number) fastener as removed. Chrysler Corporation reserves the right to change testing procedures, specifications, diagnosis, repair methods, or vehicle wiring at any time without prior notice or incurring obligation.

NOTE: The acronyms, terminology and nomenclature used to identify emissions related components in this manual may have changed from prior publications. These new terms are in compliance with S.A.E. recommended practice J1930.

G R O U P TAB LOCATOR
Introduction 0 2 3 Lubrication and Maintenance Front Suspension and Axle Rear Suspension and Axles

5
6 7 8 9 11 13 14 16

Brakes
Clutch Cooling System Electrical Engines Exhaust System and Intake Manifold Frame and Bumpers Fuel System Propeller Shafts Steering Transmissions and Transfer Cases Wheels and Tires Body Components Heating and Air Conditioning Emission Control Systems Index

j-

j # 3

::

HHHHHHjj

v^i

19
21 22 23 24 25

v-.--.'\.

. , f..- '

7;.^'

Service Manual Comment Forms

(Rear of Manual)

BR

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
CONTENTS
page page

DESIiNATIONS, LA1ELS/PLATE8/DECALS, COOES ANi DilENSIONS/WEIiHTS

l E I S U i E i E N T AND TOFtQUE SPECIFICATIONS

21

DESIGNATIONS, LABELS/PLATES/DECALS, CODES AND DIMENSIONS/WEIGHTS INDEX


page Body Code Plate 2 Engine and Transmission/Transfer Case Identification 2 Equipment Identification Label 2 International Vehicle Control and Display Symbols . . 3 Major Component Identification 2 page Trailer Towing Specifications 19 Vehicle Designation . 1 Vehicle Dimensions . 3 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Plate 1 Vehicle Safety Certification Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Vehicle Weights 8

VEHICLE DESIGNATION The Vehicle Code Designation for Ram Truck vehi cles is B R . The code is used to identify the vehicle in charts, captions and in service procedures. The vehi cle code is different than the Vehicle Identification Number (V1N) or the wheelbase/model code. VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL A certification label is attached to the left side Bpillar (Fig. 1). The label certifies that the vehicle con forms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). The label also lists the: Month and year of vehicle manufacture. Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The gross front and rear axle weight ratings (GAWR's) are based on a minimum rim size and maximum cold tire inflation pressure. Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). Type of vehicle. Type of rear wheels . Bar code. Month, Day and Hour (SlDH) of final assembly. VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) PLATE The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) plate is attached to the top left side of the instrument panel (Fig. 2). The VIN contains 17 characters that provide data concerning the vehicle. Refer to the decoding chart to determine the identification of a vehicle.

m r v B I

' | ; j

CORPORATION XX-XX 04800 LB 2223 KG GAWR FRONT WITH TIRES > RIMS AT PSI COLD > 2500 LB 1134 KG j P215/75R15 j 15x 7.0 30 | GAWR REAR ' WITH TIRES \ RIMS AT PSI COLD ! 2700 LB 1225 KG j P215/7SR15 j 15x 7.0 30 j
;

TNIS VEHKLE CONFORMS TO ALL APPLKAILE FEDERAL MOTOR VEHKLE SAFETY STANDARDS IN EFFECT ON THE DATE OF MANUFACTURE SHOWN ABOVE. VIN: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx TYPE: MPV SINGLE X DUAL

MDH: xxxxxx xxx

MADE IN U.SJL.

4340503 J95IN-1

Fig. 1 Vehicle Safety Certification

LabelTypical

The Vehicle Identification Number is also im printed on the: Body Code Plate. ' Equipment Identification Plate. Vehicle Safety Certification Label. Frame rail. To protect the consumer from theft and possible fraud the manufacturer is required to include a Check Digit at the ninth position of the Vehicle Iden tification Number. The check digit is used by the manufacturer and government agencies to verify the authenticity of the vehicle and official documenta-

INTRODUCTION NSTRUMENT
BODY CODE

BR PLATE
VINYL

PRIMARY
PAINT

S E C O N D A R Y PAINT

R O O F

VEHICLE O R D E RNUMBER (3) PAINT XXX

_
X XXXX>K XXX

_ r
xxxxxx

CAR LINE SHELL ENGINE

P R O C E D U R E (2) X X X

xxxx xxxx xxxx X X X


X XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX TRIM

-VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER PLATE

(1)
J94SN-23 Number (VIN) Location

XXX

VIN

T R A N S M I S S IO ON N

j
| AAARKET

VIN

Fig. 2 Vehicle Identification

tion. The formula to use the check digit is not re leased to the general public. BODY CODE PLATE The Body Code Plate is located on the floor pan un der the passenger side seat. There are seven lines of information on the body code plate. Lines 4, 5, 6, and 7 are not used to define service information. Informa tion reads from left to right, starting with line 3 in the center of the plate to line 1 at the bottom of the plate. ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE IDENTIFICATION Refer to Group 9, Engines for all engine identifica tion data.
VEHICLE

9 3 I N 8 Refer to Group 21, Transmissions for all transmis sion/transfer case identification data. 1AJ0R COiPONENT IDENTIFICATION Refer to the applicable group for identification data. E0U1P1ENT IDENTIFICATION LABEL The Equipment Identification Plate (Fig. 3) is lo cated at the right, front corner of the inner hood panel. The plate lists information concerning the ve hicle as follows: The model. The wheelbase. The VIN (Vehicle Identification Number). The T.O.N, (order number).
(VIN) DECODING Sequential Serial Number Six Digit Numbers

IDENTIFICATION NUMBER Line C = Ram Chassis C a b / Ram Pick-up (4 x 2) F = Ram Chassis C a b / Ram Pick-up (4 x 4)

Vehicle Type 4 = Multipurpose Passenger 5 = Bus 6 = Incomplete 7 = Truck

7
z

Engine C = 5.9L 6 cyl. Diesel W= 8.0L 10 cyl. MPI X = 3.9L 6 cyl. MPI Y = 5.2L 8 cyl. MPI Z = 5.9L 8 cyl. MPI-LDC 5 = 5.9L 8 cyl. MPI-HDC

100001

Moke B = Dodge

z.

GVWR H = 6001 -7000 J - 7001-8000 K = 8001-9000 L = 9001-10,000 M = 10,001-14,000 W = Hydraulic Brakes

Check Digit Number or Letter

Plant Location S = Dodge City G = Saltillo Lago Alberto Assembly

Body 3 = Club Cab 6 = Conventional Cab Chassis Cab Chassis

J95IN-36

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BODY
Line # 1 Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Line # 2 Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit

INTRODUCTION
CODE DECODING

Ifrmeum
MODELS

EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION

wmm'

1-3 4 5 6 7-23

Transmission Sales Code Open Space Market Code - U -C-B-M Open Space Vehicle Identification N o .

V.I.N.

T.O.N.

CODE NO. DESCRIPTION CODE N O . DESCRIPTION

1-3 Paint Procedure 4 Open Space 5-8 Primary Paint 9 Open Space 1 0 - 1 3 Secondary Paint 14 Open Space 1 5 - 1 8 Trim Code 19 Open Space 2 0 - 2 2 Engine Sales Code 23 Open Space

J90IN-3>

Fig. 3 Equipment Identification Plate

Line # 3 Digit 1 - 1 2 Vehicle Order Number Digit 1 3 Open Space Digit 1 4 - 1 6 Vinyl Roof Code (Door Code - Pillette) Digit 1 7 Open Space Digit 1 8 - 2 3 Model " ~ ' "

Combo

J901N-20

INTERNATIONAL VEHICLE CONTROL AND DISPLAY SfiBOLS The graphic symbols illustrated on the following chart are used to identify various instrument con trols. The symbols correspond to the controls and dis plays that are located on the instrument panel. VEHICLE DIMENSIONS The Vehicle Interior and Exterior Dimension charts provides the dimensions for each type of Ram truck.

The optional and special equipment installed on the vehicle. Refer to the information listed on the plate when ordering service parts.

INTERNATIONAL

VEHICLE

CONTROL

AND DISPLAY

SYMBOLS

10
HIGH BEAM

0
FOG LIGHTS

HEADLIGHTS, PARKING UGHTS, PANEL LIGHTS

A
TURN SIGNAL HAZARD WARNING WINDSHIELD WASHER

%?
WINDSHIELD WIPER WINDSHIELD WIPER AND WASHER

I S P
WINDSCREEN DEMISTING AND DEFROSTING VENTILATING FAN REAR WINDOW DEFOGGER

G P
REAR WINDOW WIPER

C D
REAR WINDOW WASHER

m
FUEL

i
ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE

E 3
BATTERY CHARGING CONDITION ENGINE OIL

*
SEAT BELT HORN LIGHTER J95IN-23

()
BRAKE FAILURE

&
PARKING BRAKE FRONT HOOD REAR HOOD (TRUNK)

INTRODUCTION
VEHICLE

BR INTERIOR
DIMENSIONSSTD

CAB

A B
C

Head Room Hip Room Shoulder Room

40.2
65.8 66.3 60.2 13.2 19.0 7.5 5.9 15.9 41.0 3.8 13.2 21.0 47.1 41.8

D Seat Width E Seat Height F Seat Depth c Seat Adjustment (Fore and aft) H Leg Clearance (Seat to steering
I
J

wheel) Steering Wheel To Seatback (Max) Leg Room Back Of Seat To Back Of Cab Top Bottom Seatback Angle (Degrees) Door Opening Height Door Opening Width

Note: All dimensions are in inches unless noted. J94IN-26

VEHICLE

INTERIOR

DIMENSIONSCLUB

CAB

A B C D E F G H 1 J K

Head Room Hip Room Shoulder Room Seat Width Seat Height Seat Depth Seat Adjustment (Fore and aft) Leg Clearance (Seat to steering wheel) Steering Wheel To Seatback (Max) Leg Room Back Of Seat To Back Of Cab Top Bottom Seatback Angle (Degrees) Door Opening Height Door Opening Width Behind-Seat StorageSeat Up (cu ft)

Front 40.2 65.8 66.3 60.2 13.2 19.0 7.5 5.9 15.9 41.0 3.8 13.2 21.0 47.1 41.8

Rear 39.4 66 8 67.7 NA NA NA NA NA NA 33.2 NA NA 16.0 NA NA NA

Note: All dimensions are in inches unless noted.

J95IN-25

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VEHICLE EXTERIOR DIMENSIONSSTD CAB

INTRODUCTION

1500/ 1500 4 x 4

3500/ 2500/ 2500 4 x 4 3500 4 x 4 135" 8.0 10.1/8.1 10.1/9.8 220.1 224.3 73.7/78.0 79.4 68.6 68.0 31.5/35.6 37.9 47.6 51.7 107.4 116.9 25.3/29.7 17.8/21.0 30,6/36.2 135" 8.0 13.1/10.2 10.1/9.8 220.1 224.3 73.6/75.9 79.5
1

A 1 C D 1
F

Wheelbase Box Length (feet) Ground Clearance {Empty) Front Rear Overall Length -Without rear bumper With rear bumper Overall Height (Empty) Overall Width At Front Wheel Lip Track ' Front Rear Tailgate Load Height OverhangFront OverhangRear Without Rear lumper With Rear lumper Back Of Cab To Rear Bumper Front Bumper To Back Of Cab Approach Angle (Degrees) Breakover Angle (Degrees) Departure Angle (Degrees)

119" 6.5 9.7/8.1 10.1/9.8

135" 8.0 10.0/8.1 10.1/9.8

199.9 220.1 204.1 224.3 72.1/75.9 72.1/75.9 79.4 79.4

G
H 1

68.5 68.5 68.0 68.0 31.2/35.6 31.5/35.6 37.9 37.9 47.6 51.7 87.2 47.6 51.7 107.4

68.6 73.0 31.4/35.6 37 Q 47.6 51.7 107.4 116.9 25.3/29.7 17.8/21.0 30.6/36.2

J
K

5u_

KV
C

50.0

L
M M

o
}

116.9 116.9 25.3/29.7 25.3/29.7 17.8/21.0 17.8/21.0 30.6/36.2 30.6/36.2

93.5 at cargo box.

J94IN-25

INTRODUCTION
VEHICLE EXTERIOR DIMENSIONSCLUB CAB

1500/ 15004x4

2500/ 25004x4 139" 8.0 155" 6.5

3500/ 35004x4 155" 8.0

A 1 C

Wheelbase Box Length (Feet)

139" 6.5

155" 8.0

Ground Clearance(Empty)
Front Rear 87/8.5 7.5/7.7 8.6/8.5
75/7.7

9.9/9.0 8.6

9.8/9.1 8.6

9.8/8.1 8.6

Overall Length Without rear bumper With rear bumper 220.1 224.0 240.1 244.0 220.1 224.0 240.1 244.0 240.1 244.0

1
F

Overall Height (Empty) Overall Width Of Cab Track Front Rear

71.6/74.6 71.5/74.5 72.9/77.2 72.8/77.1 72.8/77.2 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4

66.9/68.5 66.9/68.5 68.6/68.9 68.6/68.9 66.9 66.9 68.0 68.0

69.8 73.0

Tailgate Load Height OverhangFront OverhangRear Without rear bumper With rear bumper

31.3/33.9 31.3/34.4 34.4/373 33.3/37.2 33.8/37.8 37 9 37.9 37.9 37.9 37.9

I
J

43.5 47.5 87.1 136.9

47.5 51.5 107.1 136.9

47.5 51.5 107.1 136.9

43.5 47.5 87.1 136.9

47.5 51.5 107.1 136.9

K L M N

Back of Cab To Rear Bumper Front Bumper To Back Of Cab Approach Angle (Degrees) Breakover Angle (Degrees) Departure Angle (Degrees)

25.1/30.6 25.2/30.6 26.7/33.7 26.8/33.8 26.3/33.4 16.7/18.4 15.8/17.1 19.2/23.0 18.1/21.3 18,0/21 4 23.8/26.9 21.8/24.7 26.0/31.0 24.1/28.4 24.6/28.9

(1) 93.8 at cargo box with dual-rear wheels. Note: All dimensions in inches unless otherwise noted.

BR
VEHICLE

INTRODUCTION EXTERIOR
DIMENSIONSCHASSIS CAB

EXTERIOR 4x2 Models Model A B C D E F Wheelbase Cab To Axle Overall Length Overall Height (Empty) Overall Width Track Front Rear Rear Track, Inside Rear Track, Outside OverhangFront Axle To End Of Frame Center Of Front Wheel To Back Of Cab Frame To Top Of Cab Top Of Frame To Ground Inside Width Between Frame Rails Outside Width Between Frame Rails Front Bumper To Back Of Cab Front Of Dash To Back Of Cab Ground Clearance Front Rear 280 HD 135 55.7 216.7 72.4 79.4 68.6 68.0 58.0 78.0 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 29.6 31.7 37.6 116.9 NA 10.1 8.5 35t DRW 139 59.7 220.7 77.3 94.6 69.8 73.0 51.4 94.6 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.3 31.7 37.6 116.9 NA 15.2 9.0 3500 DRW 163 83.7 244.7 77.1 94.6 69.8 73.0 51.4 94.6 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.1 31.7 37 6 116.9 NA 15.2 90 4x4 2500 HD 135 55.7 216.7 75.9 79.4 68.9 68.0 58.0 78.0 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.0 31.7 37.6 116.9 NA 8.1 8.4 Models 3500 DRW 139 59.7 220.7 77.2 94.6 69.8 73.0 51.4 94.6 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.3 31.7 37.6 116.9 NA 8.6 9.0 3500 PRW 163 83.7 244.7 77.1 94.6 69.8 73.0 51 4 94.6 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.2 31.7 37.6 116.9 NA 8.6 9.0

6 H 1 J K L M N

o
P Q ft

NOTE: All dimensions are ininches unless noted, D R W = Dual-rear wheel. N A = Not available at time of printing. J94IN-27

INTRODUCTION Payload. Curb weight for each vehicle type/wheelbase.

BR

VEHICLE WEIGHTS The Vehicle Weight charts provides: Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR).

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G R O S S VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING2WD STD CAB

INTRODUCTION

4 x 2 MODELS 1500 W S STD 6,010 (ZIA) Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES 3,300 3,900 3,300 3,800 P225/75R16 all-season (TRW) 3,300 3,800 1500 MODELS STD 6,400 (ZIB) 3,300 3,900 3,300 3,800 P225/75R16XL all-season (TRY) 3,300 3,800 2500 MODELS STD 7,500 (Z2A) 3,300 6,200 3,300 4,670 LT225/75R16 all-season (TWP) 3,300 4,670 2500 HD MODELS M 8,8 (Z2B) 4,000 6,200 4,000 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD) 4,000 6.085 3500 MODELS STD 10,500 DRW (Z3B)' 4,000 7,500 4,000 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TVV) 4,000 7,460

GAWR Front Rear SHORT BOX p i f " W B ) BAYB.OAD - M A G N U M 3.9L V6 - M A G N U M 5.2L V8 - M A G N U M 5.9L V8 CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total LONG
1 1

2,000

2,365 2,230 2,140

_
_

2,340 1,670 4,010

2,340 1,695 4,035

|135" W B ) 1,835 2,200 2,065 1,980 2,460 1,715 4,175 2,460 1,740 4,200 2,845 2,810 2,800 1,855 4,655

PAYHOAD - M A G N U M 3.9L V6 - M A G N U M 5.2L V8 - M A G N U M 5.9L V8 CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total

5,290 2,880 2,330 5,210

4,100 2,840 1,860 4,700

D R W Dual-rear wheel. 'Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J95IN-33

10

INTRODUCTION GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING4WD STD CAB

BR

4 x 4 MODELS 1500 MODELS STD 2500 MODELS STD 7,500 (Z7A) 3,500 6,200 4,000 4,670 LT225/75R16 all-season (TWP) 3,500 4,670 2500 HD MODELS STD 8,800 (Z7B) 4,500 6,200 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season 3506 MODELS STD 10,500 DRW (Z8A) 4,500 7,500 4,500 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TVV) 4,500 7,060

GVWR
AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES

' '

"

6,400 (ZiA) 3,500 3,900 3,500 3,600 LT225/75R16 all-season (TWA) 3,500 3,600

(TYD)
4,500 6,085

GAWR Front Rear S H O R T BOX {119* W B ) PAYLOAD


1

-MAGNUM 5.2L V8
- M A G N U M 5.9L V8 CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total 4 Q N O I O X m$
1 m

1,885 1,785 2,730 1,785 4,515

W i J

: 1,720 1,625 2,865 1,815 4,680 2,550 . 2,510 3,040 1,910 4,950 3,450 3,250 2,000 5,250 4,885 3,250 2,365 5,615

PAYLOAD - M A G N U M 5.2LV8 - M A G N U M 5.9L V8 CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total D R W Dual-rear wheel.
1

Pay load allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

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G R O S S VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING2WD CLUB CAB

INTRODUCTION

4x2 MODELS 1500 MODELS 2500 HD MODELS 3500 MODELS

STD
GVWi AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES 6,400 (Z1B) 3,650 3,900 3,650 3,800 P225/75R16-XL all-season (TRY) GAWR Front Rear SHORT BOX (139" WB) PAYLOAD( ) Magnum 5.2LV8 Magnum 5.9L V8 IASE CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total
1

STD
8,800 (Z21) 4,500 6,200 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD) 4,500 6,085

STD
10,500 DIW (Z3A) 4,500 7,500 4,500 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TW) 4,500 7,500

3,650 3,800

1,830 1,750 2,690 1,880 4,570

3,920 2,900 1,980 4,880

PAYLOAD(1) Magnum 5.2L V8 Magnum 5.9L V8 BASE CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total
(1

1,680 1,600 2,790 1,930 4,720

3,770 3,000 2,030 5,030

4,885 3,105 2,510 5,615

DRW Dual-rear wheel. ) Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J95IN-27

12

INTRODUCTION
GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING4WD CLUB CAB

BR

4x4 MODELS 1500 MODELS 2500 HD MODELS 350 MODELS

STD
GVWI AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES 6,400 (Z6A) 3,850 3,900 3,850 3,600 LT225/75R16 all-season (TWA) GAWR Front Rear 3,800 3,600 j

STD
8,800 (Z71) 4,850 6,200 4,850 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD) 4,850 6,085
F

STD
M SM MM (Z8A| 4,850 7,500 4,850 7,500 U215/85R16 all-season (TW) 4,670 7,500

PAYLOAD! i) Magnum 5.2L V8 Magnum 5.9L V8 BASE CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total

1,455 1,365 2,965 1,980 4,945

3,615 3,145 2,040 5,185

PAYLOADO) Magnum 5.2L V8 Magnum 5.9L V8 BASE CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total

1,300 1,210 3,080 2,020 5,100

3,465 3,245 2,090 5,335

4,995 3,475 2,530 6,005

DRW Dual-rear wheel. 0) Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J95IN-28

BR

INTRODUCTION

13

G R O S S VEHICLE

WEIGHT

RATINGSTD

CAB 8.0L OR

DIESEL

8 . 0 L 10 A N D DIESEL ENGINE MODELS 4x2 2500 H i MODELS STD 3500 MODELS STD 10,500 D R W (Z3A) 4,000 7,500 4,000 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TVV) 4,000 7,500 4x4 2500 HD MODELS STD 8,800 (Z7B) 4,500 6,500 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD) 4,500 6,085 3500 MODELS STD 10,500 D R W (Z8A) 4,500 7,500 4,500 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TVV) 4,500 7,500

VWR
AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES

8,800 (Z2B) 4,000 6,500 4,000 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD) 4,000 6,085 WB) 3,570 3,265 3,165 2,065 5,230 3,460 2,075 5,535
1

GAWR Front Rear


mm

mm. ^m*

[PAYLOAD - M A G N U M 8.0L V10 Cummins 5.9L 1-6 C U R B W E I G H ? 8.0L ENGINE Front Rear Total CURB W E I G H T DIESEL ENGINE Front Rear Total

4,900 4,595 3,180 2,420 5,600 3,475 2,430 5,905

3,315 2,840 3,555 2,110 5,665 3,845 2,115 5,960

4,470 4,175 3,555 2,475 6,030 3,845 2,480 6,325

D R W Dual-rear wheel. 'Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J95IN-29

14

INTRODUCTION
G R O S S VEHICLE WEIGHT RATINGCLUB CAB 8.0L OR DIESEL

BR

8.0L V I 0 AND DIESEL ENGINE MODELS

4x2
2500 HD MODELS STD GVWR AXLES front Rear 8,800 3500 MODELS STD 10,500 DiW STD 8,800

4x4
2500 HD MODELS 3500 MODELS STD 11,000 DRW (Z8B) 1,850 7,500 4,850 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TW) 4,670 7,500

(Z21)
4,500 6,500 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD)

(Z3A)
4,500 7,500 4,500 7,500 LT215/85R16 all-season (TW) 4,500 7,500

(Z71)
4,850 6,500 4,850 6,085 LT245/75R16 all-season (TYD) 4,850 6,085

SPRINGS
Front Rear TIRES

GAWR
Front Rear 4,500 6,085

PAYLOAD! 1) Maqnum 8.0LV10 Cummins 5.9L 1-6 Diesel

3,285 2,995 3,295 2,220 5,515 3,615 2,230 5,845

4,660 4,335 3,335 2,505 5,840 3,650 2,515 6,165

2,860 2,540 3,675 2,265 5,940 3,985 2,275 6,260

4,735 4,410 3,740 2,525 6,265 4,055 2,535 6,590

BASE CURB WEIGHT 8.0L ENGINE


Front Rear Total

BASE CURB WEIGHT DIESEL ENGINE


Front Rear Total

DRW Dual-rear wheel. H) Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J95IN-30

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G R O S S VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING2WD CHASSIS GAB

INTRODUCTION
5.9L

15

5.9L M A G N U M V 8 4 x 2 2 5 0 0 HD MODELS S7D 8,800 (Z2B) . AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRdS GAWR Front Rear
j m
t r

3 5 0 0 MODELS STD 11,000 D R W (Z3B) 4,500* 8,000 4,670 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000
STD

11,000 D R W (Z3B) 4500


1

4,000 IFS 6,200 4,000 IFS 6,085 LT245/75R16E (TYD) 4,000 6,085
ffto*
2

7,500 3,830 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 3,570 7,060

wi

CA)

PAYLOAD Front Rear Total

4,360 2,870 1,570 4,440


#

CURB W E I G H ?

_
6,400 3,065 2,045

ia* W i p f ' A )
PAYLOAD
2

CURB W E I G H ? Front Rear Total 1*3* W B ( S 4 " C A ) PAYLOAD


2

_
;

5,110

5,830 3,120

CURB W E I G H ? Front Rear Total D R W = Dual-rear wheel. IFS = Independent Front Suspension. CA = Cab to axle. ^ 5 0 0 4 x 2 models receive the link-coil front suspension with a tubular front axle. Payload allowances must be reduced by weight of passengers end optional equipment.

2,050 5,170

J95IN-34

GROSS

VEHICLE

WEIGHT

RATING4WD

CHASSIS

CAB

S.9L

5.9L M A G N U M V 8 4 x 4 2 5 0 0 HD MODELS S?D " 8,800 SRW (Z7B) Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear 4,500 6,200 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16E (TYD) 4,500 6,085 3 5 0 0 MODELS S?D 11,000 DRW (Z8B) 4,500 8,000 4,500 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000 STB 11,000 D R W CZ8H) 4,500 8,000 4,500 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000

tins
GAWR Front Rear 135" W B

CA)
3,800

CURB W E I G H ! Front Rear Total 3,285 1,715 5,000

l i t * wft'{60 C A |
PAYLOAD Front Rear
1

5,650 5,350 3,275

CURB W E I G H T

Iota!
1 * 3 * W l ( 8 4 " CA) PAYLOAD Front Rear Total DRWDual-rear wheel.
1 1

_
' - -

2,075


5,590 3,335

_

CACab to axle.


__

CURB W E I G H ? 2,075 5,410

Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J95IN-35

BR

INTRODUCTION

17

G R O S S VEHICLE

WEIGHT

RATING2WD

CHASSIS

CAB 8 . 0 L OR

DIESEL

8.0L 1 AND 5.9L DIESEL 4x2 2 5 0 0 HD 10 2 5 0 0 HD DIESEL 8,800 (Z21) 4,000 6,500 4,000 6,085 LT245/75R16E (TYD) 4,000 6,085 3500 10 11,000 DRW (Z3B) 4,500 8,000 4,500 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000 3500 DIESEL 11,000 DRW (Z3B) 4,500 8,000 4,500 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000

GWWft
AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES GAWR Front Rear

8,800 (Z2B) 4,000 6,500 4,000 6,085 LT245/75R16E (TYD) 4,000 6,085

%M

W l (54* CA)
1

PAYLOAD Front Rear Total

3,825 3,200 1,775 4,975

4,115 3,490 1,790 5,280

CURB WEIGHT

139" W i (0" CA) PAYLOAD' CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total 1 * 3 * W i ( 8 4 * CA) PAYLOAD
1

5,500 3,360

5,195 3,655 2,150 5,805

2,140 5,500

_
_ _
CACab to axle.

5,440 3,415 2,145 5,560

5,135 3,710 2,155 5,865

CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total DRWDual-rear wheel.


1

Pay load allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J94IN-33

18

INTRODUCTION

BR

G R O S S VEHICLE

WEIGHT

RATING4WD

CHASSIS

CAB 8.0L OR

DIESEL

8.0L 10 A N D 5.9L DIESEL 4 x 4 2 5 0 0 HD 10 2 5 0 0 HD DIESEL 8,800 (Z7B) 4,500 6,500 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16E (TYD) 4,500 6,085 3500 10 11,000 DRW (Z8i) 4,500 8,000 4,500 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000 3500 DIESEL 11,000 DRW (Z8B) 4,500 8,000 4,500 8,000 LT215/85R16D (TVV) 4,500 8,000

GVWR
AXLES Front Rear SPRINGS Front Rear TIRES GAWR Front Rear 135" W B ( 5 6 " CA) PAYLOAD
1

8,800 (Z7B) 4,500 6,500 4,500 6,085 LT245/75R16E (TYD) 4,500 6,085

3,385 3,590 1,825 5,415

3,090 3,880 1,830 5,710

CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total 1 3 9 * W B { 6 0 * CA) PAYLOAD


1

5,230 3,580 2,190 5,770


4,940 3,870 2,190 6,060

_ _

CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total 163" W B (B4 PAYLOAD


1 m

_
CA)

5,170 3,640

4,880 3,930 2,190 6,120

CURB WEIGHT Front Rear Total


!

2,190 5,830

DRWDual-rear wheel. CACab to axle. Payload allowance must be reduced by weight of passengers and optional equipment.

J94IN-34

B R ^^^^
TRAILER TOWING SPECIFICATIONS The Trailer Towing Specification charts provides: Maximum trailer weight rating.

INTRODUCTION

19

Maximum trailer tongue weight rating. Maximum combined weight of the trailer/load/tow ing vehicle.

20

INTRODUCTION
TRAILER TOWINGSTD CAB MAXIMUM TRAILER WEIGHT MAXIMUM RATING GCWR (Pounds) (Pounds)
1

TRUCK MODEL AND M A X I M U M TONGUii WEIGHT (Pounds) IS 4 x 2 REGULAR C A I 6.5' B O X

ENGINE & TRANSMISSION 39L M A G N U M 6 Manual 5-speed O . D . Automatic 4-speed O.D. 5.2L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed O . D . Automatic 4-speed O . D . H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 3.9L M A G N U M 6 Manual 5-speed O.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. 5.2L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed O.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.2L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D.

REAR AXLE RATIO 3.21 3.55/3.90 3.55/3.90 3.21 3.55 3.90 3.21 3.55/3.90 3.21/3.55 3.90 3.21 3.55/3.90 3.55/3.90 3.21 3.55 3.90 3.21/3.55 3.90 3.21/3.55 3.90 3.54/4.09 3.55/3.90 3.54/4.09 3.55/3.90 3.54/4.09
2 2

GWR PACKAGE (Pounds) 6,010/6,400 6,010/6,400 6,010/6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,010/6,400 6,010/6,400 6,010/6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 7,500 7,500 7,500 7,500 7,500

3,600 3,800 3,400 3,500 5,200 5,700 7,700 7,700 7,700 7,700 3,500 3,700 3,300 3,300 5,000 5,500 8,000 8,000 7,700 7,700 5,200 7,700 9,200 9,200 9,200

7,800 8,000 7,600 7,800 9,500 10,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 7,800 8,000 7,600 7,800 9,500 10,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 10,000 12,500 14,000 14,000 14,000

Tongue Wt. 700 150 4 x 2 REGULAR CAB 8.0' BOX

2 2

Tongue Wt. 700 2500 4 x 2 REGULAR CAB 8.0' B O X

Tongue W t . 900
1

Maximum Trailer Weight Ratings include cargo and fluids in the trailer and must be decreased by the weight of optional equipment, trailer hitch, cargo in the truck, and passengers other than the driver. The 3.90 gear ratio is recommendea when towing with the 3.9L V6 engine.

J94IN-35

BR

INTRODUCTION

21

T R A I L E R TOWINGSTD

CAB MAXIMUM TRAILER WEIGHT M A X I M U M RATING GCWR (Pounds) (Pounds)


1

MODEL AND M A X I M U M TONGUE W E I G H T (Pounds) 2500 HD 4 x 2 REGULAR CAB 8.0' l O X


mwtK

ENGINE & TRANSMISSION 5.9L M A G N U M S Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4 -speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L 1-6 C u m m i n s Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 8.0L M A G N U M 1 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5o\L 0 = < > (cummins Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D.

REAR AXLE RATIO 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.55 3.90 3.55/3.90 3.55/3.90 3.55 3.90 3.55/3.90

GWR PACKAGE (Pounds) 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400

9,200 9,200 8,800 12,300 8,800 12,300 13,600 13,600 9,700 9,700 8,500 12,000 8,500 12,500 13,400 13,400 4,800 4,800 7,300 7,700 4,700 4,700 7,300

14,000 14,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000 19,000 19,000 9,500 10,000 12,000 12,500 9,500 10,000 12,000

Tongue Wt. 900 3500 4 x 2 REGULAR CAB 8.0' B O X

Dual-Rear W h e e l s 8.0L M A G N U M 1 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.2L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.2L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed O.D.

1500 4 x 4 REGULAR CAB Tongue W t . 1,200 6.5' BO X Tongue Wt. 700 1500 4 x 4 REGULAR CAB 8.0' B O X Tongue Wt. 700

Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 6,400 3.55/3.90 7,600 12,500 Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 'Maximum Trailer Weight Ratinqs include cargo and fluids in the trailer and must be decreased by the weight of optional equipment, trailer hitch, cargo in the truck, and passengers other than the driver.

J94IN-36

22

INTRODUCTION

BR

TRAILER

TOWINGSTD

CAB MAXIMUM TRAILER GWR WEIGHT M A X I M U M PACKAGE GCWR RATING (Pounds) (Pounds) (Pounds)
1

TRUCK MODEL AND MAXIMUM. TONGUE WEIGHT (Pounds) 2500 4 x 4 REGULAR CAB 8.0' BOX Tongue W t . 900 2500 HD 4 x 4 REGULAR CAB 8.0' B O X

ENGINE & TRANSMISSION 5.2L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9 1-6 C u m m i n s Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 8.0L M A G N U M 1 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M 8 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L 1-6 C u m m i n s Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D.

REAR AXLE RATIO 3.54/4.09 3.55/3.90 3.54/4.09 3.55/3.90 4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10

7,500 7,500 7,500 7,500 7,500 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500

4,900 7,400 8,900 8,900 8,900 8,600 8,600 8,600 8,200 11,700 8,200 11,700 13,200 13,200 9,400 9,400 8,000 11,500 8,000 11,500

10,000 12,500 14,000 14,000 14,000 14,000 14,000 14,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,100 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000

Tongue W t . 900 3500 4 x 4 REGULAR CAB 8.0' BOX Dual-Rear Wheels

10,500 13,000 19,000 10,500 19,000 13,000 Maximum Trailer Weight Ratings include cargo and fluids in the trailer and must be decreased by the weight of optional equipment, trailer hitch, cargo in the truck, and passengers other than the driver.

Tongue W t . 1,200

8.0L M A G N U M 1 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D.

J94IN-37

BR
T R A I L E R TOWINGCLUB CAB 4X2

INTRODUCTION

23

TRUCK MODEL

MAXIMUM TRAILER

AND MAXIMUM TONGUE WEIGHT


(Pounds) ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION 5.2L Magnum V8 Manual 5-speed OD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L Magnum V8 Tongue Wt 700 2500 HD 4x2 Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L Magnum V8 Manual 5-speed HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L 1-6 Cummins Diesel Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 8.0L Magnum V10 Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L Magnum V8 Manual 5-speed HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L 1-6 Cummins Diesel Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD

REAR
AXLE RATIO 3.21(2) 3.55 3.92 3.21(2) 3.55/3.92 3.21(2)/3.55 3.92 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10

GVWR
PACKAGE (Pounds) 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500

WEIGHT
RATINGS) (Pounds) 3,500 5,200 5,700 8,100 8,100 8,100 8,100 9,100 9,100 10,500(3) 12,300(3) 10,500(3) 12,300(3) 13,600(3) 13,600(3) 9,600 9,600 10,000(3) 11,900(3) 10,000(3) 11,900(3) 13,200(3) 13,200(3)

MAXIMUM
m m

(Pounds) 7,800 9,500 10,000 12,500 12,500 12,500 12,500 14,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 16,000 18,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,000 16,000 18,000 16,000 18,000 19,000 19,000

15004x2
CLUB CAB

CLUB CAB

Tongue W t 900 3500 4x2 CLUB CAB Dual-Rear Wheels

8.0L Magnum VI0


Tongue W t 1,200 Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD

H) Maximum Trailer Weight Ratings include cargo and fluids in the trailer and must be decreased by the weight of optional equipment, trailer hitch, cargo in trie truck, and passengers other than the driver. (2) Trailer towing is not recommended with the 3.21 gear ratio. (3) Chrysler Corporation requires that vehicles with maximum trailer weight ratings of 10,000 pounds or greater be equipped with a fifth-wheel hitch.

J95IN-32

24

INTRODUCTION
T R A I L E R TOWINGCLUB CAB 4X4

MAXIMUM

TRUCK MODEL
AND MAXIMUM

TRAILER REAR AXLE


ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION 5.2L Magnum V8 Manual 5-speed OD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 3.55 3.92 3.55/3.92 3.55/3.92 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.09 3.54/4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54/4.10 3.54/4.10 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 4,800 5,300 7,800 7,700 8,600 8,600 10,000(2) 11,900(2) 10,000(2) 11,900(2) 13,200(2) 13,200(2) 9,200 9,200 9,700 11,500(2)
9,700(2)

GVWR
PACKAGE (Pounds)

TONGUE WEIGHT
(Pounds) 1500 4x4

RATIO

WEIGHT RATINGS) (Pounds)

MAXIMUM

GCWft
(Pounds) 9,500 10,000 12,500 12,500 14,000 14,0)0 16,000 18,000 16,000 18,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,000 16,000 18,000 16,000 18,000 19,000 19,000

CLUi CAB Tongue W t 700


2500 HD 4x4

5.9 Magnum V8 Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L Magnum V8 Manual 5-speed HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L 1-6 Cummins Diesel Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 8.0L Magnum V I 0 Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L Magnum V8 Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD 5.9L 1-6 Cummins Diesel Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD . 8.0L Magnum V10 Manual 5-speed OD HD Automatic 4-speed OD HD

CLUB CAB

Tongue W t 900
3500 4x4

CLUB CAB
Dual-Rear Wheels

11,500(2) 12,800(2) 12,800(2)

Tongue Wt 1,200
]

( ) Maximum Trailer Weight Ratings include cargo and fluids in the trailer and must be decreased by the weight of optional equipment, trailer hitch, cargo in the truck, and passengers other than the driver. (2) Chrysler Corporation requires that vehicles with maximum trailer weight ratings of 10,000 pounds or greater be equipped with a fifth-wheel hitch.

J95IN-31

BR

INTRODUCTION

25

T R A I L E R TOWINGCHASSIS

CAB MAXIMUM TRAILER WEIGHT M A X I M U M RATING 6CWR (Pounds) (Pounds)


1

TRUCK MODEL A N D MAXIMUM TONGUE WEIGHT (Pounds) 2500 H D 4x2

E N G I N E & TRANSMISSION 5.9L M A G N U M 8 LDC Manual 5-speed O.D. M.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L 1-6 C U M M I N S Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. M.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 8.0L M A G N U M V I 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D.

REAR AXLE RATIO 3.54 4.09 3.54 4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.09 3.54 4.09 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10 3.54 4.10

GVWR PACKAGE (Pounds) 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 8,800 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000 11,000

14,000 14,000 14,000 14,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000 19,000 19,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000 19,000 19,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000 19,000 19,000 19,000 19,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 14,500 18,000 14,500 18,000

2 2

Tongue W t 900 3500 4x2

Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M V 8 HDC Manual 5-speed O.D. M.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L 1-6 C U M M I N S Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 8.0L M A G N U M V I 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D.

2 2 2

Tongue W t 1,200 2500 HD 4x4

Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M V 8 HDC Manual 5-speed O.D. M.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L 1-6 C U M M I N S Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 8.0L M A G N U M V I 0 Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D.

Tongue W t 900 3500 4x4

Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L M A G N U M V 8 HDC Manual 5-speed O.D. M.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 5.9L 1-6 C U M M I N S Diesel Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D. Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 8.0L M A G N U M V I Manual 5-speed O.D. H.D.

2 2

19,000 19,000 Tongue W t 1,200 Automatic 4-speed O.D. H.D. 19,000 19,000 Maximum Trailer Weight Ratings include cargo and fluids in the trailer and must be decreased by the weight of optional equipment, trailer hitch, cargo in the truck, and passengers other than the driver. Due to large variations in the weight of body equipment installed on Chassis Cab models, no maximum trailer weights are shown. To determine allowable trailer weight, subtract actual truck weight, passenger and cargo weight from the Gross Combination Weight Rating. J941N-38

26

INTRODUCTION MEASUREMENT AND T O R Q U E SPECIFICATIONS INDEX


page page Torque Specifications 26

Metric and English/SAE Conversion Specification Notations

26 26

SPECIFICATION NOTATIONS
W A R N I N G : THE U S E OF INCORRECT ATTACHING H A R D W A R E CAN R E S U L T IN COMPONENT DAM A G E AND/OR P E R S O N A L INJURY.

It is important to retain the original attaching hardware for assembly of the components. If the at taching hardware is not reusable, hardware with equivalent specifications must be used. METRIC AND ENGLISH/SAE CONVERSION The following chart will assist in converting metric units to equivalent English and SAE units, or vise versa. TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE CHARTS

Torque Specifications chart to determine torque val ues not listed in the group. It is important to be aware that the torque values listed in the chart are based on clean and dry bolt threads. Reduce the torque value by 10 percent when the bolt threads are lubricated and by 20 percent if new.
BOLT THREAD IDENTIFICATION THREAD IDENTIFICATION AND GRADE/CLASS

SAE and metric bolt/nut threads are not the same. The difference is described in the Thread Notation chart.

A torque chait for fasteners is provided at the end of each group (of service information). Refer to the

CONVERSION

FORMULAS

AND EQUIVALENT

VALUES ly x 8.851 x 0.7376 x 0.2961 x 0.145 x x x x x x x x 0.03937 3.281 1.0936 0.6214 0.6214 3.281 3.600 2.237 To Get = in-lbs = ft-lbs = Inches Hg = psi = = = = Inches Feet Yards Miles

multiply
in-lbs ft-lbs Inches Hg (60F) F > s i Inches Feet Yards Miles
mph

By x 0.11298 x 1.3558 x 3.377 x 6.895 x x x x x x x x 25.4 0.3048 0.9144 1.6093 1.6093 0.3048 0.27778 0.4470

T Get Newton-Meters (Nm) Newton-Meters (N*m)

MuMply

N*m kPa kPa


mm

Kilopascals (kPa) Kilopascals (kPa)

Millimeters (mm) = Meters (M) Meters (M) S B Kilometers (Km) S B ss S B = Kilometers/Hr. (Km/h) Meters/Sec. (M/S) Meters/Sec. (M/S) Meters/Sec. (M/S)

M M Km Km/h M/S M/S M/S

Feet/Sec. Kilometers/Hr. mph

= mph = Feet/Sec. = Kilometers/Hr.


= mph

COMMON METRIC EQUIVALENTS 1 1 1 1 Inch = 25 Millimeters Foot = 0.3 Meter Yard = 0.9 Meter Mile =1.6 Kilometers 1 Cubic Inch 1 Cubic Foot 1 Cubic Yard = 16 Cubic Centimeters = 0.03 Cubic Meter = 0.8 Cubic Meter

J91IN-1

BR
TORQUE
SPECIFIED TORQUE FOR STANDARD BOLTS Specified Class Diameter Pitch Hexagon head bolt Nm
5
12.5
torque

INTRODUCTION
SPECIFICATIONS

27

Hexagon flange bob ft-lbf 48 in.-lbf


9

m m
6

m m
1
1.25 1.25

kgf-cm
55
130 260 480 760

Nm
6

kgf-cm
60
145 290 540 850

ft-lbf 5 2 in.-lbf
10 21 39 61

8 4T
10 12 14 16
6 8

14 29 53 84

26 47 74
115 6.5

19
35 55 83

1.25
1.5 1.5

1,150

7.5

75
175 360 670

65 in.-lbf
13 26 48 76

1
1.25 1.25 1.25
1.5 1.5

65
160 330 600 930

5 6 in.-lbf
12 24 43 67
101

15.5

17.5

5T

10

32 59 91
140

36 65
100

12
14 16
6 8

1,050

1,400

90
210 440 810

78 in.-lbf
15 32 59 90

1
1.25 1.25 1.25
1.5 1.5

8
19 39 71
110 170

80
195 400 730

69 in.-lbf
14 29 53 80
127

21 44 80
125

6T

10 12

14
16
6

1,100 1,750
110 260 530 970

1,250

12 28 58
105 165

120 290 590

1
1.25 1.25 1.25
1.5

10.5

25 52 95
145 230

19 38 70
108 166

21 43 76
123

71

10 12 14 16
8

1,050 1,700

1,500 2,300
300 620

1.5

33 68
120

330 690

24 50 90 27 57
105

1.25

29 61
110

22 45 80 25 51

8T

10 12

1 25 1 25
1.25 1.25 1.25

1,100
340 710

1,250
380 790

8 9T
10 12
8
10T

34 70
125

37 78
140

1,300
390 800

94
28 58
105

1,450
430 890

\.1
1.25

38
!

42 88
155

31 64
116

10 12

78
140

1.25
1.25 1.25 1.25

1,450
430 890

1,600
480 990

8
1 IT

42 87
155

31 64
116

47
97
175

35 72
130

10 12

1,600

1,800

28

INTRODUCTION THREAD NOTATION SAE INCH


5/16-18 AND METRIC M8 X 1.25 METRIC

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line marks on the top of each bolt head. The actual bolt strength grade corresponds to the number of line marks plus 2. The most commonly used metric bolt strength classes are 9.8 and 12.9. The metric strength class identification number is imprinted on the head of the bolt. The higher the class number, the greater the bolt strength. Some metric nuts are imprinted with a single-digit strength class on the nut face. Refer to the bolt identification and bolt strength chart.
METRIC CONVERSION

T H R E A D MAJOR DIAMETER IN INCHES

NUMBER OF THREADS PER INCH

T H R E A D DISTANCE MAJOR BETWEEN DIAMETER IN THREADS IN MILLIMETERS MILLIMETERS


PR606B

HAiE/CLASS IDENTIFICATION The SAE bolt strength grades range from grade 2 to grade 8. The higher the grade number, the greater the bolt strength. Identification is determined by the

Refer to the chart to convert torque values listed in metric Newton-meters (N-m). Also, use the chart to convert between millimeters (mm) and inches (in.)

BR
BOLT IDENTIFICATION

INTRODUCTION

2S

Bolt Markings and Torque - Metric


Commercial Steel Class

8.8

10.9

12.9

Body Size Diam.

Cast Iron 9 14 25 40 70 115 180 230

Torque _ _ _ Aluminum N*m 7 11 18 30 55 90 140 180

Torque Cast Iron Nm 14 18 32 60 105 160 240 320 ft-lh 9 14 23 45 75 120 175 240 11 14 25 45 80 125 190 250 Aluminum ft-Ib 7 11 18 35 60 95 135 185

Torque Aluminum Cast Iron Mb 14 23 36 70 125 195 290 400 9 18 27 50 95 145 210 290 N*m 11 18 28 55 100 150 220 310 ft-Ib 7 14 21 40 75 110 165 230

mm
6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18

ft-Ib 5 9 18 30 55 85 130 170

Mb
4 7 14 25 40 65 100 135

Bolt Markings and Torque Values - U.S. Customary


SAE Grade Number 5 8 Bolt Head Markings These are all SAE Grade 5 (3) line

Bolt Torque - Grade 5 Bolt Body Size 1/4 -20 -28 5/16 - 18 -24 3/8 - 16 -24 7/16 - 14 -20 1/2 - 13 -20 9/16 - 12 - 18 5/8-11 - 18 3/4 - 10 - 16 7/8 - 9 - 14 1 -8 - 14 9 12 20 23 40 40 60 65 95 100 135 150 180 210 325 365 490 530 720 800 Cast Iron Mb 7 9 15 17 30 30 45 50 70 75 100 110 135 155 240 270 360 390 530 590 Aluminum Nm 8 9 16 19 25 35 45 55 75 80 no 115 150 160 255 285 380 420 570 650

Bolt Torque - Grade 8 Bolt Cast Iron N*m 15 18 30 33 55 60 90 95 130 150 190 210 255 290 460 515 745 825 1100 1200 Aluminum Nm 12 14 24 25 40 45 65 75 100 120 150 170 205 230 365 410 600 660 890 960

Mb
6 7 12 14 20 25 35 40 55 60 80 85 110 120 190 210 280 310 420 480

Mb
11 13 22 24 40 45 65 70 95 no 140 155 190 215 340 380 550 610 820 890

Mb
9 10 18 19 30 35 50 55 75 90 110 125 150 170 270 300 440 490 660 710

95IN-6

30

INTRODUCTION
BOLT STRENGTH

BR

HOW TO DETERMINE BOLT STRENGTH Mark Hexagon head bolt ^-s. Bolt j f ^ ^ ^ head No. 4 5 6 7 Class 4T 51 61 71 81 91 10T 1 IT

^^-^
Stud bolt

Mark

Class

No mark 4T

10 11

[^^]

No mark

4T

Hexagon flange bolt w / washer hexagon bolt

(J^^J)
f| ^ || % ^

No mark

4T

Grooved

j
Two protruding lines 51

61

Hexagon head bolt

Hexagon flange bolt


T

j protrudinq

61

Welded bolt

w / washer hexagon bolt

Ls
tffS
IL? ^ 1 % ^
Three

Hexagon head bolt

protruding lines

71 41

Hexagon head bolt

^^>n. |L J
n

Four protruding lines

81

95IN-4

iiTRODUCTiOi METRIC in-lbs to N*m


in- lb N m in-lb 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 2260 42 4519 44 6779 48 1298 50 .3558 52 5818 54 MU 56 58 0337 60 2597 62 4856 64 7116 66 9376 68 1635 70 3895 72 6155 74 8414 76 0674 78 2934 80 5193 Nm 4.7453 4.9713 5.1972 5.4232 in-lb 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 9.2646 9.4906 9.7165 9.9425 10.1685 -lb 122 124 126 128 Nm 13.7839 14.0099 14.2359 14.4618 14.6878 14.9138 15.1397 15.3657 15.5917 15.8176 16.0436 16.2696 16.4955 16.7215 16.9475 17.1734 17.3994 17.6253 17.8513 18.0773 in-lb 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 Nm 18.3032 18.5292 18.7552 18.9811 19.2071 19.4331 19.6590 19.8850 20.1110 20.3369 20.5629 20.7889 21.0148 21.2408 21.4668 21.6927 21.9187 22.1447 22.3706 22.5966

31

CONVERSE Nm to in-lbs

t s t m 1
.2 .4 .6 .8

in-lb 1.7702 3.5404 5.3107 7.0809 8.8511 10.6213 12.3916 14.1618 15.9320 17.7022 19.4725 21.2427 23.0129 24.7831 26.5534 28.3236 30.0938 31.8640 33.6342 35.4045 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8

.-lb 37.1747 38.9449 40.7152 42.4854

N*m 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 10 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11 11.2 11.4 11.6 11.8 12

in-lb 72.5792 74.3494 76.1197 77.8899 12.2 12.4 12.6 12.8 13 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.8 15 15.2 15.4 15.6 15.8 16

in-lb 107.9837 16.2 16.4 111.5242 16.6 113.2944 16.8 115.0646 17 116.8348 17.2 118.6051 17.4 120.3753 17.6 122.1455 17.8 123.9157 18 125.6860 18.5 127.4562 19 129.2264 19.5 130.9966 20 132.7669 20.5 134.5371 21 136.3073 22 138.0775 23 139.8478 24 141.6180 25

109.7539

4 6 9 0 3 9

5,6492
5.8751 6.1011 6.3270 6.5530 6.7790 7.0049 7.2309 7.4569 7.6828 7.9088 8.1348 8.3607 8.5867 8.8127 9.0386

1 3 0 1 0 . 3 9 4 4 132
10.6204 10.8464 11.0723 11.2983 11.5243 11.7502 11.9762 12.2022 12.4281 12.6541 12.8801 13.1060 13.3320 13.5580 134 136 138 140 142 144 146

1.2 1.4

4 4 . 2 5 5 6 4 6 . 0 2 5 8
47.7961 49.5663 51.3365 53.1067 54.8770 56.6472 58.4174 60.1876 61.9579 63.7281 65.4983 67.2685 69.0388 70.8090

MM)}
81.4303

1 . 6
1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4

83.2006 84.9708
86.7410 88.5112 90.2815 92,0517 93.8219 95.5921 97.3624 99.1326 100.9028 102.6730 104.4433 106.2135

1 4 8 1 5 0
152 154 156 158 160

1 8 8

190 192 194 196 198 200

ft-lbs to Nm
ft-Ib Nm 1.3558 2.7116 ft-Ib 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Nm 28.4722 29.8280 31.1838 32.5396 33.8954 35.2513 36.6071 37.9629 39.3187 40.6745 42.0304 43.3862 44.7420 46.0978 47.4536 48.8094 50.1653 51.5211 52.8769 54.2327 ft-Ib 41 42 43 44 45 Nm 55.5885 56.9444 58.3002 59.6560 61.0118 62.3676 63.7234 65.0793 66.4351 67.7909 69.1467 70.5025 71.8583 73.2142 74.5700 75.9258 77.2816 78.6374 79.9933 81.3491 ft-Ib 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Nm 82.7049 84.0607 85.4165 86.7723 88.1281 89.4840 ft-Ib 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Nm Nm ft-Ib .7376 1.4751 2.2127 2.9502 3.6878 4.4254 5.1629 5.9005 6.6381 7.3756 8.1132 8.8507 Nm 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 ft-Ib

Nm to ft-lbs
Nm 41 42 43 44 45 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 ft-Ib 30.2400 30.9776 31.7152 32.4527 33.1903 33.9279 34.6654 35.4030 36.1405 36.8781 37.6157 38.3532 39.0908 39.8284 40.5659 41.3035 42.0410 Nm 61 62 63 64 65 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 ft-Ib 44.9913 45.7289 Nm 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 93 94 95 96 97 98 ft-Ib 59.7425 60.4801 61.2177 61.9552 62.6928 63.4303 64.1679 64.9545 65.6430 67.1181 109.8212 111.1770 2 112.5328 3 4 113.8888 5 115.2446 116.6004 6 7 117.9562 119.3120 8 120.6678 9 122.0236 10 123.3794 11 124.7352 12 126.0910 .13 127.4468 14 128.8026 15 130.1586 16 131.5144 17 132.8702 18 134.2260 19 135.5820 20

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

15.9m
16.2264 16.9639 17.7015 18.4391 19.1766 19.9142 20.6517 21.3893 22.1269 22.8644 23.6020 24.3395 25.0771 25.8147 26.5522 27.2898 28.0274 28.7649 29.5025

4.0675 5.4233
6.7791 8.1349

46. 4664 47.2040 47.9415


50.1542 50.8918 51.6293 52.3669 53.1045 53.8420 54.5720 55.3172 56.0547

9.4907 10.8465 12.2024 13.5582 14.9140 16.2698 17.6256 18.9815 20.3373 21.6931 23.0489 24.4047 25.7605 27.1164

4 6 47
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

90.8398 92.1956
93.5514 94.9073 96.2631 97.6189 98.9747 100.3316 101.6862 103.0422 104.3980

4 6

6 6 4 8 . 6 7 9 1 49.4167

6 6 . 3 8 0 6

1 0 5 . 7 5 3 8 107.1196
108.4654

6 0
in. .41 .42 .43 .44 .45 .46 .47 .48 .49 .50 .51 .52 .53 .54 .55 .56 .57 .58 .59 .60

1 0 0
in. .81 .82 .83 .84 .85 .86 .87 .88 .89 .90 .91 .92 .93 .94 .95 .96 .97

9.5883 10.3259 11.0634 11.8010 12.5386 13.2761 14.0137 14.7512

9 2

42.77% 43.5162
44.2537

56.7923 57.5298 58.2674 59.0050 100

9 9

67.8557 68.5933 69.3308 70.0684 70.8060 71.5435 72.2811 73.0187 73.7562

in. to mm
in. .01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 mm .254 .508 .762 1.016 1.270 1.524 1.778 2.032 2.286 2.540 2.794 3.048 3.302 3.556 3.810 4.064 3.318 4.572 4.826 5.080 in. .21 .22 .23 .24 .25 .26 .27 .28 .29 .30 .31 .32 .33 .34 .35 .36 .37 .38 .39 .40 mm 5.334 5.588 5.842 6.096 6.350 6.604 6.858 7.112 7.366 7.620 7.874 8.128 8.382 8.636 8.890 9.144 9.398 9.652 9.906 10.160 mm 10.414 10.668 10.922 11.176 11.430 11.684 11.938 12.192 12.446 12.700 12.954 13.208 13.462 13.716 13.970 14.224 14.478 14.732 14.986 15.240 in. .61 .62 .63 .64 .65 .66 .67 .68 .69 .70 .71 .72 .73 .74 .75 .76 .77 .78 .79 .80 mm 15.494 15.748 16.002 16.256 16.510 16.764 17.018 17.272 17.526 17.780 18.034 18.288 18.542 18.796 19.050 19.304 19.558 19.812 20.066 20.320 mm 20.574 20.828 21.082 21.336 21.590 21.844 mm .01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 in. mm .21 .22 .23 .24 .25 .26 .27 .28 .29 .30 .31 .32 .33 .34 .35 .36 .37 .38 .39 .40 in. .00827 .00866 .00906 .00945 .00984 .01024 .01063 .01102 .01142 .01181 .01220 .01260 .01299 .01339 .01378 .01417 .01457 .01496 .01535 .01575

mm to in.
mm .41 .42 .43 .44 .45 .46 .47 .48 .49 .50 .51 .52 .53 .54 .55 .56 .57 .58 .59 .60 in. .01614 .01654 .01693 .01732 .01772 .01811 .01850 .01890 .01929 .01969 .02008 .02047 .02087 .02126 .02165 .02205 .02244 .02283 .02323 .02362 mm .61 .62 .63 .64 .65 66 .67 .68 .69 .70 .71 .72 .73 .74 .75 .76 .77 .78 .79 .80 in. .02402 .02441 .02480 .02520 .02559 .025% .02638 .02677 .02717 .02756 .02795 .02835 .02874 .02913 .02953 .02992 .03032 .03071 .03110 .03150 mm .81 .82 .83 .84 .85 .86 .87 .88 .89 .90 .91 .92 .93 .94 .95 .96 .97 .98 .99 1.00 in. .03189 .03228 .03268 .03307 .03346 .03386 .03425 .03465 .03504 .03543 .03583 .03622 .03661 .03701 .0374) .03780 .03819 .03858 .03898 .03937

. 0 0 0 3 9
.00079 .00118 .00157 .00197 .00236 .00276 .00315 .00354 .00394 .00433 .00472 .00512 .00551 .00591 .00630 .00709 .00748 .00787

22.0% 22.352

22.606 22.860 23.114 23.368 23.622 23.876 24.130 24.384 24.638 24.892 .99 25.146 1.00 25.400

. 9 8

. 0 0 6 6 9

J901N-10

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LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 1

LUBRICATION A N D MAINTENANCE
CONTENTS
page page

CHASSIS AND BODY DIESEL ENGINE DRIVETRAIN ENGINE MAINTENANCE-GASOLINE GENERAL INFORMATION JUMP STARTING, TOWING AND HOISTING . . .

35 26 30 20 1 17

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULESDIESEL ENGINE VEHICLE 13 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULESHEAVY DUTY . . . 8 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULESLIGHT DUTY VEHICLES 4

GENERAL INFORMATION

INDEX
page Classification of Lubricants Components Requiring No Lubrication Fluid Capacities Fuel Requirements 2 3 3 1 International Symbols Introduction ., Lubrieation and Replacement Parts Recommendation page 1 1 2

INTRODUCTION Lubrication and maintenance is divided into re quired and recommended service tasks. The required service tasks must be completed to verify the emis sion controls function correctly. The recommended service tasks should be completed to maintain safety and durability. This information will assist the service personnel in providing maximum protection for each owner's vehicle. Conditions can vary with individual driving habits. It is necessary to schedule maintenance as a time in terval as well as a distance interval. It is the owner's responsibility to determine the ap plicable driving condition. Also to have the vehicle serviced according to the maintenance schedule, and to pay for the necessary parts and labor. Additional maintenance and lubrication informa tion is listed in the Owner's Manual. UTEilATlOlAL SfiBOLS Chrysler Corporation uses international symbols to identify engine compartment lubricant and fluid in spection and fill locations (Fig. 1).

CHRYSLER CORPORATION
ENGINE OIL

o 0

BRAKE FLUID

o
GASOLINE

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID ENGINE COOLANT

POWER STEERING FLUID WINDSHIELD WASHER FLUID^ 9500-1

Fig. 11nternational Symbols

FUEL REQUIREMENTS
ENGINES

Chrysler Corporation gasoline engines require the use of unleaded gasoline to reduce the potentially harmful effects of lead to the environment. Also un leaded fuel is necessary to prevent damage to the catalytic converter/02 sensor. The fuel must have a minimum octane rating of 87 based on the (R + M)/2 calculation method.

I -2

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

CAPTION: UNLEADED FUEL ONLY must be used in vehicles equipped with a catalyst emission control system. All vehicles have reminders printed on the instrument panel below the fuel gauge and on the fuel filler door. The vehicles also have fuel filler tubes that are specially designed to accept only the small-diameter dispensing nozzles. It is illegal to bypass the design of an unleaded fuel filler tube and contaminate the fuel system. 9400-9 DIESEL ENGINES

The Cummins Diesel engine and its fuel system are compatible with, and have been designed to operate with low sulfur diesel fuels. The use of diesel fuel additive to increase fuel lubricity is not re quired or recommended. Diesel fuel lubricity addi tives will not damage the 5.9L engine, but will add unnecessary expense to the operation of the vehicle. Cummins Turbo Diesel engines require number 2 diesel fuel for operation in most climates. Refer to Group 14, Fuel Systems for fuel recommendations. CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS Lubricating fluids and chassis lubricants are clas sified according to standards recommended by the: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). American Petroleum Institute (API). National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI).
ENGINE OIL

Fig. 2 The API Engine Oil Certification Mark API SERVICE GRADE CERTIFIED

The API Service Grade specifies the type of perfor mance the engine oil is intended to provide. The API Service Grade specifications also apply to energy con serving engine oils. Use an engine oil that is API Service Grade Certi fied or an oil that conforms to the API Service Grade SH or SH/CD. MOPAR provides engine oils that con form to all of these service grades.
GEAR LUBRICANTS

A dual grade is also used to specify the viscosity of multi-purpose gear lubricants. The API grade designation identifies gear lubri cants in terms of recommended usage.
CHASSIS AND WHEEL BEARING LUBRICANTS

API CERTIFICATION MARK

For maximum engine protection during all driving conditions, install an engine oil that contains the API Certification Mark (Fig. 2). The API Certification Mark indicates that the oil is certified to meet the most critical requirements established by the manu facturer. Conformance to API specifications is determined by tests that measure the ability of an oil to control: Engine wear. Bearing corrosion. Sludge. Varnish. Oil thickening. Rust. Piston deposits.
SAE VISCOSITY GRADE

The chassis and wheel bearing lubricants that are recommended are identified by the NLGI Certifica tion Symbol. The symbol contains a coded designa tion. This identifies the usage and quality of the lubricant. The letter G within the symbol designates wheel bearing lubricant. The letter L designates chassis lu bricant. When the letters are combined, the lubricant can be used for dual applications. Use only lubricants that display the NLGI Certification Symbol (Fig. 3).
NATIONAL LUBRICATING GREASE INSTITUTE NATIONAL LUBRICATING GREASE INSTITUTE NATIONAL LUBRICATING GREASE INSTITUTE

NLGI
AUTOMOTIVE WHEEL BEARING & CHASSIS LUBRICANT

NLQI
AUTOMOTIVE WHEEL BEARING & CHASSIS LUBRICANT

NLQI
AUTOMOTIVE WHEEL BEARING & CHASSIS LUBRICANT

GC WHEEL BEARINGS

LB CHASSIS LUBRICATION

QC-LB CHASSIS AND WHEEL BEARINGS 9200-7

An SAE viscosity grade is used to specify the vis cosity of engine oil. SAE 30 specifies a single viscos ity engine oil. Engine oils also have multiple viscosities. These are specified with a dual SAE vis cosity grade which indicates the cold-to-hot tempera ture viscosity range.

Fig. 3 NLGI Lubricant Container Certification/ Identification Symbol

LUBRICATION AND REPLACEMENT PARTS RECOMMENDATION Chrysler Corporation vehicles are engineered to provide many years of dependable operation. How ever,' lubrication service and maintenance are re-

BR
quired for each vehicle. When necessary, MOPAR brand lubricants and genuine replacement parts are highly recommended. Each MOPAR brand lubricant and replacement part is designed and to provide de pendability and long service life. COMPONENTS REQUIRING NO LUBRICATION There are many components that should not be lu bricated. The components that should not be lubri cated are: Air pumps. Generator bearings. Brake booster cylinder. Clutch release bearings. Distributors. Drive belts. Drive belt idler pulleys. Drive shaft center bearings. Idler arms. Rubber bushings. Starter motor bearings. Suspension strut bearings. Rear spring shackle bolts. Throttle control cables. Throttle linkage ball joints. Water pump bearings. FLUID CAPACITIES Fuel Tank 118 inch wheel base 98 L (26 gal.) 138 inch wheel base 98 L (26 gal.) All Others 132 L (35 gal.) Engine Oil W/Filter change 3.9 L 3.8 L (4.0 qts.) 5.2 L 4.7 L (5.0 qts.) 5.9 L Gas 4.7 L (5.0 qts.) 5.9 L Diesel 10.4 L (11.0 qts.) 8.0 L 6.6 L (7.0 qts.) Engine Oil W/O Filter change 3.9 L 3.3 L (3.5 qts.) 5.2 L 4.3 L (4.5 qts.) 5.9 L Gas 4.3 L (4.5 qts.) 5.9 L Diesel* 8.0 L* * Oil filter must be changed with every oil change. Cooling System 3.9 L 19 L (20.0 qts.)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0-3

5.2 L 19 L (20.0 qts.) 5.9 L Gas 19 L (20.0 qts.) 5.9 L Diesel 24.5 L (26.0 qts.) 8.0 L 22.7 L (24.0 qts.) Automatic Transmission Dry fill capacity* 42RH 8.0-10.4 L (17-22 pts.) 46RH 8.2-12.3 L (17.5-26 pts.) 47RH 8.2-15.6 L (17.5-33 pts.) Depending on type and size of internal cooler, length and inside diameter of cooler lines, or use of an auxiliary cooler, these figures may vary. Refer to Group 21, Transmission for proper fluid fill proce dure. Manual Transmission NV4500 3.8 L (8.0 pts.) NV3500 2.0 L (4.2 pts.) Transfer Case NP231 1.2 L (2.5 pts.) NP231HD 1.2 L (2.5 pts.) NP241 .2.2 L (4.7 pts.) NP241HD 3.1 L (6.5 pts.) Fill to bottom of fill hole. Front Axle Dana 44 2.7 L (5.6 pts.) Dana 60 3.0 L (6.3 pts.) Rear Axle 9-1/4 in 2.3 L (4.8 pts.) Dana 60 (2WD) 3.0 L (6.3 pts.) Dana 60 (4WD) 3.4 L (7.3 pts.) Dana 70 (2WD) 3.3 L (7.0 pts.) Dana 70 (4WD) 3.6 L (7.8 pts.) Dana 80 (2WD) 3.2 L (6.8 pts.) Dana 80 (4WD) 4.8 L (10.1 pts.) Rear AxleLimited Slip Differential Dana 60 (2WD) 2.8 L (5.9 pts.*) Dana 60 (4WD) 3.2 L (6.9 pts.*) Dana 70 (2WD) 3.1 L (6.6 pts.*) Dana 70 (4WD) 3.4 L (7.4 pts.*) Dana 80 (2WD) 3.0 L (6.4 pts.*) Dana 80 (4WD) 4.5 L (9.6 pts.**) * Include 0.2 L (0.4 pts.) friction modifier. ** Include 0.3 L (0.6 pts.) friction modifier. Power Take Off Adapter NV-021 2.1 L (4.6 pts.) Power Steering All 1.3 L (2.7 pts.)

0-4

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULESLIGHT DUTY VEHICLES

INTRODUCTION There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service intervals for Dodge Ram vehicles. Use the schedule that best describes the conditions the vehicle is operated under. When mileage and time is listed, follow the interval that occurs first. ScheduleA lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under normal operating conditions. ScheduleB is a schedule for vehicles that are usually operated under one or more of the following conditions. Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km). Frequent driving in dusty conditions. Trailer towing or heavy load hauling. Frequent long periods of engine idling. Sustained high speed operation. Desert operation. 9 Frequent starting and stopping. Cold climate operation. Off road driving. Commercial service. Snow plow operation. More than half of vehicle operation occurs in heavy city traffic during hot weather (above 90 F). EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE The schedule emission maintenance listed in bold type on the following schedules, must be done at the mileage specified to assure the continued proper functioning of the emission control system. These, and all other maintenance services included in this manual, should be done to provide the best vehicle performance and reliability. More frequent mainte nance may be needed for vehicles in severe operating conditions such as dusty areas and very short trip driving. SERVICE INTERVALS FOR 1500 AND 2500 LIGHT DUTY VEHICLES
AT EACH

Inspect battery and clean and tighten terminals as required. Check rubber seals on each side of the radiator for proper fit.
AT EACH OIL CHANGE

Inspect exhaust system. Inspect brake hoses. Rotate the tires at each oil change interval shown on ScheduleA: (7,500 Miles) or every other interval shown on Schedule-B: (6,000 Miles). Check engine coolant level, hoses, and clamps. Lubricate steering linkage. If your mileage is less than 7,500 miles (12 000 km) yearly, replace the engine oil filter at each oil change. Lubricate propeller shaft universal joints and slip spline, if equipped. After completion of off-road (4WD) operation, the underside of the vehicle should be thoroughly in spected. Examine threaded fasteners for looseness. SCHEDULEA
7,500 MILES (12 OOOKM) OR AT 6 MONTHS

Change engine oil.


15,000 MILES (24 OOOKM) OR AT 12 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


22,500 MILES (36 OOOKM) OR AT 18 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.
30,000 MILES (48 OOOKM) OR AT 24 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Change engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace spark plugs.
(60 OOOKM) OR AT 30 MONTHS

STOP FOB

GASOLINE
37,500 MILES

Check engine oil level and add as required. Check windshield washer solvent and add as re quired.
ONCE A MONTH

Check tire pressure and look for unusual tire wear or damage. Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake mas ter cylinder, power steering and transmission. Add fluid as required. Check all lights and other electrical items for cor rect operation.

Change engine oil. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid.
45,000 MILES (72 OOOKM) OR AT 36 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.

BR

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


105,000 MILES MONTHS (168 OOOKM) OR AT 84

0- 5

Flush and replace engine coolant at 36 months re gardless of mileage.


52,500 MILES (84 OOOKM) ft AT 42 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Flush and replace engine coolant, if not done at 36 months.
60,000 MILES 196 OOOKM) O R AT 48 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
112,500 MILES MONTHS (180 OOOKM) OR AT 90

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace distributor cap and rotor. Replace ignition cables. Check PCV valve and replace as necessary.* Replace spark plugs. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air cleaner.
(108 OOOKM) OR AT 54

67,500 MILES MONTHS

Change engine oil. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.
75,000 MILES MONTHS (120 OOOKM) OR AT 60

Change engine oil. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
120,000 MILES i MONTHS (192 OOOKM) OR AT 96

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
82,500 MILES MONTHS (132 OOOKM) OR AT 66

> Change engine oil. > Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. > Replace distributor cap and rotor. Replace ignition cables. Check PCV valve and replace as necessary.* Replace spark plugs. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air cleaner. *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but it is not required to maintain war ranty on the PCV valve. SCHEDULEB
3,000 MILES (5 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
90,000 MILES MONTHS (144 OOOKM) OR AT 72-

Change engine oil.


6,000 MILES (10 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


9,000 MILES (14 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace spark plugs. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.
97,500 MILES MONTHS (156 OOOKM) OR AT 78

Change engine oil.


12,000 MILES (19 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
15,000 MILES (24 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.

Change engine oil.

0-6

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


48,000 MILES (77 OOOKM)

Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace as nec essary.


18,000 MILES (29 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


21,000 MILES (34 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
24,000 MILES (38 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. @ Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
51,000 MILES (82 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Flush and replace engine coolant.


54,000 MILES (86 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
27,000 MILES (43 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


57,000 MILES (91 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


60,000 MILES (96 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


30,000 MILES (48 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Inspect PCV valve, replace as necessary.* Replace spark plugs.

33,000 MILS (S3 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


36,000 MILES (58 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace distributor cap and rotor. Replace ignition cables. Inspect PCV valve and replace as necessary.* Replace spark plugs. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air cleaner. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
63,000 MILES (101 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
39,000 MILES (62 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Inspect front wheel bearings, Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
66,000 MILES (106 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


69,000 MILES (110 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


72,000 MILES (115 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


42,000 MILES (67 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. 9 Replace engine oil filter. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
45,000 MILES (72 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace as necessary.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid, Replace filter and adjust bands. < Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). o Inspect brake linings.
75 000
9

MILES (120 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.

BR Inspect engine air, cleaner element, replace as nec essary.


78,000 MILES (12S OOOKM)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 -7

Change engine oil Replace engine oil filter.


81,000 MILES (130 OOOKM)

Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace as necessary. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2).
108,000 MILES (173 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Flush and replace engine coolant.


84,000 MILES (134 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.
87,000 MILES (139 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
111,000 MILES (178 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Flush and replace engine coolant.


114,000 MILES (182 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


117,000 MILES (187 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


90,000 MILES (144 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace distributor cap and rotor. 93,000 MILES (149 OOOKM) Replace ignitions cables. Check PCV valve and replace as necessary.* Change engine oil. Replace spark plugs. 96,000 MILES (154 OOOKM) Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air cleaner. Change engine oil. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re Replace engine oil filter. place filter and adjust bands.** @ Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re Change rear axle fluid. place filter and adjust bands.** Change front axle fluid (4x4). Change rear axle fluid. Inspect brake linings. Change front axle fluid (4x4). *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to Inspect brake linings. the customer but it is not required to maintain war 99,000 MILES (158 OOOKM) ranty on the PCV valve. * * Off-the-highway operation, trailer towing, snow Change engine oil. plowing, or prolonged operation with heavy loading, 102,000 MILES (163 OOOKM) especially in hot weather require the more frequent Change engine oil. transmission service indicated with ** in Sched Replace engine oil filter. uleB. Perform these services if you usually operate your Ram Truck under these conditions. 105,000 MILES (168 OOOKM) Change engine oil.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Inspect PCV valve, replace as necessary.* Replace spark plugs.

Change engine oil.


120,000 MILES (192 OOOKM)

0-8

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULESHEAVY DUTY

INTRODUCTION There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service intervals for Heavy Duty Dodge Earn vehicles. Use the schedule that best describes the conditions the vehicle is operated under. When mile age and time is listed, follow the interval that occurs first. ScheduleA lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under normal operating conditions. ScheduleB is a schedule for vehicles that are usually operated under one or more of the following . conditions. Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km). Frequent driving in dusty conditions. Trailer towing or heavy load hauling. Frequent long periods of engine idling. Sustained high speed operation. Desert operation. Frequent starting and stopping. Cold climate operation. Off road driving. Commercial service. Snow plow operation. o More than half of vehicle operation occurs in heavy city traffic during hot weather (above 90 F). EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE The schedule emission maintenance listed in bold type on the following schedules, must be done at the mileage specified to assure the continued proper functioning of the emission control system. These, and all other maintenance services included in this manual, should be done to provide the best vehicle performance and reliability. More frequent mainte nance may be needed for vehicles in severe operating conditions such as dusty areas and very short trip driving. SERVICE INTERVALS FOR 2500 AND 3500 HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES
AT
EACH

Inspect battery and clean and tighten terminals as required.


AT EACH OIL CHANGE

Inspect exhaust system. Inspect brake hoses. Rotate the tires at each oil change interval shown on ScheduleA (6,000 Miles) or every other interval shown on Schedule-B (6,000 Miles). Check engine coolant level,hoses, and clamps. If your mileage is less than 6,000 miles (9 600km) yearly, replace the engine oil filter at each oil change. Lubricate steering linkage. Replace engine oil filter at every oil change (8.0L only). SCHEDULEA
6,000 MILES (10 OOOKM) OR AT 6 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


12,000 MILES (19 OOOKM) OR AT 12 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


18,000 MILES (29 OOOKM) OR AT 18 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). Inspect brake linings.
24,000 MILES (38 OOOKM) OR AT 24 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
30,000 MILES (48 OOOKM) OR AT 30 MONTHS

STOP FOR

GASOLINE

Check engine oil level and add as required. Check windshield washer solvent and add as re quired.
ONCE A MONTH

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). Replace spark plugs.
36,000 MILES (58 OOOKM) OR AT 36 MONTHS

Check tire pressure and look for unusual tire wear or damage. Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake mas ter cylinder, power steering and transmission. Add fluid as required. Check all lights and other electrical items for cor rect operation.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. o Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant at 36 months, re gardless of mileage..

BR
42,000 MILES (67 OOOKM) OR AT 42 MONTHS

LUBRICATION AND 1AINTENANCE


78,000 MILES (125 OOOKM) OR AT 78 MONTHS

0 -1

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


48,000 MILES (77 OOOKM) OR AT 48 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Flush and replace engine coolant if not done at 36 months.
54,000 MILES (86 OOOKM) OR AT 54 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
82,500 MILES (132 OOOKM) OR AT 82 MONTHS

Replace oxygen sensor (5.9L only).***


84,000 MILES MONTHS (184 OOOKM) OR AT 84

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
90,000 MILES (144 OOOKM) OR AT 90 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). Inspect brake linings.
60,000 MILES (96 OOOKM) OR AT 60 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace ignition cables. Replace PCV valve (5.9L).*** Replace distributor cap and rotor (5.9L only). Replace spark plugs. Clean EGR air passages.*** Replace EGR valve.*** Replace battery. Lubricate front suspension ball joints. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change.
66,000 MILES (106 OOOKM) OR AT 66 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). Replace spark plugs. Inspect brake linings.

96,000 WILES (154 OOOKM) OR AT 96 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter 5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
102,000 MILES (163 OOOKM) OR AT MONTHS 102

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


72,000 MILES (115 OOOKM) OR AT 72 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


108,000 MILES (173 OOOKM) OR AT MONTHS 108

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000km) or 24 months since last change. ***Requires Service Reminder Indicator Light, if so equipped, these parts are to be replaced at the indi cated mileage or when emissions Service Reminder

I -II

LUiliClTiOi l i i MAINTENANCE
27,000 MILES (43 OOOKM)

BR
Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
30,000 MILES (48 OOOKM)

Indicator Light remains on continuously with the key in the ON position, whichever occurs first. SCHEDULEB
3,&0@ MILES fS OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


6,000 MILES 11 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect PCV valve, replace as necessary
(5.9L).

Replace spark plugs.


33,000 MILES (53 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


9,000 MILES (14 &OOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


36,000 MILES (58 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. 9 Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


12,000 MILES (19 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments, replace as necessary. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
15,000 MILES (24 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments, replace as necessary. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and Adjust bands.** Drain and refill transfer case. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
39,000 MILES (62 OOOKM)

Change engine oil.


42,000 MILES (67 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


18,000 MILES (29 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


45,000 MILES (72 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


21,000 MILES (34 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


48,000 MILES (77 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


24 000 MILES
9

(38 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant.
S1 000
9

MILES

(82 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).

BR
54,00 MILES (88 OOOKM)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


75,000 MILES (120 OOOKM) '

0-11

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


57,000 MILES (91 000KM)
9

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


78,000 MILES (125 OOOKM)

9 Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


60,000 MILES (96 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Flush and replace engine coolant.
81,000 MILES (130 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect engine air cleaner and, air pump ele ments, replace as necessary. Inspect PCV valve, replace as necessary (5.9L). " Replace distributor cap and rotor (5.9L). Replace ignition cables. Replace spark plugs. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Clean EGR passages.*** Replace EGR valve.*** Replace battery. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
63,000 MILES (101 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


82 S00 MILES
9

(132 OOOKM)

Replace oxygen sensor (5.9L).***


84,000 MILES (134 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect engine air cleaner a n d air pump ele ments, replace as necessary. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Replace oxygen sensor.*** Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.
87,000 MILES (139 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


66 00O MILES
9

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


90,000 MILES (144 OOOKM)

(106 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


69,000 MILES (110 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


72,000 MILES (115 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect PCV valve, replace as (5.9L). Replace spark plugs.
93,000 MILES (149 OOOKM)

necessary

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner a n d air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


98,000 MILES (154 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings.

0-12
99,000

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


MILES

BR Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands.** Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant. * * Off-the-highway operation, trailer towing, snow plowing, prolonged operation with heavy loading, es pecially in hot weather require the more frequent transmission service indicated with ** in Sched uleB. Perform these services if you usually operate your Ram Truck under these conditions. ***Requires Service Reminder Indicator Light. If so equipped, these parts are to be replaced at the indi cated mileage or when the service reminder indicator light remains on continuously with the key in the ON position, whichever occurs first.

(158

OOOKM)

Change engine oil Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


102,000
MILES

(163

OOOKM)

Change engine oil. @ Replace engine oil filter.


105,000
MILES

(168

OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).


108,000 MILES (172 800KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect engine air cleaner and air pump ele ments, replace as necessary. Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L).

BR

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE M A I N T E N A N C E SCHEDULESDIESEL E N G I N E VEHICLE

0 -13

INTRODUCTION There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service intervals for Diesel Engine equipped Dodge Ram vehicles. Use the schedule that best de scribes the conditions the vehicle is operated under. When mileage and time is listed, follow the interval that occurs first. Schedule A lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under normal operating conditions. ScheduleB is a schedule for vehicles that are usually operated under one or more of the following conditions. Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km). Frequent driving in dusty conditions. Trailer towing or heavy load hauling. Frequent long periods of engine idling. Sustained high speed operation. Desert operation. Frequent starting and stopping. Cold climate operation. Off road driving. Commercial service. Snow plow operation. More than half of vehicle operation occurs in heavy city traffic during hot weather (above 90 F). SERWiCE INTERVALS FOR DIESEL ENGINE VEHICLE AT EACH STOP FOR FUEL Check engine oil level and add as required. Check windshield washer solvent and add as required.
ONCE A MONTH

6,000 MILES

(9 800KM) OR AT 6

MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


12,000 MILES (19 200KM) ft AT 12 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Replace fuel filter. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
18,000 MILES (28 800KM) OR AT 18 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary.
24,000 MILES (38 400KM) OR AT 24 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. @ Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust band. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
30,000 MILES (48 OOOKM) OR AT 30 M@MTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


36,000 MILES (57 600KM) OR AT 36 MONTHS

Change engine oil. Check tire pressure and look for unusual tire wear Replace engine oil filter. or damage. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Inspect battery and clean an tighten terminals as re Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. quired. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake mas Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. ter cylinder, power steering and transmission. Add Inspect brake linings. fluid as required. ' Flush and replace engine coolant at 36 months, re Check all lights and all other electrical items for gardless of mileage. correct operation. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks. Drain water from fuel filter. 42,000 MILES (67 200KM) OR AT 42 MONTHS Check Filter Minder, replace filter if necessary. Change engine oil. AT EACH OIL CHANGE Replace engine oil filter. Inspect exhaust system. 48,000 MILES (76 800KM) OR AT 48 MONTHS Inspect brake hoses. Change engine oil. Rotate the tires at each oil change interval shown, Replace engine oil filter. 6,000 miles (9 600 km) on Schedule-A or every other interval shown on ScheduleB. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Check engine coolant level, hoses, and clamps. Adjust valve lash clearance. Lubricate steering linkage.

0 -14

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

__________

BR

o Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Flush and replace engine coolant if not done at 36 months. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
54,000 MILES (86 400KM) OM AT 5 4 If If fffS

Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
90,000 MILES MONTHS (144 OOOKM) OR AT 90

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Inspect brake linings.
(153 600KM) OR AT 96

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Inspect brake linings. 60,000 MILES (96 OOOKM) OR AT 60 I C I f H S Change engine oil. @ Replace engine oil filter. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. o Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
66,000 MILfES (1&5 6O0KM) OR AT 66 MONTHS

96,000 MILES MONTHS

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
102,000 MILES MONTHS (163 200KM) OR AT 102

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


72,000 MILES MONTHS (115 200KM) OR AT 72

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


108,000 MILES MONTHS (172 800KM) OR AT 108

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as required. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. o Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks.
7B,@m MILES (124 800KM) OR AT 78

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks. SCHEDULEB
3,000 MILES (4 800KM)

@ Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


6,000 MILES (9 600KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
84,000 MILES MONTHS (134 400KM) OR AT 84

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


9,000 MILES (14 400KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Replace fuel filter. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


12,000 MILES (19 200KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.

BR Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.
15,000 MILES (24 OOOKM)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE at

0-15

Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or 12 month intervals.
(62 OOOKM)

39,000 MILES

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


42,000 MILES (67 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


18,000 MILES im OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


45,000 MILES (72 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary.
21,000 MILES (34 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


48,000 MILES (77 OOOKM)

o Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


24,000 MILES (30 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.
27,000 MILES (43 200 KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. o Change front axle fluid (4x4). o Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.
51,000 MILES (82 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


54,000 MILES (86 400KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


30,000 MILES (48 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


33,000 MILES (53 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary.
57,000 MILES (91 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


38,000 MILES (58 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


60,000 MILES (96 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings.

0 -16

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


87,000
MILES

BR
(140 OOOKM)

Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.


63,000 MILES (102 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


90,000 MILES (144 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


66,000 MILES (102 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


69,000 MILES (110 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary.
93,000
MILES

(149

OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


96,000
MILES

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


72,000 MILES (115 200KM)

(154 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.
75,000 MILES (120 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Adjust valve lash clearance. Inspect fan hub. Inspect damper. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.
99,000 MILES (158 400KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


102,000 MILES (163 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


78,000 MILES (125 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


105,000
MILES

(168 OQOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Flush and replace engine coolant.
81,000 MILES (130 OOOKM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


108,000 MILES (172 800KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter.


84,000 MILES (134 400KM)

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals.

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter. Inspect drive belt, replace as necessary. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Re place filter and adjust bands. Drain and refill transfer case fluid. Change rear axle fluid. Change front axle fluid (4x4). Inspect brake linings. Flush and replace engine coolant. Inspect charge air cooler connections for leaks or at 12 month intervals. Inspection and service should also be performed anytime a malfunction is observed or suspected.

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0-17

J U M P S T A R T I N G , TOWING AND H O I S T I N G
INDE1
page Four-Wheel-Drive Vehicle Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Clearance and Ramp Angle . . . . . . . . . . . Hoisting Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jump Starting 19 19 18 17 Towing Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Towing When Keys Are Not Available Two-Wheel-Drive Vehicle Towing page 18 19 19

JUMP STARTING
WARNING: R E V I E W A L L S A F E T Y PRECAUTIONS AND WARNINGS IN GROUP 8A, BATTERY/START ING/CHARGING S Y S T E M S DIAGNOSTICS. DO NOT J U M P START A FROZEN BATTERY, P E R SONAL INJURY CAN RESULT. DO NOT J U M P , START W H E N MAINTENANCE F R E E BATTERY INDICATOR DOT IS Y E L L O W OR BRIGHT COLOR. DO NOT J U M P START A VEHICLE W H E N THE BATTERY FLUID IS B E L O W THE TOP OF LEAD PLATES. DO NOT A L L O W J U M P E R C A B L E C L A M P S TO TOUCH EACH OTHER WHEN CONNECTED TO A BOOSTER SOURCE. DO NOT U S E O P E N FLAME NEAR BATTERY. REMOVE METALLIC J E W E L R Y W O R N ON HANDS OR W R I S T S TO AVOID INJURY B Y ACCIDENTAL ARCING O F BATTERY CURRENT. W H E N USING A HIGH OUTPUT BOOSTING DE VICE, DO NOT A L L O W BATTERY VOLTAGE TO E X C E E D 16 VOLTS. R E F E R TO INSTRUCTIONS PROVIDED WITH DEVICE BEING U S E D .

(2) When using another vehicle as a booster source, turn off all accessories, place gear selector in park or neutral, set park brake and operate engine at 1200 rpm. (3) On disabled vehicle, place gear selector in park or neutral and set park brake. Turn off all accesso ries. (4) Connect jumper cables to booster battery. RED clamp to positive terminal (+). BLACK clamp to neg ative terminal (-). DO NOT allow clamps at opposite end of cables to touch, electrical arc will result. Re view all warnings in this procedure. (5) On disabled vehicle, connect RED jumper cable clamp to positive (+) terminal. Connect BLACK jumper cable clamp to engine ground as close to the ground cable attaching point as possible (Fig. 1 and 2).
:

NEGATIVE O R

zz

^: POSITIVE CABLE CONNECTION^

G R O U N D CABLE ~ CONNECTION

CAUTION: When using another vehicle as a booster, do not allow vehicles to touch. Electrical systems can be damaged on either vehicle. TO JUMP START A DISABLED VEHICLE**
BATTERY J9500-26

(1) Raise hood on disabled vehicle and visually in spect engine compartment for: Battery cable clamp condition, clean if necessary. Frozen battery. Yellow or bright color test indicator, if equipped. Low battery fluid level. Generator drive belt condition and tension. Fuel fumes or leakage, correct if necessary.
CAUTION: If the cause of starting problem on dis abled vehicle is severe, damage to booster vehicle charging system can result.

Fig. 1 Jumper Cable Clamp Engine

ConnectionsGas

CAUTION: Do not crank starter motor on disabled vehicle for more than 15 seconds, starter will over heat and could fail.

(6) Allow battery in disabled vehicle least 12.4 volts (75% charge) before start engine. If engine does not start onds, stop cranking engine and allow (15 min.), before cranking again.

to charge to at attempting to within 15 sec starter to cool

0-18

LUBRICATION AMD MAINTENANCE

IBIIlPfl

Pig. 2 Jumper Cahie damp Engine

ConnectionsDiesei

ilSCillECT CABLE CHIPS I S FOLLOWS: Disconnect BLACK cable clamp from engine ground on disabled vehicle. When using a Booster vehicle, disconnect BLACK cable clamp from battery negative terminal. Discon nect RED cable clamp from battery positive terminal. Disconnect RED cable clamp from battery positive terminal on disabled vehicle.
PORTABLE STARTING UNIT
HOIST

' FRAME CONTACT HOIST g FLOOR JACK J9500-5

Fig. 3 Vehicle Lifting Locations

There are many types of portable starting units available for starting engines. Follow the manufac turer's instructions and observe the listed precau tions when involved in any engine starting procedure. HOISTING RECOMMENDATIONS Refer to the Owner's Manual for emergency vehicle lifting procedures.
FLOOR JACK

A vehicle can be lifted with: A single-post, frame-contact hoist. A twin-post, chassis hoist. A ramp-type, drive-on hoist. When a frame-contact type hoist is used, ver ify that the lifting pads are positioned properly (Fig. 3 ) .
WARNING: THE HOISTING AND J A C K LIFTING POINTS PROVIDED A R E FOR A C O M P L E T E VEHI C L E . W H E N A C H A S S I S OR DRIVETRAIN COMPO NENT IS REMOVED FROM A VEHICLE, T H E CENTER O F GRAVITY I S ALTERED MAKING S O M E HOISTING CONDITIONS UNSTABLE. P R O P E R L Y S U P P O R T OR S E C U R E VEHICLE TO HOISTING DE VICE WHEN T H E S E CONDITIONS EXIST.

When properly positioned, a floor jack can be used to lift a vehicle (Fig. 3). Support the vehicle in the raised position with jack stands at the front and rear ends of the frame rails.
CAUTION: Do not lift vehicle with a floor jack posi tioned under:

An axle tube. A body side sill. A steering linkage component. A drive shaft. The engine or transmission oil pan. The fuel tank. A front suspension arm. Use the correct frame rail lifting locations only (Fig, 8).

TOWING RECOMMENDATIONS A vehicle equipped with SAE approved sling-type towing equipment can be used to tow all vehicles. When towing a 4WD vehicle using a wheel-lift towing device, use a tow dolly under the opposite end of the vehicle. A vehicle with flat-bed device can also be used to transport a disabled vehicle (Fig. 4).

BR

- - LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 -19

A towed vehicle should be raised until lifted wheels are a minimum 100 mm (4 in) from the ground. Be sure there is adequate ground clearance at the oppo site end of the vehicle, especially when towing over rough terrain or steep rises in the road. If necessary, remove the wheels from the lifted end of the vehicle and lower the vehicle closer to the ground, to in crease the ground clearance at the opposite end of the vehicle. Install lug nuts on wheel attaching studs to retain brake drums or rotors.
FLAT-BED TOWING RAMP ANGLE

If a vehicle with flat-bed towing equipment is used, the approach ramp angle should not exceed 15 de grees. TWO-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING Chrysler Corporation recommends that a vehicle be towed with the rear end lifted, whenever possible.
J9500-6

FLAT BED

TOWING-REAR

END

LIFTED

Fig. 4 Tow Vehicles With Approved

Equipment

A wooden crossbeam may be required for proper connection when using the sling-type, front-end tow ing method.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

CAUTION: Do not use steering column lock to se cure steering wheel during towing operation.

The following safety precautions must be ob served when towing a vehicle. Secure loose and protruding parts. Always use a safety chain system that is indepen dent of the lifting and towing equipment. Do not allow towing equipment to contact the dis abled vehicle's fuel tank. Do not allow anyone under the disabled vehicle while it is lifted by the towing device. 9 Do not allow passengers to ride in a vehicle being towed. Always observe state and local laws regarding tow ing regulations. Do not tow a vehicle in a manner that could jeop ardize the safety of the operator, pedestrians or other motorists. Do not attach tow chains, T-hooks, J-hooks, or a tow sling to a bumper, steering linkage, drive shafts or a non-reinforced frame hole. Do not tow a heavily loaded vehicle. Damage to the cab, cargo box or frame may result. Use a flatbed device to transport a loaded vehicle. GROUND CLEARANCE AND RAMP ANGLE
GROUND CLEARANCE

Unlock steering column and secure steering wheel in straight ahead position with a clamp device de signed for towing. Verify that steering components are in good condi tion.
TOWING-FRONT END LIFTED

If a two-wheel-drive vehicle cannot be towed with the rear wheels lifted, it can be towed with the front wheels lifted with the transmission in the neutral po sition. FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING Chrysler Corporation recommends that a vehicle be transported on a flat-bed device. A Wheel-lift or Sling-type device can be used provided all the wheels are lifted off the ground using tow dollies. TOWING WHEN KEYS ARE NOT AVAILABLE When the vehicle is locked and keys are not avail able, use a flat bed hauler. A Wheel-lift or Sling-type device can be used provided all the wheels are lifted off the ground using tow dollies.

CAUTION: If vehicle is towed with wheels removed, install lug nuts to retain brake drums or rotors.

I - 21

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE ENGINE MAINTENANCE-GASOLINE INDEX


page

BR

page Engine Oil Engine Oil Filter Exhaust SystemGasoline Fuel Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel System Ignition Cables, Distributor Cap, and Rotor ...... Rubber and Plastic Component Inspection . . . . . . . Spark Plugs
ENGINE

Accessory Drive Belts 25 Air-Conditioner Compressor 25 Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 25 Break-In Period 20 Crankcase Ventilation System 23 Emission Control System . . 25 Engine Air Cleaner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Engine Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

20 21 25 24 24 24 25 24

BREAK-IN PERIOD
C A U T I O N ; W i d e o p e n throttle operation in l o w g e a r s , before e n g i n e break-in period i s c o m p l e t e , can damage engine. After first starting a n e w engine, allow it to idle for 15 seconds before shifting into a drive gear. Also: D r i v e t h e vehicle at v a r y i n g speeds less t h a n 88 k m / h (55 m p h ) for t h e first 100 k m (60 miles). Avoid fast acceleration a n d sudden stops. Do not drive a t full-throttle for extended periods of time. Do not drive a t constant speeds. Do not idle t h e engine excessively. A special break-in engine oil is not required. T h e original engine oil installed is a h i g h quality, energy conserving lubricant. S p e c i a l b r e a k - i n oils a r e not recommended. These oils could interfere w i t h t h e n o r m a l piston r i n g seating process. N e w engines tend to consume more fuel a n d oil u n t i l after t h e break-in period h a s ended.

OIL

SPECIFICATION

CAUTION: Do not use non-detergent or straight mineral oil when adding or changing crankcase lu bricant. Engine failure can result.

API SERVICE GRADE CERTIFIED U s e a n engine oil t h a t is A P I Service G r a d e C e r t i fied or a n oil t h a t conforms to the A P I Service G r a d e S H or S H / C D . M O P A R provides engine oils t h a t con form to a l l of these service grades. SAE VISCOSITY A n S A E viscosity grade is used to specify t h e vis cosity of engine oil. S A E 30 specifies a single viscos ity engine oil. E n g i n e oils also h a v e multiple viscosities. These a r e specified w i t h a d u a l S A E vis cosity grade w h i c h indicates t h e cold-to-hot tempera ture viscosity range. Select a n engine oil t h a t is best suited to your particular temperature range a n d v a r i ation ( F i g . 1).

ENIINE OIL
10W-30 WARNING: NEW OR USED ENGINE O I L CAN BE IR RITATING TO THE SKIN* AVOID PROLONGED OR REPEATED SKIN CONTACT WITH ENGINE OIL. CONTAMINANTS IN USED ENGINE OIL, CAUSED BY INTERNAL COMBUSTION, CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH. THOROUGHLY WASH EXPOSED SKIN WITH SOAP AND WATER. DO NOT WASH SKIN WITH GASOLINE, DIESEL FUEL, THINNER, OR SOLVENTS, HEALTH PROB LEMS CAN RESULT. DO NOT POLLUTE, DISPOSE OF USED ENGINE OIL PROPERLY. CONTACT YOUR DEALER OR GOV ERNMENT AGENCY FOR LOCATION OF COLLEC TION CENTER IN YOUR AREA..

>

<
F C

5W-30 1 I 1 0 10 20 32 60 80 100 -18 -12 -7 0 16 27 38 ANTICIPATED TEMPERATURE RANGE BEFORE NEXT OIL CHANGE J9000-39 Oil Viscosity

-20 -29

Fig. 1 Temperature/Engine ENERGY CONSERVING OIL

An Energy Conserving type oil is recommended for gasoline engines. They are designated as either EN ERGY CONSERVING or ENERGY CONSERVING II.

BR
CONTAINER IDENTiFiCATIOi

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 - 21

Standard engine oil identification notations have been adopted to aid in the proper selection of engine oil The identifying notations are located on the label of engine oil plastic bottles and the top of engine oil cans (Fig. 2).

Fig.

3 Oil Level

indicator

(Dipstick)

9400-9

Fig. 2 Engine Oil Container Standard Notations ENGINE OIL ADDITIVES

In some instances, such as infrequent operation, short trip driving, and during break-in after a major overhaul, addition of special materials containing an ti-rust and anti-scuff additives are beneficial. A suit able product for this purpose is MOPAR Engine Oil Supplement.
CRANKCASE OIL LEVEL INSPECTION

CAUTION: Do not overfill crankcase with engine oil, oil foaming and oil pressure loss can result.

(2) Hoist and support vehicle on safety stands. Re fer to Hoisting and Jacking Recommendations in this group. (3) Remove oilfillcap. (4) Place a suitable drain pan under crankcase drain. (5) Remove drain plug from crankcase and allow oil to drain into pan. Inspect drain plug threads for stretching or other damage. Replace drain plug and gasket if damaged. , (6) Install drain plug in crankcase. (7) Lower vehicle and fill crankcase with specified type and amount of engine oil described in this sec tion. (8) Install oilfillcap. (9) Start engine and inspect for leaks. (10) Stop engine and inspect oil level. ENGINE OIL FILTER
OIL FILTER SPECIFICATION

Inspect engine oil level approximately every 800 ki lometers (500 miles). Unless the engine has exhibited loss of oil pressure, run the engine for about five minutes before checking oil level. Checking engine oil level on a cold engine is not accurate. (1) Position vehicle on level surface. (2) With engine OFF, allow approximately ten min utes for oil to settle to bottom of crankcase, remove engine oil dipstick. (3) Wipe dipstick clean. (4) Install dipstick and verify it is seated in the tube. (5) Remove dipstick, with handle held above the tip, take oil level reading (Fig. 3). (6) Add oil only if level is below the ADD mark on dipstick.
ENGINE OIL CHANGE

Chrysler Corporation recommends a Mopar or equivalent oil filter be used when replacement is re quired. A replacement filter must be designed to withstand 1756 kPa (256 psi) of internal pressure.
OIL FILTER REMOVAL

(1) Position a drain pan under the oil filter. (2) Using a suitable oil filter wrench (Fig. 4) loosen filter by turning counterclockwise. (3) When filter separates from adapter nipple, tip gasket end upward to minimize oil spill. Remove fil ter from vehicle. (4) With a wiping cloth, clean the gasket sealing surface (Fig. 5) of oil and grime.
OIL FILTER INSTALLATION

Change engine oil at mileage and time intervals described in Maintenance Schedules.
T O CHANiE ENGINE OIL

Run engine until achieving normal operating tem perature. (1) Position the vehicle on a level surface.

(1) Lightly lubricate oil filter gasket with engine oil or chassis grease. (2) Thread filter in a clockwise motion onto adapter nipple. When gasket makes contact with sealing surface, hand tighten filter one full turn, do not over tighten. (3) Add oil, verify crankcase oil level and start en gine. Inspect for oil leaks.

0 - 22

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR
CAUTION: Do not use straight antifreeze as engine coolant, inadequate engine running temperatures can result. Do not operate vehicle without proper concentra tion of recommended ethylene glycol coolant, high running temperatures and cooling system corrosion can result.

Fig. 4

Remove

Oil FilterTypical

The engine cooling system will develop internal pressure of 97 to 123 kPa (14 to 18 psi) at normal op erating temperature. Allow the vehicle approximately one half hour to cool off before opening the cooling system. As an indicator of pressure, squeeze the up per radiator hose between index finger and thumb. If it collapses with little effort the system would have low internal pressure and should be safe to open to the first safety notch of the radiator cap. Refer to Group 7, Cooling System.
COOLING SYSTEM INSPECTION

Fig. 5 Install Oil FilterTypical


used e n g i n e OIL d i s p o s a l

Care should be exercised when disposing used en gine oil after it has been drained from a vehicle en gine. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

WARNING: ANTIFREEZE IS AN ETHYLENE GLYCOL B A S E COOLANT AND I S HARMFUL IF S W A L L O W E D OR INHALED. IF S W A L L O W E D , DRINK TWO G L A S S E S O F WATER AND INDUCE VOMIT ING. IF INHALED, MOVE TO F R E S H AIR A R E A . S E E K MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY. DO NOT S T O R E IN O P E N OR UNMARKED CONTAINERS. W A S H SKIN AND CLOTHING THOROUGHLY A F T E R COMING IN CONTACT WITH ETHYLENE GLYCOL. K E E P OUT O F R E A C H O F CHILDREN. D I S P O S E O F GLYCOL B A S E COOLANT P R O P ERLY, CONTACT YOUR D E A L E R OR GOVERNMENT A G E N C Y FOR LOCATION O F COLLECTION C E N T E R IN YOUR A R E A . DO NOT O P E N A COOLING S Y S T E M W H E N T H E ENGINE IS AT RUNNING T E M P E R A T U R E , P E R SONAL I N J U R Y CAN RESULT. AVOID RADIATOR COOLING FAN W H E N ENGINE COMPARTMENT RELATED S E R V I C E IS P E R FORMED, P E R S O N A L INJURY CAN R E S U L T

Coolant level should be inspected when other en gine compartment service is performed or when cool ant leak is suspected. Coolant recovery tank level should read between the ADD and FULL marks, lo cated on the side of recovery tank, when the engine is at normal operating temperature. Normal coolant level maintenance does not require the removal of ra diator cap. Cooling system freeze protection should be tested at the onset of the winter season or every 12 months. Service is required if coolant is low, contaminated, rusty or freeze protection is inadequate. To properly test cooling system, see Group 7, Cooling System. The cooling system factory fill is a mixture of 50% Ethylene Glycol based antifreeze and 50% water. Us ing a suitable hydrometer, measure antifreeze con centration in the radiator when the engine is cool. If the cooling system has recently been serviced, allow coolant to circulate for at least 20 minutes before taking hydrometer reading. Properly mixed coolant will protect the cooling system to -37C (-35F). If the freeze protection is above -28C (-20F), drain enough coolant from the cooling system to allow room to add antifreeze to achieve adequate protection. A mix table on the coolant container indicates the amount of an tifreeze required to winterize the cooling system based on the capacity, see Capacity Chart in General Information section of this group.
ANTIFREEZE SPECIFICATION

Chrysler Corporation recommends Mopar Anti freeze/Coolant or a high quality, ethylene glycol base antifreeze/coolant, with a silicate inhibitor.
RADIATOR CAP

The radiator cap must be secure to provide proper pressure

BR
release and coolant recovery. Inspect and test radi ator cap when cooling system service is performed or when problem is suspected.
COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


AIR INLET

0 - 23

The cooling system should be drained, flushed and filled with the proper coolant mixture at the inter vals described in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules. Refer to General Information section of this group. For proper service instructions see Group 7, Cooling System. ENGINE AIR CLEANER The engine air cleaner should be serviced at the in tervals described in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules sections of this group. Additional informa tion can be found in Group 14, Fuel System and Group 25, Emission System. Inspect all air cleaner hoses or tubes for damage or leaks when other en gine compartment service is performed. Replace faulty components.
AIR CLEANER SBMWiGB

CAUTION: The air cleaner cover must be Installed properly for the emissions system and engine con troller to function correctly. Do not immerse paper air element in cleaning sol vents, damage can result10 SERVICE l i i
CLEANER

Fig, 6 Mir Cleaner3.9 L, 5.2 L or 5.9 L Engines HOUSING

ASSEMBLY

(1) Raise hood of vehicle and inspect all air cleaner components for damage or improper attachment. (2) Remove air cleaner cover (Fig. 6 or 7). (3) Remove paper air filter element from air cleaner body. Hold a shop light on throttle body side of element. Inspect air intake side of element. If ele ment is saturated with oil or light is not visible, re place filter. If element is saturated with oil, perform crankcase ventilation system tests. (4) Clean inside of air cleaner cover and body with vacuum or compressed air. If oily, wipe out with shop towel, (5) Install the air cleaner filter element and attach the cover to the body/housing. CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM Engine crankcase pressure and emissions are vented into combustion chambers through the posi tive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system. The crank case ventilation system should have enough volume to overcome crankcase pressure created by' piston backwash. If a crankcase ventilation system-becomes plugged, the crankcase pressure will increase and force engine oil past the piston rings creating oil con sumption. Blockage of crankcase ventilation system can occur at the vacuum source coupling, ventilation

Fig. 7 Air Cleaner8.0 L Engine

valve, crankcase filter or a collapsed hose. Refer to Group 25, Emission Control Systems for proper ser vice information.

0 - 24

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR line. You may encounter fuels containing 3 percent or more methanol along with other alcohols called cosolvents. Problems that are the result of using methanol/gas oline blends are not the responsibility of Chrysler Corporation. They may not be covered by the vehicle warranty.
MTBE/ETBE

FUEL SYSTEM
INSPECTION

It is recommended that the fuel system filler cap, nozzle, tubes, hoses, and connections be inspected pe riodically. FUEL FILTER The fuel filter requires service only when a fuel contamination problem is suspected. For proper diag nostic and service procedures refer to Group 14, Fuel System,
FUEL USAGE ENGINES
SWATEmEmWGMB@LimE

Gasoline and MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) blends are a mixture of unleaded gasoline and up to 15 percent MTBE. Gasoline and ETBE (Ethyl Ter tiary Butyl Ether) are blends of gasoline and up to 17 percent ETBE. Gasoline blended with MTBE or ETBE may be used.
CLEAN AIR IAS0LINE

Dodge vehicles are designed to meet all emission regulations and provide excellent fuel economy using high quality unleaded gasoline. Only use unleaded gasolines having a minimum posted octane of 87. If the vehicle develops occasional light spark knock (ping) at low engine speeds, this is not harmful. How ever, continued heavy knock at high speeds can cause damage and should be checked immedi ately. In addition to using unleaded gasoline with the proper octane rating, those that contain deter gents, corrosion and stability additives are rec ommended. Using gasolines that have these additives will help improve fuel economy, reduce emissions and maintain vehicle performance. Poor quality gasoline can cause problems such as hard starting, stalling and stumble. If these prob lems occur, use another brand of gasoline before con sidering servicing the vehicle. SLEMPS Some fuel suppliers blend unleaded gasoline with materials that contain oxygen such as alcohol, MTBE and ETBE. The type and amount of oxygenate used in the blend is important. The following are generally used in gasoline blends:
GASOLINE/OXYGENATE ETHANOL

Many gasolines are now being blended that con tribute to cleaner air, especially in those areas of the country where air pollution levels are high. These new blends provide a cleaner burning fuel and some are referred to as Reformulated Gasoline. In areas of the country where carbon monoxide lev els are high, gasolines are being treated with oxygen ated materials such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol. Chrysler Corporation supports these efforts toward cleaner air and recommends the use of these gaso lines as they become available. IGNITION CABLES, DISTRIBUTOR CAP, AND ROTOR Inspect and test ignition cables, distributor cap and rotor when the spark plugs are replaced. Oil and grime should be cleaned from the ignition cables and distributor cap to avoid possible spark plug fouling. Mopar Foamy Engine Degreaser or equivalent is rec ommended for cleaning the engine compartment. For proper service and diagnostic procedures refer to Group 8D, Ignition System. SPARKPLUGS Ignition spark plugs should be replaced at the mileage interval described in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules. Refer to the General Infor mation section of this group. For proper service pro cedures refer to Group 8D, Ignition Systems.

Ethanol (Ethyl or Grain Alcohol) properly blended, is used as a mixture of 10 percent ethanol and 90 percent gasoline. Gasoline with ethanol may be used in your vehicle. 1EIHAN0L
CAUTION: Do not use gasolines containing metha nol. Use of methanol/gasoline blends may result in starting and driveability problems. In addition, dam age may be done to critical fuel system compo nents.

Methanol (Methyl or Wood Alcohol) is used in a va riety of concentrations blended with unleaded gaso

BR BATTERY
WARNING: W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S , R U B B E R G L O V E S AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING W H E N HAN DLING/SERVICING A BATTERY. THE BATTERY ELECTROLYTE CONTAINS S U L F U R I C ACID AND WILL C A U S E HARM IF IT CONTACTS SKIN, E Y E S OR CLOTHING. IT W I L L A L S O DAMAGE PAINTED (AS W E L L A S UN-PAINTED) S U R F A C E S OF A VEHI C L E . IF S U L F U R I C ACID CONTACTS ANY OF THESE, FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER. IF S U L F U R I C ACID CON TACTS SKIN OR E Y E S , G E T IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION. DO NOT S M O K E IN THE VICINITY OF A BATTERY. K E E P O P E N F L A M E S AND S P A R K S AWAY FROM BATTERY F I L L E R C A P S B E C A U S E E X P L O S I V E G A S IS ALWAYS P R E S E N T

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 - 25

EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM Inspect all emission control components and hoses when other under hood service is performed. Refer to emission system Vacuum Hose Label located on the inside of the hood in the engine compartment and Group 25, Emission Control Systems for proper ser vice procedures. ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS Inspect and adjust drive belts at the interval de scribed in the Lubrication and Maintenance Sched ules. Refer to General Information section of this group. For proper inspection and adjustment proce dures, see Group 7, Cooling System. EXHAUST SYSTEMGASOLINE The exhaust system should be inspected when un der vehicle service is performed or as specified in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules.
INSPECTION

Inspect battery tray, hold down and terminal con nections when other under hood service is performed. For proper diagnostic procedures refer to Group 8A, Battery/Starting/Charging System Diagnostics. For service and cleaning procedures refer to Group 8B, Battery/Starter Service. Care should be taken when disposing a bat tery a f t e r removal from a vehicle. Lead-acid batteries are highly poisonous and, when indis criminately disposed, could create a problem for the environment. Contact the applicable lo cal city or county government agency to deter mine where automobile (lead-acid) batteries can be properly disposed in the local area. RUBBER A M PLASTIC COMPONENT INSPECTION
CAUTION: Plastic hoses or wire harness covers will melt or deform when exposed to heat from exhaust system or engine manifolds. Position plastic or rubber components away from moving parts in engine compartment or under vehi cle, or damage will result. Do not allow rubber engine mounts or other com ponents to become oil contaminated, repair cause of oil contamination and clean area.

When inspecting an exhaust system, inspect for cracked or loose joints, stripped screw/bolt threads, corrosion damage, and worn or broken hangers.(Slight cracking in rubber isolator or hanger is accept able). Replace all components that are corroded or damaged. Do not attempt repair. Also, inspect for the following obvious conditions and correct as necessary: Exhaust system leaks, damage, misalignment. Contact with body panels metal or the frame. Catalytic converter bulging or excessive heat dam age.
CAUTION: A catalytic converter will become con taminated if leaded gasoline is burned in the en gine. If this occurs, the complete converter must be replaced.

For proper service procedures see Group 11, Ex haust System and Intake Manifold. AIR-CONDITIONER COMPRESSOR
LUBRICANT AND REFRIGERANT

All rubber and plastic components should be in spected when engine compartment or under vehicle service is performed. When evidence of deterioration exists, replacement is required. To reduce deteriora tion of rubber components, Chrysler Corporation rec ommends Mopar Foamy Engine Degreaser or equivalent be used to clean engine compartment of oil and road grime.

The lubricant level in the air-conditioner compres sor should be checked if there are indications that oil was lost. Loss of lubricating oil usually accompanies a loss of refrigerant. For additional information involving the A/C sys tem, refer to Group 24, Heater And Air Conditioning.

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LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


DIESEL ENGINE

INDEX
page Air-Conditioner Compressor Battery Break-In Period Engine Air Cleaner Engine Cooling System 29 28 26 28 28 page Engine Oil Engine Oil Filter Exhaust SystemDiesel Rubber and Plastic Component Inspection . . . . . . . 26 27 29 29

ENGINE OIL
WARNING: N E W OR U S E D ENGINE OIL CAN B E IR RITATING TO THE SKIN. AVOID P R O L O N G E D OR R E P E A T E D SKIN CONTACT WITH ENGINE OIL. CONTAMINANTS IN U S E D ENGINE OIL, C A U S E D B Y INTERNAL COMBUSTION, CAN B E HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH. THOROUGHLY W A S H E X P O S E D SKIN WITH S O A P AND WATER. DO NOT W A S H SKIN WITH GASOLINE, D I E S E L F U E L , THINNER, OR S O L V E N T S , HEALTH P R O B L E M S CAN RESULT. DO NOT POLLUTE, D I S P O S E OF U S E D ENGINE OIL P R O P E R L Y . CONTACT YOUR D E A L E R OR GOV ERNMENT A G E N C Y FOR LOCATION OF C O L L E C TION C E N T E R IN YOUR A R E A . .

The factory fill engine oil is a high quality, energy conserving, crankcase lubricant. The Recommended SAE Viscosity Grades chart defines the viscosity grades that must be used based on temperature in the region where vehicle is operated (Fig. 1). .

15W40

J9500-24

Fig. 1 Temperature/Engine Oil Viscosity

BREAK-IN PERIOD Cummins diesel engines do not require a break-in period due to its heavy duty construction. Normal op eration is allowed, provided the following recommen dations are followed: After first starting a new engine, allow it to idle for 15 seconds before shifting into a drive gear. Drive the vehicle at varying speeds less than 88 km/h (55 mph) for the first 100 km (60 miles). 9 Avoid fast acceleration and sudden stops. Do not drive at constant speeds. Do not idle the engine excessively. Allow the engine to reach normal operating tem perature before applying full load. A special break-in engine oil is not required. The original engine oil installed is a high quality, energy conserving lubricant. Special break-in oils are not recommended. These oils could interfere with the normal piston ring seating process. New engines tend to consume more fuel and oil un til after the break-in period has ended.
ENGINE OIL SPECIFICATION

Use only oils conforming to API Quality CF-4 or CE. These heavy duty diesel categories may be used with other API non-diesel categories, such as SH or SG. A sulfated ash limit is specified for lubrication oil used in Cummins engines. Oils with a high ash con tent may produce deposits on valves that can progress to guttering and valve burning. A maximum sulfated ash content of 1.85 mass % is recommended for all oil used in the engine.
CRANKCASE OIL LEVEL INSPECTION

CAUTION: Do not overfill crankcase with engine oil, oil foaming and oil pressure loss can result.

CAUTION: Do not use non-detergent or straight mineral oil when adding or changing crankcase lu bricant. Engine failure can result.

Inspect engine oil level at every fuel fill. The oil level should be in the safe range after the engine has been shut off for 15 minutes. The oil is most accu rately checked on a cold engine. (1) Position vehicle on level surface. (2) With engine OFF, allow approximately 15 min utes for oil to settle to bottom of crankcase, remove engine oil dipstick (Fig. 2). (3) Wipe dipstick clean. (4) Install dipstick and verify it is seated in the tube. (5) Remove dipstick, with handle held above the tip, take oil level reading (Fig. 3).

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LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE ENGINE OIL FILTER


OIL FILTER SPECIFICATION

0 - 27

The quality of replacement filter cartridges varies considerably. Only a high quality filter cartridge should be used to assure most efficient service. MO PAR oil filter cartridge is a cartridge of this type and is recommended.
OIL FILTER REMOVAL

(1) Position a drain pan under the oil filter. (2) Using a suitable oil filter wrench loosen filter by turning counterclockwise (Fig. 4).

Fig. 2 Dipstick Location

(6) Add oil only if level is below the ADD mark on dipstick.

Fig. 4 Oil Filter Fig. 3 Oil Level Indicator Dipstick ENGINE OIL CHANGE

Removal

Change engine oil at mileage and time intervals described in the Maintenance Schedule.

(3) When filter separates from adapter nipple, tip gasket end upward to minimize oil spill. Remove fil ter from vehicle. (4) With a wiping cloth, clean the gasket sealing surface (Fig. 5) of oil and grime.

T O CHANGE ENI1NE OIL


Run engine until achieving normal operating tem perature. (1) Position the vehicle on a level surface. (2) Hoist and support vehicle on safety stands. Re fer to Hoisting and Jacking Recommendations in this group. (3) Remove oil fill cap. (4) Place a suitable drain pan under crankcase drain. (5) Remove drain plug from crankcase and allow oil to drain into pan. Inspect drain plug threads for stretching or other damage. Replace drain plug and gasket if damaged. (6) Install drain plug in crankcase. (7) Lower vehicle and fill crankcase with specified type and amount of engine oil described in this sec tion. (8) Install oilfillcap. (9) Start engine and inspect for leaks. (10) Stop engine and inspect oil level.

Fig. 5 Oil Filter Sealing ML FILTER INSTALLATION

SurfaceTypical

(1) Lightly lubricate oil filter gasket with engine oil or chassis grease. (2) Thread filter in a clockwise motion onto adapter nipple. When gasket makes contact with sealing surface, hand tighten filter one full turn, do not over tighten.

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LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

^ ^

- BR

(3) Add oil, verify crankcase oil level and start en gine. Inspect for oil leaks. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
WARNINGS JIMP PRECAUTIONS

WARNING: A N T I F R E E Z E IS AH ETHYLENE GLYCOL BASE COOLANT AND I S HARMFUL IF S W A L L O W E D OR INHALED. IF S W A L L O W E D , DRINK TWO G L A S S E S O F WATER AND INDUCE VOMIT ING. IF INHALED, MOVE TO FRESH AIR A R E A . S E E K MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY. DO NOT STORE IN O P E N OR UNMARKED CONTAINERS. WASH SKIN AND CLOTHING THOROUGHLY A F T E R COMING IN CONTACT WITH ETHYLENE GLYCOL. K E E P OUT O F REACH O F CHILDREN. D I S P O S E O F GLYCOL B A S E COOLANT P R O P ERLY, CONTACT YOUR D E A L E R OR GOVERNMENT AGENCY FOR LOCATION OF COLLECTION CENTER

12 months. Service is required if coolant is low, con taminated, rusty or freeze protection is inadequate. To properly test cooling system, see Group 7, Cooling System. The cooling system factory fill is a mixture of 50% Ethylene Glycol based antifreeze and 50% water. Us ing a suitable hydrometer, measure antifreeze con centration in the radiator when the engine is cool. If the cooling system has recently been serviced, allow coolant to circulate for at least 20 minutes before taking hydrometer reading. Properly mixed coolant will protect the cooling system to -37C (-35F). If the freeze protection is above -28C (-20F), drain enough coolant from the cooling system to allow room to add antifreeze to achieve adequate protection. A mix table on the coolant container indicates the amount of an tifreeze required to winterize the cooling system based on the capacity, see Capacity Chart in General Information section of this group.
ANTIFREEZE SPECIFICATION

IN YOUR A R E A .
DO NOT O P E N A COOLING S Y S T E M W H E N THE ENGINE IS AT RUNNING T E M P E R A T U R E , P E R SONAL INJURY CAN RESULT. AVOID RADIATOR COOLING FAN W H E N ENGINE COMPARTMENT RELATED S E R V I C E I S P E R FORMED, P E R S O N A L INJURY CAN RESULT. CAUTION: Do not use straight antifreeze a s engine coolant, inadequate engine running temperatures can result. Do not operate vehicle without proper concentra tion of recommended ethylene glycol coolant, high running temperatures and cooling system corrosion can result.

Chrysler Corporation recommends Mopar Anti freeze/Coolant or a high quality, ethylene glycol base antifreeze/coolant, with a silicate inhibitor.
RADIATOR CAP

The radiator cap must be secure to provide proper pressure release and coolant recovery. Inspect and test radiator cap when cooling system service is per formed or when problem is suspected.
COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE

The engine cooling system will develop internal pressure of 97 to 123 kPa (14 to 18 psi) at normal op erating temperature. Allow the vehicle approximately one half hour to cool off before opening the cooling system. As an indicator of pressure, squeeze the up per radiator hose between index finger and thumb. If it collapses with little effort the system would have low internal pressure and should be safe to open to the first safety notch of the radiator cap. Refer to Group 7, Cooling System.
COOLING SYSTEM INSPECTION

The cooling system should be drained, flushed and filled with the proper coolant mixture at the inter vals described in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules. Refer to General Information section of this group. For proper service instructions see Group 7, Cooling System. ENGINE AIR CLEANER The engine air filter should be serviced only when the Filter Minder on the air cleaner lid (Fig. 6) in dicates restricted air flow (Fig. 7). Refer to Group 25, Emission Control Systems for proper service proce dures. BATTERY Inspect battery trays, hold down and terminal con nections when other under hood service is performed. For proper diagnostic procedures refer to Group 8A, Battery/Starting/Charging System Diagnostics. For service and cleaning procedures refer to Group 8B, Battery/Starter Service.

Coolant level should be inspected when other en gine compartment service is performed or when cool ant leak is suspected. Coolant recovery tank level should read between the ADD and FULL marks, lo cated on the side of recovery tank, when the engine is at normal operating temperature. Normal coolant level maintenance does not require the removal of ra diator cap. Cooling system freeze protection should be tested at the onset of the winter season or every

B R

LUBRICATION A N i MAINTENANCE

0 - 29-

Position plastic o r r u b b e r ' components away from mowing parts i n engine compartment o r under vehi c l e , o r d a m a g e w i l l result. Do n o t a l l o w rubber e n g i n e m o u n t s o r o t h e r com ponents to b e c o m e oil c o n t a m i n a t e d , repair c a u s e of oil contamination and clean area-

All rubber and plastic components should be in spected when engine compartment or under vehicle service is performed. When evidence of deterioration exists, replacement is required. To reduce deteriora tion of rubber components, Chrysler Corporation rec ommends Mopar Foamy Engine Degreaser or equivalent be used to clean engine compartment of oil and road grime.
Fig. 6 Filter
Minder

Location
TO RESET

PRESS BUTTON

EXHAUST SYSTEMDIESEL The exhaust system should be inspected when un der vehicle service is performed or as specified in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules.
fifSPECTfOM

When inspecting an exhaust system, inspect for cracked or loose joints, stripped screw/bolt threads, corrosion damage, and worn or broken hangers. (Slight cracking in rubber isolator or hanger is ac ceptable). Replace all components that are corroded or damaged. Do not attempt repair. Also, inspect for the following obvious conditions and correct as neces sary: Exhaust system leaks, damage, misalignment. Contact with body panels metal or the frame. For proper service procedures see Group 11, Ex haust System and Intake Manifold.
TO AIR FILTER HOUSING J9425-4

AIR-CONDITIONER COMPRESSOR
LUBRICANT

AND

REFRIGERANT

Flg 7 Filter
B

Minder

RU1BER

ANi PLASTIC COMPONENT INSPECTION

CAUTION: Plastic hoses or wire harness cowers w i l l m e l t or deform w h e n exposed t o h e a t from exhaust
s y s t e m or engine manifolds.

The lubricant level in the air-conditioner compres sor should be checked if there are indications that oil was lost. Loss of lubricating oil usually accompanies a loss of refrigerant. For additional information involving the A/C sys tem, refer to Group 24, Heater And Air Conditioning.

I - 31

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE DRIVETRAIN INDE1

BR

page Automatic Transmission . Clutch and Brake Pedal Bushings . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clutch Master Cylinder Drive Shafts Front Axie (4WD) . . . . . . . . . . . . .........
CLUTCH AND BRA1E PEDAL

page Front Axle U-Joint and Pivot Bearings . . . . . . . . . . Manual Transmissions . Rear Axle Rubber and Plastic Hoses/Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer Case ( 4 W D Vehicles)
CLUTCH

31 30 30 34 32

33 31 33 34 32

BUSHINGS If the clutch and brake pedal mechanism squeaks, the pivot bushings (Fig. 1 and 2) should be lubri cated. Use Mopar Multi-Purpose Lubricant, or an equivalent.
PEDAL SHAFT

MASTER CYLINDER
INSPECTION

LEVEL

WARMING: DO NOT A L L O W P E T R O L E U M OR WA T E R B A S E LIQUIDS TO CONTAMINATE CLUTCH FLUID, S E A L DAMAGE AND CLUTCH FAILURE CAN RESULT.

The clutch reservoir level (Fig. 3) should be in spected when other under hood service is performed.
FLUID SPECIFICATION

RING J9106-11

Fig. 3 Clutch Master Cylinder

Use Mopar, Brake And Hydraulic Clutch Fluid or equivalent. Use only brake fluid conforming to DOT 3, Federal, Department of Transportation specifica tion. To avoid fluid contamination, use fluid from a properly sealed container.
CAUTION: Never use reclaimed brake fluid or fluid from an unsealed container. In addition, do not use fluid from a container that has been opened and al lowed to stand for an extended length of time. Moisture in the air can be absorbed by the fluid, which causes dilution with loss of effectiveness. Fig. 2 Clutch Pedal Bushings

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS The manual transmission should be inspected for oil leaks and proper oil level when other under vehi cle service is performed. To inspect the transmission oil level, position the vehicle on a level surface. Re move fill plug from the transmission (Fig. 4). The oil level should not be below 6 mm (1/4 in) from the bot tom of the oil fill hole. Refer to Group 21, Transmis sion proper service procedures.

0 - 31

CAUTION: To minimize fluid contamination, verify that dipstick i s seated in the fill tube after fluid level reading is taken. TO INSPECT LEVEL WARNING; U S E E X T R E M E CAUTION W H E N THE ENGINE IS OPERATING. DO NOT PUT YOUR HANDS NEAR THE DRIVE BELT, P U L L E Y S OR FAN B L A D E . DO NOT STAND IN A DIRECT LINE WITH THE FAN B L A D E . THE TRANSMISSION FLUID

Fig. 4 Fill Plug LocationTypical (NV4500)

NV-3500 or NV-4500 MANUAL TRANSMISSION NV-3500 and NV-4500 manual transmissions does not require periodic maintenance. The oil should be changed only when water contamination is sus pected. If oil has a foamy or milky appearance it probably is contaminated. For proper diagnostic and service procedures, refer to Group 21, Manual Trans mission.
MANUAL TRANSMISSION OIL SPECIFICATION

NV-3500 MANUAL TRANSMISSION Chrysler Corporation recommends Mopar Manual Transmission Fluid (P/N MS9224), be used to fill an NV-3500 manual transmission. NV-4500 M A N U A L TRANSMISSION Chrysler Corporation recommends API/GL-4 SAE 75w-90, Mopar Synthetic Manual Transmission Fluid (P/N 4637579) be used to fill an NV-4500 manual transmission. Mopar synthetic manual transmission oil is the ONLY lubricant recommended for use in the NV-4500 transmission. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION The automatic transmission fluid should be changed and bands adjusted at the intervals de scribed in the Maintenance Schedules section of this Group. The automatic transmission should be in spected for fluid leaks and proper fluid level when other under hood service is performed. Refer to Group 21, Transmission for proper service proce dures.

(1) Position the vehicle on a level surface. (2) Start engine and allow to idle in PARK for at least 60 seconds. The warmer the transmission fluid, the more accurate the reading. (3) While sitting in driver seat, apply brakes and place gear selector in each position. Return gear se lector to park. (4) Raise hood and remove transmission fluid level indicator (dipstick) and wipe clean with a wiping cloth. (5) Install dipstick and verify it is seated in fill hole or tube. (6) Remove dipstick, with handle above tip, take fluid level reading. If the vehicle has been driven for at least 15 minutes before inspecting fluid level, transmission can be considered hot and reading should be in the OK area. If vehicle has run for less than 15 minutes and more than 60 seconds transmis sion can be considered warm and reading should be above ADD mark. Add fluid only if level is below MIN mark (Fig. 5) on dipstick when transmission is warm.
DIPSTICK

/
MINIMUM LEVEL DOT MARK (ADD FLUID) I ^ ACCEPTABLE FLUID LEVEL
Fig.

MAXIMUM CORRECT FLUID LEVEL

J9321-96

Dipstick

& ATF Level

CAUTION: Do not overfill automatic transmission, leakage or damage can result. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION SPECIFICATION FLUID

Chrysler Corporation recommends Mopar ATF Plus (automatic transmission fluid type 7176) be used to add to or replace automatic transmission fluid. If ATF Plus is not available use Mopar Dexron II Auto matic Transmission Fluid or equivalent.

I - 32

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

LUBRICANT

B
SPECIFICATION

SPECIAL AiiillWES

Chrysler Corporation does not recommend the use of special-type fluid additives. FLUID AND FILTER CHANGE The automatic transmission fluid and filter should be changed at the intervals described in the Mainte nance Schedules section of this Group. Refer to Group 21, Transmission for proper service proce dures. TRANSFER CASE (4WD VEHICLES) The transfer case should be inspected for fluid leaks and proper fluid level when other under vehicle service is performed.
[FLUID LEVEL

Chrysler Corporation recommends Mopar ATF Plus (automatic transmission fluid type 7176) be used to fill the transfer case. If ATF Plus is not available use Mopar Dexron II Automatic Transmission Fluid or equivalent. FRONT AXLE (4WD) The front axle does not require periodic mainte nance. Inspect the axle for oil leaks or damage and proper oil level when other under vehicle service is performed. Oil leaks should be repaired before re turning vehicle to service. If the oil appears milky or foamy it is probably water contaminated. If contami nation is evident, change the axle lubricant. Refer to Group 2, Front Suspension and Axle for proper ser vice procedures.
LUBRICANT LEVEL

The transfer case fill hole plug is located at the rear of the housing (Fig. 6).

Dana 44approximately 6 mm (0.25 in.) below the bottom of the fill hole in the differential cover (Fig.
7). DIFFERENTIAL COVER

Fig. 6 NP 241 Transfer Case

Determine the transfer case fluid level according to the following procedure. (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove the fill hole plug from the transfer case. The fluid level should be at the bottom edge of the fill hole. The level can be slightly below the bot tom edge of the fill hole if the fluid is cold. If the transfer case fluid is warm, it is accept able for the fluid to drip out of the fill hole. If the fluid gushes out of the fill hole, the level is too high. (3) If the level is low, add fluid to the bottom edge of the fill hole. (4) Install the fill hole plug. Tighten the plug to 41-54 N-m (30-40 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Remove the support and lower the vehicle. The transfer case requires periodic maintenance at the intervals described in the Maintenance Schedules sections of this Group. For proper diagnostic and ser vice procedures, refer to Group 21, Transmission and Transfer Case.

IDENTIFICATION TAG Fig. 7 Model 44 Differential Cover J9202-23

Dana 60approximately 12 mm (0.5 in.) below the bottom of the fill hole in the differential cover (Fig. 8). The vehicle must be positioned on a level surface before inspecting oil level.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION

Use API/GL-5 SAE 80W-90, Mopar Multipurpose Gear Lubricant or equivalent to fill the front axle.

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DIFFERENTIAL COVER

LUBRICATION AID MAINTENANCE


FILL PLUG

0 - 33

IDENTIFICATION TAG DIFFERENTIAL COVER

MODEL NUMBER

PUSH-I FILL PLUG

J9202-97

Fig. 8 Model 60 Differential Cower

J9203-32 Fig. 9 Differential Cover9 1/4 Axle DIFFERENTIAL COVER FILL PLUG

REAR AXLE The rear axle does not require periodic mainte nance. Inspect the axle for oil leaks or damage and proper oil level when other under vehicle service is performed. Oil leaks should be repaired before re turning vehicle to service. If the oil appears milky or foamy it is probably water contaminated. If contami nation is evident, change the axle lubricant. Refer to Group 3, Rear Suspension and Axle for proper service procedures.
LUBRICANT LEVEL

9-1/4 Inch Axleapproximately 15 mm (0.625 in.) below the bottom of the fill hole in the differential cover (Fig. 9). Dana 60, 70 or 80approximately 17 mm (0.75 in.) below the bottom of the fill hole in the differen tial cover (Fig. 10). The vehicle must be positioned on a level surface before inspecting oil level.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION

Use API/GL-5 SAE 80w-90, Mopar Multipurpose Gear Lubricant or equivalent to fill the rear axle. FRONT AXLE U-J0INT AND PIVOT BEARINGS
B R 3500 WITH DANA m FRONT AXLE

IDENTIFICATION TAG

J9403-54

Fig. 10 Model 70 and 80 Differential Cover

Do not use high pressure to lubricate the front axle universal joints.
B R 1500 AND 2500 FRONT AXLE

Lubricate Universal Joints if equipped, at the in tervals described in the Maintenance Schedules sec tion of this Group. Refer to Group 2, Front Suspension and Axles and Group 16, Propeller Shafts for proper service procedures.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION

The front axle universal joint and pivot bearings are permanently lubricated and do not require ser vice.

Use Mopar, Multi-purpose Grease or any lubricate that is identified as NLGI GC-LB lubricant.

I - 34

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

mm
The extent and quality of vehicle maintenance. The geographic area of vehicle operation. The length of exposure time to excess heat and chemical contaminants. (1) Inspect all hose and tubing fittings for loose ness and corrosion. Inspect the rubber hoses for brittleness and cracks. Thoroughly inspect the hose ends (those that are slipped over nipple connectors) for splits. (2) Inspect the surface of hoses and tubing for heat and mechanical damage. Hose and tubing located close to an exhaust pipe should be given special at tention. (3) Inspect the rubber hose routing to ensure that the hoses do not contact any heat source, moving component, etc., that would potentially cause heat or mechanical damage. (4) Inspect all the hose connections to ensure that they are secure and there is no fluid leakage. Actual dripping of hot fluid should be noted and the clamps tightened in an attempt to stop the leakage before re placing the hose.

DRIVE SHAFTS
SUP-YOKE LUBRICATION

When equipped with lube fittings, it is recom mended that the slip-yoke splines be lubricated at the intervals described in the Maintenance Schedules section of this Group. Refer to Group 16, Propeller Shafts for proper service procedures.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION

Use Mopar, Multi-purpose Grease or any lubricate that is identified as NLGI GC-LB lubricant. RUBBER AND PLASTIC HOSES/TUBING The condition of underbody rubber hose and plastic tubing should be inspected whenever underbody ser vice is performed. Rubber hoses and plastic tubing should be re placed immediately if there is any evidence of failure.
HOSE/TUBING INSPECTION

Vehicle operating conditions determine the useable life of underbody hoses and tubing. These conditions include:

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LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 - 35

C H A S S I S AND BODY
INDEX
page Body Component Mechanisms . Brakes Chassis Component and Wheel Bearing Lubricants Front Wheel Bearings Headlamps Manual Steering Gear . . . .. 39 37 35 36 39 35 page Parking Brake .... Power Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Wheel Bearings Speedometer Cable Steering Linkage Tires 38 35 37 39 35 38

CHASSIS COMPONENT AND WHEEL BEARING LUBRICANTS The chassis component and wheel bearing lubri cants that are recommended for Chrysler Corporation vehicles are identified by the NLGI Certification Symbol (Fig. 1). The symbol contains a coded desig nation that identifies the usage and quality of the lu bricant.
NATIONAL LUBRICATING GREASE INSTITUTE ^

INSPECTION

(1) Inspect the steering linkage. Examine the tie rods and the drag link for bending, and the ball studs for looseness and excessive wear. (2) Replace, as necessary, all torn/ruptured ballstud seals and damaged/defective steering linkage components.
CAUTION: Use care to prevent lubricant from con tacting the brake rotors.

1LGI
AUTOMOTIVE WHEEL BEARING & CHASSIS LUBRICANT

NLQI
AUTOMOTIVE WHEEL BEARING & CHASSIS LUBRICANT

NLGI
AUTOMOTIVE WHEEL BEARING & CHASSIS LUBRICANT

GC WHEEL BEARINGS Fig.

LB CHASSIS LUBRICATION

GC-LB CHASSIS AND WHEEL BEARINGS 9200-7

MANUAL STEERING GEAR The manual steering gear is permanently lubri cated. Periodic lubrication is not necessary. POWER STEERING SYSTEM The power steering fluid level should be inspected when other under hood service is performed. If the fluid level is low and system is not leaking, use Mo par, Power Steering Fluid or equivalent. The power steering system should be inspected for leaks when other under vehicle service is performed. For proper service procedures, refer to Group 19, Steering. The power steering pump drive belt should be in spected at the time and distance interval described in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules. Refer to the General Information section of this group. POWER STEERING
FLUID INSPECTION

1 NLGI Lubricant Container Certification/ . Identification Symbol

The letter G designates wheel bearing lubricant. Letter L designates chassis lubricant. When the let ters are combined the lubricant can be used for dual applications. The suffix letters C and B designate the level of the lubricant for the application. The letter C represents level available for wheel bearing lubricant (G) and the letter B represents level available for chassis lubricant (L). STEERING LINKAGE The steering linkage should be lubricated and in spected at the intervals described in the Maintenance Schedules section of this Group. Refer to Group 2, Front Suspension and Axles for proper service proce dures.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION

WARNING: ENGINE MUST NOT B E RUNNING W H E N INSPECTING P O W E R S T E E R I N G FLUID L E V E L , P E R S O N A L I N J U R Y CAN RESULT.

CAUTION: Do not over fill power steering reservoir when adding fluid, seal damage and leakage can re sult.

Use Mopar, Multi-purpose Grease or NLGI GC-LB lubricant equivalent to lubricate the steering linkage.

TO INSPECT FLUID LEVEL:

(1) Position vehicle on a level surface with engine at normal running temperature.

0 - 36

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE hose unless the caliper must also be removed for maintenance. Support the caliper with a hanger to prevent brake fluid hose damage. (2) Remove the dust cap, the cotter pin, the nut re tainer, the adjustment nut, and the thrust washer from the spindle. Discard the cotter pin. (3) Remove the wheel outer bearing from the hub. (4) Remove the wheel hub/disc brake rotor from the spindle. (5) Remove the seal and the inner wheel bearing from the hub cavity. (6) Clean the original lubricant from the bearings and from the hub cavity (Fig. 3).

(2) Turn OFF engine and remove ignition key. (3) Using a wiping cloth, clean oil and dirt residue from around power steering reservoir cap. (4) Remove reservoir cap or dipstick and wipe off fluid. (5) Install cap or dipstick. (6) Remove cap or dipstick. Holding handle or cap above tip of dipstick, read fluid level (Fig. 2). Add fluid if reading is below cold level mark on dipstick.

J8900-27

Fig. 2 Power Steering Reservoir & CapTypical

FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS


WHEEL BEARINGS2WO Fig. 3 Front Wheel Bearing2 WD Vehicles

It is recommended that front wheel bearings be in spected for proper lubrication whenever the brake ro tors are removed or at least at the. intervals described in the Maintenance Schedules section of this Group.
WHEEL BEARINGS4WD

The front wheel bearings are sealed and perma nently lubricated.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION

Wheel bearings should be lubricated with a lubri cant that is identified as NLGI GC-LB lubricant.
CAUTION; Do not add lubricant to the wheel bear ings. Re-pack completely. Mixing of different types of lubricants in wheel bearings should be avoided. This could possibly result in excessive thinning and leakage of the lubricant.

(7) Inspect the bearing rollers for indications of pitting. Light bearing roller discoloration is consid ered normal. A wheel bearing must be replaced if any serious damage exists. (8) Re-pack the bearings with a multi-purpose NLGI GC-LB lubricant. The use of a bearing packer is recommended. (9) Wipe the spindle clean and apply a small amount of chassis/wheel bearing lubricant (NLGI GC-LB lubricant) to prevent rust. Wipe the wheel hub cavity clean. (10) Add a small amount of fresh lubricant to the hub cavity.
CAUTION: Do not over fill the wheel hub cavity with lubricant. Excessive lubricant can cause overheat ing and bearing damage. Also, excessive lubricant can be forced out of the wheel hub cavity and con taminate the brake rotor/pads.

INSPECTIOH/LUBRICATION

(1) Remove the wheel/tire and the disc brake cali per. Do not disconnect the caliper brake fluid

(11) Install the wheel inner bearing in the wheel hub and install a replacement seal.

BR

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


INDICATOR WINDOW

0 - 37

(12) Clean the disc brake rotor contact surfaces, if necessary. (13) Install the wheel hub/disc brake rotor on the spindle. (14) Install the wheel outer bearing, the thrust washer, and the spindle nut. (15) Tighten wheel bearing nut to 27-34 N-m (240300 in. lbs.) torque while rotating hub/rotor. This will seat the bearings. (16) Loosen the nut 1/4 of-a-turn (90), then tighten it finger tight. (17) Position nut lock on the nut with one pair of slots aligned with the cotter pin hole. Install the cot ter pin. (18) Clean the dust cap and apply wheel bearing lubricant to the inside surface. Do not fill the dust cap with lubricant. (19) Install the dust cap. (20) Install the disc brake caliper. (21) Install the wheel/tire. Tighten the wheel lug nuts to 115 N-m (85 ft. lbs.) torque. Install the wheel cover. REAR WHEEL BEARINGS The rear wheel bearings for vehicles equipped with a Dana 60, 70 or 80 axle should be cleaned and re packed whenever the rear brakes are serviced. Refer to Group 3, Rear Axles for the service procedure. BRAKES The brake fluid level should be inspected when other underhood service is done (Fig. 4, 5 and 6). If necessary, add fluid to raise the level to the top of the indicator window. With disc-brakes, the fluid level can be expected to fall as the brake pads wear. However, a low fluid level can also be caused by a leak, and repair will then be necessary, refer to Group 5, Brakes for proper service procedures.
FLUID SPECIFICATION

J94Q5-22

Fig. 4 Reservoir And Fluid Level indicator (1500 Series)


INDICATOR WINDOW

Power brake systems require Mopar Heavy-Duty Brake Fluid, or an equivalent product identified with FMVSS No. 116, DOT-3 and SAE J-1703 Standard designations. Use brake fluid properly sealed container when adding fluid to the reservoir. Never use reclaimed fluid or fluid that does not conform to the DOT/SAE Standards.
CAUTION: Use of a brake fluid that has a lower ini tial boiling point then specified by F M V S S No. 116 or DOT 3 and S A E J1703 could result in sudden brake failure during hard, prolonged braking. Do not allow petroleum base fluids to contami nate the brake fluid. Seal damage will result.

J9405-23

Fig. 5 Reservoir And Fluid Level indicator (2500 Series) BRAKE SYSTEM INSPECTION

(1) Inspect the brake pads and linings for excessive wear, cracks and broken rivets. (2) Inspect brake pads and linings for contamina tion with brake fluid, axle lubricant and/or other flu ids. (3) Replace the front brake pads and the rear brake linings if they are worn to within 0.78 mm (0.031 in) of a rivet head.

I - 31

LUBRICATION ANO MAINTENANCE

BR
pinched, kinked, or corroded, it should be repaired. For proper service procedures, refer to Group 5, Brakes. PARKING BRAKE The sliding contact areas of the parking brake cable should be lubricated (Fig. 7). Apply Mopar Spray White Lube or equivalent to the sliding contact areas.

CORRECT FLUID

J94Q5-24 Fig. 6 Reservoir And Fluid Level indicator (3500 Series)

(4) Operate the rear brake self-adjuster lever and pivot. Test the operation of the self-adjuster screw for ease of movement. (5) Inspect the self-adjuster components for frayed cables, loose or overheated springs, and a binding condition. (6) Inspect the caliper dust boots for damage/tears and indications of brake fluid leakage. Inspect the bushings and pins for corrosion, tears and a binding condition. (7) Inspect the rear wheel cylinder dust boots for fluid leaks. Inspect the pistons and cylinder bores for proper appearance. (8) Inspect the brake differential warning valve and housing for Indications of leakage, kinked hoses and loose fittings.
B R A K E HOSE INSPECTION

CABLE TENSIONER J9405-173 Fig. 7 Parking Brake Cable Lubrication PARKING BRAKE INSPECTION FUNCTIONAL TEST AND

WARNING: IF FRONT W H E E L OR R E A R A X L E B R A K E HOSE OUTER C O V E R IS C R A C K E D , CHAFED, OR B U L G E D , R E P L A C E H O S E IMMEDI ATELY. B R A K E FAILURE CAN RESULT.

(1) Engage the parking brake pedal and then re lease it. (2) Test it for smooth operation and vehicle-holding capability. (3) Inspect the parking brake cables for kinks, fraying and a binding condition. (4) With the parking brake released, the rear wheels should rotate without restriction. Adjust the parking brake cable tension, if necessary. (5) Repair any parking brake malfunctions. TIRES The condition of the tires should be inspected. The inflation pressures tested/corrected at least once a month. Check more often if subject to a wide range of out door temperatures, as tire pressures vary with tem perature changes. The tires/wheels should be rotated at the intervals described in the Maintenance Schedules section of this Group.
INSPECTION

The front wheel and rear axle brake hoses should be inspected at time and distance intervals described in the Lubrication and Maintenance Schedules. Refer to the General Information section of this group. A hose must be replaced if it has signs of cracking, chafing, fatigue or bulging. For proper service proce dures, refer to Group 5, Brakes.
BRAKE LINE INSPECTION

The metal brake lines should be inspected when other under vehicle service is preformed. If a line is

Inspect the tires for excessive wear, damage. Test the tires for the recommended inflation pressure and

BR

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE


COMPONENT SERVICE INTERVAL As Required As Required As Required (When Performing Other Underhood Services) As Required As Required As Required As Required As Required As Required As Required Engine Oil Multi-Purpose Grease NLGI GC-LB (Water Resistant) (1) LUBRICANT

0 - 39

Door Hinges Door Latches Hood Latch Release Mechanism & Safety Latch

Multi-Purpose Grease NLGI GC-LB 2 EP (2)

Hood Hinges Seat Regulator & Track Release Mechanism Tailgate Hinge Tailgate Support Arms Tailgate Latches Tailgate Release Handle (Pivot & Slide Contact Surfaces) Window System Components (Regulators, Tracks, Rods & Channel Areas Except Glass Run Weatherstrips and Felt Lubricator, if Equipped) Lock Cylinders Parking Brake Mechanism 1. 2. 3. 4. Mopar Mopar Mopar Mopar Wheel Bearing Grease (High Temperature) Multi-Mileage Lubricant Spray White Lube Lock Cylinder Lubricant

Engine Oil Multi-Purpose Grease NLGI GC-LB 2 EP (2) Multi-Purpose Grease NLGI GC-LB 2 EP (2) Engine Oil White Spray Lubricant (3) Multi-Purpose Grease NLGI GC-LB 2 EP (2) White Spray Lubricant (3)

Twice/Year As Required

Lock Cylinder Lubricant (4) Multi-Purpose Grease NLGI GC-LB (1)

J9200-58 Fig. 8 Body Lubrication Specifications

adjust the pressure accordingly. Refer to the tire in flation pressure decal located on the left door face. Also to Group 22, Tires And Wheels for tire pressure charts, tire replacement, and tread wear indicators.
ROTATION

Tires/wheels should be rotated according to the rec ommended interval. The first tire/wheel rotation is the most important for establishing the prevention of uneven tread wear. After rotation, adjust the tire in flation pressure to the air pressure recommended on the decal located on the left door face. Refer to Group 22, Tires And Wheels for the recom mended method of tire/wheel rotation.
BODY

Inspected. Cleaned. All the pivoting/sliding contact areas on the mech anisms should then be lubricated. Mopar Multi-Mileage Lubricant or an equivalent, should be used to lubricate the mechanisms. The door weatherstrip seals should be lubricated with sil icone lubricant spray (Fig. 8). HEADLAMPS
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

COMPONENT MECHANISMS
REQUIREMENTS

Every six months check the headlamp beams to en sure that the headlamp beams are correctly posi tioned.
AIM ADJUSTMENT

LUBRICATION

All operating mechanisms and linkages should be lubricated when necessary. This will maintain ease of operation and provide protection against rust and ex cessive wear. The door weatherstrip seals should be lubricated to prolong their life as well as to continue proper sealing.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS

Refer to Group 8L, Lamps for headlamp aim ad justment procedures. SPEEDOMETER CABLE
SERVICE INFORMATION

All applicable exterior and interior vehicle operat ing mechanisms should be:

Speedometer cable lubrication is not necessary. For service information involving noisy cables, refer to Group 8E, Instrument Panel and Gauges.

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

21

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


CONTENTS
page page

ALIGNMENT SPECIFICATIONS . . . . AXLE NOISE/VIBRATION DIAGNOSIS AXLE SERVICE PROCEDURES . . . . AXLE SPECIFICATIONS FRONT WHEEL ALIGNMENT . . . . . .

. 8 17 21 44 . 4

GENERAL INFORMATION INDEPENDENT FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS) LINK/COIL SUSPENSION TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS

1 ...12 9 45

GENERAL

INFORMATION

FRONT SUSPENSION The Ram Truck uses two suspension designs, link/ coil and independent front suspension (IFS). Both de signs use coil springs. IFS uses upper and lower suspension arms attached to the frame and steering knuckles. Link/coil design uses upper and lower sus pension arms attached to the frame and drive axle (4WD), tube axle (2WD).
UNK/GOIL STABILIZER BAR SUSPENSION fFI
B

fJ

SHOCK A 1 S O R I E R

COIL SPRING UPPER


SUSPENSION ARM

TRACK BAR

LOWER i SUSPENSION
ARM

J9402-54

Fig. 1 Link/Coil

Suspension

Drive axle (4WD),tube axle (2WD) 9 Upper and lower suspension arms Coil springs Shock absorbers Track bar o Stabilizer bar Link/coil suspension allows each wheel to adapt to different road surfaces. Wheels are mounted to knuckles with a hub/bearing. The hub/bearing is not

serviceable and is replaced. as a unit only. Steering knuckles pivot on replaceable ball studs attached to the axle tube yokes. Drive axle (4WD) is a Model 44 or 60. It has a cast iron differential case with axle shaft tubes extending from either side. They are equipped with a vacuum disconnect to ac tivate the 4WD. Tube axle (2WD) is a one-piece tube. This axle mounts to the same bracketry as the four-wheel drive axle. The ^ steering knuckles are the same as the Model 60 drive axle. The upper and lower suspension arms use bushings to isolate road noise. The suspension arms are bolted to the frame and axle through the rubber bushings. The lower suspension arm uses cam bolts at the axle to allow for caster and pinion angle adjustment. The suspension arm travel (jounce or rebound) is limited through the use of urethane bumpers. Suspension components which use rubber bushings should be tightened at vehicle ride height. This will prevent premature failure of the bushing and main tain ride comfort. Bushings must never be lubricated. The coil springs control ride quality and maintain proper ride height. The springs use a rubber isolators between the frame bracket and spring. The isolators help prevent road noise. The bottom of the spring sits on a seat mounted to the axle. Shock absorbers dampen the jounce and rebound of the vehicle over various road conditions. Shocks are mounted inside the springs and attached at the top to brackets with grommets. These brackets are bolted on the frame with three studs on a ring. The shock is mounted at the bottom of the axle below the spring seat. The track bar is used to minimize front axle sideto-side movement. The bar is attached to a frame rail bracket with a ball stud and is isolated with a bush ing at the axle bracket.

2 -2

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

llfl
adjusted for caster and camber. The suspension arm travel (jounce or rebound) is limited through the use of urethane bumpers. The coil springs control ride quality and maintain proper ride height. The springs mount between the lower suspension arm and the front cross member spring seat. A rubber isolator seats on top off the spring to help prevent noise. The shock absorbers dampen jounce and rebound of the vehicle over various road conditions. Shocks are mounted on the bottom to the lower suspension arms. The top of the shock mounts on frame brackets using grommets. The stabilizer bar is used to minimize vehicle front sway during turns. The spring steel bar helps to con trol the vehicle body in relationship to the suspen sion. The bar extends across the front underside of the chassis and mounts on the frame rails. Links connected the bar to the lower suspension arms. Sta bilizer bar mounts are isolated by rubber bushings. Links are isolated with rubber grommet. FRONT DRIVE AXLE The integral type housing, has the centerline of the pinion set below the centerline of the ring gear. The axles are equipped with optional A.B.S. brake system. The A.B.S. tone rings are pressed onto the axle shaft near the hub and knuckle. For additional information on the A.B.S. system refer to Group 5, Brakes. The Dana 44 and 60 axle has the assembly part number and gear ratio listed on a tag. The tag is at tached to the housing cover (Fig. 4, 5). Build date identification codes are stamped on the axle shaft tube cover side. STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION The differential gear system divides the torque be tween the axle shafts. It allows the axle shafts to ro tate at different speeds when turning corners. Each differential side gear is splined to an axle shaft. The pinion gears are mounted on a pinion mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. The pinion gear is fitted in a bore in the differential case and is positioned at a right angle to the axle shafts. In operation, power flow occurs as follows: Pinion gear rotates the ring gear Ring gear (bolted to the differential case) rotates the case Differential pinion gears (mounted on the pinion mate shaft in the case) rotate the side gears Side gears (splined to the axle shafts) rotate the shafts During straight-ahead driving, the differential pin ion gears do not rotate on the pinion mate shaft. This occurs because input torque applied to the gears is divided and distributed equally between the two side

The stabilizer bar is used to minimize vehicle front sway during turns. The spring steel bar helps to con trol the vehicle body in relationship to the suspen sion. The bar extends across the front underside of the chassis and connects to the frame rails. Links are connected from the bar to the axle brackets. Stabi lizer bar mounts are isolated by teflon lined rubber bushings.
INDEPENDENT (FIG 2,3) FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS)

Fig. 2 Independent Front Suspension

Fig. 3 Independent Front Suspension

Upper and lower suspension arms Coil springs Shock absorbers Stabilizer bar The suspension arms have replaceable ball studs which are pressed into the arms. Bushings located inboard are not replaceable. The upper arm has a pivot bar which mounts on a frame bracket. The bracket has slotted holes this allows the arm to be

BR
DIFFERENTIAL COVER
FILL PLUG

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2-3

When turning corners, the outside wheel must


IN STRAIGHT AHEAD DRIVING EACH WHEEL ROTATES AT 100% OF CASE SPEED

PINION GEARS ROTATE WITH CASE

J9303-13

Fig. 6 Differential OperationStraight-Ahead IDENTIFICATION TAG Fig. 4 Model 44 Differential Cower


DIFFERENTIAL COVER FILL P L U G

Driving

J9202-23

travel a greater distance than the inside wheel in or der to complete a turn. This difference must be com pensated for in order to prevent the wheels from scuffing and skidding through the turn. To accom plish this the differential allows the axle shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fig.7). In this instance, the input torque applied to the pinion gears is not di vided equally. The pinion gears now rotate around the pinion mate shaft in opposite directions. This al lows the side gear and axle shaft attached to the out side wheel to rotate at a faster speed.
AXLE <t 100% DIFFERENTIAL OUTER WHEEL 110% CASE SPEED CASE SPEED

INNER WHEEL 90% CASE SPEED

MODEL NUMBER

J9202-97

Fig. 5 Model 60 Differential Cower

gears. As a result, the pinion gears revolve with the pinion mate shaft but do not rotate around it (Fig. 6).

PINION GEARS ROTATE ON PINION SHAFT

J9303-14

Fig. 7 Differential OperationOn

Turns

2-4

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE KSSDRFF WKftUL A L I G N M E N T

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GENERAL INFORMATION Front wheel alignment involves the correct posi tioning of the wheels in relation to the vehicle. The positioning is accomplished through suspension and steering linkage adjustments. An alignment is con sidered essential for efficient steering, good direc tional stability and to maximize tire wear. The most important measurements of front end alignment are caster, camber and toe position. Routine inspection of the front suspension and steering components is a good preventative maintenance practice. Inspection also helps to ensure safe operation of t h e vehicle. CASTER is the forward or rearward tilt of the steering knuckle from vertical. Tilting the top of the knuckle rearward provides positive caster. Tilting the top of the knuckle forward provides negative caster. Caster is a directional stability angle which enables the front wheels to return to a straight ahead posi tion after turns (Fig. 1,2). CAMBER is the inward or outward tilt of the wheel relative to the center of the vehicle. Tilting the top of the wheel inward provides negative camber. Tilting the top of the wheel outward provides positive camber. Incorrect camber will cause wear on the in side or outside edge of the tire (Fig. 1,2). WHEEL TOE POSITION is the difference between the leading inside edges and trailing inside edges of the front tires (Fig. 1,2). Incorrect wheel toe position is the most common cause of unstable steering and uneven tire wear. The wheel toe position is the final front wheel alignment adjustment. STEERING AXIS INCLINATION ANGLE is mea sured in degrees. It is the angle that the steering knuckles are tilted (Fig. 1). The inclination angle has a fixed relationship with the camber angle. It will not change except when a spindle or ball stud is dam aged or bent. The angle is not adjustable and the damaged component(s) must be replaced to correct mis-alignment.

CAUTION:Do not attempt to modify any suspension or steering component by heating and bending.
POSITIVE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE

STEERING AXIS INCLINATION

J9402-56

Fig. 1 Alignment Angles IFS

PRE-ALIGNMENT HSPECTiOl LINK/COIL SUSPElSiOl Before starting a front wheel alignment, the follow ing inspection and necessary corrections must be completed. (1) Tires with the same recommended air pressure, size, and tread wear. Refer to Group 22, Wheels and Tires for diagnosis information. (2) Front wheel bearings for wear. (3) Ball studs, steering linkage pivot points and steering gear for looseness, roughness, binding or wear. Refer to Group 19, Steering for additional in formation. (4) Front wheels for excessive radial or lateral runout and unbalance. Refer to Group 22, Wheels and Tires for diagnosis information. (5) Suspension components for wear and noise. Check components for correct torque. Refer to Groups 2 and 3, Suspension and Axle for additional informa tion.

B R

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 -1

CAMBER TRUE . VERTICAL WHEEL CENTERLINE NEGATIVE CAMBER ANGLE

, , _ PIVOT I HTtCENTERUNE VJLl/ SCRUB ^llr*RADIUS POSITIVE CAMBER (NOT SHOWN) TOP OF WHEEL OUTBOARD
x

, /

NEGATIVE TOE (TOE OUT) B > A POSITIVE TOE (TOE IN) B < A THRUST ANGLE

CASTER POSITIVE CASTER-

KING PIN

OF VEHICLE

VERTICAL

ANGLE OF REAR AXLE RELATIVE TO VEHICLE CENTERLINE ( + ) AXLE POINTS LEFT (-) AXLE POINTS RIGHT J9402-57

Fig. 2 Alignment Angles Link/Coil

AL1GN1ENT

AND ADJUSTMENTS

LINK/COIL

SUSPENSION Before each alignment reading the vehicle should be jounced (rear first, then front). Grasp each bumper at the center and jounce the vehicle up and down several times. Always release the bumper in the down position. Set the front end alignment to specifications while the vehicle is in its NOR MALLY LOADED CONDITION.
CAMBm

The wheel camber angle is preset and is not adjust able.


CASTER

Check the caster of the front axle for correct angle. Be sure the axle is not bent or twisted. Road test the vehicle and make left and right turn. Observe the steering wheel return-to-center position. Low caster will cause poor steering wheel returnability. Caster can be adjusted by rotating the cams on the lower suspension arm (Fig. 3). Refer to the Align ment Specification Chart for the correct setting.
TOE POSITION

(1) Start the engine and turn wheels both ways be fore straightening the wheels. Center and Secure the steering wheel and turn off engine. (2) Loosen the adjustment sleeve clamp bolts. (3) Adjust the right wheel toe position with the drag link (Fig. 4). Turn the sleeve until the right wheel is at the correct TOE-IN position. Position clamp bolts to their original position and tighten to 49 N-m (36 ft. lbs.) torque. Make sure the toe set ting does not change during clamp tightening. (4) Adjust left wheel toe position with tie rod at left knuckle. Turn the sleeve until the left wheel is at the correct TOE-IN position. Position clamp bolts to their original position and tighten to 27 N-m (20 ft. Tbs.) torque. Make sure the toe setting does not change during clamp tightening. (5) Verify the right toe setting.
CAB-CHASSIS ALIGNMENT

The wheel toe position adjustment should be the fi nal adjustment.

To determine the correct caster alignment angle for Cab-Chassis vehicles the following procedure must be performed. (1) Take a height measurement to the center of the front gauge hole in the frame. Take another meansurement to the center of the rear spring hanger bolt (Fig. 5). Take these measurements on both sides of the vehicle.

2-1 /
y

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE I


i ADJUSTMENT CAM

BR

DRAG UNK

Fig 4 Drag Link Adjustment


0

LOWER

AXLE BRACKET

SUSPENSION ARM J9302-59 Fig. 3 Cam Adjuster

(2) Subtract the front measurement from the rear measurement and use the average between the right and left side. Use this number with the Caster Cor rection Chart to obtain the correct caster angle (Fig. 6).
4x2

PRE-ALIGNMENT INSPECTION IFS SUSPENSION Before starting a front wheel alignment, the follow ing inspection and necessary corrections must be completed. (1) Tires with the same recommended air pressure, size, and thread wear. Refer to Group 22, Tires And Wheels for diagnosis information. (2) Front wheel bearings for wear or adjustment.

GAUGE HOLE

HANGER BOLT

Fig. 5 Cab-Chassis

Measurement

BR
134.7" o r 138.7" WHEELBASE 162.7" WHEELBASI

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2-7

H a n g e r BoltCaster Caster Hangar BoltG a u g e Hole Correction G a u g e Hole Correction (degrees) (inches) (inches) (degrees) -5.00 -4.75 -4.50 -4.25 -4.00 -3.75 -3.50 -3.25 -3.00 -2.75 -2.50 -2.25 -2.00 -1.75 -1.50 -1.25 -1.00 -0.75 -0.50 -0.25 0.00 -0.23 -0.11 0.01 0.14 0.26 0.38 0.50 0.62 0.75 0.87 0.99 1.11 1.24 1.36 1.48 1.60 1.73 1.85 1.97 2.09 2.21 -5.00 -4.75 -4.50 -4.25 -4.00 -3.75 -3.50 -3.25 -3.00 -2.75 -2.50 -2.25 -2.00 -1.75 -1.50 -1.25 -1.00 -0.75 -0.50 -0.25 0.00 -0.19 -0.09 0.01 0.11 0.21 0.31 0.41 0.51 0.61 0.71 0.81 0.91 1.01 1.11 1.21 1.31 1.41 1.51 1.61 1.71 1.81 J9502-15 Fig. 6 Caster Correction Chart

Fig. 7 Caster Camber Adjustment

Location

(3) Ball studs, linkage pivot points and steering gear for looseness, roughness or binding. Refer to Group 19, Steering for additional information. (4) Front wheels for excessive radial or lateral runout and unbalance. Refer to Group 22, Tires And Wheels for diagnosis information. (5) Suspension components for wear and noise. Check components for correct torque. Refer to Groups 2 and 3, Suspension and Axle for additional informa tion. ALIGNMENT AND ADJUSTMENTS IFS SUSPENSION Before each alignment reading the vehicle should be jounced (rear first, then front). Grasp each bumper at the center and jounce the vehicle up and down several times. Always release the bumper in the down position. Set the front end alignment to specifications while the vehicle is in its NOR MALLY LOADED CONDITION.
CAMBER AND CASTER ADJUSTMENT

pivot bar (Fig. 7). Refer to the Alignment Specifica tion Chart for the correct setting. CASTER: Move only the rear position of the pivot bar in or out. This will change the caster angle sig nificantly and camber angle only slightly. To retain the camber while adjusting caster, move the rear pivot bar in or out. Move the forward pivot very slightly in the opposite direction. For example, to increase a positive caster an gle, move the rear position of the pivot bar in ward (toward the engine). Move the front of pivot bar outward (away from the engine) slightly until the original camber angle is ob tained. CAMBER: Move only the forward position of the pivot bar in or out. This will change the camber an gle significantly and caster angle only slightly. The camber angle should be adjusted as close as possible to the preferred service specification. After adjustment is made tighten the pivot bar nuts to 210 N-m (155 ft. lbs.) torque.
TOE POSITION

Camber and caster angle adjustments involve changing the position of the upper suspension arm

The wheel toe position adjustment should be the fi nal adjustment. (1) Start the engine and turn wheels both ways be fore straightening the wheels. Center and secure the steering wheel and turn off engine. (2) Loosen the tie rod adjustment sleeve clamp bolts/nuts. Each front wheel should be adjusted for onehalf of the total toe position specification. This will ensure the steering wheel will be centered when the wheels are positioned straight-ahead. (3) Adjust the wheel toe position by turning the tie rod adjustment sleeves as necessary.

2 -8

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE mmmiT


ALIGNMENT SPECIFICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS 4X2 AND 4X4

BR

WHEEL
4x2/4x4 (lbs) BASE (inches)

PREFERRED CASTER (degrees) (+f-1.00)

PREFERRED CAMBER

(+/- o.so)

(degrees)

4x2
4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2

6010 6400 6010 6400 6400 6400 7500 8800 8800 10500 10500

118.7 118.7 134.7 134.7 138.7 154.7 134.7 134.7 154.7 134.7 154.7

3.65 3.65 3.80 3.80 3.70 3.85 3.55 3.45 3.65 3.25 3.45

0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4

6400 6400 6400 6400 7500 8800 8800 10500 10500

118.7 134.7 138.7 154.7 134.7 134.7 154.7 134.7 154.7

3.35 3.45 3.40 3.55 3.00 3.10 3.25 2.90 3.00

not set not set not set not set not set not set not set not set not set

4x2/4x4 *4x2/4x4 *4x2/4x4

8800 11000 11000

134.7 138.7 162.7 USE CAB-CHASSIS PROCEDURE

not set not set not set

Preferred Total Toe-in 0.25 > ( + / - 0.25) * 4 x 2 11000# G V W has a solid front axle link coil suspension system. J9502-16

BR
LINK/COIL

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SUSPENSION

2-9

INDEX
page Coil Spring Lower Suspension Arm Service Information Shock Absorber 10 11 9 10 Shock Diagnosis Stabilizer Bar Track Bar Upper Suspension Arm INSTALLATION page 10 9 9 11

.....................

SERVICE INFORMATION Periodic lubrication of the steering system and sus pension components is required. Refer to Group 0, Lubrication And Maintenance for the service inter val.
CAUTION: Suspension components with rubber bushings should be tightened with the vehicle at normal height. It is important to have the springs supporting the weight of the vehicle when the fas teners are torqued. If springs are not at their normal ride position, vehicle ride comfort could be affected and premature bushing wear may occur. Rubber bushings must never be lubricated.

(1) Install the track bar at axle tube bracket. Loosely install the retaining bolt and flag nut. (2) Pry the axle assembly over to install the track bar at the frame rail bracket (Fig. 1). (3) Install the retaining nut on the stud. Tighten the ball stud nut to 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) torque. Install a new cotter pin. (4) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. (5) Tighten the bolt at the axle shaft tube bracket to 176 N-m (130 ft. lbs.) torque. STABILIZER BAR
REMOVAL

TRAGI BAR
REMOVAL

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove the cotter pin and nut from the ball stud end at the frame rail bracket (Fig. 1). (3) Remove ball stud from bracket with Puller C-3894A (4) Remove the bolt and flag nut from the axle bracket and remove the track bar (Fig. 1).

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Disconnect the stabilizer bar links from the axle brackets. (3) Disconnect the stabilizer bar from the links. (4) Disconnect the stabilizer bar clamps from the frame rails and remove the stabilizer bar (Fig. 2).

Fig.

2 Stabilizer

Bar

INSTALLATION

Fig. 1 Track Bar

(1) Position the stabilizer bar on the frame rail and install the clamps and bolts. Ensure the bar is cen tered with equal spacing on both sides. Tighten the bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.).

2 -10

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

(2) Install the links, grommets retainers and nuts onto the axle brackets (Fig. 2). Tighten the nuts to 37 N-m (27 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Install link on stabilizer bar and tighten nut to 118 N-m (87 ft. lbs.) torque. (4) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. SHOCK DIAGNOSIS A squeak noise from the shock absorber can be pro duced if movement between the rubber bushings and the metal occurs. This noise can usually be stopped by tightening the attaching nuts. If the squeak noise persists, inspect for damaged and worn bushings, and attaching components. Repair as necessary. The shock absorbers are not refillable or adjust able. If a malfunction occurs, the shock absorber must be replaced. To test a shock absorber, hold it in an upright position and force the piston into and out of the cylinder four or five times. The action through out each stroke should be smooth and even. SHOCK ABSORBER
REMOVAL

SHOCK lOtJ J9402-47 Fig. 4 Shock Absorber Axle Mount INSTALLATION

(1) Remove the nut, retainer and grommet from the upper stud in the engine compartment. (2) Remove three nuts from the upper shock bracket (Fig. 3).

(1) Position the lower retainer and grommet on the upper stud. Insert the shock absorber through the spring from engine compartment. (2) Install the lower bolt and tighten bolt to 135 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Install the upper shock bracket and three nuts. Tighten nuts to 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) torque. (4) Install upper grommet and retainer. Install up per shock nut and tighten to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. COIL SPRilO
REMOVAL

J9402-46 Fig. 3 Shock Absorber and Bracket

(3) Remove the lower bolt from the axle bracket (Fig. 4). Remove the shock absorber from engine com partment.

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. Position a hy draulic jack under the axle to support it. (2) Paint or scribe alignment marks on lower sus pension arm cam adjusters and axle bracket for in stallation reference. (3) Remove the upper suspension arm and loosen lower suspension arm bolts. (4) Mark and disconnect the front propeller shaft from the axle 4x4 models. (5) Disconnect the track bar from the frame rail bracket. (6) Disconnect the drag link from pitman arm. (7) Disconnect the stabilizer bar link and shock ab sorber from the axle. (8) Lower the axle until the spring is free from the upper mount. Remove the coil spring.
INSTALLATION

(1) Position the coil spring on the axle pad.

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE (3) Raise the axle into position until the spring seats in the upper mount. (4) Connect the stabilizer bar links and shock ab sorbers to the axle bracket. Connect the track bar to the frame rail bracket. (5) Install the upper suspension arm. (6) Install the front propeller shaft to the axle 4x4 model. (7) Install drag link to pitman arm and tighten nut to 88 N-m (65 ft. lbs.) torque. Install new cotter pin. (8) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. (9) Tighten the following suspension components to proper torque: Link to stabilizer bar tighten nut to 118 N-m (87 ft. lbs.) torque. o Lower shock tighten bolt to 121 N-m (89 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten track bar bolt at the axle shaft tube bracket to 176 N-m (130 ft. lbs.) torque. . Upper suspension arm tighten nut at the axle bracket to 121 N-m (89 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten nut at frame bracket to 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) torque. Align lower suspension arm reference marks and tighten cam nut to 149 N-m (110 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten rear nut to 119 N-m (88 ft. lbs.) torque. LOWER SUSPENSION ARM
REMOVAL

2 -11

J9302-59

Fig. 5 Cam Adjuster

(2) Remove the upper suspension arm nut and bolt at the axle bracket (Fig. 6). (3) Remove the nut and bolt (Fig. 6) at the frame rail and remove the upper suspension arm.

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Paint or scribe alignment marks on the cam ad justers and suspension arm for installation reference (Fig. 5). (3) Remove the lower suspension arm nut, cam and cam bolt from the axle. (4) Remove the nut and bolt from the frame rail bracket and remove the lower suspension arm (Fig. 6).
INSTALLATION

(1) Position the lower suspension arm at the axle bracket and frame rail bracket. (2) Install the rear bolt and finger tighten the nut. (3) Install the cam bolt, cam and nut in the axle. Re-align the reference marks. (4) Remove support and lower the vehicle. (5) Tighten cam nut to 149 N-m (110 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten rear nut to 119 N-m (88 ft. lbs.) torque. UPPER SUSPENSION ARM
REMOVAL

Fig. 6 Upper and Lower Suspension Arms INSTALLATION

(1) Raise and support the vehicle.

(1) Position the upper suspension arm at the axle and frame rail (Fig. 6). (2) Install the bolts and finger tighten the nuts. (3) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. (4) Tighten nut at the axle bracket to 121 N-m (89 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten nut at frame bracket to 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) torque.

2 -12

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

mm

INDEPENDENT FRONT S U S P E N S I O N (IFS)


INDEX
page Coil Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lower Ball Stud Lower Suspension Arm Service Information Shock Absorber Shock Diagnosis 13 14 14 12 12 12 Stabilizer Bar Steering Knuckle Upper Ball Stud Upper Suspension Arm Wheel Hub and Bearings . page 12 16 15 15 15

SERVICE INFORMATION Periodic lubrication of the steering system and sus pension components is required. Refer to Group 0, Lubrication And Maintenance for the service inter val.
CAUTION: Suspension components with rubber bushings should be tightened with the vehicle at normal height. It is important to have the springs supporting the weight of the vehicle when the fas teners are torqued. If springs are not at their normal ride position, vehicle ride comfort could be affected and premature bushing wear may occur. Rubber bushings must never be lubricated.

STABILIZER BAR
REMOVAL

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Disconnect the link from lower suspension arm and stabilizer bar (Fig. 1). (3) Disconnect the stabilizer bar clamps from the frame rails. Remove the stabilizer bar.
INSTALLATION

Fig, 1 STABILIZER

BAR

(1) Position the stabilizer bar on the frame rail and install the clamps and bolts. Ensure the bar is cen tered with equal spacing on both sides. Tighten the bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Install links on stabilizer bar and lower suspen sion arm. Install grommets, retainers and nuts. Tighten nuts to 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig. 1) (4) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. SHOCK DIAGNOSIS A squeak noise from the shock absorber can be pro duced if movement between the rubber bushings and the metal occurs. This noise can usually be stopped by tightening the attaching nuts. If the squeak noise persists, inspect for damaged and worn bushings, and attaching components. Repair as necessary. The shock absorbers are not refillable or adjust able. If a malfunction occurs, the shock absorber

must be replaced. To test a shock absorber, hold it in an upright position and force the piston into and out of the cylinder four or five times. The action through out each stroke should be smooth and even. SHOCK ABSORBER
REMOVAL WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE SHOCK UNTIL L O W E R S U S P E N S I O N ARM !S S U P P O R T E D . THE SHOCK HOLDS THE L O W E R S U S P E N S I O N ARM AND S P R I N G IN POSITION.

(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove shock upper nut and remove retainer and grommet. (3) Remove lower mounting bolt from suspension arm and remove shock (Fig. 2).

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 -13

Fig. 2 Shock Absorber INSTALLATION

Fig. 3 Coil Spring

(1) Extend shock fully, install retainer and grom met on top of shock absorber. Check grommets and retainer for wear. (2) Guide shock up through upper suspension arm bracket. Install top grommet, retainer and nut. Tighten nut to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Align bottom end of shock into lower suspen sion arm and install mounting bolt. Tighten bolt to 135 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) torque. (4) Remove support and lower vehicle. COIL SPRINGS REMOVAL
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE SHOCK UNTIL L O W E R S U S P E N S I O N ARM IS S U P P O R T E D . THE SHOCK HOLDS THE L O W E R S U S P E N S I O N A R M AND S P R I N G IN POSITION.

(1) Install rubber isolator on top of spring. Position spring into upper spring seat and lower suspension arm. (2) Raise suspension arm with jack and position shock into suspension arm mount. Install shock bolt and tighten to 135 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig.4).

(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove tire and wheel assembly. (3) Remove brake caliper assembly and rotor refer to Group 5, Brakes. (4) Disconnect tie rod from steering knuckle. (5) Disconnect stabilizer bar link from lower sus pension arm. (6) Support lower suspension arm outboard end with jack. Place jack under arm in front of shock mount. (7) Remove cotter pin and nut from lower ball stud. Separate ball stud with remover C-4150A. (8) Remove lower shock bolt from suspension arm. (9) Lower jack and suspension arm until spring tension is relieved. Remove spring and rubber isola tor (Fig. 3).

Fig. 4 Shock Absorber

(3) Install steering knuckle on lower ball stud. In stall lower ball stud nut and tighten to 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) torque. Replace cotter pin and remove jack. (4) Install stabilizer bar link on lower suspension arm. Install grommet, retainer and nut, and tighten to 34 N-m ( 35 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig.5). (5) Install tie rod on steering knuckle and tighten nut to 88 N 31m (65 ft. lbs.) torque. (6) Install brake caliper assembly and rotor refer to Group 5, Brakes. (7) Install tire and wheel assembly. (8) Remove support and lower vehicle.

2-14

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

REMOVAL
(1) Follow procedure under Lower Suspension Arm Removal. (2) Position special tool on lower suspension arm and press out ball stud (Fig. 6).

Pig. 5 independent Front

Suspension

LOWER SUSPENSION ARM

REMOVAL
(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Follow procedure under Coil Spring Removal.
WARNING: DO NOT R E M O V E SHOCK UNTIL L O W E R S U S P E N S I O N A R M I S S U P P O R T E D , THE S H O C K HOLDS THE L O W E R S U S P E N S I O N A R M AND S P R I N G IN POSITION.

SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F

Fig. 6 Lower Bail Stud Removal

(3) Remove bolts mounting suspension arm to crossmember and remove arm.
INSTALLATION

INSTALLATION

(1) Press replacement ball stud into the lower sus pension arm bore with special tools (Fig. 7).

(1) Position suspension arm on crossmember and install bolts snug. (2) Follow procedure under Coil Spring Installa tion. (3) Remove support and lower vehicle. (4) Tighten suspension arm crossmember bolts to 176 N-m (130 ft. lbs.) torque. LOWER BALL STUD
INSPECTION

S P E C I A LT O O L
C4212F

(1) Raise the front of the vehicle. Install safety floor stands under both lower suspension arms as far outboard as possible. The upper suspension arms must not contact the rebound bumpers. (2) Install a dial indicator and clamp assembly to the lower suspension arm. (3) Position indicator plunger against knuckle arm and zero indicator. (4) Raise and lower the wheel with a pry bar un der the center of the tire. Measure the axial move ment of the knuckle with respect to the suspension arm. (5) If the travel of the suspension arm is 0.020 inch (0.51 mm) or more, replace the ball joint.

6761 Fig. 7 Lower Ball Stud Installation

J9402-34

(2) Install lower suspension arm using procedure under Lower Suspension Arm Installation.

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 -15

UPPER SUSPENSION A i l
REMOVAL

(1) Raise and support vehicle (2) Remove tire and wheel assembly (8) Support lower suspension arm at outboard end with jack stand. (4) Remove upper ball stud cotter pin and nut. (5) Separate ball stud from knuckle with remover MB-990635 or MB-991113. (6) Remove pivot bar bolts from upper suspension arm bracket and remove arm from vehicle.
INSTALLATION

(1) Position upper suspension arm on bracket and install pivot bar bolts. Tighten to 203 N-m (150 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Install ball stud in knuckle. Install nut and tighten to 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) torque. Install replace ment cotter pin. (3) Remove jack from lower suspension arm. (4) Install tire and wheel assembly (5) Remove support and lower vehicle (6) Align front suspension. UPPER BALL STUD
INSPECTION

Fig. 8 U;. ) i ^ail Stud Removal

(1) Position a floor jack under the lower suspension arm. Raise the wheel and allow the tire to lightly contact the floor (vehicle weight relieved from the tire). (2) Grasp the top of the tire and apply force in and out. Look for any movement at the ball joints be tween the upper suspension arm and steering knuckle. (3) If any lateral movement is evident, replace the ball joint.
REMOVAL

SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F

(1) Follow procedure under Upper Suspension Arm Removal. (2) Position special tools on upper suspension arm and press ball stud out of arm (Fig. 8).
J9402-35 INSTALLATION

(1) Press ball stud into upper suspension arm with special tools (Fig. 9). (2) Follow procedure under Upper Suspension Arm Installation. WHEEL HUB AND BEARINGS
REMOVAL

Fig.

Up -;r Bail

Stud

Installation

(4) Remove the dust cap, cotter pin, and hub nut from spindle.
CAUTION: Use care to prevent inner wheel bearing and seal from contacting spindle threads during re moval.

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove the wheel and tire assembly. (3) Remove disc brake caliper from steering knuckle. Refer to Group 5, Brakes.

(5) Carefully slide the hub/rotor from spindle. (6) Remove the seal and inner wheel bearing from the hub/rotor.

2 -11

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR
(7) The adjustment (above) should have 0.001 to 0.003 inch (0.254 to 0.0762 mm) end play. (8) Clean the dust cap and apply a coating lubri cant to the internal surface. Do not fill the dust cap with lubricant. Install the cap. (9) Install disc brake caliper. Refer to Group 5, Brakes. (10) Install the wheel and tire assembly. STEERING KNUCKLE
REMOVAL

(7) Remove inner bearing races from hub/rotor with a pin punch if bearings are going to be replaced.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION

(1) Thoroughly clean bearings and interior of hub/ rotor. (2) Clean the bearings with solvent and towel dry. (3) Rotate each bearing slowly and examine the rollers for pitting and roughness. Replace bearing if worn or damaged.Cup and bearing must be re placed as a matched set if wore or damaged. (4) Pack each bearing with multi-purpose NLGI, grade 2, EP-type lubricant (or an equivalent lubricant).Ensure that lubricant is forced into all the cavities between the bearing cage and rollers.
INSTALLATION

(1) Install the new bearing cup(s) with an appro priate installation tool. (2) Apply a coating of MOPAR Wheel Bearing Grease or equivalent lubricant to inner surface area of hub/rotor. Install inner wheel bearing and seal in the hub/rotor. (3) Inspect bearing and seal contact surfaces on spindle for burrs and/or roughness. (4) Remove all rough contact surfaces from spindle. Apply a coating of lubricant. CAUTION: Use care to prevent inner wheel bearing
and seal from contacting spindle threads during in stallation.

(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. Remove the brake caliper, refer to Group 5, Brakes. (3) Remove the wheel hub and bearing assembly from the spindle. Refer to Wheel Hub and Bearings service removal. (4) Remove the cotter pin and nut from the tie-rod end and disconnect tie rod. (5) Remove the cotter pins and nuts from the up per and lower ball studs. Separate upper ball stud from knuckle with remover MD-990635 or MD-991113. Separate lower ball stud with remover C-4150A and remove knuckle.
INSTALLATION

(5) Carefully slide the hub/rotor onto spindle. In stall outer wheel bearing, washer and retaining nut. (6) Tighten the nut to 41-54 N-m (30-40 ft. lbs.) torque to preload bearing while rotating the hub/ro tor. Stop hub/rotor and loosen nut to completely re lease bearing preload torque. Tighten the nut fingertight and install the nut lock. Install a new cotter pin.

(1) Position knuckle on ball stud and install ball stud nuts. Tighten nuts to 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) torque. Install cotter pins. (2) Install the brake rotor hub and bearing assem bly on spindle. Refer to Wheel Hub and Bearings ser vice installation. (3) Install the brake caliper, refer to Group 5, Brakes. (4) Install wheel and tire assembly. (5) Remove support and lower vehicle.

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


AXLE NOISE/VIBRATION DIAGNOSIS

2 -17

INDEX
page Driveline Snap Gear and Bearing Noise General Information 18 17 17 Low Speed Knock Vibration page 18 18

GENERAL INFORMATION Axle bearing problem conditions are usually caused by: Insufficient or incorrect lubricant Foreign matter/water contamination Incorrect bearing preload torque adjustment Incorrect backlash ( to tight) When serviced, the bearings must be cleaned thor oughly. They should be dried with lint-free shop tow els. Never dry bearings with compressed air. This will overheat them and brinell the bearing surfaces. This will result in noisy operation af ter repair. Axle gear problem conditions are usually the result of: Insufficient lubrication Incorrect or contaminated lubricant Overloading (excessive engine torque) Exceeding vehicle weight capacity Incorrect clearance or backlash adjustment Insufficient lubrication is usually the result of a housing cover leak. It can also be from worn axle shaft or pinion gear seals. Check for cracks or porous areas in the housing or tubes. Using the wrong lubricant will cause overheating and gear failure. Gear tooth cracking and bearing spalling are indicators of this. Axle component breakage is most often the result of: Severe overloading Insufficient lubricant Incorrect lubricant Improperly tightened components Common causes of overloading is from full-throttle acceleration. Overloading happens when towing heavier-than-recommended loads. Component break age can occur when the wheels are spun excessively. Insufficient or incorrect lubricants contribute to breakage through overheating. Loose differential components can also cause breakage. Incorrect bearing preload or gear backlash will not result in component breakage. This will cause accel erated wear and contribute to early failure. Mis-ad justment will produce noise. If a mis-adjustment condition is not corrected, component failure can re sult.

Excessive bearing preload may not be noisy. This condition will cause high temperature which can re sult in bearing failure. GEAR AID BEARING NOISE
GEAR NOISE

Axle gear noise can be caused by insufficient lubri cant. Incorrect backlash, tooth contact, or worn/dam aged gears can cause noise. Gear noise usually happens at a specific speed range. The range is 30 to 40 mph, or above 50 mph. The noise can also occur during a specific type of driving condition. These' conditions are acceleration, deceleration, coast, or constant load. When road testing, accelerate the vehicle to the speed range where the noise is the greatest. Shift out-of-gear and coast through the peak-noise range. If the noise stops or changes greatly, check for insuf ficient lubricant. Incorrect ring gear backlash, or gear damage can cause noise changes. Differential side and pinion gears can be checked by turning the vehicle. They usually do not cause noise in straight-ahead driving. These gears are loaded during vehicle turns. If noise does occur dur ing vehicle turns, the side or pinion gears could be worn or damaged. A worn pinion gear mate shaft can also cause a snapping or a knocking noise.
BEARING NOISE

The axle shaft, differential and pinion gear bear ings can all produce noise when worn or damaged. Bearing noise can be either a whining, or a growling sound. Pinion gear bearings have a constant-pitch noise. This noise changes only with vehicle speed. Pinion bearing noise will be higher because it rotates at a faster rate. Drive the vehicle and load the differen tial. If bearing noise occurs the pinion rear bearing is the source of the noise. If the bearing noise is heard during a coast, front bearing is the source. Worn, damaged differential bearings usually pro duce a low pitch noise. Differential bearing noise is similar to pinion bearing. The pitch of differential bearing noise is also constant and varies only with vehicle speed.

2 -18

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR
Bent axle shaft Check for loose or damaged front-end components or engine/transmission mounts. These components can contribute to what appears to be a rear-end vi bration. Do not overlook engine accessories, brackets and drive belts. All driveline components should be examined be fore starting any repair. Refer to Group 22, Wheels And Tires for additional information. DRIVELINE SNAP A snap or clunk noise when the vehicle is shifted into gear (or the clutch engaged), can be caused by: High engine idle speed Loose engine/transmission/transfer case mounts Worn U-joints Loose spring mounts Loose pinion gear nut and yoke Excessive ring gear backlash Excessive differential side gear-to-case clearance The source of a snap or a clunk noise can be deter mined with the assistance of a helper. Raise the ve hicle on a hoist with the wheels free to rotate. Instruct the helper to shift the transmission into gear. Listen for the noise, a mechanics stethoscope is helpful in isolating the source of a noise.

Axle shaft bearings produce noise and vibration when worn or damaged. The noise generally changes when the bearings are loaded. Road test the vehicle. Turn the vehicle sharply to the left and to the right. This will load the bearings and change the noise level. Where axle bearing damage is slight, the noise is usually not noticeable at speeds above 30 mph. LOW SPEED KNOCK Low speed knock is generally caused by a worn Ujoint or by worn side-gear thrust washers. A worn pinion gear shaft bore will also cause low speed knock. WIBRATION Vibration at the rear of the vehicle is usually caused by a: Damaged drive shaft Missing drive shaft balance weight Worn, out-of-balance wheels Loose wheel lug nuts Worn U-joint Loose spring U-bolts Loose/broken springs Damaged axle shaft bearings Loose pinion gear nut Excessive pinion yoke run out

BR

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE SERVICE DIAGNOSIS


Condition Possible Cause (a) Wheel loose. (b) Faulty, brinelled wheel bearing. (a) Misaligned axle shaft tube. (b) Bent or sprung axle shaft. (c) End play in drive pinion bearing. (d) Excessive gear backlash between ring gear and pinion gear. (e) Improper adjustment of drive pinion gear shaft bearings. (f) Loose drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut. (g) Improper wheel bearing adjustment. (h) Scuffed gear tooth contact surfaces. Correction

2 - 19

WHEEL NOISE

(a) Tighten loose nuts. (b) Faulty or brinelled bearings must be replaced. (a) Inspect axle shaft tube alignment. Correct as necessary. (b) Replace bent or sprung axle shaft. (c) Refer to Drive Pinion Bearing Pre-Load Adjustment. (d) Check adjustment of ring gear backlash and pinion gear. Correct as necessary. (e) Adjust drive pinion shaft bearings. (f) Tighten drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut with specified torque. (g) Readjust as necessary. (h) If necessary, replace scuffed gears. (a) Replace broken axle shaft after correcting axle shaft tube alignment. (b) Replace broken axle shaft. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. (c) Replace broken axle shaft after inspecting for other possible causes. Avoid erratic use of clutch. (d) Replace broken axle shaft. Inspect clutch and make necessary repairs or adjustments. (a) Replace cracked case; examine gears and bearings for possible damage. At reassembly, adjust differential bearings properly. (b) Replace cracked case; examine gears and bearings for possible damage. At reassembly, adjust ring gear backlash properly. (c) Replace cracked case; examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. (d) Replace cracked case. After inspecting for other possible causes, examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid erratic use of clutch. (a) Replace scored gears. Scoring marks on the drive face of gear teeth or in - the bore are caused by instantaneous fusing of the mating surfaces. Scored gears should be replaced. Fill rear differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. Refer to Specifications. (b) Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears and bearings for possible damage. Clean and refill differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. (c) Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears, pinion bores and shaft for damage. Service as necessary. (a) Drain excess lubricant by removing fill plug and allow lubricant to level at lower edge of fill plug hole.
J9003-49

AXLE SHAFT NOISE

AXLE SHAFT BROKE

(a) Misaligned axle shaft tube. (b) Vehicle overloaded. (c) Erratic clutch operation (d) Grabbing clutch.

DIFFERENTIAL CASE CRACKED

(a) Improper adjustment of differential bearings. (b) Excessive ring gear backlash.

(c) Vehicle overloaded. (d) Erratic clutch operation.

DIFFERENTIAL GEARS
SCORED

(a) Insufficient lubrication.

(b) Improper grade of lubricant.

(c) Excessive spinning of one wheel/tire.

LOSS OF LUBRICANT

(a) Lubricant level too high.

2 - 20

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SERVICE Condition DIAGNOSIS (CONT'D) Correction

BR

Possible Cause (b) Worn axle shaft seals. (c) Cracked differential housing. (d) Worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. (e) (f) (a) (b) Scored and worn yoke. Axle cover not properly sealed. Lubricant level too low. Incorrect grade of lubricant.

L O S S OF LUBRICAWT (Cont'd)

(b) Replace worn seals. (c) Repair or replace housing as necessary. (d) Replace worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. (e) Replace worn or scored yoke and seal. (f) Remove cover and clean flange and reseal. (a) Refill differential housing. (b) Drain, flush and refill with correct amount of the correct lubricant. (c) Readjust bearings. (d) Inspect gears for excessive wear or scoring. Replace as necessary. (e) Readjust ring gear backlash and inspect gears for possible scoring. (a) Replace gears. Examine other gears and bearings for possible damage. Replace parts as needed. Avoid overloading of vehicle. (b) Replace gears and examine the remaining parts for possible damage. Avoid erratic clutch operation. (c) Replace gears. Examine the remaining parts for possible damage. Replace parts as required. (d) Replace gears. Examine other parts for possible damage. Ensure ring gear backlash is correct. (a) Refill axle with correct amount of the proper lubricant. Also inspect for leaks and correct as necessary. (b) Check ring gear and pinion gear teeth contact pattern.

AXLE OVERHEATING

(c) Bearings adjusted too tight. (d) Excessive gear wear. (e) Insufficient ring gear backlash, GEAR TEETH BROKE (RING GEAR AND PINION) (a) Overloading.

(b) Erratic clutch operation. (c) Ice-spotted pavements. (d) Improper adjustments.

AXLE NOISE

(a) Insufficient lubricant. (b) Improper ring gear and drive pinion gear adjustment. (c) Unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear.

(c) Remove unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. Replace with matched gear and drive pinion gear set. (d) Check teeth on ring gear and drive pi (d) Worn teeth on ring gear or drive nion gear for correct contact. pinion gear. If necessary, replace with new matched set. (e) Loose drive pinion gear shaft bearings. (e) Adjust drive pinion gearshaft bearing preload torque. (!) Adjust differential bearing preload (f) Loose differential bearings. torque. (g) Misaligned or sprung ring gear. (g) Measure ring gear runout. (h) Tighten with specified torque. (h) Loose differential bearing cap bolts.

J9003-50

mm
HXLE SERVICE

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 - 21

PROCEDURES

INDEX
page Axle Shaft Oil Seal . Axle Shaft Cardan U-Joint Backlash and Contact Pattern Analysis Cleaning/Inspection Differential and Pinion Measurement Differential Assembly Differential Disassembly Differential Installation Differential Removal Differential Shim Pack Measurement and Adjustment Drive Axle Assembly Replacement 33 24 42 34 37 35 33 41 32 40 22 Final Assembly General Information Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft Lubricant Change Lubricant Specifications Pinion Gear Assembly/Installation Pinion Gear Depth Information Pinion Removal/Disassembly Pinion Seal Replacement Steering Knuckle and Ball Studs Vacuum Disconnect 44/60 Axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 44 21 24 21 21 39 35 33 23 29 25

GENERAL INFORMATION The housing for Model 44/60 front axles consists of an iron center casting with tubes on each side. The tubes are pressed into and welded to the differential housing. The integral type housing, hypoid gear design has the centerline of the pinion set below the centerline of the ring gear. The axle has a vent used to relieve internal pres sure caused by lubricant vaporization and internal expansion. The axles are equipped with semi-floating axle shafts, meaning that loads are supported by the hub bearings. The axle shafts are retained by nuts at the hub bearings. The hub bearings are bolted to the steering knuckle at the outboard end of the axle tube yoke. The hub bearings are serviced as an assembly. The axles are equipped with ABS brake sensors. The sensors are attached to the knuckle assemblies and tone rings are pressed on the axle shaft. Use care when removing axle shafts as NOT to dam age the tone wheel or the sensor. The stamped steel cover provides a means for in spection and servicing the differential. The Model 44/60 axle has the assembly part num ber and gear ratio listed on a tag. The tag is attached to the housing cover. Build date identification codes are stamped on the axle shaft tube cover side. The differential case is a one-piece design. The dif ferential pinion mate shaft is retained with a roll pin. Differential bearing preload and ring gear back lash is adjusted by the use of shims. The shims are located between the differential bearing cones and case. Pinion bearing preload is set and maintained by the use of a collapsible spacer. LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS Thermal Stable Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant is used for Model 44/60 axles. The lubricant should

have API GL 5 quality specifications. MOPAR Ther mal Stable Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant conforms to these specifications. The factory fill for the Model 44/60 axle is SAE 80W-90 gear lubricant Refer to Group 0, Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information.
CAUTION: If axle is submerged in water, the lubri cant must be replaced immediately to avoid con tamination.

LUBRICANT CHANGE The gear lubricant will drain quicker if the vehicle has been recently driven. (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove the lubricant fill hole plug from the dif ferential housing cover. (3) Remove the differential housing cover and drain the lubricant from the housing. (4) Clean the housing cavity with a flushing oil, light engine oil or lint free cloth. Do not use water, steam, kerosene or gasoline for cleaning. (5) Remove the sealant from the housing and cover surfaces. Use solvent to clean the mating surfaces. (6) Apply a bead of MOPAR Silicone Rubber Seal ant to the housing cover (Fig. 1). Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. Install the housing cover within 5 minutes af ter applying the sealant. If not installed the sealant must be removed and another bead ap plied. (7) Install the cover and any identification tag. Tighten the cover bolts in a criss-cross pattern to; Model 44: 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque, o Model 60: 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) torque. (8) Refill differential with the specified quantity of MOPAR Hypoid Gear Lubricant.

2 - 22
SEALING

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


CONTOUR OF BEAD

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(12) Lower the jack enough to remove the axle. The coil springs will drop with the axle. (13) Remove the coil springs from the axle bracket.
INSTALLATION CAUTION: Suspension components with rubber bushings should be tightened with the vehicle at normal height. It is important to have the springs supporting the weight of the vehicle when the fas teners are torqued. If springs are not at their normal ride position, vehicle ride comfort could be affected and premature bushing wear may occur. Rubber bushings must never be lubricated.

Fig. 1 Typical Housing Cover With Sealant CAUTSON: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating.

(9) Install the fill hole plug and lower the vehicle. DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY REPLACEMENT
REMOVAL

(1) Raise vehicle and position support stands un der the frame rails behind the lower suspension arm brackets. (2) Remove the front wheels assemblies. (3) Remove the brake components and ABS brake sensor (if equipped). Refer to Group 5Brakes. (4) On 4WD vehicles, disconnect the axle vent hose. Disconnect vacuum hose and electrical connec tor at disconnect housing. (5) On 4WD vehicles, mark the drive shaft yoke, axle pinion yoke and transfer case flange for align ment reference. Disconnect the drive shaft from the axle and transfer case. (6) Disconnect the stabilizer bar link at the axle bracket. (7) Disconnect the shock absorbers from axle bracket. (8) Disconnect the track bar from the axle bracket. (9) Disconnect the tie rod and drag link from the steering knuckle. (10) Support the axle with a hydraulic jack under the differential. (11) Disconnect the upper and lower suspension arms from the axle bracket. Mark cams for instal lation reference.

(1) Install the springs, retainer clip and bolts. (2) Support the axle on a hydraulic jack under the differential. Position the axle under the vehicle. (3) Raise the axle with a floor jack and align it with the spring pads. (4) Position the upper and lower suspension arm at the axle bracket. Install bolts, nuts and align cams to reference marks. Do not tighten at this time. (5) Connect the track bar to the axle bracket and install the bolt. Do not tighten at this time. It is important that the springs support the weight of the vehicle when the track bar is con nected. If the springs are not at normal ride height, the vehicle ride comfort could be af fected. (6) Install the shock absorber and tighten bolts to 121 N-m (89 ft. lbs.) torque. (7) Install the stabilizer bar link to the axle bracket. Tighten the nut to 37 N-m (27 ft. lbs.) torque. (8) Install the drag link and tie rod to the steering knuckles and tighten the nuts to 88 N-m (65 ft. lbs.) torque. (9) Install the brake components and ABS brake sensor (if equipped). Refer to Group 5Brakes. (10) On 4WD vehicles, connect the vent hose to the tube fitting. Connect vacuum hose and electrical con nector to disconnect housing. (11) On 4WD vehicles, align the reference marks and connect the drive shaft to the axle yoke and transfer case flange. Tighten the U-joint clamp bolts to 19 N-m (14 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten flange bolts to 88 N-m (65 ft. lbs.) torque. (12) Check differential lubricant and add if neces sary. (13) Install the wheel and tire assemblies. (14) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. (15) Tighten the upper suspension arm nuts at axle to 121 N-m (89 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten the upper suspension arm nuts at frame to 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) torque.

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(16) Tighten the lower suspension arm nuts at axle to 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten the lower sus pension arm nuts at frame to 119 Nm (88 ft. lbs.) torque. (17) Tighten the track bar bolt at the axle bracket to 176 N-m (130 ft. lbs.) torque. (18) Check the front wheel alignment. PINION SEAL REPLACEMENT The axle assembly does not have to be removed to replace the pinion seal.
REMOVAL

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SPECIAL TOOL 7794A

2 - 23

PINION SEAL J9402-59X Fig. 3 Seal Removal

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies (3) Mark the propeller shaft yoke and pinion yoke for installation alignment reference. (4) Remove the propeller shaft from the yoke. (5) Rotate the pinion gear three or four times. Make sure brakes are not dragging during this procedure. (6) Measure the amount of torque necessary to ro tate the pinion gear with a torque wrench. Note the torque for installation reference. It must be known to properly adjust the pinion gear bearing pre load torque after seal installation. (7) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. Use Remover C-452 and Holder C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. 2).

(2) Align the installation reference marks and in stall yoke on pinion shaft with Installer W-162D for model 44 axle. Use Installer C-3718 for model 60 axle. (Fig. 4).
YOKE

J9402-61 C-452 Fig. 2 Pinion Yoke Removal J9I02-31 Fig. 4 Yoke Installer

(8) Mark the positions of the yoke and pinion gear for installation alignment reference. (9) Use Remover 7794A and slide hammer to re move the pinion gear seal (Fig. 3).
INSTALLATION

(3) Install a new nut on the pinion gear. Tighten the nut only enough to remove the shaft end play.
CAUTION: Exercise care during the bearing preload torque adjustment. Do not over-tighten, or loosen and then re-tighten the nut. Do not exceed the bear ing preload torque or the collapsible preload spacer on the pinion shaft will have to be replaced. The bearing preload torque will be re-adjusted after ward.

(1) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. Install seal Installer D-163.

2 - 24

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

mm

(4) Install a socket and inch-pound torque wrench on the pinion nut. (5) Rotate the shaft with the torque wrench and note the torque. The required preload is equal to amount re corded during removal plus 0.56 N-m (5 in. lbs.). The used bearing preload torque must never exceed 2.25 N-m (20 in. lbs.) (6) Use Yoke Holder 6719 to retain the yoke and shaft (Fig. 5). Tighten the shaft nut in very small in crements.

(5) Remove the hub to knuckle bolts (Fig. 6). Re move the hub bearing from the steering knuckle and axle shaft.

Fig. 6 Hub and Knuckle

(6) Remove the brake dust shield. (7) On 4WD vehicles, remove the axle shaft from the housing. Avoid damaging the axle shaft oil seal.
INSTALLATION

Fig. 5 Tightening Pinion Shaft Nut

(7) Continue tightening the shaft nut in small in crements until the correct bearing preload torque is attained. Tighten the pinion shaft nut: Model 44; No less than 258 N-m (190 ft. lbs.) torque. No greater than 393 N-m (290 ft. lbs.) torque Model m i No less than 292 N-m- (215 ft. lbs.) torque. No greater than 427 N-m (315 ft. lbs.) torque (8) Align the installation reference marks and at tach the propeller shaft to the yoke. (9) Add API grade GL 5 hypoid gear lubricant to the differential housing, if necessary. (10) Install wheel and tire assemblies (11) Remove support and lower the vehicle. HUB BEARING AND AXLE SHAFT
REMOVAL

(1) On 4x4 vehicles clean the axle shaft and apply a thin film of Mopar Wheel Bearing Grease to the shaft splines, seal contact surface, hub bore. Install the axle shaft into the housing and differential side gears. Avoid damaging the axle shaft oil seals in the differential. (2) Install dust shield and hub bearing on knuckle. (3) Install the hub bearing to knuckle bolts and tighten to 170 N-m (125 ft. lbs.) torque. (4) Install the axle washer and nut, tighten nut to 237 N-m (175 ft. lbs.) torque. Align nut to next cotter pin hole and install new cotter pin. (5) Install the brake components, refer to Group 5, Brakes. (6) Install the wheel and tire assembly. (7) Remove support and lower the vehicle. AXLE SHAFT CARDAN U-JOINT
DISASSEMBLY

Single cardan U-joints are not serviceable. If defec tive, they must be replaced as a unit. If the bearings, seals, spider or bearing caps are damaged or worn, replace the complete U-joint.
CAUTION: Clamp only the forged portion of the yoke in the vise. Also, to avoid distorting the yoke, do not over tighten the vise jaws.

(1) (2) (3) refer (4)

Raise and support the vehicle. Remove the wheel and tire assembly. Remove the brake components from the axle, to Group 5 Brakes. Remove the cotter pin and axle hub nut.

(1) Remove the bearing cap retaining snap rings (Fig. 7). It can be helpful to saturate the bearing caps with penetrating oil prior to removal.

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BEARING

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


CLEANING AND INSPECTION

2 - 21

(1) Clean all the U-joint yoke bores with cleaning solvent and a wire brush. Ensure that all the rust and foreign matter are removed from the bores. (2) Inspect the yokes for distortion, cracks and worn bearing cap bores. (3) Replace the complete U-joint if any of the com ponents are defective.
ASSEMBLY

SNAP RINGS

CAP J8902-15

Fig. 7 Axle Shaft Outer U-Joint

(2) Locate a socket that is larger in diameter than the bearing cap. Place the socket (receiver) against the yoke and around the perimeter of the bearing cap to be removed. Locate a socket that is smaller in di ameter than the bearing cap. Place the socket (driv er) against the opposite bearing cap. Position the yoke with the sockets in a vise (Fig. 8).
LARGEDIAMETER SOCKET WRENCH

(1) Pack the bearing caps 1/3 full of wheel bearing lubricant. Apply extreme pressure (EP), lithium-base lubricant to aid in installation. (2) Position the spider in the yoke. Insert the seals and bearings. Tap the bearing caps into the yoke bores far enough to hold the spider in position. (3) Place the socket (driver) against one bearing cap. Position the yoke with the socket wrench in a vise. (4) Compress the vise to force the bearing caps into the yoke. Force the caps enough to install the retain ing clips. (5) Install the bearing cap retaining clips. (6) Install the axle shaft, refer to Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft installation. VACUUM DISCONNECT 44/60 AXLE
VACUUM CONTROL SYSTEM

The disconnect axle control system consists of; Shift motor Indicator switch Vacuum switch Vacuum harness (Fig. 9)
CHECK VALVE

J8902-16 Fig. 8 Yoke Bearing Cap Removal

(3) Compress the vise jaws to force the bearing cap into the larger socket (receiver). (4) Release the vise jaws. Remove the sockets and bearing cap that was partially forced out of the yoke. (5) Repeat the above procedure for the remaining bearing cap. (6) Remove the remaining bearing cap, bearings, seals and spider from the propeller shaft yoke.

SHIFTMOTOR Fig. 9 Vacuum Control System

J9202-55

Refer to Group 21 Transmissions for addi tional information.

2 26

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


DISCONNECT AXLE/SHIFT MOTOR DIAGNOSIS

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T W O - W H E E L DRIVE OPERATION D I A G N O S I S
FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT WILL NOT G O OUT W H E N TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IS MOVED FROM 4H TO 2H P O S I T I O N .

YES START E N G I N E DEPRESS BRAKE PEDAL. PLACE TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IN 2H POSITION A N D T R A N S M I S S I O N IN DRIVE (AUTOMATIC) OR FIRST GEAR (MANUAL). EASE OFF FROM BRAKE A N D LET W H E E L S ROTATE SLOWLY.

TEST COMPLETE

RAISE VEHICLE S O ALL FOUR W H E E L S ARE FREE TO ROTATE.

INSPECT INDICATOR SWITCH A N D W I R I N G O N SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G FOR DAMAGE A N D SHORT-CIRCUIT. REPAIR AS NECESSARY.

FRONT DRIVE SHAFT DOES NOT ROTATE.

FRONT DRIVE SHAFT ROTATES.

FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT REMAINS O N .

INSPECT TRANSFER CASE LINKAGE.

PLACE T R A N S M I S S I O N IN NEUTRAL.

CHECK TRANSFER CASE. REPAIR A S NECESSARY. TEST FOR VACUUM IN VACUUM H O S E THAT CONNECTS TO INBOARD SHIFT MOTOR PORT. (VACUUM SHOULD BE B E T W E E N 10-20 I N . HG.)

DICONNECT THE SHIFT MOTOR VACUUM HOSES.

1
N O VACUUM OR L O W VACUUM. VACUUM OK

~"T~
STOP E N G I N E CONNECT A VACUUM PUMP TO THE INBOARD SHIFT MOTOR PORT. APPLY 15 I N . H G VACUUM A N D ROTATE RIGHT W H E E L .

INSPECT INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM SUPPLY H O S E C O N N E C T I O N , TRANSFER CASE VACUUM SWITCH C O N N E C T I O N , VACUUM RESERVOIR, A N D SHIFT SYSTEM VACUUM H O S E S FOR PROPER C O N N E C T I O N , RESTRICTION, AIR LEAKS, A N D DAMAGE. REPAIR OR REPLACE A S NECESSARY.

FRONT AXLE DISCONNECTS.

FRONT AXLE DOES NOT DISCONNECT.

INSPECT VACUUM H O S E S FOR AIR LEAKS, KINKS, ETC. REPAIR A S NECESSARY.

REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G COVER. CONNECT VACUUM PUMP TO SHIFT MOTOR PORT. REPLACE SHIFT MOTOR IF ARMATURE DOES NOT MOVE IN A N D OUT FREELY.

FRONT AXLE WILL NOT DISCONNECT.

J9002-95

REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G COVER. INSPECT SHIFT FORK, COLLAR, A N D AXLE SHAFTS. REPAIR OR REPLACE A S NECESSARY.

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


DISCONNECT AXLE/SHIFT MOTOR DIAGNOSIS (CONT'D)

2 - 27

FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE OPERATION DIAGNOSIS


FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT DOES NOT LIGHT W H E N TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IN 4H OR 4L POSITION.

RAISE VEHICLE SO ALL FOUR WHEELS ARE FREE TO ROTATE.

START ENGINE, DEPRESS BRAKE PEDAL. PLACE TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IN 4H POSITION AND TRANSMISSION LEVER IN DRIVE (AUTOMATIC) OR IN FIRST GEAR (MANUAL) TO CONFIRM TRANSFER CASE ENGAGEMENT IN 4H. LET W H E E L S ROTATE SLOWLY.

FRONT DRIVE SHAFT DOES NOT ROTATE.

FRONT DRIVE SHAFT TURNS.

INSPECT TRANSFER CASE LINKAGE.

FRONT AXLE CONNECTS.

RECOMMENDATION: CHECK VACUUM SHIFT SYSTEM FOR PROPER OPERATION.

PLACE TRANSMISSION LEVER IN NEUTRAL POSITION.

FRONT AXLE DOES NOT CONNECT.

CHECK TRANSFER CASE. REPAIR AS NECESSARY.

FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT DOES NOT LIGHT.

REMOVE VACUUM HOSES FROM AXLE SHIFT MOTOR PORTS.

INSPECT FWD INDICATOR SWITCH, W I R I N G , AND LAMP FOR DAMAGE. REPAIR AS NECESSARY.

START E N G I N E . TEST FOR VACUUM AT HOSE REMOVED FROM OUT BOARD PORT O N SHIFT MOTOR, SHOULD BE BETWEEN 10-20 IN HG.

N O VACUUM OR LOW VACUUM.

STOP ENGINE

VACUUM OK

INSPECT INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM SUPPLY HOSE CONNECTION, TRANSFER CASE VACUUM SWITCH CONNECTION, VACUUM RESERVOIR, AND SHIFT SYSTEM VACUUM HOSES FOR PROPER CONNECTION, RESTRICTION, LEAKS, AND DAMAGE. REPAIR OR REPLACE AS NECESSARY. FRONT AXLE CONNECTED.

CONNECT A VACUUM PUMP TO THE OUTBOARD SHIFT MOTOR PORT. APPLY 15 INCHES HG. VACUUM AND ROTATE LEFT WHEEL.

N O VACUUM

FRONT AXLE DOES NOT CONNECT.

CHECK TRANSFER CASE VACUUM SWITCH. REPLACE OR REPAIR IF SWITCH PLUNGER IS DIFFICULT TO MOVE OR BINDS.

INSPECT VACUUM HOSES FOR LEAKS, KINKS, ETC. REPAIR AS NECESSARY.

REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G COVER. CONNECT VACUUM PUMP TO SHIFT MOTOR PORT. REPLACE SHIFT MOTOR IF ARMATURE DOES NOT MOVE IN AND OUT FREELY.

REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G COVER. INSPECT SHIFT FORK, COLLAR, AND AXLE SHAFTS. REPAIR OR REPLACE AS NECESSARY.

t
FRONT AXLE WILL NOT CONNECT.

J9002-96

2 - 28
SHIFT

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


MOTOR REMOVAL/DISASSEMBLY

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(3) Install the E-clips on the shift motor shaft and housing. (4) Install the shift motor housing gasket and cover. Ensure the shift fork is correctly guided into the shift collar groove. (5) Install the shift motor housing shield and at taching bolts. Tighten the bolts to 11 N-m (96 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Add 148 ml (5 ounces) of API grade GL 5 hy poid gear lubricant to the shift motor housing. Add lubricant through indicator switch mounting hole. (7) Install indicator switch, electrical connector and vacuum harness.
INTERMEDIATE DISASSEMBLY AXLE SHAFTREMOVAL/

(1) Disconnect the vacuum and wiring connector from the shift housing. (2) Remove indicator switch. (3) Remove the shift motor housing cover, gasket and shield from the housing (Fig. 10).
INDICATOR LAMP SWITCH DISCONNECT HOUSING VACUUM SHIFT MOTOR

INTERMEDIATE AXLE SHAFT

BEARING SHIFT FORK SHIFT COLLAR SEAL J9402-63

Fig. 10 Shift Motor Housing

(4) Remove the E-clips from the shift motor hous ing and shaft. Remove shift motor and shift fork from the housing (Fig. 11).
INDICATOR SWITCH

Service to the Disconnect axle seals and bearing re quire the use of Tool Set 5041 (J34659) and Seal In staller D-354. (1) Remove the vacuum motor housing. Refer to Shift Motor Removal in this section. (3) Remove the outer axle shaft. Refer to Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft in this section. (4) Remove shift collar and intermediate axle shaft. (5) Remove the inner axle shaft seal from the shift motor housing with a long drift or punch. Be careful not to damage housing. (6) Remove the intermediate axle shaft bearing (Fig. 12).
SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING OPENING BEARING LOCATION FOR OPEN-END WRENCH

o o "oi
DISCONNECT HOUSING AND GASKET SHIFT FORK VACUUM PORTS J9202-54 Fig. 11 Shift Motor Components

Li

SPECIAL TOOL 5041-2 SPECIAL TOOL D-354-2 NUT Jf402-18

(5) Remove the O-ring seal from the shift motor shaft. (6) Clean and inspect all components. If any com ponent is excessively worn or damaged, it should be replaced.
ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION

Fig. 12 Bearing Removal Tool Installed ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION

(1) Install a new O-ring seal on the shift motor shaft. (2) Insert the shift motor shaft through the hole in the housing and shift fork. The shift fork offset should be toward the differential.

(1) Position the bearing on installation tool. Seat the bearing in the housing bore (Fig. 13). (2) Clean the inside perimeter of the axle shaft tube with fine crocus cloth. (3) Apply a light film of oil to the inside lip of the new axle shaft seal. (4) Install the inner axle seal (Fig. 14) 44 axle (Fig. 15) 60 axle.

(R
, SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING OPINING

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING OPENING
AXLE TU1E

2 - 29

SPECIAL TOOL 5041-3

SEAL

LOCATION TOR OPEN-END WRENCH

SPECIAL TOOL

M54-3
BEARING

SPECIAL TOOL 5041-2

J9402-19

SPECIAL TOOL 5041-60F

SPECIAL TOOL 5041-3 J9402-23

Fig. 13 intermediate Shaft Bearing installation

Fig. 15 Inner axle seal installation 60 axle

The inner axle seal position is different on a 44 then a 60 axle. Be sure to use the correct in staller, if wrong installer is use axle will not seal.
SHIFT MOTOR LOCATION

(8) Insert the axle shaft into the tube. Engage the splined-end of the shaft with the shift collar. Refer to Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft in this section. (9) Install the vacuum motor housing. Refer to Shift Motor Installation in this section. STEERING KNUCKLE AND BALL STUDS Ball Stud service procedures below require removal of the hub bearing and axle shaft. Removal and in stallation of upper and lower ball studs requires Spe cial Tools.
knuckle removal

5041-44

SPECIAL TOOL 5041-3

5041-2 J9402-22

Fig. 14 Inner axle seal installation 44 axle

(1) Remove hub bearing and axle shaft. Refer to the Removal procedures in this Group. (2) Remove tie-rod or drag link end from the steer ing knuckle arm. Remove the ABS sensor wire and bracket from knuckle. (3) Remove the cotter pin from the upper ball stud nut. Remove the upper and lower ball stud nuts. (4) Strike the steering knuckle with a brass ham mer to loosen. Remove knuckle from axle tube yokes.
UPPER BALL STUD REPLACEMENT 44 AXLE

(5) Insert the intermediate axle shaft into the dif ferential side gear. (6) Install the shift collar on the splined end of the intermediate axle shaft. (7) Lubricate the splined end of the intermediate axle shaft with multi-purpose lubricant.
CAUTION:Apply all-purpose lubricant to the axle shaft splines to prevent damage to the seal during axle shaft installation.

(1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig. 16). (2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. 17).
LOWER BALL STUD REPLACEMENT 44 AXLE

(1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig. 18). (2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. 19).

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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Fig. 17 Upper Ball Stud Install

Fig. 19 Lower Ball Stud Install

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U P P E R BALL STUD REPLACEMENT 60 AXLE

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


KNUCKLE

2 - 31

(1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig. 20).

SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F SPECIAL TOOL 6756 SPECIAL TOOL 6757 SPECIAL TOOL 6757 SPECIAL TOOL 6756

KNUCKLE

SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F Fig. 22 Lower Ball Stud Remove J9402-38 Fig. 20 Upper Ball Stud Remove

J9402-40

(2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. 23).


KNUCKLE

(2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. 21).


SPECIAL l O O l

SPECIAL TOOL 6759 SPECIAL TOOL 6758 SPECIAL TOOL 6760

KNUCKLE

SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F Fig. 23 Lower Ball Stud Install KNUCKLE J9402-39 Fig. 2f Upper Ball Stud Install INSTALLATION MODEL 44

J9402-41

LOWER

BALL

STUD

REPLACEMENT

60

AXLE

(1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig. 22).

(1) Position the steering knuckle on the ball studs. (2) Install and tighten lower ball stud nut to 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs.) torque. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin. (3) Install and tighten upper ball stud nut to 101 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) torque. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin.

2 - 32

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

B R

(4) Install the Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft. Refer to the installation procedure. (5) Install tie-rod or drag link end onto the steer ing knuckle arm. Install the ABS sensor wire and bracket to the knuckle, refer to Group 5, Brakes for proper set-up.
KNUCKLE

INSTALLATION

MODEL

BO

(1) Position the steering knuckle on the ball studs. (2) Install and tighten lower ball stud nut to 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) torque. Do not install cotter pin at this time. (3) Install and tighten upper ball stud nut to 94 N-m (70 ft. lbs.) torque. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin. (4) Retorque lower ball stud nut to 190 - 217 N-m (140 - 160 ft. lbs.) torque. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin. (5) Install the Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft. Refer to the installation procedure. (6) Install tie-rod or drag link end onto the steer ing knuckle arm. Install the ABS sensor wire and bracket to the knuckle, refer to Group 5, Brakes for proper set-up.

Fig. 25 Spread Differential Housing

stud. Load the indicator plunger against the opposite side of the housing (Fig. 25) and zero, the indicator.
CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.38 mm (0.015 in.). If the housing is spread too much, it could be dis torted or damaged.

DIFFERENTIAL REiOWAL
To service the differential the axle assembly and axle shafts must be removed. Refer to the removal procedures in this Group. (1) Note the installation reference letters stamped on the bearing caps and housing ma chined sealing surface (Fig. 24).

(5) Separate the housing a maximum of 0.38 mm (0.015 in.). Measure the distance with the dial indi cator (Fig. 25). (6) Remove the dial indicator. (7) Pry the differential case loose from the housing. To prevent damage, pivot on housing with the end of the pry bar against spreader (Fig. 26).
DIFFERENTIAL PRY BAR

Fig. 24 Bearing Cap identification

(2) Remove the differential bearing caps. (3) Position Spreader W-129-B with the tool dowel pins seated in the locating holes (Fig. 25). Install the holddown clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle fin ger-tight. (4) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ ential housing. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot

Fig. 26 Differential Removal

(8) Remove the case from housing. Mark or tag bearing cups indicating which side they were re moved. Remove spreader from housing.

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 - 33

AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL (1) Remove the axle shaft seal from the differential housing with a long drift or punch. B e careful not to damage housing. (2) Clean the inside perimeter of the differential housing with fine crocus cloth. (3) Apply a light film of oil to the inside lip of the new axle shaft seal. (4) Install the inner axle seal (Fig. 27) 44 axle (Fig. 28) 60 axle.
DIFFERENTIAL ^ HOUSING POSITION FOR OPEN-END

Fig. 29 Differential Bearing Removal


5041-7 J9402-21

Fig. 27 Axle seal installation 44 axle


DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING POSITION

Fig. 30 Ring Gear Removal


SPECIAL TOOL 5041-7

Jf402-20

Fig. 28 Axle seal installation 60 axle

DIFFERENTIAL DISASSEMBLY (1) Remove the bearings from the differential case with Bearing Splitter 1130, Bearing Splitter Bridge 938 and button. On 44 axle use Button C-293-3 on 60 axle use Button DD-914-42 (Fig. 29). (2) Remove bearing shims from case hubs and mark them (with hub identity) for assembly refer ence. Record the thickness of the shims. (3) Clamp the differential case in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Remove and discard the ring gear bolts. Tap the ring gear with a rawhide or plastic mallet and remove (Fig. 30).

(4) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft roll pin and shaft. (5) Rotate the differential side gears and remove the pinion mate gears and thrust washers (Fig. 31). (7) Remove the differential side gears and thrust washers. (8) Remove the case from the vise. PINION REMOVAL/DISASSEMBLY (1) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. Use yoke Holder C3281 and yoke Remover C-452 to re move pinion yoke (Fig. 32). (2) Drive out pinion gear from housing with raw hide or plastic hammer (Fig. 33). Catch the pinion with your hand to prevent it from falling and being damaged.

2 - 34
THRUST WASHER

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR
RAWHIDE

MATE'GEAR

SIDE GEAR .

J9203-61 Fig. 33 Remove Pinion Gear

Fig. 31 Pinion Mate Gear Removal

C-452 Fig. 32 Pinion Yoke Removal

J9102-31

(3) Remove the pinion gear seal with a slide ham mer or pry out with bar. (4) Remove oil slinger, front bearing. (5) Remove the front pinion bearing cup with Han dle C-4171 and Remover D-147 for 44 axle. Use Han dle C-4171 and Remover D-158 for 60 axle (Fig. 34). (6) Remove the rear bearing cup with Handle C-4171 and Remover D-148 for 44 axle. Use Handle C-4171 and Remover D-162 for 60 axle (Fig. 35). (7) Remove the collapsible preload spacer (Fig. 36). (8) Remove the inner bearing from the pinion with Bearing Splitter 1130 and Bearing Splitter Bridge 938 (Fig. 37). (9) Remove the oil slinger (select thickness-produc tion) from the pinion gear shaft. Record the thick ness of slinger.

Fig. 34 Front Bearing Cup Removal

CLEANING/INSPECTION Wash differential components with cleaning solvent and dry with compressed air. Do not steam clean the differential components. Wash bearings with solvent and towel dry, do not dry with compressed air. Cup and bearing must be replaced as matched sets only. Clean the axle shaft tubes with a stiff wire brush or clean cloth. Clean oil channels in housing. Inspect the components for;

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 - 31

J9302-23
Fig. 35 Rear Bearing Cup Removal Fig. 37 Inner Bearing Removal

Ring gear for damaged bolt threads. -Replaced as a matched set only. Pinion yoke for cracks, worn splines, pitted areas, and a rough/corroded seal contact surface. Repair or replace as necessary. Preload shims for damage and distortion. Install new shims if necessary. DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY (1) Install the following components in the differ ential case. Differential side gears and thrust washers Pinion gears and thrust washers Pinion gear mate shaft (align holes in shaft and case) Pinion gear mate shaft roll pin if replacement gears and thrust washers were installed, it is not necessary to measure the gear backlash. Correct fit is due to close ma chining tolerances during manufacture. (2) Invert the differential case and start two ring gear bolts. This will provide case-to-ring gear bolt hole alignment. (3) Install new ring gear bolts and alternately tighten to 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft. lbs.) torque for Model 44 axle. Model 60 axle tighten to 163-193 N-m (120-140 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig. 38). (4) Lubricate all differential components with a light coat of grease or hypoid gear lubricant. PINION GEAR DEPTH INFORMATION Ring and pinion gears are supplied as matched sets only. The identifying numbers for the ring and pinion gear are etched into the face of each gear (Fig. 39). A

Fig.

36

Collapsible

Spacer

Smooth appearance with no broken/dented sur faces on the bearing rollers or the roller contact sur faces Bearing cups must not be distorted or cracked Machined surfaces should be smooth and without any raised edges Raised metal on shoulders of cup bores should be removed with a hand stone Wear and damage to pinion gear mate shaft, pin ion gears, side gears and thrust washers. Replace as a matched set only. Ring and pinion gear for worn and chipped teeth

2 - 36

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


TORQUE WRENCH

mm
INNER PINION SEARING

RING GEAR BOLT

. rON END CENTERLINE OF RING GEAR

J9403-56 Fig. 40 Pinion Gear Standard Depth/Distance

J9202-77 Fig. 38 Ring Gear Bolt Installation

plus (+) number, minus (-) number or zero (0) is etched into the face of the pinion gear. This number is the amount (in thousandths of an inch) the depth varies from the standard depth setting of a pinion etched with a (0). The standard setting from the cen terline of the ring gear to the back face of the pinion is; Model 44 axle: 109.5 mm (4.312 inches) Fig. 40. Model 60 axle: 127 mm (5.000 inches) Fig. 40. The standard depth provides the best teeth contact pattern.
PRODUCTION NUMBERS DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE

Compensation for depth variance is achieved by a selected thickness oil slinger (production) or shims (service). The slinger is placed between the inner pin ion bearing cone and gear head (Fig. 41). The shim pack is placed under the inner (rear) bearing cup. To change the pinion adjustment, shims are available in thicknesses of 0.003, 0.005, and 0.010 inch. If equipped, the oil slinger or baffle must be mea sured and the thickness included with the total shim pack.
HOUSING SHIM PACK (SELECT THICKNESS) SERVICE COLLAPSIBLE SPACER REAR (INNER) BEARING CUP

REAR (INNER) BEARING CONE

GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR NUMBER) Fig. 39 Pinion Gear ID Numbers

PINION GEAR HEAD J9003-100

OIL SLINGER (SELECT THICKNESS) PRODUCTION J9302-32 Fig. 41 Shim and Slinger Location

THE BUTTON END ON THE PINION GEAR HEAD IS NO LONGER A MACHINED-TO-SPECIFICATIONS SURFACE. DO NOT USE THIS SUR FACE FOR PINION DEPTH SET-UP OR CHECKING (Fig. 40).

If a new gear set is being installed, note the number etched into both pinion gears. Add or subtract the thickness of original depth shims to compensate for the difference in depth vari ances. Refer to the Depth Variance charts.

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


PINION Original Pinion Gear Depth Variance GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE

2 - 37

Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance _4 + 0.008 -3 + 0.007 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -2 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -1 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003

+ 1" + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005

+2 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006

+3 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007

+4 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 J8902-46

+ 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004

+3 +2 +1

+ 0.007 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0

-1 -2 -3 -4

Note where Old and New Pinion Marking columns intersect. Intersecting figure represents plus or mi nus amount needed. For example, if old pinion is plus (+) 1 and the new pinion is minus (-) 3, intersecting figure is (+)0.004 inch (0.10mm). Add this amount to the original shim. Or if the old pinion is (-) 3 and the new pinion is (-) 2, intersecting figure is (-)O.OOl inch (0.025mm). Sub tract this amount from original shim. Refer to the Pinion Gear Depth Variance Chart. DIFFERENTIAL AND PINION MEASUREMENT
DIFFERENTIAL MEASUREMENT ZERO END PLAY

(1) Place Master Differential Bearing D-345 for 44 axle or D-343 for 60 axle on the case hubs (Fig. 42). (2) Install a pilot stud at the right side of housing. Attach Dial Indicator to the pilot stud. Load indica tor plunger against the back of trie ring gear (Fig.
43).

J9402-64 Fig. 42 Master Bearing Tools On Hubs PINION GEAR DEPTH MEASUREMENT

(3) Insert a small pry bar between the bearing cap and left side of differential case. Pry the case as far as possible to right side (Fig. 43). Zero the dial indi cator pointer. (4) Pry the case to left side and record the travel distance. The measurement above is the shim thickness necessary for case zero end-play. The total thickness will be determined during the ring gear backlash adjustment. (5) Remove indicator and pilot stud.

Pinion gear depth measurement is necessary when; Axle housing or differential case is replaced Pinion select shim pack is unknown Ring and pinion gears are replaced Measurements are done with pinion cups and pin ion bearings installed in housing. Take measure-

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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Fig. 45 Pinion Height Block

axle sizes. Pick correct size step for axle being serviced.
Fig. 43 Differential Case End Play Measurement

merits with Pinion Gauge Set 6730. Use Pinion Block from gauge set 6734 for 44 axle or 6736 for 60 axle (Fig. 44).
DIAL INDICATOR

Fig. 46 Gauge Tools In Housing

ARBOR DISC J9403-45 Fig. 44 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge Tools

(1) Assemble Pinion Gauge Set, Pinion Block and pinion bearings. Install assembly into differential pinion gear bore and hand tighten cone (Fig. 45). (2) Place Arbor Disc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 and po sition in the bearing cradles (Fig. 46). Install differ ential bearing caps on Arbor Discs and tighten caps snug only. Arbor Discs have different steps to fit other

(3) Firmly place Scooter Block and Dial Indicator on pinion height block tool and zero the dial indicator pointer. (4) Slide the Scooter Block across the arbor while observing indicator (Fig. 47). Eecord the longest travel distance, whether inward (-) or outward (+), indicated by the pointer. Take the plunger travel indicated, plus or mi nus the variance etched in the gear. This will be the required thickness for the depth shims. (5) Measure the thickness of each depth shim with a micrometer. Combine the shims necessary for total required shim pack thickness. Include oil slinger or baffle thickness with the total shim pack thickness. (6) Remove the measurement tools from the differ ential housing.

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


INSTALLER HANDLE

2-39

Fig. 47 Pinion Gear Depth Measurement

Fig. 49 Pinion Front Bearing Cup Installation

PINION GEAR ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION (1) Place the needed shim pack thickness in the pinion gear rear bearing bore (service only). Install bearing cup with Driver Handle C-4171 and Installer D-145 for 44 axle or Installer D-lll for 60 axle (Fig. 48). Ensure cup is correctly seated.
INSTALLER

Fig. 50 Rear Bearing Installation

HANDLE

J9402-66

Fig. 48 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup Installation

(2) Install pinion front bearing cup with Handle C-4171 and Installer D-144 for 44 axle or Installer C-4203 for 60 axle (Fig. 49). Ensure cup is correctly seated. (3) If used, place the oil slinger on the pinion gear. Install rear (inner) bearing on pinion gear with In staller W-262 for 44 axle or Installer C-3095A for 60 axle (Fig. 50). Use press and installer for this opera tion.

(4) Install a new collapsible preload spacer on pin ion shaft. (Fig. 51). (5) Install pinion front bearing and oil slinger. Ap ply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pin ion seal. Install seal with Handle C-4171 and Installer D-163 for 44/60 axle. (6) Install pinion gear into differential housing. (7) Install yoke with Holder 6719 and Installer W-162D for 44 axle. Installer C-3716A for 60 axle (Fig. 52). (8) Install the yoke washer AND A NEW NUT on the pinion gear. Tighten the nut to; Model 44: 258 N-m (190 ft. lbs.) Model 60: 291 N-m (215 ft. lbs.)

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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(9) Use Holder 6719 to retain the yoke (Fig. 53). Slowly tighten the nut in small increments until the rotating torque is achieved. Measure the preload torque frequently to avoid over -tightening the nut.

Fig. 51 Collapsible
YOKE

Preload

Spacer

Fig. 53 Tightening Pinion Nut

(10) Check bearing preload torque with an inch pound torque wrench (Fig. 54). The torque necessary to rotate the pinion gear should be; Original Bearings: 1 to 3 N-m (10 to 20 in. lbs.). New Bearings: 2.26 to 4.52 N-m (20 to 40 in. lbs.). DIFFERENTIAL SHIM PACI MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT (1) Place Master Differential Bearing D-345 for 44 axle or D-343 for 60 axle on the case hubs. (2) Place Differential assembly in the housing. As semble Differential bearing caps. (3) Install a pilot stud at the left side of housing. Attach Dial Indicator to housing. Load the indicator plunger against the back of the ring gear (Fig. 55). Ensure ring and pinion gear teeth are tightly meshed. Zero the indicator. (4) Insert a small pry bar between the bearing cap and left side of differential case. Pry the case as far as possible to right side. Zero the dial indicator pointer. (5) Repeat the measurement several times to check consistency. Record the travel distance. The measurement above shows shim thick ness necessary to eliminate ring gear backlash. Subtract this thickness from case zero end-play

J9402-61
Fig. 52 Pinion Yoke Installation

CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload torque and never ex ceed specified preload torque. If preload torque is

exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be in stalled. The torque sequence will have to be re
peated.

The specified preload torque should not exceed; Model 44: 393 N-m (290 ft. lbs.) Model 60: 426 N-m (315 ft. lbs.)

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


For Example: Indicator Reading Indicator Reading LESS PINION WITH PINION 0.085 in. 0.055 in.

2 - 41

total total .

BALANCE OF SHIM PACK

0.030 in.

total,

Place BALANCE of shims at opposite side of ring gear ADD an additional 0.015 in. shim to opposite side of ring gear for bearing preload Ring Gear Side (Flange Side) Opposite Side Opposite Side Preload J9303-10 Fig. 54 Check Pinion PRY BAR DIAL INDICATOR TOOLC-3339
Gear Torque

0.055 i n . ^ 0.030 i n . - * 0.015 in. 0.045 in. Calculations J9302-65

Total Opposite Side Fig. 56 Shim Pack

ing Installer C-3716A for 44 axle. Use Bearing Installer C-4190 for 60 axle. (10) Position the remaining zero end-play shims on hub at opposite side of case. Include an additional 0.015 in. (0.38 mm) thick shim on this hub. This will provide the required differential bearing preload. (11) Install bearing on the hub with Driver Handle C-4171 and Bearing Installer C-3716A for 44 axle. Use Bearing Installer C-4190 for 60 axle. (12) Match each bearing cup with bearing (origi nal). Install the cups on the bearings. DIFFERENTIAL INSTALLATION (1) Position Spreader W-129-B with the tool dowel pins seated in the locating holes (Fig. 57). Install the holddown clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle fin ger-tight. (2) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ ential housing. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud. Load the indicator plunger against the opposite _ side of the housing and zero the indicator.
CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.38 mm (0.015 in). If the housing is over-separated, it could be distorted or damaged.

IJ9003-99 Fig. 55 Shim Pack Measurement

shim thickness (Fig. 56). The shims must be placed at the ring gear side between the case and bearing. (6) Remove indicator and pilot stud. (7) Remove the differential case from housing. (8) Remove the master bearing tools from the dif ferential case hubs. (9) Position the backlash shims (with determined thickness) on case hub (ring gear side). Install bear ing on the hub with Driver Handle C-4171 and Bear-

(3) Separate the housing enough to install the case in the housing. Measure the distance with the dial indicator (Fig. 57). (4) Remove the dial indicator. (5) Install case in the housing. Tap the differential case to ensure the bearings are fully seated. Remove the spreader.

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SPECIAL TOOL | DECREASE SHIM FOR MORE BACKLASH

BR

INCREASE SHIM

Fig. 57 Spread Differential Housing

(6) Install the bearing caps at their original loca tions. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs.) torque. BACKLASH AND CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS (1) Rotate assembly several revolutions to seat bearings. Measure backlash at three equally spaced locations around the ring gear with a dial indicator (Fig. 58).

^ FOR LESS BACKLASH

J9302-28

Fig. 59 Backlash Shim Adjustment

The ring gear teeth contact patterns will show if the pinion gear depth shim(s) have the correct thick ness. It will also show if the ring gear backlash has been adjusted correctly. The backlash must be main tained within the specified limits until the correct tooth contact patterns are obtained. (2) Apply a thin coat of hydrated ferric oxide to the drive and coast side of the ring gear. (3) Rotate the ring gear several revolutions in both directions while a load is being applied. Insert a pry bar between the differential housing and the case flange. This action will produce distinct contact pat terns on both the drive side and coast side of the ring gear teeth. (4) Note patterns in compound. Refer to (Fig. 60) for interpretation of contact patterns and adjust ac cordingly.

Fig. 58 Ring Gear Backlash

Measurement

The ring gear backlash must be within 0.005 0.008 inch (0.12 - 0.20 mm). It cannot vary more than 0.002 inch (0.05 mm) between the points checked. If backlash must be adjusted, transfer shims from one side of carrier to the other side. Adjust the back lash accordingly (Fig. 59). DO NOT INCEEASE THE TOTAL SHIM PACK THICKNESS, EXCES SIVE BEARING PRELOAD AND DAMAGE MAY OCCUR. If the mesh and backlash steps have been followed in the procedures above, good gear teeth contact pat terns should exist.

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FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE

2 - 43

DRIVE SIDE OF RING GEAR TEETH

COAST SIDE OF RING GEAR TEETH

H E E ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ T O E

T O E ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ HEEL

DESIRABLE CONTACT PATTERN. PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE DRIVE SIDE OF T O O T H . PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE COAST SIDE OF T O O T H , BUT MAY BE SLIGHTLY TOWARD THE TOE. THERE SHOULD ALWAYS BE'SOME CLEARANCE BETWEEN CONTACT PATTERN A N D TOP OF THE T O O T H .

RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. THINNER PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.

RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. THICKER PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.

PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. DECREASE RING GEAR BACKLASH.

Ha

PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. INCREASE RING GEAR BACKLASH.

J9003-24

Fig. 60 Gear Tooth Contact Patterns

2 - 44

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SEALING

BR

FINAL ASSEMBLY (1) Install the axle shafts. Refer to Axle Shaft In stallation in this Group. (2) Scrape the residual sealant from the housing and cover mating surfaces. Clean the mating surfaces with mineral spirits. Apply a bead of MOPAR Sili cone Rubber Sealant on the housing cover (Fig. 61). Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. Install the housing cover within 5 minutes af ter applying the sealant. If not installed the sealant must be removed and another bead ap plied. (3) Install the cover on the differential with the at taching bolts. Install the identification tag. Tighten the cover bolts to; Model 44: 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. * Model 60: 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) torque.
CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating.

CONTOUR OF BEAD

(4) Refill the differential housing with the specified quantity of MOPAR Hypoid Gear Lubricant. (5) Install the fill hole plug and tighten to 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs.) torque.

Fig. 61 Typical Housing Cover With Sealant

AXLE

SPECIFICATIONS

MODEL 44 FRONT AXLE Axle Type Hypoid Lubricant .....Thermal Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 2.28 L (4.8 pts.) Axle Ratio... ...3.54 3.55 3.92 4.09 Ring Gear Diameter 215.9 mm (8.50 in.) Pinion Standard Setting 109.5 mm (4.312 in.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-2 N-m (10-20 in. lbs.) New Bearing 2.3-4.5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs.)

MODEL I I FRONT AXLE Axle Type ............. ...Hypoid Lubricant Thermal Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity... ...3.61 L (122 oz.) Axle Ratio 3.54 4.10 Ring Gear Diameter 247.6 mm (9.75 in.) Pinion Standard Setting 127 mm (5.000 in.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing ..1-2 N-m (10-20 in. lbs.) New Bearing .2.3-4.5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs.)

BR TORQUE

FRONT SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SPECIFICATIONS

2 - 45

LINK/COIL FRONT SUSPENSION COMPONENTS


DESCRIPTION TORQUE

MODEL 44 AXLE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE

Shock Absorber Upper Nut Lower Bolt Bracket Suspension Arm Upper Axle Nut Frame Nut Suspension Arm Lower Axle Nut Frame Nut Stabilizer Bar Clamp Bolt Link Upper Nut Link Lower Nut Track Bar Ball Stud Nut Axle Bracket Bolt

41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) 135 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) 121 N-m (89 ft. lbs.) 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) 149 N-m (110 ft. lbs.) 119 N-m (88 ft. lbs.) 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) 37 N-m (27 ft. lbs.) 118 N-m (87 ft. lbs.) 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs.) 176 N-m (130 ft. lbs.)

Fill Hole Plug 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs.) Diff. Cover Bolt 42 N-m (31 ft. lbs.) Bearing Cap Bolt 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs.) Pinion Nut 258-393 N-m (190-290 ft.lbs.) Ring Gear Bolt 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft. lbs.) Shift Motor Bolt 11 N-m (8 ft. lbs.) Axle Nut 237 N-m (175 ft. lbs.) Wheel Brg. Bolt 170 N-m (125 ft. lbs.) Lower Ball Stud 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs.) Upper Ball Stud 101 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) RWAL/ABS Sensor Bolt 11 N-m (96 in. lbs.) MODEL 60 AXLE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE

IFS FRONT SUSPENSION COMPONENTS


DESCRIPTION TORQUE

Shock Absorber Upper Nut Lower Bolt Lower Suspension Arm Bolts Ball Stud Nut Upper Suspension Arm Bolts Ball Stud Nut Stabilizer Bar Clamp Bolt Link Nuts

41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) 135 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) 203 N-m (150 ft. lbs.) 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) 244 N-m (180 ft. lbs.) 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs.)

Fill Hole Plug 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs.) Diff. Cover Bolt 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) Bearing Cap Bolt 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs.) Pinion Nut 292-427 N-m (215-315 ft.lbs.) Ring Gear Bolt 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft. lbs.) Shift Motor Bolt 11 N-m (8 ft. lbs.) Axle Nut 237 N-m (175 ft. lbs.) Wheel Brg. Bolt 170 N-m (125 ft. lbs.) Lower Ball Stud 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs.) Upper Ball Stud 101 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) RWAL/ABS Sensor Bolt 11 N-m (96 in. lbs.)

E3R

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 -1

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


CONTENTS page page

9 1/4 AXLE SERVICE PROCEDURES AXLE NOISE/VIBRATION DIAGNOSIS AXLE SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION MODEL 60, 70 and 80 AXLE SERVICE PROCEDURES

10 6 51 1 24

REAR SUSPENSION2WD and 4WD VEHICLES TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS TRAC-LOK/POWER-LOK DIFFERENTIAL

4 52 43

GENERAL

INFORMATION

SUSPENSION Rear suspensions are comprised of (Fig. Drive axle Leaf springs Dual-action shock absorbers Jounce bumpers
EYE BOLT JOUNCE BUMPER

l);

EYE BOLT

SHACKLE SPRING CLAMP Jf403-55 (Typical)

spection and service without removing the axle from the vehicle. The axle are equipped with a remote vent fitting. A stamped metal axle gear ratio identification tag is attached to the housing cover. The rear wheel anti-lock (RWAL) or four wheel an ti-lock (ABS) brake speed sensor is mounted on top of the differential housing. A seal is located between the sensor and the wire harness connector. The seal must be in-place when the wire connector is connected to the sensor. The RWAL/ABS brake ex citer ring is press-fitted onto the differential case against the flange. A limited-slip differential is available for all rear axles. The Model 70 uses a Power-Lok differential with a two-piece case. The Model 60, 80 and 9 1/4 use a Trac-Lok differential. The Trac-Lok differen tial uses a one-piece case for the 9 1/4 and Model 60 axles and a two-piece case for the Model 80.
[IDENTIFICATION

SWING CLAMP PLATE

Fig. 1 Rear Suspension

The Ram Truck is equipped with leaf-type rear springs. The springs have a rubber bushing pressed into their main leaf front and rear eye. Model 1500, 2500 and 3500 vehicle have two stage leaf spring. The 3500 cab-chassis vehicles have a single stage spring with a auxiliary spring. The spring assemblies are serviced as a complete unit. AXLES The 9 1/4-Inch and Model 60, 70 and 80 axle hous ings consist of a cast iron center section. They also have two steel axle shaft tubes that are pressed into and welded to the differential housing. The removable steel cover provides a means for in

The axle differential covers can be used for identi fication (Fig. 2, 3 and 4). Model 60 70 and 80 axles have the gear ratio listed on a tag. The tag is attached to the left side of the housing cover (Fig. 3, 4). Build date identification codes on axles are stamped on the axle shaft tube cover side.
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION

The differential gear system divides the torque be tween the axle shafts. It allows the axle shafts to ro tate at different speeds when turning corners. Each differential side gear is splined to an axle shaft. The pinion gears are mounted on a pinion mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. The pinion gear is fitted in a bore in the differential case and is positioned at a right angle to the axle shafts.

3 -2

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


IDENTIFICATION TAG

^
DIFFERENTIAL COVER

BR

FILL PLUG

DIFFERENTIAL COVER

PUSH-IN FILL PLUG

IDENTIFICATION

J9203-32 Fig. 2 Differential Cover9 1/4 inch DIFFERENTIAL COVER FILL PLUG
Axle

TAG

J9403-54

Fig. 4 Model 70 and 80 Differential Cover

divided and distributed equally between the two side gears. As a result, the pinion gears revolve with the pinion mate shaft but do not rotate around it (Fig. 5). When turning corners, the outside wheel must
IN STRAIGHT AHEAD DRIVING EACH WHEEL ROTATES AT 100% OF CASE SPEED

IDENTIFICATION TAG Fig. 3 Model 60 Differential Cover

PINION GEARS ROTATE WITH CASE J9202-23

J9303-13

Fig. 5 Differential OperationStraight-Ahead Driving

In operation, power flow occurs as follows: Pinion gear rotates the ring gear Ring gear (bolted to the differential case) rotates the case Differential pinion gears (mounted on the pinion mate shaft in the case) rotate the side gears Side gears (splined to the axle shafts) rotate the shafts During straight-ahead driving, the differential pin ion gears do not rotate on the pinion mate shaft. This occurs because input torque applied to the gears is

travel a greater distance than the inside wheel in or der to complete a turn. The difference must be com pensated for, to prevent the tires from scuffing and skidding through turns. To accomplish this, the dif ferential allows the axle shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fig. 6). In this instance, the input torque ap plied to the pinion gears is not divided equally. The pinion gears now rotate around the pinion mate shaft in opposite directions. This allows the side gear and axle shaft attached to the outside wheel to rotate at a faster speed.

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REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3- 3

j AXLE < c f OUTER WHEEL 100% DIFFERENTIAL 110% CASE SPEED CASE SPEED _/

j INNER WHEEL 90% CASE SPEED /

LUBRICANTS Multi-purpose, hypoid gear ' lubricant should' be used for rear axles with standard differential. The lu bricant should have a API GL 5 quality specifica tions. The lubricant recommended for Track-Lok and Power-Lok differential is API grade GL 5. Friction modifier must also be added to the lubricant. Refer to Group 0, Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information. If the rear axle is submerged in water, the lu bricant must be replaced immediately. Avoid axle failure resulting from water contamination of the lubricant.

Fig. 6 Differential OperationOn Turns

3 -4

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE R E A R SUSPENSION2WD and 4WD VEHICLES

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SPRING AND SHOCK DIAGNOSIS A squeak noise from shock absorber or spring bush ings can be caused if movement between rubber bushings and metal occurs. This noise can usually be stopped by tightening the attaching nuts. If the noise persists, inspect for damaged or worn bushings and attaching components. The shock absorber bushings do not require any type of lubrication. Do not lubricate the bushings to reduce bushing noise. Grease or mineral oil-base lu bricants will deteriorate the bushing rubber. The shock absorbers are not refillable or adjust able. If a malfunction occurs, the shock absorber must be replaced. To test a shock absorber, hold it in an upright position and force the piston into and out of the cylinder four or five times. The action through out each stroke should be smooth and even. The spring eye and shock absorber bushings do not require any type of lubrication. Do not attempt to stop spring bushing noise by lubricating them. Grease and mineral oil-base lubricants will deterio rate the bushing rubber. If the vehicle is used for severe off-road operation, the springs should be examined periodically. Check for broken or shifted leafs, loose missing clips and broken center spring bolts. VEHICLE LOADING AND WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION A vehicle should always be loaded so the vehicle weight center-line is located immediately forward of the rear axle. Correct vehicle loading provides proper front tire-to-road contact. This results in maximum vehicle handling stability and safety. Refer to Spring and Shock Absorber Diagnosis chart for further infor mation. Incorrect weight distribution should be con sidered as a possible cause for erratic steering, spring failure or tire wear. SHOCK ABSORBER The shock absorbers are mounted with the right shock mounted forward of the axle and left shock mounted rearward. REMOVAL

(2) Install bolts through the brackets and shock. Install flag nut on top bolt and nut on lower bolt. (5) Tighten upper bolt to 95 N-m (70 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten lower bolt to 136 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) torque. (6) Remove the support and lower vehicle. SPFtiNGS
REMOVAL

(1) Raise vehicle and support axle to remove all weight from springs. (2) Remove the nuts and spring clamp bolts that attach the spring to the axle (Fig. 1, 2, 3,). (3) Remove the nuts and bolts from the spring front and rear shackle eyes. Note:To remove front eye bolt on left side spring, fuel tank must be removed. Refer to Group 14 for fuel tank proce dure. (4) Remove spring from vehicle. (5) Remove shackle from spring.

Fig. 1 Rear Spring4X2 INSTALLATION

(1) Raise vehicle and support axle. (2) Remove the bolt and flag nut from the frame crossmember bracket. (3) Remove the bolt and nut from the axle bracket. (4) Remove the rear shock absorber from the vehi cle. INSTALLATION (1) Position shock absorber in brackets.

(1) Install shackle on rear spring eye and install bolt and nut. (2) Position spring on axle shaft tube so spring center bolt is inserted into the locating hole in the axle tube spring pad or spacer. (3) Align spring front eye with bolt hole in the front bracket. Install the eye pivot bolt and nut. (4) Align shackle eye with bolt hole in rear bracket. Install bolt and nut. (5) Tighten the spring front and rear eye pivot bolt snug do not torque. (6) Install spring clamp bolts and the retaining nuts (Figs. 1, 2, 3, ).

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REAR SUSPENSION AND AILE

3- 5

(7) Align the auxiliary spring with the primary spring if equipped. Tighten the nuts until they force the plate flush against the axle tube. (8) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle so that the weight is being supported by the tires. (9) On 6,010 to 10,500 GVW vehicles, tighten the spring clamp retaining nuts to 149 N-m (110ft.lbs.) torque. On 11,000 GVW cab-chassis vehicles tighten nuts to 163 N-m (120 ft. lbs.) torque. (10) On 6,010 to 7,500 GVW vehicles, tighten spring front and rear eye pivot bolt nuts and shackle eye to 136 N-m (100 ft. lbs.) torque. On 8,800 to 11,000 GVW vehicles, tighten nuts to 190 N-m (140 ft. lbs.) torque.
1 6 1 Fig. 2 Rear Spring4X4

Fig.

3 Rear SpringCab-Chassis

11000 GVW

3 -6

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


AXLE HOISE/VIBRATION DIAGNOSIS

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INDEX
page Driveline Snap Gear and Bearing Noise General Information Limited Slip Differential 7 6 6 7 Low Speed Knock Rear Axle Alignment Vibration page 7 7 7

GENERAL INFORMATION Axle bearing problem conditions are usually caused by: Insufficient or incorrect lubricant Foreign matter/water contamination Incorrect bearing preload torque adjustment When serviced, the bearings must be cleaned thor oughly. They should be dried with lint-free shop tow els. Never spin bearings with compressed air. This will overheat them and brinell the bearing surfaces. This will result in noisy operation af ter repair. Axle gear problem conditions are usually the result of: Insufficient lubrication Incorrect or contaminated lubricant Overloading (excessive engine torque) Incorrect clearance or backlash adjustment Insufficient lubrication is usually the result of a housing cover leak. It can also be from worn axle shaft or pinion gear seals. Check for cracks or porous areas in the housing or tubes. Using the wrong lubricant or over filling will cause overheating and gear failure. Gear tooth cracking and bearing spalling are indicators of this. Axle component breakage is most often the result of: Severe overloading Insufficient lubricant Incorrect lubricant Improperly tightened components Common causes of overloading is from full-throttle acceleration. Overloading happens when towing heavier-than-recommended loads. Component break age can occur when the wheels are spun excessively. Insufficient or incorrect lubricants contribute to breakage through overheating. Loose differential components can also cause breakage. Incorrect bearing preload or gear backlash will not result in component breakage. Mis-adjustment will produce enough noise to cause service repair before a failure occurs. If a mis-adjustment condition is not corrected, component failure can result.

GEAft AND BEARING NOISE


GEAR NOISE

Axle gear noise can be caused by insufficient lubri cant. Incorrect backlash, tooth contact, or worn/dam aged gears can cause noise. Gear noise usually happens at a specific speed range. The range is 30 to 40 mph, or above 50 mph. The noise can also occur during a specific type of driving condition. These conditions are acceleration, deceleration, coast, or constant load. When road testing, accelerate the vehicle to the speed range where the noise is the greatest. Shift out-of-gear and coast through the peak-noise range. If the noise stops or changes greatly, check for insuf ficient lubricant. Incorrect ring gear backlash, or gear damage can cause noise changes. Differential side and pinion gears can be checked by turning the vehicle. They usually do not cause noise in straight-ahead driving. These gears are loaded during vehicle turns. If noise does occur dur ing vehicle turns, the side or pinion gears could be worn or damaged. A worn pinion gear mate shaft can also cause a snapping or a knocking noise.
BEARING NOISE

The axle shaft, differential and pinion gear bear ings can all produce noise when worn or damaged. Bearing noise can be either a whining, or a growling sound. Pinion gear bearings have a constant-pitch noise. This noise changes only with vehicle speed. Pinion bearing noise will be higher because it rotates at a faster rate. Drive the vehicle and load the differen tial. If bearing noise occurs the pinion rear bearing is the source of the noise. If the bearing noise is heard during a coast, front bearing is the source. Worn, damaged differential bearings usually pro duce a low pitch noise. Differential bearing noise is similar to pinion bearing. The pitch of differential bearing noise is also constant and varies only with vehicle speed. Axle shaft bearings produce noise and vibration when worn or damaged. The noise generally changes when the bearings are loaded. Road test the vehicle. Turn the vehicle sharply to the left and to the right.

This will load the bearings' and change the noise level. Where axle bearing damage is slight, the noise is usually not noticeable at speeds above 80 mph. LOW SPEED KNOCK Low speed knock is generally caused by a worn Ujoint or by worn side-gear thrust washers. A worn pinion gear shaft bore will also cause low speed knock. WiBRAIiON Vibration at the rear of the vehicle is usually caused by a: Damaged drive shaft Missing drive shaft balance weight 3 Worn, out-of-balance wheels Loose wheel lug nuts Worn U-joint Loose spring clamp bolts ^ Loose/broken springs * Damaged axle shaft bearings Loose pinion gear nut Excessive pinion yoke run out Bent axle shaft Check for loose or damaged front end components or engine/transmission mounts. These components can contribute to what appears to be a rear end vi bration. Do not overlook engine accessories, brackets and drive belts. All driveline components should be examined be fore starting any repair. Refer to Group 22, Wheels and Tires for additional information. DRIVELINE SNAP A snap or clunk noise when the vehicle is shifted into gear (or the clutch engaged), can be caused by; High engine idle speed Loose engine/transmission/transfer case mounts o Worn U-joints Loose spring mounts Loose pinion gear nut and yoke o Excessive ring gear backlash o Excessive differential side gear-to-case clearance The source of a snap or a clunk noise can be deter mined with the assistance of a helper. Raise the ve hicle on a hoist with the wheels free to rotate. Instruct the helper to shift the transmission into gear. Listen for the noise, a mechanics stethoscope is helpful in isolating the source of a noise. REAR AXLE ALIGNMENT The following procedure can be used to determine if abnormal rear tire tread wear is the result of a bent or deformed rear axle shaft. (1) Raise both rear wheels off the surface with a frame contact hoist.

(2) Attach a one-inch long piece of masking tape at the center of each tire tread for use as reference marks. (3) Rotate the rear wheels until both reference marks face the front of the vehicle. Measure the dis tance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape. Record this measurement as the front of tire (FTR) measurement. (4) Rotate the rear wheels until both reference marks face the rear of the vehicle. Measure the dis tance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape. Record this measurement as the rear of tire (RTR) measurement. (5) Subtract the (RTR) measurement from the (FTR) measurement to obtain the amount of wheel toe. The acceptable rear wheel toe-in position is 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) to 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) toe-out. (6) Rotate the rear wheels until the reference marks are facing downward. Measure the distance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape. Record this measurement as the bottom of tire (BTR) measurement. (7) Average the (FTR) and the (RTR) distance mea surements. Subtract the (BTR) measurement from this average distance to obtain the camber. The ac ceptable amount of camber is 1/16 inch to 3/32 inch (1.6. to 2.4 mm). (FTE + BTR) DIVIDED BY 2 (TWO) MINUS BTR EQUALS CAMBER If the (BTR) distance measurement is less than the average FTR and RTR distance mea surement, the camber will be positive ( 4- ), If the (BTR) distance measurement is greater than the average FTR and RTR distance, the camber will be negative ( - ). If the toe position or camber is not acceptable, a bent or deformed rear axle shaft is most likely the cause. JMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL Under normal traction conditions, engine torque is divided evenly. With low-traction surfaces, engine torque is transferred to the wheel with the most tire traction. When diagnosing a limited-slip differential problem condition, the wheel with the least traction can continue spinning. The most common problem is a chatter noise when turning corners. Check for incorrect or contaminated lubricant. Replace the gear lubricant if necessary, o With Trac-Lok or Power-Lok differentials MO PAR friction modifier must be added to the lubricant. This will correct the condition in most instances. If the chatter persists, clutch damage could have oc curred. After changing the lubricant, drive the vehicle and make 10 to 12 slow, figure-eight turns. This maneu ver will pump lubricant through the clutches.

3 -S

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SERVICE DIAGNOSIS

mm

Condition WHEEL NOISE

Possible Cause (a) Wheel loose. (b) Faulty, brinelled wheel bearing. (a) Misaligned axle shaft tube. (b) Bent or sprung axle shaft. (c) End play in drive pinion bearings. (d) Excessive gear backlash between ring gear and pinion gear. (e) Improper adjustment of drive pinion gear shaft bearings. (!) Loose drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut. (g) Improper wheel bearing adjustment. (h) Scuffed gear tooth contact surfaces.

Correction (a) Tighten loose nuts. (b) Faulty or brinelled bearings must be replaced. (a) Inspect axle shaft tube alignment. Correct as necessary. (b) Replace bent or sprung axle shaft. (c) Refer to Drive Pinion Bearing Pre-Load Adjustment. (d) Check adjustment of ring gear backlash and pinion gear. Correct as necessary. (e) Adjust drive pinion shaft bearings. (f) Tighten drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut with specified torque. (g) Readjust as necessary. (h) If necessary, replace scuffed gears. (a) Replace broken axle shaft after correcting axle shaft tube alignment. (b) Replace broken axle shaft. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. (c) Replace broken axle shaft after inspecting for other possible causes. Avoid erratic use of clutch. (d) Replace broken axle shaft. Inspect clutch and make necessary repairs or adjustments. (a) Replace cracked case; examine gears and bearings for possible damage. At reassembly, adjust differential bearings properly. (b) Replace cracked case; examine gears and bearings for possible damage. At reassembly, adjust ring gear backlash properly. (c) Replace cracked case; examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. (d) Replace cracked case. After inspecting for other possible causes, examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid erratic use of clutch. (a) Replace scored gears. Scoring marks on the drive face of gear teeth or in the bore are caused by instantaneous fusing of the mating surfaces. Scored gears should be replaced. Fill rear differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. Refer to Specifications. (b) Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears and bearings for possible damage. Clean and refill differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. (c) Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears, pinion bores and shaft for damage. Service as necessary. (a) Drain excess lubricant by removing fill plug and allow lubricant to level at lower edge of fill plug hole.
J9003-49

AXLE SHAFT NOISE

AXLE SHAFT BROKE

(a) Misaligned axle shaft tube. (b) Vehicle overloaded. (c) Erratic clutch operation (d) Grabbing clutch.

DIFFERENTIAL CASE CRACKED

(a) Improper adjustment of differential bearings. (b) Excessive ring gear backlash.

(c) Vehicle overloaded. (d) Erratic clutch operation.

DIFFERENTIAL GEARS SCORED

(a) Insufficient lubrication.

(b) Improper grade of lubricant.

(c) Excessive spinning of one wheel/tire.

LOSS OF LUBRICANT

(a) Lubricant level too high.

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SERVICE Condition L O S S OF LUBRICANT DIAGNOSIS

m m suspension A N D axle
(CONT'D} Correction

3- 9

Possible Cause (b) Worn axle shaft seals. (c) Cracked differential housing. (d) Worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. (e) Scored and worn yoke. (!) Axle cover not properly sealed.

(Cont 'd)

(b) Replace worn seals. (c) Repair or replace housing as necessary. (d) Replace worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. (e) Replace worn or scored yoke and seal. (!) Remove cover and clean flange and reseal. (a) Refill differential housing. (b) Drain, flush and refill with correct amount of the correct lubricant. (c) Readjust bearings. (d) Inspect gears for excessive wear or scoring. Replace as necessary. (e) Readjust ring gear backlash and inspect gears for possible scoring. (a) Replace gears. Examine other gears and bearings for possible damage. Replace parts as needed. Avoid overloading of vehicle. (b) Replace gears and examine the remaining parts for possible damage. Avoid erratic clutch operation. (c) Replace gears. Examine the remaining parts for possible damage. Replace parts as required. (d) Replace gears. Examine other parts for possible damage. Ensure ring gear backlash is correct. (a) Refill axle with correct amount of the proper lubricant. Also inspect for leaks and correct as necessary. (b) Check ring gear and pinion gear teeth contact pattern.

AXLE OVERHEATING

(a) Lubricant level too low. (b) Incorrect grade of lubricant. (c) Bearings adjusted too tight. (d) Excessive gear wear. (e) Insufficient ring gear backlash,

GEAR TEETH BROKE (RING GEAR AND PINION)

(a) Overloading.

(b) Erratic clutch operation. (c) Ice-spotted pavements. (d) Improper adjustments.

AXLE NOISE

(a) Insufficient lubricant. (b) Improper ring gear and drive pinion gear adjustment. (c) Unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear.

(c) Remove unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. Replace with matched gear and drive pinion gear set. (d) Check teeth on ring gear and drive pi (d) Worn teeth on ring gear or drive nion gear for correct contact. pinion gear. If necessary, replace with new matched set. (e) Loose drive pinion gear shaft bearings. (e) Adjust drive pinion gearshaft bearing preload torque. (f) Adjust differential bearing preload (!) Loose differential bearings. torque. (g) Measure ring gear runout. (g) Misaligned or sprung ring gear. (h) Tighten with specified torque. (h) Loose differential bearing cap bolts.

J9003-50

3 -10

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE 9 1/4 A X L E S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S INDEX


page

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page Lubrication Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pinion Depth Measurement and Adjustment . . . . . . Pinion Seal Replacement 10 18 13

Axle Assembly Removal/Installation Axle Shaft, Seal and Bearing Service Differential Service Information

10 12 15 10

INFORMATION The 9 1/4 axle (Fig. 1) housing consist of a cast iron center section. They also have two steel axle shaft tubes that are pressed into and welded to the differ ential housing. The removable steel cover provides a means for in spection and service without removing the axle from the vehicle. AXLE ASSEMBLY REMOVAL/INSTALLATION It is not necessary to remove the complete axle from the vehicle for routine differential inspection and service. If the differential housing, case or axle shaft tubes are damaged the complete axle can be re moved and replaced.
REMOVAL

(12) Wash and clean the outer surface of the hous ing and tubes. Use an appropriate cleaning solution and dry the surface with compressed air.
INSTALLATION

(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Block the brake pedal in the up (non-depressed) position with a wooden block. (3) Remove the rear wheels and brake drums. (4) Disconnect the brake fluid tube fittings from the wheel cylinders. Cap the fittings to prevent loss of brake fluid. (5) Remove the vent hose from the brake tee nip ple. (6) Remove the brake tee bolt. Carefully detach the brake fluid tubes from the clips. (7) Disconnect the parking brake cables and unbolt backing plates. Mark the U-joint, pinion yoke, and pinion shaft for reference. (8) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. (9) Remove the shock absorber lower attaching nuts and bolts. (10) Support axle and remove rear spring U-bolts and the spring brackets.
WARNING:AXLE MAY ROTATE ON S U P P O R T W H E N S P R I N G C L A M P BOLTS A R E REMOVED E N S U R E A X L E IS S E C U R E D ON SUPPORT.

(1) Position the rear axle spring pads over the spring center bolts. (2) Install the spring clamp bolts and nuts, and shock absorber lower bolts. Tighten the nuts to the specified torque. (3) Connect the parking brake cables. (4) Connect the brake fluid tube fittings to the wheel cylinders. Bleed and adjust brakes refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure. (5) Align the installation reference marks and con nect the drive shaft yoke to the pinion yoke. Tighten the U-joint clamp bolts to 19-23 N-m (170-200 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (7) Remove support and lower vehicle. LUBilCATJOl CHAISE (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove the lubricant fill hole plug from the dif ferential housing cover. (3) Remove the differential housing cover. Allow the original lubricant to completely drain from the housing and axle shaft tubes. (4) With standard differential, clean differential and housing with flushing oil or light engine oil. This will remove the residual lubricant and foreign matter.Do not use water, steam, kerosene or gaso line for flushing. (5) Scrape the residual sealant from the housing and cover mating surfaces. Clean the mating surfaces with mineral spirits. Apply a bead of MOPAR Sili cone Rubber Sealant on the housing cover (Fig. 2). Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. Install the housing cover within 5 minutes af ter applying the sealant. If not installed, the sealant must be removed and another bead ap plied. (6) Install the cover on the differential. Install the identification tag. Tighten the cover bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) torque.

(11) Remove the axle assembly from the vehicle.

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HUB

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


AXLE
SHAFT DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING

3-11

FRONT BEARING VENT FITTING NUT

SEAL

AXLE SHAFT BEARING

AXLE SHAFT TUBE

BEARING CAP WASHER LOCK STUD

BOLT DIFFERENTIAL BEARING

BEARING CUP

SIDE GEAR CLIP ADJUSTER

LOCK COVER BOLT

PLUG

HOUSING COVER

BOLT

J9003-109

Fig. 1 9 1/4 Axle

3 - 12

REAR

SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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Fig. 2 Typical

Housing

Cower

Fig. 3 Pinion Mate Shaft Lock Screw

CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in the lubricant foaming and overheating.

(7) Refill the differential with the specified quan tity of MOPAR Hypoid Gear Lubricant. (8) Install the fill hole plug. AXLE SHAFT, SEAL AND BEARING SERVICE
CAUTION: When rear axle service is necessary, both rear wheels must be raised off the surface so that they are free to rotate. B e cautious when the tires are being rotated by the engine or by other means. AXLE REMOVAL

SHAFT

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove tire wheel assembly. (3) Remove the brake drum. (4) Clean all the foreign material from housing cover area. (5) Remove differential cover and drain the lubri cant from the housing. (6) Remove the lock screw and the pinion mate gear shaft from the case (Fig. 3). (7) Push the axle shaft in and remove axle shaft Cclip lock from axle shaft (Fig. 4). (8) Remove the axle shaft. Use care to prevent damage to the axle shaft bearing. (9) Inspect the axle shaft bearing contact surface area for indications of wear. If wear exists the axle shaft and bearing should be replaced. Normal bearing contact on the shaft will be a dull gray and could appear

Fig. 4 Axle Shaft C-Clip Lock

to foe lightly dented. If any of these conditions exist, the axle shaft and bearing must be re placed.
AXLE SHAFT SEAL AND BEARING REMOVAL

(1) Remove the axle shaft seal with a small pry bar (Fig. 5). (2) Remove the axle shaft bearing with Remover C-4828 (Fig. 6). (3) Inspect the axle shaft seal surface and tube bore for roughness and burrs. Polish each axle

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REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 -13

Fig. 7 Axle Shaft Seal Installation AXLE SHAFT INSTALLATION

Fig. 6 Bearing Removal

shaft with No. 600 crocus cloth. This can re move slight surface damage. Do not reduce the diameter of the axle shaft seal contact surface. When polishing, the crocus cloth should be moved around the circumference of the shaft (not in-line with the shaft).
BEARING AND SEAL INSTALLATION

(1) Lubricate the bearing bore and seal lip. Insert the axle shaft and engage the splines with the side gear. Use care to prevent the shaft splines from damaging the axle shaft seal lip. (2) Insert the C-clip lock in the recessed groove (Fig. 4). Push the axle shaft outward to seat the Cclip lock. (3) Align and install pinion gear mate shaft in the case. Align hole in shaft with lock screw hole. Install the lock screw with Loctite on the threads. Tighten the screw to 11 N-m (8 ft. lbs.) torque. (4) Clean the cover and apply a bead of sealant. Refer to the Drain and Refill in this section. (5) Install the brake drum. (6) Install the wheel and tire assembly. (7) Fill the differential with lubricant. Refer to the Specifications chart for the type and quantity. Install the fill hole plug. (8) Remove support and lower vehicle. Test the brakes and axle for correct operation. PINION SEAL REPLACEMENT
CAUTION: The following procedures must be used so the correct pinion bearing preload torque is re tained. If not completely followed, the result can be failure of the rear axle.

Always install a new seal when servicing the axle or bearing. (1) Wipe the bore in the axle shaft tube clean. (2) Install a new bearing with Installer C-4826 and Handle C-4171. Ensure that the bearing is not cocked and is seated firmly against the tube shoul der.
CAUTION: DO NOT use the new axle shaft seal to position or seat the bearing in the axle shaft bore.

REMOVAL

(3) Install the new axle shaft seal with Installer C-4826 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. 7). (4) When the tool contacts the end of the tube (face), the seal is at the correct position and depth.

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Mark the U-joint, pinion yoke, and pinion shaft for reference. (3) Disconnect t h e drive shaft from the pinion yoke. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. (4) Remove wheel and tire assemblies, and brake drums. Brake drag can cause a false bearing preload torque measurement. (5) Use a Newton-meter or an inch-pound torque

S II.

REAR SOSPENSIQM HMD AXLE

(2) Inspect the pinion yoke for cracks, worn splines and worn seal contact surface. Repair or replace the yoke as necessary. The outer perimeter of the seal is pre-coated with a special sealant additional sealant is not required. (3) Install pinion shaft seal with Installer C-4109A and Handle C-4735. Seal is correctly installed when seal flange contacts face of differential housing flange. (4) Install yoke on pinion shaft with the reference marks aligned. (5) Seat the yoke on pinion shaft with Installer W-162D and Holder 6719 (Fig. 10).
YOKE

wrench to measure the pinion bearing preload. Ro tate the pinion shaft several times with the torque
wrench. Note the indicated torque as the wrench is

moved through several revolutions. This measurement important because, bear ing preload torque must b e ' carefully re-ad
justed after t h e n e w seal i s installed.

(c) Hold yoke with Holder 6719 and remove the pinion shaft nut and Belleville washer. (7) Remove the yoke with Remover C-452 (Fig. 8).

Fig.

8 Yoke

Removal

(8) Remove the pinion shaft seal with Puller C-748 and clean seal contact surface in housing bore (Fig.
9).

J9402-61

Fig. 10 Yoke Installation

(6) Remove tools and install the Belleville washer. The convex side of the washer must face outward. (7) Hold yoke with Holder 6719 and tighten the shaft nut to 285 N-m (210 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig. 11). Rotate pinion shaft several complete revolutions to ensure the bearing rollers are seated.
CAUTION: Never loosen the pinion gear nut to de crease the pinion gear bearing preload torque. If the specified preload torque is exceeded, a new col lapsible spacer must be installed. The torque se quence will have to be repeated.
J9403-20

G748

Fig, 9

Pinion Seal

Removal

INSTALLATION
(1) Inspect splines on pinion shaft for burrs or wear, remove any burrs and clean the shaft.

(8) Continue tightening and measuring bearing preload torque until the torque is the same as origi nal measurement. The bearing preload torque should never exceed 1 N-m (10 in. lbs.) more than original value. The bearing preload torque should be con stant during a complete revolution of the pin-

en

REAR SUSPENSION AID AXLE

3 -15

Fig. 12 Ring Gear Runout

Measurement

Fig. 11 Tightening Pinion Shaft Nut i o n gear. I f preload, torque varies, t h i s indicates a b i n d i n g condition a n d must be c o r r e c t e d .

(9) The seal replacement is unacceptable if the fi nal nut torque is less than 285 N-m (210 ft. lbs.) torque. (10) Install drive shaft with the installation refer ence marks aligned. Tighten the U-joint yoke clamp screws to 19 N-m (14 ft. lbs./170 in. lbs.) torque. (11) Install the brake drums, and wheel and tire assemblies. (12) Check the differential lubricant level and add if necessary. (13) Remove support and lower vehicle. DIFFERENTIAL SERVICE
SERVICE INFORMATION

runout areas. The ring gear runout should not exceed 0.005 inch (0.13 mm). If runout exceeds 0.005 inch (0.13 mm), a damaged differential case could be the cause. The marking on the differential case will be very useful later during the differential case runout. (4) Remove RWAL/ABS sensor from housing. (5) Mark the differential housing and the differen tial bearing caps for installation reference (Fig. 13).

It is not necessary to remove the complete axle to service the differential.


DIFFERENTIAL CASE REMOVAL

(1) Remove the axle shafts, refer to Axle Shaft Re moval. Side play resulting from bearing races being loose on case hubs requires replacement of the differential case. Otherwise, use threaded ad juster to remove the side play before measuring the ring gear runout. (2) Attach Dial Indicator to Pilot stud C-3288B. Place the indicator plunger at a right angle (90) to the ring gear (Fig. 12). (3) Measure runout by turning the ring gear sev eral complete revolutions. Observe dial indicator and mark the ring gear and differential case at maximum

Fig. 13 Mark For installation

Reference

(6) Remove bearing threaded adjuster lock from each bearing cap. Loosen the bolts, but do not re move the bearing caps. (7) Loosen the threaded adjusters with Wrench
C-4164 (Fig. 14).

(8) Hold the differential case while removing bear ing caps and adjusters. (9) Remove the differential case. Each differential bearing cup and threaded adjuster must be kept with their respective bearing.

3 - 16

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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(1) Clamp the case (with the ring gear bolts facing upward). Use a vise equipped with soft jaws (brass). (2) Remove and discard the ring gear bolts. The bolts have left-hand threads. Use a hammer and a brass drift to force the ring gear loose from the case pilots. Remove the ring gear.
CASE FLANGE RUNOUT MEASUREMENT

Fig. 14 Threaded Adjuster Toot PINION GEAR SHAFT REMOVAL

(1) Remove pinion gear nut and washer. Use Puller C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke. (2) Drive pinion gear out of housing with plastic or rawhide hammer. This will damage the front bearing rollers and bearing cup. The front bearing and cup must be replaced. (3) Remove the collapsible preload spacer (4) Remove the pinion seal with Puller C-748. (5) Remove the front and rear bearing cups with Remover Set C-4306 and Handle C-4171. (6) Remove rear bearing from pinion shaft (Fig. 15). Remove and record the pinion gear depth shims.

(1) If the ring gear runout exceeded 0.005 inch (0.13 mm), case flange runout should be measured. Install the case with the bearing cups and the threaded adjusters close to their original position. (2) Install the bearing caps and bolts. Tighten the bolts lightly. Use Wrench C-4164 to thread both ad justers inward. Remove all side play. (3) Attach Dial Indicator to measure the flange runout. The plunger should contact the ring squarely between the outer edge and the gear attaching bolt holes (Fig. 16).

Fig. 16 Case Flange Runout Measurement

(4) Rotate the differential case several times and observe the dial indicator. Mark the area of maxi mum flange runout. The differential case flange runout must not exceed 0.003 inch (0.08 mm). If the runout exceeds this amount replace the differential case. To reduce ring gear runout positioning the ring gear runout mark 180 degrees opposite the flange runout mark. (5) Remove the differential bearing cap bolts. Re move the differential case from the differential hous ing.
DIFFERENTIAL Fig. 15 inner Bearing Removal RING GEAR CASE DISASSEMBLY

Do not remove ring gear from case unless runout must be measured.

(1) Rotate the side gears until the pinion gears are located at differential case opening and remove them. (2) Remove the side gears and the thrust washers. (3) Remove the differential bearings from the case hubs with Bearing Splitter Bridge 938 and Bearing Splitter 1130 (Fig. 17).

BR

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 -17

(3) After heating, quickly position the exciter ring on the differential case adjacent to the flange.
DIFFERENTIAL CASE ASSEMBLY

Fig. 17 Differentia/ Bearing CLEANING AND INSPECTION

Removal

(1) Clean all of the differential components in cleaning solvent. Allow the bearings to either air dry or dry them with a lint-free cloth. Dry the other com ponents with compressed air. (2) Examine each component for wear or damage. (3) Replace shims, bearings and cups as a set only. Replace bearings and cups if either is galled, worn, cracked, or damaged. (4) Inspect the differential side and pinion gears. Replace any gear that is worn, cracked or chipped. (5) Inspect the differential case. Replace the case if cracked or damaged. Polish each axle shaft with No. 600 crocus cloth. This can remove slight surface damage. Do not reduce the diameter of the axle shaft seal contact surface. When polishing, the crocus cloth should be moved around the circumfer ence of t h e shaft (not in-line with t h e shaft). (6) Inspect the axle shaft C-clip locks for cracks and excessive wear. Replace them if necessary. (7) Test each threaded adjuster to determine if it rotates freely. If an adjuster binds, repair the dam aged threads or replace the adjuster.
EXCITER RING REPLACEMENT

When replacing a pinion or differential bear ings always replace bearing and cup as a matched set. (1) Lubricate all the differential case components with gear lubricant. (2) Place thrust washers on differential side gears. Position the gears in the differential case counterbores. If replacement side gears or thrust washers are used, refer to Differential Side Gear Clear ance Measurement And Adjustment. (3) Position thrust washers on differential pinion gears. Mesh the pinion gears with the side gears. Ensure that the pinion gears are exactly 180 de grees opposite each other. (4) Rotate the side gears to align the pinion gears and thrust washers. Align components with the mate shaft bores in the case. ' (5) If the ring gear was removed, clean all contact surfaces. Use a fine file to remove any sharp areas from chamfered inside diameter. Heat ring gear with a heat lamp or immerse in a hot fluid. The tempera ture should not exceed 149C (300F). Do not use a torch to heat the ring. (6) Position heated gear on case. Use two equally spaced Pilot Studs C-3288B to align the gear with the flange holes (Fig. 18).
PILOT

Fig. 18 Case-To-Ring Gear Alignment

The ring gear must be removed before the RWAL/ ABS brake exciter ring can be replaced. (1) Remove exciter ring with a hammer and drift. (2) Heat the replacement exciter ring with a heat lamp or by immersing in a hot fluid. The tempera ture should not exceed 149C (300F). Do not use a torch to heat the ring.

(7) Install replacement ring gear bolts (with left hand threads). Alternately and evenly tighten each bolt to 102 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) torque.
CAUTION: When installing a differential bearing, never apply force to the bearing cage because bear ing damage will result.

3 -18

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

(8) Install a differential bearing on each hub with Installer C-4213 and Handle C-4171. PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT Pinion measurement are taken with C-758-D6 Tool Set (Fig. 19) with pinion bearing cups installed.
SPECIAL TOOL

Fig. 20 Gauge Block

SP-536-^

J9203-52

Fig. 19 9 1/4 Axle Pinion Adjustment Toois

(1) Install front (outer) bearing cup with Tool Set C-4306 and Handle C-4171. (2) Install rear (inner) bearing cup with Tool Set C-4306 and Handle C-4171. Position Spacer (SP-6017) over Shaft (SP-526) Position pinion rear bearing on shaft Position tools (with bearing) in the housing Install Sleeve (SP-1730) Install pinion front bearing Install Spacer (SP-6022) Install Sleeve (SP-535-A), Washer (SP-534) and Nut (SP-533) (3) Tighten the nut to seat the pinion bearings in the housing. Allow the sleeve to turn several times during the tightening to prevent brinelling the bear ing cups or the bearings. Depth shim(s) are positioned between the pin ion gear rear bearing and pinion gear to pro vide the separation distance. The required thickness of the depth shim(s) is determined ac cording to the following information. (4) Loosen the compression nut tool. Lubricate the pinion gear front and rear bearings with gear lubri cant. Re-tighten the compression nut tool to 1-3 N-m (15-25 in. lbs.) torque. Rotate the pinion gear several complete revolutions to align the bearing rollers. Install Gauge Block SP-6020 at the end of SP-526 Install Cap Screw (SP-536) and tighten with Wrench SP-531 (Fig. 20). (5) Position Crossbore Arbor SP-6018 in the differ ential housing. (6) Center the tool and place a piece of 0.002 inch shim stock at each end of the arbor. Position the

bearing caps on the arbor tool. Install the attaching bolts. Tighten the cap bolts to 14 N-m (10 ft. lbs.) torque. (7) Trial fit depth shim(s) between the crossbore arbor and gauge block (Fig. 21). The depth shim(s) fit must be snug but not tight (drag friction of a feeler gauge blade).

Fig. 21 Depth Shim(s) Selection

Depth shims are available in 0.001-inch incre ments from 0.020 inch to 0.038 inch. (8) Note the etched number on the face of the drive pinion gear (e.g., -0, -1, -2, +1, +2, etc.). The numbers represent thousands-of-an-inch deviation from the standard. If the number is - (negative) add that value to the required thickness of the depth shim(s). If the number is + (positive) subtract that value from the thickness of the depth shim(s). If the number is 0 no change is necessary. (9) Remove the tools from the differential housing. (10) Position depth shim(s) on pinion gear shaft and install rear bearing with Installer C-3095A (Fig. 22).

R PINION GEAR DEPTH Original Pinion Gear Depth Variance +4 +3 + 0.008


+ 0.007

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


VARIANCE
r

3 - 19

'-v-y.'^-v.-iont Pinion Gear Depth -3 + 0.007 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 - I + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -1 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 i + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004

kr-y.':)r,s
+2 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006

+1 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005

+3
+ 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 '

0
-0.0 . -0 .002 -o .oo3 j -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 J8902-46

+ 0.006 +1

+ 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002

-3 -4

+ 0.001 0

'PSESS

(14) Install the pinion yoke with Installer W-162D and Holder 6719 (Fig. 23). It is necessary to use tools above to correctly seat the front bearing on drive pinion gear shaft (Fig. 28). '
YOKE INSTALLER

SPECIAL TOOL < C-3095A PINION BEAHNG

YOKE HOLDER Fig, 22 Shaft Rear Bearing installation

(11) Install front pinion bearing and install pinion shaft seal with Installer C-4109A and Handle C-4735. The outer perimeter of the seal is pre-coated with a special sealant. An additional applica tion of sealant is not required. (12) Lubricate the pinion gear front and rear bear ings with gear lubricant. (13) Install new collapsible spacer on pinion gear shaft. Install pinion gear in housing.

J9402-61 Fig. 23 Pinion Yoke Installation CAUTION: Use care to prevent collapsing preload collapsible spacer during installation of the yoke and seating the front bearing.

(15) Remove yoke and tools from the pinion gear.

3 - 20

BEAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

(16) Install the Belleville washer. The convex side of the washer must face outward. Install the pinion nut. (17) Retain pinion yoke with Holder 6719. Initially tighten the drive pinion gear shaft nut enough to re move the bearing end play. While tightening, rotate the pinion shaft to ensure the bearing rollers are cor rectly seated. (18) Tighten the pinion nut to (Fig. 24) 285 N-m (210 ft. lbs.) torque (minimum).
DIFFERENTIAL

Fig. 25 Bearing Preload Torque Measurement

pinion gear shaft. If preload torque varies while rotating the shaft, there is an internal binding that must be corrected before assem bly. (21) If specified torque is not obtained, tighten the nut in small increments until preload torque is ob tained. The differential will be unacceptable for use if the final nut torque is less than 285 N-m (210 ft. lbs.) torque. If preload torque is not within the specified range this is also unacceptable.
DIFFERENTIAL CASE INSTALLATION

Fig. 24 Tightening Pinion Gear Nut

(19) Remove the tools from the shaft. Rotate the pinion several complete revolutions (both directions) to additionally seat the bearing rollers.
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload torque and never ex ceed specified preload torque. If preload torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be in stalled. The torque sequence will have to be re peated.

(1) Apply a coating of hypoid gear lubricant to the differential bearings, bearing cups and threaded ad justers. A dab of grease can be used to keep the ad justers in position. Carefully position the assembled differential case in the housing. (2) Observe the reference marks and install the differential bearing caps at their original locations (Fig. 26).

(20) Measure the pinion bearing preload torque by rotating pinion shaft with a Newton-meter or an inch-pound torque wrench. The correct bearing pre load torque is 2-4 N-m (20-30 in. lbs.). This torque value is with replacement bearings and pinion nut tightened to a minimum of 285 N-m (210 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig. 25) When using original pinion rear bearing and a replacement front bearing. The correct pre load torque is 1 N-m (10 in. lbs.) plus the torque measured and recorded during disassembly. The bearing preload torque should be con stant during a complete revolution of the drive

Fig. 26 Bearing Caps & Bolts

BR (3) Install the bearing cap bolts (Fig. 26). Tighten the upper bolts to 14 N-m (10 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten the lower bolts finger-tight until the bolt head is lightly seated.
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD GEAR BACKLASH ADJUSTMENT AMD RING

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 - 21

The following must be considered when adjusting bearing preload and gear backlash: The maximum ring gear backlash variation is 0.003 inch (0.076 mm) Mark the gears so the same teeth are meshed dur ing all backlash measurements Maintain the torque while adjusting the bearing preload and ring gear backlash Excessive adjuster torque will introduce a high bearing load and cause premature bearing failure. Insufficient torque can cause excessive differential case free-play and ring gear noise Insufficient adjuster torque will not support the ring gear correctly. This can cause excessive differen tial case free-play and ring gear noise. The differential bearing cups will not always immediately follow the threaded adjusters as they are moved during adjustment. Ensure ac curate bearing cup responses to the adjust ments. Maintain the gear teeth engaged (meshed) as marked. The bearings must be seated by rapidly rotating the pinion gear a half turn back and forth. Do this five to ten times each time the threaded adjusters are ad justed. (1) Use Wrench C-4164 to adjust each threaded ad juster inward (Fig. 27). Adjust until the differential bearing free-play is eliminated. Allow some ring gear backlash (approximately 0.01 inch/0.25 mm) between the ring and pinion gear. Seat the bearing cups with the procedure described above.

Measure the backlash at 4 positions (90 degrees apart) around the ring gear. Locate and mark the area of minimum backlash. (3) Rotate the ring gear to the position of the least backlash. Mark the gear so that all future backlash measurements will be taken with the same gear teeth meshed.

Fig. 28 Ring Gear Backlash

Measurement

Fig. 27 Threaded Adjuster Tooi

(4) Loosen the right-side, tighten the left-side threaded adjuster. Obtain backlash of 0.003 to 0.004 inch (0.076 to 0.102 mm) with each adjuster tight ened to 14 N-m (10 ft. lbs.) torque. Seat the bearing cups with the procedure described above. (5) Tighten the differential bearing cap bolts to 136 N-31m (100 ft. lbs.) torque. (6) Use Wrench C-4164 to tighten the right-side threaded adjuster to 102 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) torque. Seat the bearing cups with the procedure described above. Continue to tighten the right-side adjuster and seat bearing cups until the torque remains constant at 102 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) (7) Measure the ring gear backlash. The range of backlash is 0.006 to 0.008 inch (0.15 to 0.203 mm). Continue increasing the torque at the right-side threaded adjuster until the specified backlash is ob tained. The left-side threaded adjuster torque should have approximately 102 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) torque. If the torque is considerably less, the complete adjustment procedure must be repeated. (8) Tighten the left-side threaded adjuster until 102 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) torque is indicated. Seat the bearing rollers with the procedure described above. Do this until the torque remains constant. (9) Install the threaded adjuster locks . Ensure the lock finger is engaged with the adjuster hole. Tighten the lock screws to 10 N-m (90 in. lbs.) torque.

(2) Install Dial Indicator (Fig. 28). Position the plunger against the drive side of a ring gear tooth.

3 -12

REAR SUSPENSION M i l AXLE


TM^MMMMMR

MM
SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE 0.007

s i b * c-E4 ;? GULZE&MGSI

When measuring side gear clearance, check each gear independently. If it necessary to replace a side gear, replace both gears as a matched set.
(1) Install the axle shafts and C-clip locks and pin

THRUST WASHER THICKNESS TOTAL


L^^^^mr^^r-^^^m

+ 0.033 0.040
0.040

REPLACEMENT WASHER THICKNESS NEW SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE

"0.037 0.0)3

ion mate shaft. If necessary, refer to the installation located within this group. (2) Measure each side gear clearance. Insert a matched pair of feeler gauge blades between the gear and differential housing on opposite sides of the hub (Fig. 29).

J9203-31

Fig. 30 Side Gear Calculations

measure the thrust washer thickness. Record the thickness and re-install the thrust washer. Assemble the differential case without the C-clip lock installed and re-measure the side gear clearance. (6) Compare both clearance measurements. If the difference is less than 0.012 inch (0.305 mm), add clearance recorded when the C-clip lock was installed to thrust washer thickness measured. The sum will determine the required thickness of the replacement thrust washer. (7) If clearance is 0.012 inch (0.305 mm) or greater, both side gears must be replaced (matched set) and the clearance measurements repeated. (8) If clearance (above) continues to be ,0.012 inch (0.305 mm) or greater, the case must be replaced.
r i n g MMM ANALYSIS TEETH E&mwACw MWWMM

FIG, 29 Side Gear Clearance

Measurement

(3) If side gear clearances is no more than 0.005 inch. Determine if the shaft is contacting the pinion gear mate shaft. Do not remove the feeler
gauges, Inspect the axle shaft w i t h the feeler
gauge i n s e r t e d b e h i n d the side gear. If the end of

the axle shaft is not contacting the pinion gear mateshaft, the side gear clearance is acceptable. (4) If clearance is more than 0.005 inch (axle shaft not contacting mate shaft), record the side gear clear ance. Remove the thrust washer and measure its thickness with a micrometer. Add the washer thick ness to the recorded side gear clearance. The sum of gear clearance and washer thickness will determine required thickness of replacement thrust washer (Fig. 30). In some cases, the end of the axle shaft will move and contact the mate shaft when the feeler gauge is inserted. The C-clip lock is preventing the side gear from sliding on the axle shaft. (5) If there is no side gear clearance, remove the C-clip lock from the axle shaft. Use a micrometer to

The ring gear teeth contact patterns will show if the pinion gear depth shim(s) have the correct thick ness. It will also show if the ring gear backlash has been adjusted correctly. The backlash must be main tained within the specified limits until the correct teeth contact patterns are obtained. Excessive backlash is corrected by moving the ring gear teeth closer to the pinion gear teeth Insufficient backlash is corrected by moving the ring gear away from the pinion gear (1) Apply yellow ferrous (iron) oxide compound to both drive and coast sides of ring gear teeth. (2) Rotate the ring gear one complete revolution in both directions. (3) Note patterns in compound. Refer to (Fig. 31) for interpretation of contact patterns and adjust ac cordingly. (4) Install the axle shafts. Refer to Axle Shaft In stallation within this group. (5) Install the housing cover. Refill the differential with lubricant. (6) Install the RWAL/ABS brake speed sensor and cover onto the axle housing. Tighten the sensor to 13 N-m (10 ft. lbs.) torque.

mm
DRIVE SIDE O F RING GEAR TEETH COAST SIDE O F RING GEAR TEETH

mm

SUSPENSION and 'axle

3 - 23

HEEL

TOE

TOE

HEEL

DESIRABLE CONTACT PATTERN. PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE DRIVE SIDE O F T O O T H . PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE COAST SIDE O F T O O T H , BUT MAY BE SLIGHTLY TOWARD THE TOE. THERE SHOULD ALWAYS BE SOME CLEARANCE BETWEEN CONTACT PATTERN A N D TOP OF THE T O O T H .

RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. THINNER PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.

RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT THICKER PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.

PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. DECREASE RING GEAR BACKLASH.

PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. INCREASE RING GEAR BACKLASH.

J9003-24

Fig. 31 Gear Teeth Contact Patterns

3 - 24

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE M O D E L 6 0 , 70 a n d 80 A X L E S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S INDEX


page

BR

page Pinion Measurement and Assembly . 36 Pinion Removal/Disassembly 31 Pinion Seal ReplacementModel 60 27 Pinion Seal ReplacementModel 70 and 80 27 Ring Gear Backlash and Contact Pattern . . . . . . . . 39 Wheel Bearing Service 29

Axle Assembly Removal/Installation Axle Shaft Removal/1 nstallation . Differential Assembly Differential Disassembly Drain and Refill General Information Lubricant

26 29 33 30 26 24 24

GENERAL INFOilAIION The housing (Fig. 1) consists of an iron center cast ing with axle shaft tubes extending from either side. The tubes are pressed in to form a one-piece axle housing. The integral type housing, hypoid gear design has the centerline of the pinion set below the centerline of the ring gear. The axles are equipped with full-floating axle shafts, meaning that loads are supported by the axle housing tubes. The full-float axle shafts are retained by bolts attached to the hub. The hub rides on two bearings at the outboard end of the axle tube. The axle shafts can be removed without disturbing or re moving the wheel bearings. The wheel bearings are opposed tapered roller bearings that are part of the hub assembly. The removable steel cover provides a means for in spection and service without removing the axle from the vehicle. A stamped metal axle gear ratio identification tag is attached to the housing cover with one cover bolts. This tag also identifies the number of ring and pinion teeth. An addition tag will be attached if equipped with a limited-slip differential.

The differential case is a one-piece design. The dif ferential pinion mate shaft. is retained with a roll pin. Model 70 axles with the optional Power-Lok use a two piece differential case. Model 80 axles with the optional Trac-lok also uses a two piece case. Differen tial bearing preload and ring gear backlash are ad justed with shims located between the differential bearing cones and case. For complete drive axle assembly removal and installation refer to Drive Axle Assembly Replacement in this Group. LUBRICANT Dana axles use a thermally stable Lubricant, 80W-90 or equivalent GL-5 grade lubricant. Vehicles with Trac-Lok/Power-Lok also use 6 oz. of friction modifier added to the lubricant. Dana 80 4x4 vehicles use 10 oz. of friction modifier added to the lubricant.
CAUTION: If axle is submerged in water, lubricant must be replaced immediately to avoid possible premature axle failure.

Fig. 1 Model 70 and 80 Rear Axle

' cn

3 - 26

REAR SUSPENSION AND A X L E DRAIN AND REFILL (1) Drive the vehicle until the gear lubricant reaches normal operating temperature. (2) Raise and support the vehicle. (3) Remove the lubricant fill hole plug from the dif ferential housing cover. (4) Remove the differential housing cover. Allow the lubricant to completely drain from the housing and axle shaft tubes. (5) Flush the differential and housing cavity with flushing oil to remove residual lubricant and foreign matter. Do not use water, steam, kerosene or gasoline for flushing. (6) Scrape the residual gasket from the housing and cover mating surfaces. Clean the mating surfaces with mineral spirits. Apply a bead of MOPAR Sili cone Rubber Sealant on the housing cover (Fig. 2). Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes.
SEALING CONTOUR OF BEAD

AXLE ASSEMBLY REMOVAL/INSTALLATION It is not necessary to remove the complete axle from the vehicle for routine differential inspection and service. If the differential housing, case or axle shaft tubes are damaged the complete axle can be re moved and replaced.
REMOVAL

(1) Raise the rear of the vehicle until the rear wheels are not contacting the surface. Support the vehicle body at the front of the rear springs. (2) Use a wooden block to retain the brake pedal in the up position. (3) Remove wheels, axle shafts, brake drums and hubs. Refer to axle shaft removal procedure. (4) Disconnect the brake line and cap the fittings to prevent loss of brake fluid. (5) Disconnect the parking brake cables. Scribe installation alignment reference marks on drive shaft U-joint and on pinion yoke. (6) Disconnect the drive shaft U-joint from the pin ion yoke. Secure it in an upright position to prevent damage to the U-joint.
WARNING:AXLE MAY ROTATE ON S U P P O R T W H E N S P R I N G CLAMP BOLTS A R E REMOVED E N S U R E A X L E I S S E C U R E D ON S U P P O R T

(7) Support axle, remove lower shock absorber bolts and spring clamp bolts from the axle. (8) Remove the rear axle from the vehicle.
INSTALLATION

(1) Position the axle under the rear springs. (2) Install the spring clamp bolts and tighten the nuts to specified torque. (3) Install shock absorbers bolts at axle brackets and tighten to specified. (4) Connect the parking brake cables and brake line. (5) Install the hubs, axles and brake drums. Refer axle installation procedure. . (6) Remove the block from the brake pedal. Bleed and adjust the brakes. Refer to Group 5 brakes for procedure. (7) Connect drive shaft to pinion yoke with the ref erence marks aligned. Tighten U-joint clamp bolts to 21 N-m (16 ft. lbs./186 in. lbs.) torque. (8) Install wheels and tire assemblies (9) Fill the differential housing to the correct level. Add MOPAR Hypoid Gear Lubricant Additive for Trac-Lok and Power-Lok equipped axles. (10) Remove the supports and lower vehicle. (11) Road test the vehicle to evaluate the results of the repair.

Fig, 2 Typical Housing Cover

Install the housing cover within 5 minutes af ter applying the sealant. If not installed, the sealant must be removed and another bead ap plied. (7) Install the cover on the differential. Install the identification tag. Tighten the cover bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) torque.
CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating.

(8) Refill the differential housing with the specified quantity of MOPAR Hypoid Gear Lubricant. Vehicles with Trac-Lok/Power-Lok also use 6 oz. of friction modifier added to the lubricant. Dana 80 4x4 vehicles use 10 oz. of friction modifier added to the lubricant.

BR (9) Install the fill hole plug. Tighten to 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs.) torque. (10) Road test vehicles with Trac-Lok/Power-Lok and make 10 to 12 slow, figure-eight turns. This ma neuver will pump lubricant through clutch discs. PINION SEAL REPLACEMENTMODEL 70 AND 80
REMOVAL

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


.INSTALLATION

3 - 27

(1) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. Install the new seal with Installer D-187B. (2) Align the installation reference marks and po sition the yoke on the pinion gear. (3) Install yoke with Installer D-191 (Fig. 5).
YOKE

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Mark the U-joint, pinion yoke, and pinion shaft for reference. (3) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. (4) Mark the positions of the yoke and pinion gear for installation alignment reference. (5) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. 3).

J9402-61

Fig. 5 Yoke Installation

C-452

J9102-31

Fig. 3 Pinion Yoke Removal

(6) Use Remover 7794A and slide hammer to re move pinion seal (Fig. 4).
SPECIAL TOOL 7794A

(4) Install washer with concave surface against yoke on Model 70 axle. Install nut on shaft and tighten nut to (Fig. 6); Model 70: 298-379 N-m (220-280 ft. lbs.) torque Model 80: 597-678 N-m (440-500 ft. lbs.) torque Optional Torque Method Dana 80: Torque pin ion nut to 339 N-m (250 ft. lbs.). Then scribe a line on the yoke 3/8 of an inch from one point of the pin ion nut (Fig. 7). Tighten the nut until the point of the nut lines up with the scribe mark. This will tighten the nut to the correct torque. (5) Align the installation reference marks and at tach the drive shaft to the yoke. (6) Add gear lubricant to the differential housing if necessary. (7) Remove support and lower the vehicle. PINION SEAL REPLACEMENTMODEL 60
REMOVAL

PINION SEAL J9402-59X

(1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies (3) Mark the propeller shaft yoke and pinion yoke for installation alignment reference. (4) Remove the propeller shaft from the yoke.

Fig. 4 Pinion Seal Removal

3 - 28

MM

SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

DIFFERENTIAL

C-452 Fig. 8 Pinion Yoke Removal SPECIAL TOOL 7794A

J9102-31

Fig. 6 Tightening

Pinion Shaft

Nut

PINION SEAL J9402-59X Fig. 9 Seal Removal INSTALLATION

Fig. 7 Pinion Nut

(5) Rotate the pinion gear three or four times. Make sure brakes are not dragging during this procedure. (6) Measure the amount of torque necessary to ro tate the pinion gear with a torque wrench. Note the torque for installation reference. This must be known to properly adjust t h e pinion gear bear ing preload torque after seal installation. (7) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. Use Remover C-452 and Holder C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. 8). (8) Mark the positions of the yoke and pinion gear for installation alignment reference. (9) Use Remover 7794A and slide hammer to re move the pinion gear seal (Fig. 9).

(1) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. Install seal Installer D-163. (2) Align the installation reference marks and in stall yoke on pinion shaft with Installer C-3718 (Fig. 10). (3) Install washer with concave surface against the yoke. Install new nut on the pinion gear. Tighten the nut to 292 N-m (215 ft. lbs.) torque to re move the shaft end play.
CAUTION: Exercise care during the bearing preload torque adjustment. Do not over-tighten, or loosen and then re-tighten the nut. Do not exceed the bear ing preload torque. The collapsible preload spacer on the pinion shaft will have to be replaced. The bearing preload torque will be re-adjusted after ward.

(4) Install a socket and inch-pound torque wrench on the pinion nut. (5) Rotate the shaft with the torque wrench and note the torque.

BR
YOKE

REAR

SUSPENSION A N D AXLE

3 - 29

292 to 427 N-m (215 to 315 ft. lbs.) torque. (8) Align the installation reference marks and at tach the propeller shaft to the yoke. (9) Add gear lubricant to the differential housing if necessary. (10) Install wheel and tire assemblies (11) Remove support and lower the vehicle. AXLE SHAFT REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
CAUTION: R A I S E BOTH REAR W H E E L S off the sur face whenever a rear axle is being serviced.

REMOVAL

(1) Remove the axle shaft flange bolts. (2) Slide the axle shaft out from the axle tube (Fig.
1). imSTALLATIOm J9402-61 Fig. 10 Yoke Installer

The required preload is equal to amount re corded during removal pirns 0.56 N-m (5 in. lbs.). The used bearing preload torque must never exceed 2.25 N-m (20 in. lbs.) (6) Use Flange Holder 6719 to retain the yoke and shaft (Fig. 11). Tighten the shaft nut in very small increments.
DIFFERENTIAL

(1) Clean the gasket contact surface area on the flange with an appropriate solvent. Install a new flange gasket and slide the axle shaft into the tube. (2) Install the bolts and tighten to 122 N-m (90 ft. lbs.) torque. WHEEL BEARING SERWiCE REMOVAL (1) Remove the axle shaft, refer to the removal procedure. (2) Remove the nut lock and adjustment nut. (3) Remove drum and hub. The outer wheel bear ing will slide of with the hub. (4) Place hub on bench and remove inner grease seal and discard seal. Remove inner and outer bearings.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION

Fig. 11 Tightening Pinion Shaft

Nut

(7) Continue tightening the shaft nut in small in crements until the correct bearing preload torque is attained. Tighten the pinion shaft nut to

(1) Thoroughly clean both wheel bearings and inte rior of the hub. Remove all of the residual lubricant. (2) To clean the bearings: Soak them in an appropriate cleaning solvent Strike the flat of each bearing against a hardwood block several times Flush bearing between strikes Repeat the procedure above until each bearing is clean Dry the bearings with compressed air but do not spin them (3) After cleaning, apply engine oil to each bearing. (4) Rotate each bearing slowly while applying downward force. Examine the rollers for pitting and roughness. Replace worn or otherwise defective bear ings. If a bearing has pitted or has rough surfaced rollers replace bearing.Always replace bearing cone and cup as a set.

3 - 30

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE oil from each multi-purpose into all the and rollers.

(5) If reusable, remove the engine bearing. Pack each bearing with NLGI, grade 2, EP-type lubricant. Ensure that lubricant is forced cavities between the bearing cage
INSTALLATION

(1) If a bearing and cup must be replaced, remove the cup from the hub bore. Use a brass drift or an appropriate removal tool to tap out the cup. (2) Install the replacement bearing cup(s) with an appropriate installation tool. (3) Apply lubricant to surface area of the hub bore. Install the inner wheel bearing in the hub. Install a replacement bearing seal with an appropriate seal in stallation tool. (4) Inspect the bearing and seal contact surfaces on the axle for burrs and/or roughness. (5) Remove all the rough contact surfaces from the axle. Apply a coating of multi-purpose NLGI, grade 2, EP-type lubricant to the axle.
CAUTION: Use care to prevent the inner wheel bear ing and bearing seal from contacting the axle threads during installation.

Fig. 12 Bearing Cap identification

(6) Carefully slide the hub onto the axle and in stall outer wheel bearing. (7) Install adjustment nut and tighten to 163-190 N-m (120-140 ft. lbs.) torque while rotating the wheel. (8) Back off adjustment nut 1/8 to 1/3 of a turn to provide 0.001-inch to 0.010-inch wheel bearing end play. (9) Tap locking wedge into the spindle keyway and adjustment nut. (10) Install the axle shaft, refer to the installation procedure. DIFFERENTIAL DISASSEMBLY
MEMOWALmiSASSEmBLW

Fig. 13 Differential Housing Spreader CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.38 mm (0.015 in). If the housing is over-separated, it could be distorted or damaged.

Remove RWAL/ABS brake sensor hold-down bolt and pull the sensor from the differential housing. The sensor must be removed to pre vent damage when disassembling or assembling the differential components. (1) Note reference letters located on bearing caps and housing machined sealing surface (Fig. 12). Re move the differential bearing caps. (2) Position Spreader W-129B with the tool dowel pins seated in the locating holes (Fig. 13). Install the holddown clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle fin ger-tight. (3) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ ential housing. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud. Load the indicator plunger against the opposite side of the housing (Fig. 13) and zero the indicator. -

(4) Separate the housing enough to remove the case from the housing. Separate housing a maxi mum distance of 0.38 mm (0.015 in) with the spreader tool. Measure the distance with the dial indicator (Fig. 13). (5) Remove the dial indicator. (6) Pry the differential case loose from the housing. To prevent damage, pivot on housing with the end of the pry bar against case. (7) Remove the case from housing. If they are re usable, retain the differential bearing cups and bear ings together as matched sets. (8) Clamp the differential case in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Remove and discard the ring gear bolts. Tap the ring gear off with a rawhide or plastic mallet (Fig. 14). (9) The exciter ring can be removed with a softfaced hammer (Fig. 15). Discard after removal.

mm
CASE RING GEAR

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 - 31

SPECIAL TOOL 1130 SPECIAL TOOL 938

RAWHIDE HAMMER J9202-76 Fig 14 Ring Gear Removal


B

BUTTON

DIFFERENTIAL BEARING

J9403-48 Fig. 16 Differential Bearing Removal

DRIFT EXCSTOR RING 8903-33 Fig. 15 Exciter Ring Removal

(10) Remove bearings and shims from case hubs and mark them (with hub identity) for assembly ref erence (Fig. 16). Record the thickness of the shims. (11) Clamp the differential case in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Use a pin punch to remove the pinion gear mate shaft lock pin (Fig. 17). (12) Remove the mate shaft with a drift and ham mer (Fig. 18). (13) Rotate the differential side gears and remove the pinion mate gears and thrust washers (Fig. 19 ). (14) Remove the differential side gears and thrust washers. PINION REMOVAL/DISASSEMBLY
meMOWAl/DISASSEMBlY

J9302-33 Fig. 17 Mate Shaft Lock Pin Removal

(1) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove pinion yoke (Fig. 20).

(2) Remove pinion, and remove pinion seal with Remover 7797 and slide hammer (Fig. 21). (3) Remove oil slinger, front bearing and shims or collapsible spacer. Record the thickness of the shims (Fig. 22). (4) Remove front pinion bearing cup with; Model 60 and 70: Remover D-158 and Handle C-4171 Model 80: Remover C-4307 and Handle C-4171 (5) Remove rear bearing cup with;

3 - 32

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

C-452 Fig. 18 Mate Shaft Removal THRUST WASHER Fig. 20 Pinion Yoke Removal SPECIAL TOOL 7794A

J9102-31

PINION SEAL J9402-59X Fig. 21 Pinion Seal Removal

MATE GEAR

SIDE GEAR

J9203-61

Fig. 19 Pinion Mate Gear Removal

Model 60 and 70: Remover D-162 and Handle C-4171 e Model 80: Remover D-159 and Handle C-4171 (6) Remove depth shims from the housing bore if used. Record the thickness of the depth shims. (7) Remove the pinion rear bearing and selective pinion position shim (Fig. 23).
CLEANING/INSPECTION

(1) Wash and clean all components with cleaning solvent and dry with compressed air. Do not steam clean the differential compo nents. (2) Clean the axle shaft tubes. Insert a stiff wire into each tube, attach a clean cloth to the wire at the

housing opening. Draw the wire (and cloth) from the housing outward through the tube. Clean oil chan nels in housing. (3) Inspect the differential and pinion gear bear ings. Inspect the differential case and housing. Bearings and cups should have a smooth appear ance. With no broken/dented surfaces on the bearing rollers or roller contact surfaces Bearing races must not be distorted or cracked Cup and bearing must be replaced as a matched sets only. All machined surfaces in the housing and on bear ing caps should be smooth and without any raised edges Pinion gear front and rear bearing cup bores should be smooth Raised metal on shoulders of cup bores should be removed with a hand stone (4) Examine the differential pinion gear mate shaft, pinion gears, side gears and thrust washers for wear and damage. Replace all defective components.

BR

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


PINION YOKE WASHER

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PINION NUT SLINGER FRONT BEARING CUP PINION OIL SEAL

PINION PRELOAD SHIMS

PINION PRELOAD SPACER

FRONT BEARING CONE

SHOULDER FOR ' PINION PRELOAD SPACER Fig. 22 Pinion Front Bearing and Preload Shims Model 70

J9203-63

SPECIAL TOOL 938

PINION

SPECIAL TOOL 1130

(5) Examine the ring gear and the pinion gear for worn and chipped teeth. Examine the ring gear for damaged attaching bolt threads. If replacement of either gear is necessary, both must be replaced as a matched set only. (6) Inspect the pinion yoke for cracks, worn splines, pitted areas, and a rough/corroded seal con tact surface. Repair or replace the yoke as necessary. (7) Inspect the pinion bearing preload shims for cracks, damage and distortion. Install replacement shims (if necessary) for the preload torque adjust ment. (8) Inspect the RWAL/ABS brake exciter ring for damage and missing teeth. If not removed, ensure the ring is firmly pressed onto the differential case. Replace the ring if loose or damaged. DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY
ASSEMBLY

J9403-44 Fig. 23 Pinion Rear Bearing Removal

If either differential pinion gear is not reus able, both gears must be replaced as a matched set only. Do not replace only one gear.

(1) Lubricate all differential components with hy poid gear lubricant. (2) Install the following components in the differ ential case. Differential side gears and thrust washers Pinion gears and thrust washers Pinion gear mate shaft (align holes in shaft and case)

3 - 34

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE (6) Press the exciter ring onto the differential case using the ring gear as a pilot (Fig. 26).

(3) Install and seat the lock pin in differential case and mate shaft with a punch and hammer (Fig. 24). Peen metal part of case over pin in two places 180 degrees apart.

SLOT

8903-36

Fig. 26 Ring Gear Bolt Hole Alignment

Fig. 24 Mate Shaft Pin Installation

If replacement gears and thrust washers were installed, it is not necessary to measure the gear backlash. Correct fit is due to close ma chining tolerances during manufacture. (4) If exciter ring was removed, align exciter ring tab with slot in differential case (Fig. 25).

(7) Install new ring gear bolts and alternately tighten to; Model 60 and 70: 163-190 N-m (120-140 ft. lbs.) torque Model 80: 272-325 N-m (200-240 ft. lbs.) torque (8) Place Master Differential Bearing D-343 on case hubs for Model 60 or D-343 for Models 70 and 80 (Fig. 27). Install assembly into housing.

J9402-64

Fig. 27 Master Bearing Tools On Hubs Fig. 25 Exciter Ring Alignment

(5) Invert the differential case and start two ring gear bolts. This will provide case-to-ring gear bolt hole alignment.

(9) Install a pilot stud at the right side of housing. Attach Dial Indicator C-3339 to the pilot stud. Load indicator plunger against the back of the ring gear (Fig. 28).

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


TOOL G3339 PRODUCTION NUMBERS

3-35

DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE

GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR NUMBER; Fig. 29 Pinion Gear ID Numbers

J9003-100

INNER PINION BEARING 8903-29 Fig. 28 Differential Case End Play Measurement

(10) Insert a small pry bar between the bearing cap and left side of differential case. Pry the case as far as possible to right side (Fig. 28). Zero the dial indicator pointer. (11) Pry the case to left side and record the travel distance. The measurement above is the shim thickness necessary for case zero end-play. The total thickness will be determined during the ring gear backlash adjustment. (12) Remove indicator and pilot stud.
PINION GEAR DEPTH INFORMATION

BUTTON END CENTERLINE OF RING GEAR

J9403-56 Fig. 30 Pinion Gear Standard Depth/Distance

31). The second method is selective shim between the pinion gear head and bearing cone. Gears are supplied as matched sets only. The iden If new gear set is being installed, note the depth tifying numbers for the ring and pinion gear are variance etched into original and new pinion gear. etched into the face of each gear (Fig. 29). A plus (+) Add or subtract the thickness of the original depth number, minus (-) number or zero (0) is etched into shims to compensate for the difference in the depth the face of the pinion gear. This number is the variances. Refer to the Depth Variance charts. amount (in thousandths of an inch) the depth varies For example, if old pinion is plus (+) 1 and the new from the standard depth setting. The standard depth pinion is minus (-) 3, intersecting figure is (+)0.004 provides the best teeth contact pattern. inch (0.10mm). Add this amount to the original shim. The standard depth is the distance (Fig. 30) from Or if the old pinion is (-) 3 and the new pinion is (-) the centerline of the axle shaft/ring gear to the shoul 2, intersecting figure is (-)0.001 inch (0.025mm). Sub der of the rear pinion bearing. tract this amount from original shim. Refer to the @ Model 60 axle, the standard depth/distance I S Pinion Gear Depth Variance Chart. 127.00 mm (5.000 inches) If equipped, the oil slinger must be measured Model 70 axle, the standard depth/distance I S and the thickness included with the total shim 136.525 mm (5.375 inches). pack thickness. Model 80 axle, the standard depth/distance is Depth shim thickness for the new pinion gear must 147.625 mm (5.812 inches). be determined before installing differential case in Compensation for depth variance is achieved by housing. two methods. One method is shims placed between the pinion gear rear bearing cup and housing (Fig.

3 - 36

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR
between the pinion gear and the inner pinion bearing cone. For service the shims are placed under the in ner pinion bearing cup. Measurements are taken with pinion cups and pin ion bearings installed in housing. Take measure ments with Pinion Gauge Set 6730 and Dial Indicator C-3339 (Fig. 32).
DIAL INDICATOR

Fig. 31 Shim Locations

PINION MEASUREMENT AND ASSEMBLY


PINION GEAR DEPTH MEASUREMENT

Pinion gear depth measurement is necessary when; Axle housing or differential case is replaced Pinion select shim pack is unknown Ring and pinion gears are replaced Compensation for pinion depth variance is achieved with select shims. In production the shims are placed
PINION
Original Pinion Gear Depth Variance

ARBOR DISC J9403-45

' Fig. 32 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge Tools

(1) Install front pinion bearing cup with (Fig. 33); Model 60 and 70: Installer C-4203 and Handle C-4171
VARIANCE

GEAR

DEPTH

Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance

-4
+ 0.008 + 0.007 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003

-3
+ 0.007 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001

-2
+ 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002

-1
+ 0.005 + 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003

0
+ 0.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004

+1
+ 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005

+2
+ 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006

+3
+ 0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 J8902-46

+4 +S +2
+1

-2 -3 -4

+ 0.002 + 0.001 0

BR
Model
80:

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE Installer


C-4308

3 - 37

and Handle
HANDLE

C-4171

PINION BLOCK

INSTALLER

\ / PINION HEIGHT BLOCK J9403-39 J9402-65 Fig. 35 Pinion Height Block Fig. 33 Pinion Front Bearing Cup Installation

(2) Install rear pinion bearing cup with (Fig. 34); Model 60 and 70: Installer D-lll and Handle C-4171 Model 80: Installer C-4204 and Handle C-4171
INSTALLER

ARBOR DISC

-PINION BLOCK

PINION HEIGHT BLOCK Fig. 36 Gauge Tools In Housing

HANDLE

J9402-66

Fig. 34 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup Installation

(3) Assemble Pinion Gauge Set, Pinion Block and pinion bearings. Install assembly into differential pinion gear bore and hand tighten cone (Fig. 35). (4) Place Arbor Disc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 and po sition in the bearing cradles (Fig. 36). Install differ ential bearing caps on Arbor Discs and tighten caps snug only. Arbor Discs have different steps to fit other axle sizes. Pick correct size step for axle being serviced.

(5) Firmly place Scooter Block and Dial Indicator on pinion height block tool and zero the dial indicator pointer. (6) Slide the Scooter Block across the arbor while observing indicator (Fig. 37). Record the longest travel distance, whether inward (-) or outward (+), indicated by the pointer. The plunger travel indicated, plus or minus the variance etched in the gear is the required thickness for the depth shims. (7) Measure thickness of each depth shim with a micrometer. Then combine shims necessary for the total shim pack thickness. Include oil slinger or baffle thickness with the total shim pack thick ness. (8) Remove measurement tools from differential housing. Remove rear pinion bearing cup with; Model 60 and 70: Remover D-162 and Handle C-4171 Model 80: Remover D-159 and Handle C-4171 (9) Place depth shims in pinion gear rear bearing bore (Fig. 38). Install bearing cup with;

3 - 38

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

Fig. 37 Pinion Gear Depth Measurement

Model 60 and 70: Installer D-lll and Handle


c-4171 :

Model 80: Installer C-4204 and Handle C-4171


INSTALLER Fig. 39 Pinion Rear Bearing Installation

(14) Install yoke, washer and nut (Fig. 40).Model 60 and 70 install washer with concave surface against the yoke. Install the yoke with; Model 60 and 70: Installer C-3716 and Holder 6719 Model 80: Installer D-191 and Holder 6719
YOKE

HANDLE

J9402-66

Fig. 38 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup instaiiation

(10) Install rear bearing (and slinger if used) on pinion gear (Fig. 39); Model 60: Installer C-3095A Model 70 and 80: Installer D-389 (11) Assemble preload shims or collapsible spacer if used onto pinion and install pinion gear in hous ing. (12) Install pinion front bearing and oil slinger. (13) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. Install the new seal with; Model 60 and 70: Installer D-163 and Handle C-4735 Model 80: Installer D-187B

J9402-61 Fig. 40 Pinion Yoke Installation

(15) Tighten the yoke nut (Fig. 41) to;

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


CAUTION: When collapsible spacer is used newer loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload torque. Never exceed specified pre load torque. If preload torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be installed. The torque se quence will have to be repeated.

3 - 39

On Model 60 with a collapsible spacer tighten nut in small increments until rotating torque is achieved. Measure the preload torque frequently to avoid over-tightening the nut. & Model 60: 292-427 N-m (215-315 ft. lbs.) torque Model 70: 298-379 N-m (220-280 ft. lbs.) torque Model 80: 597-678 N-m (440-500 ft. lbs.) torque
DIFFERENTIAL

on the yoke 3/8 of an inch from one point of the pin ion nut (Fig. 42). Tighten the nut until the point of the nut lines up with the scribe mark. This will tighten the nut to the correct torque. (16) Check bearing preload torque with an inch pound torque wrench (Fig. 43). The torque necessary to rotate the pinion gear should be; Original Bearings 1-3 N-m (10-20 in. lbs.) New Bearings 2-5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs.)

Fig. 43 Rotating Torque

Fig, 41 Torque Yoke

Axles equipped with shims, if preload torque is not within specified tolerance, correct the shim thickness accordingly (Fig. 44); Increase the preload torque, decrease the shim thickness Decrease the preload torque, increase the shim thickness RING GEAR BACKLASH AND CONTACT PATTERN
RING GEAR BACKLASH MEASUREMENT

Fig. 42 Pinion Nut

Optional Torque Method Dana 80: Torque pin ion nut to 339 N-m (250 ft. lbs.). Then scribe a line

(1) Place Master Differential Bearing case hubs; Model 60 and 70: Master Bearings D-343 Model 80: Master Bearings D-346 (2) Install a pilot stud at the right side of housing. Attach Dial Indicator C-3339 to the pilot stud. Load indicator plunger against the back of the ring gear (Fig. 45). Ensure ring and pinion gear teeth are tightly meshed. Zero the indicator. (3) Insert a small pry bar between the bearing cap and right side of differential case. Pry the case as far as possible to left side (Fig. 45). Zero the dial indica tor pointer. (4) Repeat the measurement several times to check consistency. Record the travel distance.

3 - 40

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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preload and backlash. These shim must be placed on the opposite side. (5) Remove indicator and pilot stud. (6) Remove the differential case from housing. (7) Remove the master bearing tools from the dif ferential case hubs. (8) Position the backlash shims (with determined thickness) on case hub (ring gear side). Install bear ing on the hub with Installer C-4190 and Handle C-4171. (9) Position the remaining zero end-play shims on hub at opposite side of case. Include an additional 0.015-in (0.38-mm) thick shim on this hub. This will provide the required differential bearing preload torque. (10) Install bearing on the hub with Installer C-4190 and Handle C-4171. (11) Match each bearing cup with bearing (origi nal). Install the cups on the bearings. (12) Position Spreader W-129B with the tool dowel pins seated in the locating holes (Fig. 46). Install the holddown clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle fin ger-tight.
Fig. 44 Shim Locations
SPECIAL TOOL

Fig. 46 Differential Housing

Separation

(13) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the dif ferential housing. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud. Load the indicator plunger against the op posite side of the housing (Fig. 46) and zero the indi cator.
Fig. 45 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.38 mm (0.015 in), if the housing is over-separated, it could be distorted or damaged.

The measurement above shows shim thick ness necessary to eliminate ring gear backlash. The shims must be placed at the ring gear flange side between the case and bearing. Sub tract this thickness from case zero end-play shim thickness. This amount pirns 0.38mm (0.015 in.) will be required for differential bearing

(14) Separate the housing enough to install the case in the housing. Separate housing a maxi mum distance of 0.38 mm (0.015 in) with the spreader tool. Measure the distance with the dial indicator. (15) Remove the dial indicator.

BR
(16) Install case in the housing. Ensure the differ ential bearings are fully seated. Remove the spreader. (17) Observe the assembly reference marks and po sition the bearing caps at their original locations (Fig. 47). Tighten the bearing cap bolts to 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft. lbs.) torque.

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 - 41

Fig. 48 Ring Gear Backlash RING GEAR ANALYSIS TEETH CONTACT

Measurement PATTERN

Fig. 47 Differential Bearing Cap Reference Letters

(18) Rotate the assembly several revolutions to seat bearings. Measure backlash at three equally spaced locations with a dial indicator (Fig. 48). The ring gear backlash must be within 0.18 0.23 mm (0.005 - 0.009 inch). It cannot vary more than 0.05 mm (0.002 inch) between t h e points checked. (19) Excessive backlash is corrected by moving the ring gear teeth closer to the pinion gear teeth. Insuf ficient backlash is corrected by moving the ring gear away from the pinion gear. Backlash correction is ac complished by transferring shims from one side to the other. If the mesh and backlash steps have been followed in the procedures above, good gear teeth contact pat terns should exist.

The ring gear teeth contact patterns will show if the pinion gear depth shim(s) have the correct thick ness. It will also show if the ring gear backlash has been adjusted correctly. The backlash must be main tained within the specified limits until the correct teeth contact patterns are obtained. (1) Apply a thin coat of hydrated ferric oxide, to the drive and coast side of ring gear teeth. (2) Rotate the ring gear one complete revolution in both directions while a load is being applied. Insert a pry bar between the differential housing and the case flange. This action will produce distinct contact pat terns on both the drive side and coast side of the ring gear teeth. (3) Note patterns in compound. Refer to (Fig. 49) for interpretation of contact patterns and adjust ac cordingly. (4) Install the axle shafts. Refer to Axle Shaft In stallation within this group. (5) Install the housing cover. Refill the differential with lubricant. (6) Install the RWAL/ABS brake speed sensor and cover onto the axle housing. Tighten the sensor to 24 N-m (18 ft. lbs.) torque.

3 - 42

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR
COAST SIDE OF RING GEAR TEETH DESIRABLE CONTACT PATTERN. PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED ON THE DRIVE SIDE OF TOOTH. PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED ON THE COAST SIDE OF TOOTH, BUT MAY BE SLIGHTLY TOWARD THE TOE. THERE SHOULD ALWAYS BE SOME CLEARANCE BETWEEN CONTACT PATTERN AND TOP OF THE TOOTH.

DRIVE SIDE OF RING GEAR TEETH

HEEL

TOE

TOE

HEEL

RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. THINNER PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.

RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT THICKER PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.

PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. DECREASE RING GEAR BACKLASH.

PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. INCREASE RING GEAR BACKLASH.

J9003-24

Fig. 49 Gear Teeth Contact Patterns

BR
TRAC-LOK/POWER-LOK

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


DIFFERENTIAL

3 - 43

SERVICE INFORMATION Trac-Lok differential is available on 9 1/4 axles and Model 60 and 80 axles. Power-Lok differential is available on Model 70 axles. , In a conventional differential, torque applied to the ring gear is transmitted to the axle shafts through differential gears. During normal operation, the torque transmitted to each wheel is equal at all times. However, if one wheel spins, the opposite wheel will generate only as much torque as the spin ning wheel. In the Trac-Lok/Power-Lok differential, part of the ring gear torque is transmitted through clutch packs. The clutch packs contain multiple disc clutches, that have radial grooves on the plates and concentric grooves on the discs. Trac-Lok differentials can also use plates and discs with bonded fiber material that is smooth in appear ance. In operation, the Trac-Lok/Power-Lok clutches are engaged by two concurrent forces. The first being preload force exerted through dished spring washers contained in the clutch packs. The second from sepa rating forces generated by the side gears as torque is applied through the ring gear (Fig. 1). The Trac-Lok design provides differential action needed for turning corners and for driving straight ahead. However, when one wheel looses traction, the clutch packs transfer additional torque to the wheel having the most traction. Trac-Lok differentials resist wheel spin on bumpy roads and provide more pulling power when one wheel looses traction. Pulling power is provided continuously until both wheels loose trac tion. If both wheels slip due to unequal traction, Trac-Lok operation is normal. In extreme cases of dif ferences of traction, the wheel with the least traction may spin.
NOISE DIAGNOSIS

RING GEAR CASE

DRIVE PINION

PINION GEAR MATE SHAFT

CLUTCH PACK

SIDE GEAR

CLUTCH PACK

J9303-15 Fig. 1 Limited Slip Differential OperationBoth Wheels Driving TRAC-LOK/POWER-LOK DIFFERENTIAL TEST

WARNING: WHEN SERVICING VEHICLES WITH A LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL DO NOT USE THE EN GINE TO TURN THE AXLE AND WHEELS. BOTH REAR WHEELS i i U S T BE RAISED AND THE VEHI CLE SUPPORTED, A LIMITED SLIP AXLE CAN EX ERT ENOUGH FORCE (IF ONE WHEEL IS IN CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE) TO CAUSE THE VEHICLE TO MOVE.

If a noise occurs when turning corners, the most probable cause is incorrect or contaminated lubri cant. Before removing the Trac-Lok unit for repair, drain, flush and refill the axle with the specified lu bricant. Refer to Lubricant change in this Group. A friction modifier must be added after repair ser vice or a lubricant change. Vehicles with a limited slip differential should be road tested by making 10 to 12 slow figure-eight turns. This maneuver will pump the lubricant through the clutch discs to eliminate a possible chat ter or pop noise complaint. Refer to Group 0, Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information.

The differential can be tested without removing the differential case by measuring rotating torque. Make sure brakes are not dragging during this measure ment. (1) Engine off, transmission in neutral, and park ing brake off. (2) Place blocks in front and rear of both front wheels. (3) Jack up one rear wheel until it is completely off the ground. (4) Remove wheel and bolt Special Tool 6790 for Trac-Lok or Special Tool for Power-Lok to studs. (5) Use torque wrench on special tool to rotate wheel and read rotating torque (Fig. 2,3).

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REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

SPECIAL TOOL 6im

J9403-52 Fig. 2 Trac-Loc Test

TORQUE WRENCH Fig. 3 Power-Lok Test

(6) If rotating torque is less than 22 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) or more than 271 N-m (200 ft. lbs.) on either wheel the unit should be service.
LUBRICANTS

fer to this illustration during repair service for com ponent detail and their location.
DISASSEMBLY

The lubricant recommended for Trac-Lok/PowerLok differential is API grade GL 5. A friction modifier must be added. Refer to Group 0, Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information. TRAC-LOK 9 1 \ AND MODEL 60 AXLES The Trac-Lok (limited-slip) differential used on 9 1/4 and Model 60 axles has a one-piece differential case. The components are illustrated in (Fig. 4). Re-

Service to the Trac-Lok differential requires the use of Tool Set C-4487 (J-23781). Refer to differential overhaul in the Model 60 section for differential case removal and installation. (1) Clamp one axle shaft in a vise (with protective jaws) with the splined end upward (Fig. 5). (2) Place shop towels on vise to avoid gear damage during removal of the ring gear. Position the differ ential case on the axle shaft (Fig. 6). (3) Remove and discard the ring gear bolts. They are not reusable.

DIFFERNTIAL CASE

SHAFT LOCK PIN

CLUTCH PACK

PINION MATE SHAFT Fig. 4 Trac -Lok Differential

J9203-13

BR

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


DIFFERENTIAL

3 - 45

Fig. 7 Pinion Gear Mate Shaft Lock Pin Removal SPECIAL TOOL C-4487-1

J8903-42 Fig. 5 Axle Shaft As Holding Fixture RING GEAR

DIFFERENTIAL CASE Fig. 8 Step

SIDE GEAR Plate Tool Installation J9203-4

J8903-43 Fig. 6 Differential Case On Shaft

(4) Remove the case from the fixture. Remove the ring gear from the case by tapping it with brass drift and a hammer. . (5) Position the case on the fixture. (6) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft retaining roll pin (Fig. 7). (7) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft. Use a ham mer and a brass drift and tap the shaft out. (8) Install and lubricate Step Plate C-4487-1 (Fig.
8).

(9) Assemble Threaded Adapter C-4487-3 into top side gear. Thread forcing Screw C-4487-2 into adapter until it becomes centered in adapter plate.

(10) Use a small screw driver, position it in slot of Threaded Adapter C-4487-3 (Fig. 9). This will pre vent adapter from turning. (11) Tighten forcing screw tool enough to relieve clutch pack tension. Remove both pinion thrust washers (Fig. 10). (12) Loosen the forcing screw tool until the clutch pack tension is relieved. (13) Insert Turning Bar C-4487-4 in case. Rotate case with tool until pinion gears can be removed (Fig. 11). Remove tools from the case. (14) Remove top side gear and clutch pack. Keep plates in correct order during removal. (15) Remove case from fixture. Remove remaining clutch pack (Fig. 12). (16) Remove clutch pack retaining clips. Mark each clutch pack for installation reference.

3 - 46

BEAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE


SOCKET

BR

DISC C-4487-1 Fig. 11 Pinion Gear Removal Fig, Threaded Adapter Installation SPECIAL SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC DIFFERENTIAL CASE

Fig. 10 Remove Pinion Thrust Washer GLEAMING AND INSPECTION

(1) Clean all components in cleaning solvent. Dry components with compressed air. (2) Inspect clutch pack plates for wear, scoring or damage. Replace both clutch packs if any one compo nent in either pack is damaged. (3) Inspect side and pinion gears. Replace any gear that is worn, cracked, chipped or damaged. (4) Inspect differential case and pinion shaft. Re place if worn or damaged.

Fig. 12 Side Gear & Clutch Disc Removal PRESOAK PLATES AND DISC

Plates and disc with fiber coating (no groves or lines) must be presoaked in Friction Modifier before assembly. Soak plates and discs for a minimum of 20 minutes. Add remaining Friction Modifier to differen tial after assembly.
ASSEMBLY

(1) The clutch discs are replaceable as complete sets only. If one clutch disc pack is damaged,

BR
both packs must be replaced. Lubricate each com ponent with gear lube before assembly and installa tion. (2) Assemble the clutch discs into packs (Fig. 13). (3) Secure disc packs with retaining clips (Fig. 13). (4) Position assembled clutch disc packs on the side gear hubs.
CLUTCH PACK RETAINER

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 - 47

UPPER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK

DIFFERENTIAL CASE .

SPECIAL TOOL C-4487-1

J9203-6

SIDE GEAR

Fig. 15 Upper Side Gear & Clutch Disc Pack Installation

RETAINER J8903-50 Fig. 13 dutch Disc Pack

(5) Position case on fixture. (6) Install clutch pack and side gear in lower bore (Fig. 14). Be sure clutch pack retaining clips re main in position and are seated in the case pockets.
DIFFERENTIAL CASE
/

LOWER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK

(9) Hold assembly in position. Insert Threaded Adapter C-4487-3 into top side gear, insert forcing Screw C-4487-2. (10) Tighten forcing screw tool to compress clutch discs. (11) Install pinion gears. Rotate case with Turning Bar C-4487-4. Make sure holes of pinion mate gears are aligned with case. (12) Tighten forcing screw to compress the conned plates. Lubricate and install pinion gear thrust wash ers 'with a small screw driver or shim driver. (13) Insert and tap the pinion shaft into the differ ential case (Fig. 16).
DIFFERENTIAL CASE PINION MATE SHAFT

J9003-4 Fig. 14 Clutch Discs & Lower Side Gear Installation

(7) Install lubricated Step Plate C-4487-1 on first clutch pack (Fig. 15). (8) Install the upper side gear and clutch disc pack (Fig. 15).

Fig. 16 Pinion Gear Mate Shaft Installation

(14) Secure pinion shaft with new roll pin. Stake roll pin to differential case.

3 - 48

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

BR

POWER-LOK MODEL 70 AXLE AND TRAC-LOK MODEL 10 AXLE The Trac-Lok differential for the Model 80 axle looks like the Power-Lok differential for the Model 70 axle but their are differences. The Model 80 Trac-Lok differential has a one-piece cross shaft and uses 6 disc and 5 plates for each clutch pack. Only one disc in each clutch pack is dished. The Model 70 Power-Lok differential has a twopiece cross shaft and uses 2 disc and 3 plates for each clutch pack. All disc are dished in this unit.
DISASSEMBLY

BUTTON HALF CLUTCH PLATES

FLANGE HALF

Pay close attention to the clutch pack ar rangement during this procedure. Note the di rection of the concave and convex side of the plates and discs. (1) Mark the ring gear half and cover half for in stallation reference (Fig. 18).
Fig. 19 Cover Half Removal

J9203-73

(2) Inspect clutch pack plates for wear, scoring or damage. Replace both clutch packs if any one compo nent in either pack is damaged. (3) Inspect side and pinion gears. Replace any gear that is worn, cracked, chipped or damaged. (4) Inspect differential case and pinion shaft. Re place if worn or damaged.
ASSEMBLY

J9203-72 Fig. 18 Case Marked

(2) Remove the case attaching bolts and remove the button cover half (Fig. . 19). (3) Remove the pinion mate gear, side gear (clutch) ring and clutch pack cross shaft (Fig. 20, 21). Keep these parts with the button cover half for correct in stallation in their original positions. (4) Remove the same parts listed above from the ring gear flange half of the case. Keep these parts with the flange cover half for correct installation in their original positions.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION

(1) Clean all components in cleaning solvent. Dry components with compressed air.

The clutch discs are replaceable as complete sets only. If one clutch disc pack is damaged, both packs must be replaced. Lubricate each component with gear lube before assembly and installation. (1) Saturate the clutch plates with Hypoid Gear Lubricant or Additive. Assemble clutch packs into the side gear plate in exactly the same position as re moved (Fig. 20, 21, 22). (2) Line up the plate ears and install the assem bled pack into the flange half (Fig. 23). Make sure the clutch plate lugs enter the slots in the case. Also make sure the clutch pack bottoms out on the case. (3) Install pinion mate shafts and pinion mate gears (Fig. 24).Make sure shafts are correctly in stalled according to the alignment marks. (4) Lubricate and install the other side gear and clutch pack as done above in Step 3. (5) Correctly align and assemble button half to flange half. Install case body screws finger tight. (6) Tighten body screws alternately and evenly. Tighten screws to 89-94 N-m (65 to 70 ft. lbs.) torque (Fig. 25). If bolt heads have 7 radial lines or the number 180 stamped on the head, tighten these bolts to 122-136 N-m (90 to 100 ft. lbs.) torque.

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FLANGE HALF SIDE GEAR

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 - 49

PINION MATE GEAR

PLATE CROSS SHAFT

BUTTON HALF

J9503-8 Fig. 20 Trac-Lok Dana., 80 Components FLANGE HALF CLUTCH


RING

PINION MATE GEAR

SCREW

PLATE

DISHED DISC

PLATE

DISHED DISC

PINION MATE CROSS SHAFT

BUTTON HALF J9203-74

Fig. 21 Power-Lok

Components

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REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

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Fig. 23 Clutch Pack Installation

Fig. 25 Case Half Installation

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REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE

3 - 51

AXLE SPECIFICATIONS
11/4 AXLE Axle Type Semi-floating, hypoid Lubricant.. ..................SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity..............................2.26 L (4.77 pts.) Axle Ratio Options...........................3.21 3.55 3.92 Differential Case Clearance 0.12 mm (0.005 in.) Case Flange Runout 0.076 mm (0.003 in.) Bearing Preload 102 N-m (75 ft. lbs.) Ring Gear Diameter 23.50 cm (9.25 in.) Backlash 0.12-0.20 mm (0.005-0.008 in.) Runout 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) Pinion Bearing Preload 1-2 N-m (10-20 in.lbs.) MODEL 60 AXLE Axle Type Hypoid Lubricant Thermally Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 4x2......................................... ......2.95 L (6.26 pts.)' 4x4 .......3.43 L (7.25 pts.) Axle Ratio 3.54 4.09 Ring Gear Diameter 247.7 mm (9.75 in.) Backlash .0.10-0.23 mm (0.004-0.009 in.) Pinion Std. Depth 127.0 mm (5.000 in.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-3 N-m (10-20 in. lbs.) New Bearing 2-5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs.) MODEL 70 AXLE Axle Type Hypoid Lubricant ..Thermally Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 4x2............... 3.311 L (7.0 pts.) 4x4...... ......................................3.666 L (7.75 pts.) Axle Ratio 3.54 4.10 Ring Gear Diameter 266.7 mm (10.50 in.) Backlash ...0.10-0.23 mm (0.004-0.009 in.) Pinion Std. Depth 136.525 mm (5.375 in.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-3 N-m (10-20 in. lbs.) New Bearing 2-5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs.) MODEL 80 AXLE Axle Type Hypoid Lubricant .Thermally Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity " 4x2 3.22 L (6.8 pts.) 4x4 4.79 L (10.1 pts.) Axle Ratio 3.54 4.10 Ring Gear Diameter 279.4 mm (11.00 in.) Backlash ....0.13-0.23 mm (0.005-0.009 in.) Pinion Std, Depth ,. 124.625 mm (5.812 in.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-3 N-m (10-20 in. lbs.) New Bearing ...2-5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs.)

3 - 52

REAR SUSPENSION AND AXLE TORQUE


SPECIFICATIONS

BR

REAR SUSPENSION COMPONENTS


DESCRIPTION TORQUE

MODEL 60 70 and 80 AXLE


DESCRIPTION TORQUE

Shock Absorber Lower Nut 136 N-m (100 Shock Upper Nut 95 N-m (70 Jounce Bumper Bolts 45 N-m (33 Spring Clamp Nut 6,010-10,500 GVW 149 N-m (110 11,000 GVW Cab-Chassis 163 N-m (120 Spring Front and Rear Eye Bolt/Nut 6,010-7,500 GVW 136 N-m (100 Bolt/Nut 8,800-1,100 GVW 190 N-m (140 9 1/4 INCH AXLE
DESCRIPTION

ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.)

TORQUE

Diff. Cover Bolt Bearing Cap Bolt Pinion Nut Ring Gear Bolt Backing Plate Bolt RWAL/ABS Sensor Bolt

47 N-m (35 136 N-m (100 285 N-m (210 102 N-m (75 64 N-m (48 24 N-m (18

ft. ft, ft. ft. ft. ft.

lbs.) lbs.) lbs.) lbs.) lbs.) lbs.)

Differential Fill Hole Plug ....34 N-m (25 Cover Bolts 47 N-m (35 Bearing Cap Bolts 108 N-m (80 Pinion Nut Model 60 292-427 N-m (215-315 Model 70 298-379 N-m (220-280 Model 80 597-678 N-m (440-500 Ring Gear Bolt Model 60 & 70 163-190 N-m (120-140 Model 80 272-325 N-m (200-240 Axle to Hub Bolt 123 N-m (90 Power-Lok Case Bolt Standard 89-94 N-m (65-70 Heavy Duty 122-136 N-m (90-100 RWAL/ABS Sensor Bolt 24 N-m (18

ft. lbs.) ft, lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.) ft. lbs.)

BR

BRAKES

5 -1

BRAKES
CONTENTS page page

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS) . 36 DISC BRAKES 48 DRUM BRAKES 63 GENERAL INFORMATION 1 MASTER CYLINDER 9 PARKING BRAKES 73 POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDAL BRAKELIGHT SWITCH 16

POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS) REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS SPECIFICATIONS

21 ?M 3 77

GENERAL

INFORMATION

INDEX
page Antilock Brake Systems Brake Fluid/Lubricants/Cleaning Solvents Brake Safety Precautions 1 2 2 page Brake Warning Lights Model Identification Service Brake Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brakelining Material 2 2 1

SERVICE BRAKE COMPONENTS All BR models are equipped with power assisted, front disc and rear drum brakes. Rear wheel antilock (RWAL) brakes are standard. All-wheel antilock (ABS) brakes are available as an option.
Front Disc Brakes

Factory installed front and rear brakelining is as bestos free. Service replacement brakelining from the Mopar parts system will also be asbestos free.
Master Cylinder/Power Brake Booster

Front disc brakes consist of single piston calipers, semi metallic brakelining, and vented disc brake ro tors. Three different calipers are used. They are identi fied by caliper piston diameter and model application which are: calipers on 1500 models have a 75 mm (2.95 in.) piston calipers on 2500 models have an 80 mm (3.1 in.) piston calipers on 3500 models and 2500 4x4 models with Dana 60 front axle, have an 86 mm (3.385 in.) piston
Rear Drum Brakes

A two section master cylinder and tandem (dual) diaphragm, vacuum power brake booster is used for all applications. The master cylinder on all models is serviceable. Models with the Cummins diesel engine, are also equipped with a vacuum pump. The pump supplies the vacuum necessary for power booster operation.
Combination Valve

A combination valve is used on all models. The valve consists of a front brake metering (hold-off) valve and a front/rear pressure differential switch. ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEMS A rear wheel antilock (RWAL) brake system is standard on all models. An all-wheel antilock brake system (ABS) is available as an option. Both antilock systems are manufactured by the Kelsey-Hayes Cor poration. The RWAL and ABS antilock systems are designed to prevent wheel lockup during periods of high wheel

Rear drum brakes are dual shoe units with an au tomatic adjustment mechanism. Three different drum brake assemblies are used: 1500 models have 11 x 2 in. rear drum brakes 2500 models have 13 x 2.5 in. rear drum brakes 3500 models have 13 x 3.5 in. rear drum brakes

5 -2

BRAKES

BR i i i E L iiElTiFiCATiOl Truck model and capacity designations are: 1500 indicates 1/2 ton models 2500 indicates 3/4 ton model 3500 indicates 1-ton model The model identification and capacity ratings are used throughout this group to differentiate from, or indicate application of a specific brake component. BRAKE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WARNING: ALTHOUGH A S B E S T O S F R E E B R A K E LINING IS FACTORY INSTALLED ON A L L B R MOD E L S , E X E R C I S E C A R E W H E N REPAIRING A VEHICLE WITH PRIOR B R A K E S E R V I C E . SOME AF T E R MARKET BRAKELINING MAY CONTAIN A S B E S T O S . A S A RESULT, DUST AND DIRT ON B R A K E PARTS MAY CONTAIN A S B E S T O S F I B E R S . BREATHING E X C E S S I V E CONCENTRATIONS OF A S B E S T O S F I B E R S CAN C A U S E S E R I O U S BODILY HARM. E X E R C I S E C A R E W H E N SERVICING B R A K E COMPONENTS. DO NOT C L E A N B R A K E COMPO NENTS WITH C O M P R E S S E D AIR OR B Y DRY BRUSHING. U S E A VACUUM C L E A N E R S P E C I F I CALLY DESIGNED FOR REMOVING B R A K E DUST. IF A SUITABLE VACUUM C L E A N E R IS NOT AVAIL A B L E , CLEANING SHOULD B E DONE USING A WA TER DAMPENED CLOTH. DO NOT CREATE DUST B Y SANDING, GRINDING, OR SHAVING B R A K E LIN INGS U N L E S S P R O P E R L Y VENTED EQUIPMENT IS U S E D . DISPOSE OF A L L DUST AND DIRT THAT MAY CONTAIN A S B E S T O S F I B E R S IN S E A L E D B A G S OR CONTAINERS. THIS WILL MINIMIZE E X P O S U R E TO Y O U R S E L F AND OTHERS. FOLLOW ALL RECOMMENDED P R A C T I C E S P R E S C R I B E D B Y THE OCCUPATIONAL S A F E T Y AND HEALTH ADMIN ISTRATION AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC TION AGENCY FOR THE HANDLING, P R O C E S S I N G , AND DISPOSITION OF DUST OR DIRT WHICH MAY CONTAIN A S B E S T O S F I B E R S .

slip when braking. Preventing lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the wheel brake units. Refer to the antilock brake sections for opera tion and service information. The RWAL antilock system uses one control valve. The ABS antilock system uses two control valves. Re fer to the appropriate antilock brake section for valve operation, diagnosis and service procedures. BRAKE WARNING LIGHTS A red warning light alerts the driver if a pressure differential exists between the front and rear hydrau lic systems. The light also alerts the driver when the parking brakes are applied. The light is located in the instrument cluster. An amber warning light is used for the antilock system. This light is located in the same side of the instrument cluster as the red indicator light. The an tilock light alerts the driver if a system fault occurs. B i A I E FLUiD/LUBliCllTS/CLElliie SQLVE1TS Recommended fluid for all BR models is Mopar brake fluid or equivalent meeting SAE standard J1703 and Federal standard DOT 3. Use Mopar multi mileage grease to lubricate cali per slide surfaces, drum brake pivot pins and shoe contact points on the backing plates. Use GE 661 or Dow 111 silicone grease (or equivalent) on caliper bushings and mounting bolts. Use Mopar brake cleaner, or denatured alcohol to clean or flush brake system components. These are the only cleaning materials recommended.
CAUTION: Newer use gasoline, kerosene, methyl (wood) alcohol, motor oil, transmission fluid, or any fluid containing mineral' oil to clean the system components. These fluids damage rubber cups and seals. If system contamination is suspected, check the'fluid for dirt, discoloration, or separation into distinct layers. Drain and flush the system with new brake fluid if contamination is suspected.

BR
SERVICE

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS

5-3

BRAKE DIAGNOSIS
INDEX
page page Hard Pedal or High Pedal Effort Low Brake Pedal Low Vacuum SwitchDiesel Models . Master Cylinder/Power Booster Test . Pedal Falls Away Power Booster Check Valve Test Power Booster Vacuum Test Preliminary Brake Check Rear Brake Grab or Pull Road Testing Service Brake Diagnosis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Diesel Engine Vacuum Pump Output . . . . . . 5 4 3 7 4 7 7 4 5 4 3 7

Brake Drag .. 5 Brake Fade 5 Brake Fluid Contamination 6 Brake Noise . 6 Brake Pedal Has Spongy Feel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Brake Pedal Pulsation 5 Brake Pull . . 5 Brake Warning Lights 3 Brakes Do Not Hold After Driving Through Deep Water Puddles , 6 Component Inspection 4 Contaminated Brakelining 6 General Information 3

GENERAL INFORMATION The diagnosis information in this section covers service brake components only. Antilock system diagnosis is provided in the appro priate antilock brake section. Refer to the Rear Wheel Antilock Brake System (RWAL) and All-Wheel Antilock Brake System (ABS) sections as necessary. Service brake components consist of the brakeshoes, calipers, wheel cylinders, brake drums and ro tors, brakelines, master cylinder, brake booster, and parking brake components. SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS PROCEDURES Brake diagnosis involves determining if the prob lem is related to a mechanical, hydraulic or vacuum operated component. A preliminary check, road test ing and component inspection can all be used to de termine a problem cause. Road testing will either verify proper brake opera tion or confirm the existence of a problem. Compo nent inspection will, in most cases, identify the actual part causing a problem. The first diagnosis step is the preliminary check. This involves inspecting fluid level, parking brake ac tion, wheel and tire condition, checking for obvious leaks or component damage and testing brake pedal response. BRAKE WARNING LIGHTS The red light is in circuit with the parking brake switch and pressure differential switch in the combi nation valve. On diesel models, the red light is also in circuit with the low vacuum switch. The amber antilock light is connected to the an tilock system. The light illuminates only when a fault occurs within the RWAL or ABS system.

The red light illuminates when the parking brakes are applied, or when a pressure drop occurs in the front or rear brake hydraulic circuit. The red light also illuminates for approximately 2-4 seconds at every engine start up. This is a self test feature designed to check bulb and circuit oper ation. A pressure drop in the front or rear brake hydrau lic circuit activates the pressure differential valve in side the combination valve. A pressure decrease moves the valve toward the low pressure side. As the valve moves, it pushes the pressure differential switch contact plunger upward. This closes the switch internal contacts and completes the circuit to the red warning light. The light will remain on until repairs are made and normal fluid pressure restored. LOW VACUUM SWITCHDIESEL MODELS On diesel models, the red brake warning light is also used to alert the driver of a low brake booster vacuum condition. The warning light is in circuit with a vacuum warning switch mounted on the driver side fender panel. The vacuum side of the switch is connected to the power brake booster. The electrical side of the switch is connected to the red brake warning light. The low vacuum switch monitors booster vacuum level whenever the engine is running. If booster vac uum falls below 8.5 inches for a minimum of 10 sec onds, the switch completes the circuit to the warning light causing it to illuminate. The warning light is designed to differentiate between a low vacuum con dition and a hydraulic circuit fault.

5 -4

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS

BR
(3) During road test, make normal and firm brake stops in 25-40 mph (40-64 Km/h) range. Note faulty operation such as pull, grab, drag, noise, low pedal, hard pedal, noise, etc. If constant scraping noise is noted, brakeshoe wear tabs are probably contacting rotor surface. (4) Return to shop, disassemble and inspect as needed. Refer to problem diagnosis information for causes of various brake conditions. COMPONENT INSPECTION Fluid leak points and dragging brake units can usually be located without removing any components. The area around a leak point will be wet with fluid. The components at a dragging brake unit (wheel, tire, rotor) will be quite warm or hot to the touch. Other brake problem conditions will require compo nent removal for proper inspection. Raise the vehicle and remove the necessary wheels for better visual ac cess. PEDAL FALLS AWAY A brake pedal that falls off under steady foot pres sure is the result of a system leak. The leak point could be at a brakeline, fitting, hose, or caliper. In ternal leakage in the master cylinder caused by worn or damaged piston cups, may also be the problem cause. If leakage is severe, fluid will be evident at or around the leaking component. However, internal leakage in the master cylinder may not be physically evident. Refer to the cylinder test procedure in this section. LOW BRAKE PEDAL If low pedal is experienced, pump the pedal several times. If the pedal comes back up, worn lining and worn rotors or drums are the likely causes. If the pedal is extremely low and the red light comes on, there is a major leak in the hydraulic sys tem. Note that a decrease in fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir may only be the result of normal lining wear. Fluid level will decrease in proportion to wear. It is a result of the outward movement of cali per and wheel cylinder pistons to compensate for nor mal wear. Top off the reservoir fluid level and check brake operation to verify proper brake action. BRAKE PEDAL HAS SPONGY FEEL A spongy pedal is caused by air in the system. Thin brake drums, or substandard brake lines and hoses can also cause a spongy pedal. The proper course of action is to bleed the system or replace thin drums and suspect quality brake parts.

PRELIMINARY BRAKE CHECK (1) Check condition of tires and wheels. Damaged wheels and worn, damaged, or underinflated tires can cause pull, shudder, tramp, and a condition sim ilar to grab. (2) If complaint was based on noise when braking, check suspension components. Jounce front and rear of vehicle and listen for noise that might be caused by loose, worn or damaged suspension or steering components. (3) Inspect brake fluid level and condition. Note that reservoir fluid level will decrease as normal brake lining wear occurs. Also note that b r a k e fluid tends to darken over time. This is normal and should not be mistaken for contamination, if the fluid is clear and free of contaminants, it is still OK. (a) If fluid level is abnormally low, look for evi dence of leaks at calipers, wheel cylinders, brakelines and master cylinder. (b) If fluid appears contaminated, drain out a sample. If fluid is separated into layers, or obvi ously contains oil, or a substance other than brake fluid, system seals and cups will have to be re placed and hydraulic system flushed. (4) Check parking brake operation. Verify free movement and full release of cables and pedal. Also note if vehicle was being operated with parking brake partially applied. (5) Check brake pedal height and feel. Verify that pedal does not bind and has adequate free play. Note if pedal is low, or spongy. Do not road test if pedal is extremely low; inspect, identify, and correct faulty component. (a) If pedal lacks free play, check pedal and power booster for being loose, or for bind condition. (b) If pedal is'extremely low and red light is on, do not road test as serious leak has developed in hydraulic system. Locate leak source and repair as needed. (6) If components checked appear OK, road test ve hicle. ROAD TESTING (1) If complaint involved low brake pedal, pump pedal and note if pedal returns to normal height. Do not road test if pedal remains low, or falls off. This indicates system leak or severely worn brake parts. (2) Check pedal response with transmission in Neutral and engine running. Pedal should remain firm under steady foot pressure. Do not road test if pedal falls away as master cylinder fault has oc curred. (3) If hard pedal or excessive pedal effort is expe rienced, return to shop. Problem is caused by faulty brake booster, booster check valve, binding pedal, or master cylinder.

BR

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS

5-5

HARD PEDAL OR HIGH PEDAL EFFORT A hard pedal can be caused by a faulty power booster, booster check valve, or binding pedal or booster. High pedal effort is usually due to lining that is water soaked, contaminated, glazed, or badly worn. On diesel engine models, high pedal effort may be the result of a low vacuum condition. If the booster and check valve are OK, the problem may be related to a vacuum pump hose, hose connection, hose fit ting, pump diaphragm, or drive gear. Vacuum pump output can be checked with a stan dard vacuum gauge. Vacuum output should range from 8.5 to 25 inches vacuum. If vacuum pump out put is within limits, check the power booster and check valve as described in this section. BRAKE DRAI Brake drag occurs when the lining is in constant contact with the rotor or drum. Drag can occur at one wheel, all wheels, fronts only, or rears only. It is a product of incomplete brakeshoe release. Drag can be minor, or severe enough to overheat the linings, ro tors and drums. Brake drag can also effect fuel economy. If undetec ted, minor brake drag can be misdiagnosed as an en gine, torque converter, or transmission problem. Minor drag will usually cause slight surface char ring of the lining. It can also generate hard spots in rotors and drums from the overheat-cool down pro cess. In most cases, the rotors, drums, wheels and tires are quite warm to the touch after the vehicle is stopped. Severe drag can char the brake lining all the way through. It can also distort and score rotors and drums to the point of replacement. The wheels, tires and brake components will be extremely hot. In se vere cases, the lining may generate smoke as it chars from overheating. Some common causes of brake drag are: seized or improperly adjusted parking brake cables loose/worn wheel bearing seized caliper or wheel cylinder piston caliper binding on corroded bushings or rusted slide surfaces loose caliper mounting bracket drum brakeshoes binding on worn or damaged support plates misassembled components adjuster screws reversed If brake drag occurs at all wheels, the problem may be related to a blocked master cylinder return port, or faulty power booster that binds and does not re lease.

BRAKE FADE Brake fade is a product of overheating caused by brake drag. However, overheating and subsequent fade can also be caused by riding the brake pedal, making repeated high deceleration stops in a short time span, or constant braking on steep mountain roads. Refer to the Brake Drag information in this section for additional causes. BRAKE PEDAL PULSATION Pedal pulsation in RWAL equipped models, is caused by brake parts that are loose, or out of toler ance limits. This type of pulsation is experienced ev ery time the brakes are applied. Disc brake rotors with excessive lateral runout or thickness variation, or out of round brake drums are the primary causes of pulsation. On vehicles with ABS brakes, remember that pedal pulsation is normal during antilock mode brake stops. If pulsation occurs during light to moderate brake stops, a standard brake part is either loose, or worn beyond tolerance. BRAKE PULL A front pull condition could be the result of contam inated lining in one caliper, seized caliper piston, binding caliper, loose caliper, loose or corroded slide pins, improper brakeshoes, or a damaged rotor. A worn, damaged wheel bearing or suspension com ponent are further causes of pull. A damaged front tire (bruised, ply separation) can also cause pull. A common and frequently misdiagnosed pull condi tion is where direction of pull changes after a few stops. The cause is a combination of brake drag fol lowed by fade at one of the brake units. As the dragging brake overheats, efficiency is so re duced that fade occurs. Since the opposite brake unit is still functioning normally, its braking effect is magnified. This causes pull to switch direction in fa vor of the normally functioning brake unit. When diagnosing a change in pull condition, re member that pull will return to the original direction if the dragging brake unit is allowed to cool down (and is not seriously damaged). REAR BRAKE GRAB OR PULL Rear grab or pull is usually caused by an improp erly adjusted or seized parking brake cable, contam inated lining, bent or binding shoes and support plates, or improperly assembled components. This is particularly true when only one rear wheel is in volved. However, when both rear wheels are affected, the master cylinder or proportioning valve could be at fault.

5 -i

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS

BR verely worn tires with very little tread left can pro duce a grab-like condition as the tire loses and recovers traction. Flat-spotted tires can cause vibration and wheel tramp and generate shudder during brake operation. A tire with internal damage such as a severe bruise or ply separation can cause pull and vibration. CONTAMINATED BRAKELINING Contaminated brakelining will cause pull, noise, grab, and will increase stopping distance. Road splash and leaking caliper, wheel cylinder, or axle seals are the primary causes. Brakelining contaminated by water only can be sal vaged. The lining can either be air dried or dried us ing heat. In cases where brakelining is contaminated by oil, grease, or brake fluid, the lining should be replaced. Replacement is especially necessary when fluids/lu bricants have actually soaked into the lining mate rial. However, grease or dirt that gets onto the lining surface (from handling) during brake repairs, can be cleaned off. Simply spray the lining surface clean with Mopar brake cleaner. BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION The basic causes of brake fluid contamination are threefold. The first involves allowing dirt, debris, or other materials to enter the cylinder reservoir when the cover is off. The second involves filling, or adding non-recommended fluid to the system. A third cause involves a loose reservoir, or mispositioned cover seal; either condition will allow moisture and dirt to enter the fluid. Brake fluid contaminated with only dirt, or debris usually retains a normal appearance. Generally, the foreign material will remain suspended in the fluid and be visible. The fluid and foreign material can be removed from the reservoir with a suction gun but only if the brakes have not been applied. If the brakes are applied after contamination, system flush ing will be required. The master cylinder will also have to be flushed or replaced if the contaminants cannot be removed. Foreign material lodged in the reservoir compensator/return ports can cause brake drag by restricting fluid return after brake applica tion. Brake fluid contaminated by a non-recommended fluid, may appear highly discolored, milky, oily look ing, or foamy. In some cases, the fluid may even ap pear to contain sludge. However, be advised that brake fluid will darken in time and occasion ally be cloudy in appearance. These are normal conditions and should not be mistaken for con tamination. If some type of oil has been added to the system, the fluid will separate into distinct layers. To verify

BRAKES DO NOT HOLD AFTER DRIVING THROUGH DEEP WATER PUDDLES This condition is generally .caused by water soaked lining. If the lining is only wet, it can be dried by driving with the brakes very lightly applied for a few minutes. However, if the lining is thoroughly wet and dirty, disassembly and cleaning will be necessary. BRAKE NOISE
Squeak/Squeal

Factory installed brakelining is made from as bestos free materials. These materials have dif ferent operating characteristics than previous brakelining material. Under certain conditions, asbestos free lining may generate some squeak, groan or chirp noise. This noise is considered normal and does not indicate a problem. The only time inspection is necessary, is when noise becomes constant or when grinding, scraping noises occur. Brake squeak or squeal may be due to linings that are wet or contaminated with brake fluid, grease, or oil. Glazed linings and rotors with hard spots can also contribute to squeak. Dirt and foreign material embedded in the brake lining can also cause squeak/ squeal. A very loud squeak or squeal is frequently a sign of severely worn brake lining. If the lining has worn through to the brakeshoes in spots, metal-to-metal contact occurs. If the condition is allowed to continue, rotors and drums can become so heavily scored that replacement is necessary.
Thump/Clunk

Thumping or clunk noises during braking are fre quently not caused by brake components. In many cases, such noises are caused by loose or damaged steering, suspension, or engine components. However, calipers that bind on the slide pins, or slide surfaces, can generate a thump or clunk noise. Worn out, im properly adjusted, or improperly assembled rear brakeshoes can also produce a thump noise.
Chatter

Brake chatter is usually caused by loose or worn components, or glazed/burnt lining. Rotors with hard spots can also contribute to chatter. Additional causes of chatter are out of tolerance rotors, brake lining not securely attached to the shoes, loose wheel bearings and contaminated brake lining.
Wheel and Tire Problems

Some conditions attributed to brake components may actually be caused by a wheel or tire problem. A damaged wheel can cause shudder, vibration and pull. A worn or damaged tire can also cause pull. Se

BR

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS


BOOSTER CHECK

5-7

this, drain off a sample with a clean suction gun. Then pour the sample into a glass container and ob serve fluid action. If the fluid separates into distinct layers, it is definitely contaminated. The only'real correction for contamination, is to disassemble, and flush the entire hydraulic system and replace all seals. MASTER CYLINDER/POWER BOOSTER TEST (1) Start engine and check booster vacuum hose connections. Hissing noise indicates a vacuum leak. Correct any leaks before proceeding. (2) Stop engine and shift transmission into Neu tral. (3) Pump brake pedal until all vacuum reserve in booster is depleted. (4) Press and hold brake pedal under light foot pressure. (a) If pedal holds firm, proceed to step (5). (b) If pedal does not hold firm and falls away, master cylinder is faulty (internal leakage). (5) Start engine and note pedal action. (a) If pedal falls away slightly under light foot pressure then holds firm, proceed to step (6). (b) If pedal is hard, or no pedal action is discern ible, power booster or vacuum check valve is faulty. Install known good check valve and repeat steps (2) through (5). (c) On diesel models, vacuum pump hose or pump component may have malfunctioned. Check pump output with vacuum gauge and repair as necessary. Refer to service procedures in Power Booster/Vacuum Pump section. (6) Rebuild booster vacuum reserve and check brake action as follows: (a) Release brake pedal.' Then start engine, in crease rpm to 1500, close throttle, and immediately turn off ignition. (b) Wait at least 90 seconds and try brake action again. Booster should provide two or more vacuum assisted pedal applications. If vacuum assist is not provided, perform booster and check valve vacuum tests. Also check vacuum output on diesel models. POWER BOOSTER CHECK VALVE TEST (1) Disconnect vacuum hose from check valve. (2) Remove check valve and valve seal from booster (Fig. 1). (3) Hand operated vacuum pump can be used for test (Fig. 2). (4) Apply 15-20 inches (50-67 kPa) vacuum at large end of check valve (Fig. 1). (5) Vacuum should hold steady. If gauge on pump indicates any vacuum loss, valve is faulty and must be replaced. '

Fig. 1 Vacuum Check Valve And Seal

J9005-80

Fig. 2 Typical Hand Operated Vacuum Pump

POWER BOOSTER WACUU1 TEST (1) Connect a vacuum gauge to the booster check valve with a short length of hose and a T-fitting (Fig. 3). (2) Start and run engine at idle speed for one minute. (3) Clamp hose shut between vacuum source and check valve (Fig. 3). (4) Stop engine and observe vacuum gauge. (5) If vacuum drops more than one inch vacuum (33 millibars) within 15 seconds, either booster dia phragm or check valve are faulty. TESTING DIESEL ENGINE VACUUM PUMP OUTPUT On diesel engine models, a low vacuum condition in the brake booster will cause the brake warning light to illuminate. The following test checks output and condition of the vacuum pump and interconnecting hoses. How ever, a more comprehensive testing procedure is pro vided in the Power Brake Booster-Brake PedalVacuum Pump section. Refer to the procedure for "Diagnosing A Low Vacuum Condition" in that sec tion. (1) Inspect vacuum pump and booster hoses and connections. Make sure hoses are in good condition and securely attached. Run engine and check for vac uum leaks. Replace leaking hoses before proceeding.

5 -8

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS


SHORT CONNECTING HOSE TEE FITTING CHECK VALVE

BR (3) Run engine at curb idle speed and note vacuum reading. Then run engine at 1/2 to 3/4 throttle and note vacuum reading again. (4) Vacuum should range from 8.5 to 25 inches vac uum at various throttle openings. Vacuum should hold steady and not drop below 8.5 inches. (5) If vacuum output is OK, check booster and check valve as described in this section. However, if vacuum is low, or does not hold steady, vacuum hoses and/or pump are faulty.

CHECK VALVE HOSE

INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM GAUGE J9005-81 Fig. 3 Booster Vacuum Test Connections

(2) Disconnect vacuum hose at booster and connect vacuum gauge to hose end.

BR MASTER CYLINDER

MASTER CYLINDER

5 -1

INDEX page Brake Fluid Contamination . Brake Fluid Level Description Master Cylinder Application Master Cylinder Bleeding (On Bench) Master Cylinder Cleaning and Inspection Master Cylinder Disassembly and Overhaul DESCRIPTION' 10 10 . 9 . 9 14 13 . . . . . . 12 Master Cylinder Identification Codes Master Cylinder Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Master Cylinder Reassembly . Master Cylinder Removal Master Cylinder Serviceability Recommended Brake Fluid page 9 15 13 11 9 10

BR models are equipped with a Delco, two-section master cylinder assembly. Major components are the aluminum cylinder body and a removable plastic res ervoir (Fig. 1). The primary and secondary pistons are located in the cylinder body. Grommets are used to secure and seal the reservoir in the cylinder body. The reservoir cover is equipped with diaphragm seal and is a snap fit on the reservoir. The cylinder body is equipped with a quick take-up valve located in the primary piston inlet port (Fig. 1). The valve provides an extra volume of low pressure fluid during initial brake apply. Extra fluid volume provides faster take-up of normal clearances in the calipers and wheel cylinders. MASTER CYLINDER SERVICEABILITY The cylinder body, piston assemblies, reservoir, grommets, seal and cover are all serviceable parts. The take-up valve is the only non-serviceable compo nent. The valve is available only as part of a com plete cylinder body assembly. MASTER CYLINDER APPLICATION Three master cylinders are used in BR models. The differences between them concern cylinder bore size and fluid reservoir capacity. The master cylinder in 1500 models has a 28.6 mm (1.125 in.) bore. The master cylinder in 2500 and 3500 models has a 31.8 mm (1.252 in.) bore. Although the master cylinders used in 2500 and 3500 models have the same bore size, they have dif ferent piston stroke lengths and fluid reservoir ca pacities. Refer to Brake Fluid Level and Master Cylinder Identification in this section for details. Master cylinders and reservoirs must never be interchanged. This practice will cause unsat isfactory operation and improper brake bal ance.

PISTON ASSEMBLY

J9405-13

Fig. 1 Delco Master Cylinder M A S T E R C Y L I N D E R IDENTIFICATION C O D E S

The master cylinder and reservoir are coded for identification. Code letters are provided on the cylin der body and reservoir for proper component match ing.

5 - 10

MASTER CYLINDER

Bfl
cover before removing the cover to add fluid. If this is not done, dirt from the cover or reservoir could enter the fluid. Add fluid to the correct level if necessary. Note that fluid level in the reservoirs will decrease slightly in proportion to lining wear. This is a normal condition. If fluid is needed, use Mopar brake fluid or an equiv alent meeting SAE standard J1703 and Federal stan dard DOT 3. Check the cover diaphragm seal and replace it if torn or distorted. Snap the seal into place before in stalling the cover.
CAUTION: Verify that the diaphragm seal is firmly seated in the reservoir cover. If the seal is improp erly seated, it will shift out of position when the cover is installed resulting in fluid leakage and eventual contamination. INDICATOR WINDOW

The cylinder body code letters are etched into the front end of the cylinder (Fig. 2). The reservoir code letters are on an adhesive backed tag attached to the front face of the reservoir (Fig. 2). I.D. Code letters are as follows: 1/2 ton (model 1500) code letters are NK 3/4 ton (model 2500) code letters are NL 1 ton (model 3500) code letters are NP

RESERVOIR

CODE LETTER TAG

CYLINDER BODY

CODE LETTERS

CORRECT FLUID LEVEL (TO TOP OF WINDOW)

J9405-21 trig. 2 Identification Code Locations For Cylinder Body And Reservoir

RECOMMENDED BRAKE FLUID Recommended brake fluid for all BR models is Mo par brake fluid, or an equivalent meeting SAE stan dard J1703 and Federal standard DOT 3. Do not use any other type of fluid.
CAUTION: Use recommended brake fluid when add ing fluid or refilling the system. Use clean, fresh brake fluid from a sealed container only. Never use reclaimed fluid, fluid not meeting the SAE/DOT standards, fluid marked 70R1, or fluid from a con tainer that has been left open for any length of time. Using non-recommended fluid can result in brake failure after hard, prolonged braking. J9405-22 Fig. 3 Reservoir And Fluid Level Indicator (Model 1500)

BRAKE FLUID LEVEL Correct fluid level is to the top of the oval indicator window on the side of the reservoir (Figs. 3, 4 and 5). An acceptable level is between the top of the indica tor window and the MIN mark. The hydraulic system should be checked for leaks, or the brakeshoes for excessive wear, if fluid level is very near the MIN level. Always clean the master cylinder reservoir and

BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION Oil in the fluid will cause brake system rubber seals to soften and swell. The seals may also become porous and deteriorate in short time. If fluid contamination is suspected, drain off a sam ple from the master cylinder. A suction gun or similar device can be used for this purpose. Empty the drained fluid into a glass container. Contaminants in the fluid will cause the fluid to turn milky, or separate into distinct layers. If contamina tion has occurred, the system rubber seals, hoses and cups must be replaced. The system must also be thor oughly flushed with clean brake fluid.

Bit
INDICATOR WINDOW

MASTER CYLINDER

5-11

(2) Remove brakelines connecting master cylinder to combination valve (Fig. 6). Use flare nut wrench to loosen and disconnect fittings.
CORRECT
FLUID

LEVEL (TO TOP


OF WINDOW)

J94Q5-23

Fig. 4 Reservoir And Fluid Level Indicator (Model 2500)


LINE TO CORRECT FLUID LEVEL (TO TOP OF INDICATOR WINDOWS) REAR BRAKES / ^ X ^ Z > V ^ \ ^ \ J9405-1

Fig. 6 Combination Valve-To-Master Cylinder Brakelines

(3) Disconnect line that connects RWAL valve to combination valve. (4) Disconnect harness wires from RWAL valve and combination valve switch (Fig. 7). (5) Disconnect antilock harness ground wire from combination valve bracket (Fig. 7).

J9405-24 Fig. 5 Reservoir And Fluid Level Indicators (Model 3500)

MASTER CYLINDER REMOVAL Exercise care when removing/installing the mas ter cylinder, combination valve and antilock valve connecting lines. The threads in the cylinder and valve fluid ports can be damaged if care is hot ex ercised. Use a flare nut wrench to loosen or tighten the fittings and start all brakeline fittings by hand to avoid cross threading. (1) Apply Mopar rust penetrant to master cylinder, combination valve, and antilock valve brakeline fit tings. Work penetrant between fittings and brakelines to ease removal.

LINES FROM
COMBINATION /. VALVE TO ^FRONT/REAR BRAKES J9405-2

Fig. 7

VAL Valve Harness And Ground Wire Connections

5 -12

MASTER CYLINDER

BR and grommets (Fig. 10). If reservoir is to be re placed, note and record reservoir code letters (Fig. 2).

(6) Remove bolt attaching RWAL valve to combina tion valve bracket (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8 RWAL Valve Attaching Bolt Location

(7) Remove nuts attaching combination valve bracket and master cylinder to brake booster mount ing studs (Fig. 6). (8) Slide combination valve bracket off booster mounting studs. (9) Remove master cylinder. MASTER CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY AND

Fig. 10 Reservoir Removal

(5) Remove grommets from cylinder body (Fig. 11). Discard grommets as they are not reusable.

OfERHAUL
The master cylinder primary piston is serviced as an assembly. Only the secondary piston can be disas sembled for service. (1) Remove reservoir cover and seal (Fig. 9).

DIAPHRAGM SEAL

i-9 Fig. 11 Reservoir Grommet Removal

-7

Fig. 9 Reservoir Seal And Cover Removal

(2) Drain reservoir fluid into drain container. (3) Clamp cylinder body in vise. Clamp vise jaws on one of the cylinder mounting ears as shown (Fig. 10). (4) Remove reservoir with a rocking motion. Use a pry tool to help ease reservoir out of cylinder body

(6) Remove master cylinder piston retaining snap ring with small pointed tool and flat blade screw driver. (7) Remove primary piston and spring assembly (Fig. 12). Discard assembly after removal. Do not disassemble piston components as primary pis ton is serviced as complete assembly only. (8) Remove secondary piston (Fig. 12). Apply air pressure through rear outlet port to ease piston out of bore.

BR

MASTER CYLINDER

5-13

(9) Remove secondary piston spring (Fig. 12). Tilt cylinder body downward so spring will slide out of bore.
CYLINDER BODY

Inspect the cylinder bore. A light discoloration of the bore surface is normal and acceptable. However, replace the cylinder body if the bore is scored, pitted, or corroded. Inspect the cylinder cover and diaphragm seal. Re place the seal if torn, or distorted. Replace the cover if warped, cracked, or the snap fasteners are dam aged. Inspect the reservoir. A slight discoloration of the reservoir surface is normal. Replace the reservoir if distorted, cracked, or otherwise damaged. Inspect the take up valve in the cylinder body. The valve should move freely and not be stuck or seized. The valve is not serviceable. It will be necessary to replace the cylinder body if the valve is faulty. Inspect condition of the secondary piston. Replace the piston if it is scored, corroded, or doubt exists about its condition. MASTER CYLINDER REASSEMBLY (1) Coat cylinder body bore, piston components and reservoir grommets with fresh, clean brake fluid. (2) Mount cylinder body in vise. Clamp one cylin der mounting ear in vise jaws. (3) Assemble secondary piston * components (Fig. 13). Be careful when installing seals. Avoid distorting them during installation.
CAUTION: Do not use any kind of metal tool to ease piston seal installation in the cylinder bore. Metal tools will cut the seals and scratch the bore. If a tool is needed, use a small flexible item made from nylon, rubber or plastic only.

J9405-10 Fig. 12 Master Cylinder Piston Removal

(10) Disassemble secondary piston. Remove seal retainer from piston. Then remove front and rear seals from piston (Fig. 13). Discard seals, spring, and retainer after removal. These parts are not reusable.
SPRING

(4) Install secondary piston assembly (spring end first), in cylinder bore. Do not force piston into bore. Work it into place with a twisting/turning motion. (5) Install primary piston in cylinder bore (spring end first). Do not force piston into bore. Work it into place with a twisting/turning motion. (6) Insert piston retaining snap ring in cylinder body. Then push pistons inward with wood dowel and seat snap ring.
PISTON J9405-11 CAUTION: B e very sure the piston retaining snap ring is fully seated. Recheck snap ring installation before proceeding.

Fig. 13 Secondary Piston Components

11STER CYLINDER CLEANING AND INSPECTION


Clean the cylinder body and reservoir with Mopar brake cleaner only. Do not use any other type of cleaning solvent. Dry the cylinder parts with com pressed air. The reservoir can be air dried or wiped dry with lint-free shop towels.

(7) Install new grommets on cylinder body (Fig. 14). (8) Remove cylinder body from vise. (9) Position reservoir on clean work surface with fluid inlet necks facing upward (Fig. 14). Padding work surface with clean shop towels will keep reser voir in place during installation. It will also keep dirt out as well.

5 -14

MASTER CYLINDER
Bench Bleeding Procedure

BR
(1) Mount master cylinder in vise. Clamp vise jaws on one of the cylinder mounting ears. (2) Install bleed tubes in cylinder outlet ports and direct tube ends into appropriate reservoir chambers (Fig. 15).
WOOD

(10) Install cylinder body on reservoir (Fig. 14). Use a rocking motion to slide the reservoir necks into the grommets.

FLUID) RESERVOIR J9405-12 . Fig. 14 Assembling Reservoir And Cylinder Body Fig. 15 Master Cylinder Bleeding

J9405-71

(11) Verify that reservoir is properly seated and that grommets have not slipped out of place. (12) Bleed master cylinder on bench before install ing it in vehicle. Refer to procedure in this section. MASTER CYLINDER BLEEDINi (ON BENCH)* An overhauled, or new master cylinder should al ways be bled before installation in the vehicle. This practice saves time during brake bleeding because air in the cylinder will not be pumped into the lines. The only tools needed for bench bleeding are a vise, a pair of bleed tubes, and a length of wood dowel. Bleed tubes can either be purchased or fabricated from spare brakelines and fittings.

(3) Fill reservoir chambers about 3/4 full with fresh, clean brake fluid. (4) Bleed cylinder by stroking cylinder pistons in ward then allowing them to return under spring pressure. Use a wood dowel, or similar tool to stroke pistons (Fig. 15). (5) Continue stroking pistons until bubbles no longer appear in fluid entering reservoir. (6) Remove bleed tubes and install plastic plugs in cylinder outlet ports. Plugs will prevent fluid loss and keep dirt out until cylinder assembly is ready for installation. (7) Top off reservoir fluid level and install cover and seal.
CAUTION: Be sure the seal is properly on the reservoir cover. The seal can shift sition during installation if care is not This will result in leakage and possible tamination. positioned out of po exercised. fluid con

MASTER CYLINDER MASTER CYLINDER INSTALLATION (1) Position master cylinder on booster mounting studs. Be sure booster push rod is aligned and seated in primary piston. (2) Install combination valve bracket on mounting studs. Bracket goes on top of cylinder mounting ears as shown (Fig. 16).

5 -15

valve bracket (Fig. 17). Be sure bracket tab is seated in valve before installing valve attaching bolt. Then install and tighten valve bolt to 17 N-m (13 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Tighten valve and cylinder brakeline fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. lbs.) torque.
MASTER

ABS VALVE

SECONDARY UNE

J9405-72

Fig. 16 Master Cylinder/Combination Mounting

Valve Bracket

Fig. 17 Master Cylinder And Valve Brakeline Connections

(3) Start all brakeline fittings in cylinder and valves by hand (Fig. 17). Tighten fittings about 3-4 threads to secure each line in place. (4) Install rear brake antilock valve in combination

(6) Install master cylinder attaching nuts on booster studs. Tighten nuts to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.) torque. (7) Fill and bleed brake system. Refer to bleeding procedure in appropriate antilock brake section.

5-16

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALBRAKELIGHT SWITCH


POWER BRAKE

B O O S T E R B R ^ K E PEDALBRAKELI@HT SWITCH
INDEX
page page Power Power Power Power Power Brake Brake Brake Brake Brake Booster Identification Booster Installation Booster Operation Booster Removal Booster Serviceability . 16 18 17 17 17

Brake Pedal Installation Brake Pedal Removal Brakelight Switch Adjustment and Installation Brakelight Switch Removal Brakelight Switch Test and Diagnosis Component Description

20 19 19 18 19 16

COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Power Brake Booster

panel. The pedal shaft is supported by bushings in the pedal and mounting bracket.
Brakelight Switch

All BR models are equipped with a Delco 260T, tandem (dual) diaphragm power brake booster (Fig. 1). Two versions of the 260T booster are used. A stan dard duty version is used in all 1/2 ton models. A higher output version is used in 3/4 and 1 ton mod els.
Brake Pedal

A plunger style, self adjusting brakelight switch is used for all applications. The switch is positioned in a separate bracket attached to the pedal mounting bracket (Fig. 3). 0WER BRAKE BOOSTER IDENTIFICATION The standard and high output boosters are identified by code letters on the forward face of the booster (Fig. 1). Booster I.D. code letters are as follows: 1/2 ton booster code is ZK 3/4 and 1 ton booster code is ZL
INTEGRAL MOUNTING BRACKET BOOSTER PUSH ROD (TO BRAKE
3

The brake booster is operated by a suspended type brake pedal (Fig. 2). The pedal pivots on a shaft lo cated in a mounting bracket attached to the dash
IDENTIFICATION CODE LOCATION BOOSTER PUSH ROD (TO MASTER

MOUNTING STUDS FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW REAR VIEW

J9405-20 Fig, 1 Delco 260T Power Brake Booster

BR
PEDAL

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALBRAKELIGHT SWITCH


SHAFT

5-17

second push rod (at the forward end of the housing), strokes the master cylinder pistons. The rear push rod is connected to the two diaphragms in the booster housing. The atmospheric inlet valve is opened and closed by the push rod connected to the brake pedal. The booster vacuum supply is through a hose attached to a fitting on the intake manifold. The hose is connected to a vacuum check valve in the booster housing. The check valve is a one-way device that prevents vacuum leak back.
How Brake Boost Is Generated

Fig. 2 Suspended Style Brake

Pedal

Power assist is generated by utilizing the pressure differential between normal atmospheric pressure and a vacuum. The vacuum needed for booster oper ation is taken directly from the engine intake mani fold. The entry point for atmospheric pressure is through an inlet valve at the rear of the housing. The forward portion of the booster housing (area in front of the two diaphragms), is exposed to manifold vacuum. The rear portion (area behind the dia phragms), is exposed to normal atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kilopascals (14.7 pounds/square in.). Pressing the brake pedal causes the rear push rod to open the inlet valve. This exposes the area behind the diaphragms to atmospheric pressure. The result ing force applied to the diaphragms is what provides the extra boost in apply pressure for power assist. POWER BRAKE BOOSTER REMOVAL (1) Disconnect harness wires from differential switch on combination valve and from RWAL valve. (2) Disconnect brakeline from combination valve to front brakes, or ABS valve. Then disconnect brakeline from RWAL valve to rear brakes. (3) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder and valves to power brake booster studs. Then remove master cylinder and valves as assembly (Fig. 4).

Fig. 3 Brakelight

Switch

Location

And

Mounting

POWER BRAKE BOOSTER SERf ICEABiLITY The only serviceable power brake booster compo nents are the vacuum hose and check valve. The booster itself is not a repairable component. The booster must be replaced as an assembly whenever diagnosis indicates a fault has occurred. POWER BRAKE BOOSTER OPERATION
Booster Components

The booster assembly consists of a housing divided into separate chambers by two internal diaphragms. The outer edge of each diaphragm is attached to the booster housing. The diaphragms are in turn, con nected to the booster push rod. Two push rods are used to operate the booster. One push rod connects the booster to the brake pedal. The

Fig. 4 Removing/Installing Master Cylinder And Valves As Assembly

5-18

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALBRAKELIGHT SWITCH

BR

(4) Disconnect vacuum hose at booster check valve. (5) Remove knee bolster for access to brake pedal (Fig. 5).

Fig. 7 Power Brake Booster Mounting

Fig. 5 Knee Bolster

Removal

(6) Remove clip and washer securing booster push rod to brake pedal (Fig. 6). Then slide booster push rod off pedal.
BOOSTER WASHER CUP

(5) Install knee bolster. (6) Connect vacuum hose to booster check valve. (7) Install master cylinder and valves on booster as assembly (Fig. 2). Tighten mounting nuts to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.) torque. (8) Connect front/rear brakelines to combination valve and RWAL valve. Tighten brakeline fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and pressure differential switch on combination valve. (10) Fill and bleed brake system. Refer to proce dures in appropriate antilock brake section. BRAKELIGHT SWITCH REMOVAL (1) Remove knee bolster (Fig. 5) for access to brakelight switch and pedal. (2) Disconnect switch harness (Fig. 8). (3) Press and hold brake pedal in applied position. (4) Rotate brakelight counterclockwise about 30 to align switch lock tab with notch in bracket. (5) Pull switch rearward out of mounting bracket and release brake pedal.

Fig. 6 Booster

Push

Rod Attachment

At Brake

Pedal

(7) Remove nuts attaching booster mounting studs to dash panel and pedal mounting bracket (Fig. 7). (8) Remove booster from engine compartment. (9) If booster will be replaced, note and record code letters on front face of booster. POWER BRAKE BOOSTER INSTALLATION (1) If new booster is being installed, check code let ters to verify that correct booster is being installed. (2) Position booster on engine compartment dash panel. Have helper hold booster in position if neces sary. (3) Install and tighten booster mounting stud nuts to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Connect booster push rod to brake pedal (Fig. 4).

Fig. 8 Brakelight Switch And Harness

Connector

BR

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALBRAKELIGHT SWITCH

5-19

BRAKELIGHT SWITCH TEST AND DIAGNOSIS Brakelight switch operation can be tested with an ohmmeter. The ohmmeter is used to check continuity between the pin terminals at different plunger posi tions (Fig. 9).
T h e s w i t c h w i r e harness must be discon n e c t e d "before testing s w i t c h continuity. Switch Circuit Identification

Switch terminals 1 and 2 are for the brake sensor circuit Switch terminals 5 and 6 are for the brakelight circuit Switch terminals 3 and 4 are for the speed control circuit
TERMINAL PINS

(a) Pull switch plunger all the way out to fully extended position. (b) Push switch plunger inward 4 detent posi tions (or clicks). This is required preset position for switch installation. Plunger will extend approxi mately 14 mm (0.55 in.) out of housing at this set ting. (2) Connect harness wires to switch (Fig. 8). (3) Press and hold brake pedal down. (4) Install switch. Align tab on switch with notch in switch bracket (Fig. 10). Then insert switch in bracket and turn it clockwise about 30 to lock it in place. (5) Release brake pedal. Then lightly pull pedal fully rearward. Pedal will adjust switch plunger to correct position as pedal is moved to rear.
CAUTION: Do not use excessive force to move the pedal rearward for switch adjustment. Excessive force will damage the switch.

J9405-88

Fig. 9 Brakelight Switch Terminal Identification And Plunger Test Position Switch Continuity Test Procedure

(1) Check continuity between terminal pins 5 and 6 as follows: (a) Pull plunger all the way out to fully extended position. (b) Attach test leads to pins 5 and 6 and note ohmmeter reading. (c) If continuity exists, proceed to next test. Re place switch if meter indicates lack of continuity (shorted or open). (2) Check continuity between terminal pins 1 and 2 and pins 3 and 4 as follows: (a) Push switch plunger inward to fully retracted position. (b) Attach test leads to pins 1 and 2 and note ohmmeter reading. (c) If continuity exists, switch is OK. Replace switch if meter indicates lack of continuity (switch is shorted/open). BRAKELIGHT SWITCH ADJUSTMENT AND INSTALLATION (1) Preset switch plunger as follows:

Fig. 10 Brakelight Switch Installation

BRAKE PEDAL REiOWAL (1) Remove knee bolster for access to brakelight switch and pedal (Fig. 5). (2) Remove brakelight switch (Fig. 8). (3) Remove switches from tabs on brakelight switch bracket. (4) Remove brakelight switch bracket (Fig. 11). Bracket is attached to pedal mounting bracket with two screws. (5) Remove clip and washer attaching booster push rod to brake pedal (Fig. 6). Then slide push rod off pedal. (6) Remove E-clip from passenger side of pedal shaft (Fig. 12). Use flat blade screwdriver to pry clip out of shaft groove. (7) Push shaft toward driver side of bracket just enough to expose opposite E-clip. Then remove E-Clip with flat blade screwdriver. (8) Push pedal shaft back and out of passenger side of bracket (Fig. 12).

5 - 20

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALBRAKELIGHT SWITCH


PEDAL SHAFT

BR

Fig. 11 Brakelight Switch Bracket

Position

(9) Remove brake pedal and pedal shaft from vehi cle. BRAKE PEDAL INSTALLAT101 (1) Replace bracket and pedal bushings if neces sary. Lubricate shaft bores in bracket and pedal be fore installing bushings. Use Mopar Multi-mileage, or DOW/GE silicone grease. (2) Apply liberal quantity of Mopar multi-mileage grease, or DOW/GE silicone grease, to pedal shaft and to pedal and bracket bushings. (3) Position brake pedal in mounting bracket. (4) Slide pedal shaft into bracket and through pedal from passenger side. (5) Push pedal shaft out driver side of mounting bracket just enough to allow installation of retaining E-clip (Fig. 12).

Fig. 12 Brake Pedal Mounting (With Automatic Transmission)

(6) Push pedal shaft back toward passenger side of bracket and install remaining E-clip on pedal shaft. (7) Install booster push rod on brake pedal. Secure push rod to pedal with washer and retaining clip (Fig. 6). (8) Install brakelight switch bracket. (9) Install brakelight switch. (10) Install knee bolster.

BR

POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS)

5 - 21

POWER BR^ICE WmWMM PUHP (DIESEL MODELS)


INDEX page
General Information Low Vacuum Warning Switch Pump Adapter Replacement . Vacuum Pump Diagnosis Vacuum Pump Operation 21 21 24 22 21 Vacuum Pump Replacement Vacuum Pump Serviceability VacuumSteering Pump Assembly Installation VacuumSteering Pump Assembly Removal page 24 21 . . . 25 22

GENERAL INFORMATION The power brake vacuum pump and the power steering pump are combined into a single assembly on diesel engine models (Fig. 1). Both pumps are op erated by a drive gear attached to the vacuum pump shaft. The shaft gear is driven by the camshaft gear. The vacuum pump is a constant displacement, vane-type pump. Vacuum is generated by four vanes mounted in the pump rotor. The rotor is located in the pump housing and is pressed onto the pump shaft. The vacuum and steering pumps are operated by a single drive gear pressed onto the vacuum pump shaft. The drive gear is operated by the engine cam shaft gear. The vacuum and power steering pump shafts are connected by a coupling. Each pump shaft has an adapter with drive lugs that engage in the coupling. The vacuum pump rotating components are lubri cated by engine oil. Lubricating oil is supplied to the pump through an oil line at the underside of the pump housing. The complete assembly must be removed in order to service either pump. However, the power steering pump can be removed and ser viced separately when necessary. VACUUM PUMP SERVICEABILITY The vacuum pump is not a serviceable component. If diagnosis indicates a pump malfunction, the pump must be replaced as an assembly. Do not disassemble or attempt to repair the pump. The combined vacuum and steering pump assembly must be removed for access to either pump. However, the vacuum pump can be removed without having to disassemble the power steering pump. If the power steering pump requires service, simply remove the assembly and separate the two pumps. Refer to the pump removal and installation proce dures in this section. LOW VACUUM WARNING SWITCH A vacuum switch is used to monitor output of the vacuum pump. The switch is in circuit with the red brake warning light.

VACUUM

DRIVE GEAR

PUMP ADAPTER J9105-94

Fig. 1 Diesel Vacuum And Power Steering Pump Assembly

A vacuum hose connects the switch to the power brake booster. A wire harness connects the switch to the brake warning light. The switch is mounted on the driver side inner fender panel just below the hood hinge (Fig. 2). The switch is located just under the front antilock valve on ABS models. VACUUM PUMP OPERATION Vacuum pump output is transmitted to the power brake booster through a supply hose. The hose is con nected to an outlet port on the pump housing and to the check valve in the power brake booster. Pump output ranges from a minimum of 8.5 to 25 inches vacuum. The pump rotor and vanes are rotated by the pump drive gear. The drive gear is operated by the cam shaft gear. Booster vacuum level is monitored by a warning switch (Fig. 2). The switch consists of a vacuum

5 - 22

POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS) 8.5 inches, problem is with vacuum hoses or pump component. If output is within specified limits, con tinue testing. (3) Check booster operation as described in diagno sis section. Replace check valve, vacuum hoses, or booster if necessary. However, if booster operation is correct but warning light is still on, continue testing. (4) Disconnect vacuum hose at warning switch. Plug hose and connect hand vacuum pump to switch. (5) Start and run engine. (6) Apply 8.5 to 9 inches of vacuum to warning switch and observe warning light. If light goes out, switch vacuum hose is either loose or leaking. If light remains on, leave engine running and continue test ing. (7) Apply 20-25 inches vacuum to switch and ob serve warning light operation. If light now goes out, switch is at fault and should be replaced. If light re mains on, continue testing. (8) Reconnect vacuum hoses and replace original warning switch with known good switch. Run engine and observe warning light operation. If light is now off, old switch is faulty. If light remains on, problem is in wiring between switch and warning light. VACUUMSTEERING PUMP ASSEMBLY REMOVAL (1) Disconnect battery negative cable. (2) Position drain pan under power steering pump. (3) Disconnect vacuum and steering pump hoses from respective pumps (Fig. 3).

Fig. 2 Diesel Vacuum Switch Location (Without ABS)

chamber that measures vacuum level and a sensor in circuit with the red brake warning light. The vacuum chamber is connected to the booster check valve by a vacuum supply hose. A wire harness connects the switch sensor to the brake warning light. If booster vacuum falls below 8.5 inches for 8-10 seconds or more, the switch sensor completes the circuit to the warning light causing it to illumi nate. VACUUM PUMP DIAGNOSIS Vacuum pump diagnosis involves checking pump output with a vacuum gauge. The low vacuum warn ing switch can also be checked with a vacuum gauge. Refer to the diagnosis procedure in this section. A standard vacuum gauge can be used to check pump output when necessary. Simply disconnect the pump supply hose and connect a vacuum gauge to the outlet port for testing purposes. Vacuum should hold steady in a range of approximately 8.5 to 25 inches at various engine speeds.
DIAGNOSING CONDITION LOW VACUUM OUTPUT

A low booster vacuum condition or a faulty low vac uum warning switch will cause the brake warning light to illuminate. If the light does go on and indi cates the existence of a low vacuum condition, check the vacuum pump, booster and warning switch as fol lows: (1) Check vacuum pump oil feed line. Verify that line connections are secure and not leaking. If leak age is noted and pump is noisy, replace pump. (2) Disconnect supply hose to booster. Connect vac uum gauge to this hose and run engine at various throttle openings. Output should range from 8.5 to 25 inches vacuum. If vacuum is consistently below

Fig. 3 Vacuum And Steering Pump Hose Connections

_R

POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS)

5 - 23

(4) Disconnect oil pressure sender wires at sender (Fig. 4). (5) Remove oil pressure sender (Fig. 4).

(7) Remove lower bolt that attaches pump assem bly to engine block (Fig. 6). (8) Remove bottom, inboard nut that attaches adapter to steering pump (Fig. 6). This nut secures a small bracket to engine block. Nut and bracket must be removed before pump assembly can be removed from block.
PUMP ASSEMBLY LOWER MOUNTING

STEERING PUMP

ENGINE BLOCK

J9119-74 Location

Fig. 4 Oii Pressure Sender

(6) Disconnect lubricating oil feed line from fitting at underside of vacuum pump (Fig. 5).
VACUUM
PUMP

BOTTOM-INBOARD ADAPTER BRACKET NUT

J9105-97

Fig. 6 Adapter And Pump Mounting Fastener Location

(9) Remove upper bolt that attaches pump assem bly to engine block (Fig. 7).

OIL FEED LINE Fig. 5 Oii Feed Line Connection At

J9105-96 Pump

J9119-76 Fig. 7 Removing Pump Assembly Upper Mounting Bolt

5 - 24

POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS)

mm
ROTATE DRIVE GEARTOAUGN SHAFT TANGS WITH COUPUNG

(10) Remove pump assembly from vehicle (Fig. 8). VACUUM PUMP REPLACEMENT (1) Remove nuts attaching vacuum adapter (Fig. 8).
VACUUM PUMP STEERING PUMP*

pump to

ADAPTER Fig. 8 Pump Assembly Removal

J9105-98

PUMP SHAFT DRIVE TANGS

J9105-102

Fig. 10 Aligning Pump Shaft Drive Tangs

(2) Remove vacuum pump from adapter (Fig. 9). Turn pump gear back and forth to disengage pump shaft from coupling if necessary. (3) Inspect adapter O-ring (Fig. 9). Replace O-ring if cut or torn.
COUPUNG

(2) Remove remaining adapter attaching nuts and remove adapter from steering pump (Fig. 12). (3) If steering pump will be serviced, remove spacer from each inboard mounting stud on pump (Fig. 12).
ADAPTER O-RING

O-RING

PUMP ADAPTER J9105-99 STEERING PUMP SHAFT

Fig. 9 Vacuum Pump Removed From Adapter

(4) Lubricate adapter O-ring with engine oil. (5) Note position of drive slots in coupling. Then rotate drive gear to align tangs on vacuum pump shaft with coupling (Fig. 10). (6) Verify that pump is seated in adapter and cou pling. (7) Install and tighten pump attaching nuts and washers. PUMP ADAPTER REPLACEMENT (1) Remove coupling from adapter (Fig. 11).

DRIVE COUPUNG Fig. 11 Pump Drive Coupling

J9105-100 Removal/Installation

(4) (5) 12). (6) (7)

Clean and lubricate pump shaft with engine oil. Install spacers on steering pump studs (Fig. Install O-ring on adapter (Fig. 11). Position adapter on pump studs.

BR

POWER BRAKE 1ACUUM P U i P (DIESEL MODELS)

I - 25

Fig. 13 Positioning Gasket On Pump Mounting Flange

Fig. 12 Steering Pump Mounting Stud Spacer Locations

(8) Install attaching nuts on outboard stud and on the two upper pump studs. Do not install nut on lower, inboard stud at this time. Tighten nuts to 24 N-m (18 ft. lbs.) torque. (9) Install coupling on pump shaft. Be sure cou pling is securely engaged in shaft drive tangs. (10) Install vacuum pump on adapter. Eotate drive gear until tangs on pump shaft engage in coupling. Ver ify that pump is seated before installing attaching nuts. (11) Install and tighten vacuum pump attaching nuts. VACUUMSTEERING PUMP ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION (1) Position new gasket on vacuum pump mount ing flange (Fig. 13). Use Mopar Perfect Seal, or sili cone adhesive/sealer to hold gasket in place. (2) Insert pump assembly upper attaching bolt in mounting flange and gasket. Use sealer or grease to hold bolt in place if necessary. (3) Position pump assembly on engine and install upper bolt (Fig. 14). Tighten upper bolt only enough to hold assembly in place at this time. (4) Working from under vehicle, install pump as sembly lower attaching bolt. Then tighten upper and lower bolt to 77 N-m (57 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Position bracket on steering pump inboard stud. Then install remaining adapter attaching nut on stud. Tighten nut to 24 N-m (18 ft. lbs.) torque. (6) Connect oil feed line to vacuum pump connec tor. Tighten line fitting securely. (7) Install oil pressure sender and connect sender wires.

Fig. 14 Installing Pump Assembly On Engine

(8) Connect steering pump pressure and return lines to pump. Tighten pressure line fitting to 30 N-m (22 ft. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect vacuum hose to vacuum pump. (10) Connect battery cables, if removed. (11) Fill power steering pump reservoir. (12) Purge air from steering pump lines. Start en gine and slowly turn steering wheel left and right to circulate fluid and purge air from system. (13) Stop engine and top off power steering reser voir fluid level. (14) Start engine and check brake and steering op eration. Verify that power brake booster is providing vacuum assist and firm brake pedal is obtained. Then verify that steering action is correct. Do this before moving vehicle.

5 - 21

BEAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM

BR

REAR W H E E L ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) S Y S T E M


INDE1 page
Antilock Component Serviceability Clearing A Fault Code Combination Valve Operation Control Module Removal/Installation . Diagnostic Fault Flash Codes Fault Code Capacity Fault Code Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fault Condition Causes General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Speed Sensor Rear Harness Removal/ Installation 30 29 28 31 29 29 29 29 26 33 page Rear Speed Sensor Removal/I nstallation Rear Wheel Antilock System Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . Rear Wheel Antilock System Operation RWAL Diagnostic Connector RWAL System Brake Bleeding RWAL System Components . RWAL Valve/Combination Installation . . . . . . . . . . . RWAL Valve/Combination Valve Removal . 32 29 28 29 33 26 31 30

GENERAL INFORMATION A rear wheel antilock (RWAL) brake system is standard equipment on all BR models (Fig. 1). The system is controlled by a separate electronic control module.

control module for processing. The control module de termines rate of deceleration and wheel slip from these signals. RWAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS RWAL system components include: electronic control module rear brake antilock (RWAL) valve o speed sensor and exciter ring antilock warning lamp A standard master cylinder and vacuum power brake booster are used for all applications. All of the RWAL system hydraulic components are located on the driver side of the engine compartment (Fig. 2).
MASTER CYLINDER ASSEMBLY

SPEED SENSOR

ANTILOCK VALVE

EXCITER RING

J9305-45

Fig. 1 Rear Wheel Antilock (RWAL) Brake System

The RWAL system retards rear wheel lockup dur ing periods of high wheel slip and deceleration. Re tarding lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the rear brake units. Rear brake fluid apply pressure is modulated ac cording to wheel speed, degree of wheel slip and rate of deceleration. A sensor in the rear axle housing con verts differential rotating speed into electronic sig nals. The signals are transmitted to the electronic

RWAL VALVE J9405-76

Fig. 2 RWAL System Hydraulic Component Location

BR
Electronic

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK liAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM

5 - 27

Control Module The electronic module controls operation of the so lenoids in the rear brake antilock valve. The module is separate from other electrical circuits in the vehi cle and operates independently. The module is located under the central portion of the instrument panel (Fig. 3). The module is accessi ble through the opening created by removal of the knee bolster. The RWAL valve, speed sensor and indicator lamps are all in circuit with the module. The module con tains a microprocessor that operates the system and performs system diagnostic checks. Speed sensor inputs are continuously monitored and interpreted by the module. The module deter mines wheel speed and rate of deceleration from these inputs and activates the appropriate solenoid in the hydraulic valve when necessary. The module microprocessor also contains a self test program. The program is activated when the ignition switch is turned to the On position. In this mode, the module checks indicator light operation, the system electrical circuits and the pressure limiting valve so lenoids. The brake warning and antilock indicator lamps are illuminated for approximately two seconds during the system self test cycle.

During normal braking, the valves allows free flow of brake fluid to the rear brake units. In antilock mode, the valve will decrease, hold or increase fluid apply pressure as needed.

Fig. 4 Combination Valve And RWAL Valve Combination Valve

A combination valve is used with the RWAL sys tem. The valve is attached to an integral bracket that is mounted to the studs on the power brake booster. The valve bracket is also used to mount the RWAL valve (Fig. 4). The mounting bracket and com bination valve are serviced as an assembly. The combination valve contains a front brake me tering valve and a pressure differential switch and valve. The differential switch is in circuit with the red brake warning light. The metering valve balances brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brakeshoes are in full contact with the drums.
SPEED SENSOR AND EXCITER RING

Fig. 3 RWAL Electronic Module And Bracket Location RWAL VALVE

The RWAL (rear brake antilock) valve controls rear brake fluid apply pressure during antilock mode braking. The valve is operated by the electronic con trol module. The valve is mounted on the combina tion valve bracket (Fig. 3). The valve contains two solenoid valves that are in active during periods of normal braking. The solenoid valves are activated only when braking effort and rate of wheel slip and deceleration are high (antilock mode).

A speed sensor is used to transmit speed and rate of deceleration inputs to the electronic control mod ule (Fig. 5). The sensor is actuated by an exciter ring on the differential case. The sensor is mounted at the top of the rear axle housing directly over the gear-type exciter ring (Fig. 5). The exciter ring is pressed onto the differential case adjacent to the ring gear. The exciter ring is the sensor trigger mechanism. Exciter ring rotation causes the teeth on the ring to interrupt the magnetic field around the sensor pole. The rate of interruption is converted into speed sig nals which are transmitted to the control module. The sensor is not adjustable and must be replaced whenever diagnosis indicates a fault has occurred. The exciter ring is serviceable and can be replaced when necessary.

5 - 28

REAR WHEEL ANHLOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM


Start Of Antilock Modi Braking

BR

When high pedal effort braking occurs, the de crease in exciter wheel rotating speed is noted and converted into an electronic signal by the sensor. The signal is transmitted to and processed by the control module. The module determines that acceptable lim its of wheel slip/deceleration are about to be ex ceeded. The module activates the antilock solenoid valves at this point. The module transmits a signal that activates the solenoid valves. The valves then decrease, or isolate fluid apply pressure to the rear wheel cylinders as needed. Closing the valves prevents further fluid flow to the rear wheel cylinders. This action isolates the rear brakes from the master cylinder. The net effect is to decrease rear brake apply pressure to the point where the wheels will continue to rotate but not lock. When rear brake pressure requirements return to normal levels, the solenoid valves are inactivated. This action allows the resumption of normal fluid flow to the wheel cylinders.
Solenoid Valve Cycle Times

Fig. 5 Rear Wheel Speed Sensor ANTILOCK WARNING LAMP

Location

The amber warning lamp is located in the instru ment cluster adjacent to the standard brake warning lamp. The antilock lamp alerts the driver if a system fault occurs. The antilock lamp is also used for troubleshooting purposes. The lamp is in circuit with the control module which has a self test program. If a system fault occurs, the test program will flash the lamp when the diagnostic connector is grounded. The flash codes are used to identify a problem component. REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK SYSTEM OPERATION During light brake application, rear wheel deceler ation and/or slip is not sufficient to activate the an tilock system components. Brake fluid apply pressure to the rear wheels remains normal and is not modu lated. However, when braking effort, degree of wheel slip, and rate of deceleration approach programmed limits, sensor inputs will cause the module to acti vate the system. Normal Braking Mode In normal braking mode, the antilock solenoid valves are inactive. The valves are open allowing nor mal fluid flow to the rear wheel cylinders.

Activation (opening/closing) of the solenoid valves is not static during antilock mode braking. Valve op eration is continuous as they are rapidly cycled in re sponse to sensor inputs and control module commands. Cycle times are measured in millisec onds. As the demand for antilock mode brake operation is decreased, the module deactivates the hydraulic valve components to restore normal brake operation. COMBINATION WALVE OPERATION
Pressure Differential Switch

The pressure differential switch is connected to the brake warning light. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve. The purpose of the switch is to monitor fluid pressure in the separate front/rear brake hydraulic circuits. A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hy draulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shuttle forward or rearward in response to the pressure dif ferential. Movement of the switch valve will push the switch plunger upward. This closes the switch inter nal contacts completing the electrical circuit to the warning light. The switch valve will remain in an ac tuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels.
Metering Valve

The metering valve is used to balance brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brakeshoes are in full

BR

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM

5 - 29

contact with the drams. The valve is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of approximately 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. At this point, the me tering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brake calipers. REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS An antilock system malfunction will be indicated by illumination of the amber warning lamp. If a problem occurs, system diagnosis should begin with a fluid level check followed by a visual exami nation of the system electrical and hydraulic connec tions. If obvious defects (low fluid, leaks, loose connections, etc.) are not evident, road test the vehi cle. A road test should help determine if a malfunc tion is actually related to an antilock component. During the road test, note if other conditions are evident such as a low pedal, pull, grab, or similar condition. Remember that brake malfunctions such as low fluid, system leaks, or parking brakes par tially applied will affect antilock system operation. The idea is to determine if a malfunction is actually related to an antilock component. If a visual inspection and road test do not indicate the problem cause, check the system fault codes. Re fer to the system fault code information in this sec tion. DIAGNOSTIC FAULT FLASH CODES The microprocessor in the electronic control module has a self test feature. This feature is activated whenever the ignition switch is in the On and Run positions. If a system fault is detected, the control module il luminates the antilock light and stores the fault code in the microprocessor memory. If a fault code is gen erated, the module will retain the code after turning the ignition switch to Off position. System faults are identified by a series of flash codes that operate through the antilock warning light. Temporarily grounding the antilock diagnostic connector will produce the flash code sequence. Refer to Fault Code Identification in this section. FAULT CODE CAPACITY The microprocessor memory will store and display only one fault code at a time. The stored code can be displayed by grounding the antilock diagnostic con nector. RWAL DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR
Connector Location

The black, 2-way diagnostic connector has only one wire attached to it. This is the 20 gauge black with white tracer wire from test terminal 12 on the con trol module. The RWAL diagnostic connector is plugged into the data link wire connector.
How To Generate Flash Codes

Flash codes are generated by momentarily ground ing the diagnostic connector black wire and counting the warning light flashes. (a) Unplug the data link wire connector from the RWAL diagnostic connector. (b) Momentarily ground the RWAL diagnostic connector black wire with a jumper wire (maintain ground for about 2 seconds). (c) Immediately note and record the number of flashes at the antilock warning light. FAULT CODE IDENTIFICATION When a fault code is generated, the red brake warning lamp will also illuminate. To determine what the fault code is, momentarily ground the diag nostic connector and count the number of times the antilock indicator lamp flashes. Fault codes and typ ical malfunctions are outlined in Figure 6. The initial flash will be a long flash followed by a number of short flashes. The long flash indicates the beginning _ of the fault number sequence and the short flashes are a continuation of that sequence. You must count the long flash along with the short flashes for an accurate fault code count. CLEARING A FAULT CODE To clear a fault code, disconnect the control module connector or disconnect the battery for a minimum of five seconds. During system retest, wait 30 seconds to be sure the fault code does not reappear. FAULT CONDITION CAUSES RWA1 system faults can be generated by component malfunction, or by the driver. Component malfunctions will most frequently be related to problems in the RWAL valve wire harness. Look for loose connections, corroded terminals, dam aged wires, or loss of continuity due to connectors filled with water or dirt. Blown circuit fuses and poor ground connections are also common causes for sys tem faults. A misadjusted, or faulty stop lamp switch will also cause a system fault. Speed sensor and control module failures, although infrequent, will be indicated by flash codes. The sen sor or module should not be replaced until diagnosis indicates this is necessary. The driver can induce system faults by riding the brake pedal or leaving the parking brakes partially applied. Either condition will cause the antilock

The RWAL diagnostic connector is at the left side of the steering column near the parking brake re lease handle.

5-30
FAULT

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM

BR

COM NUMBER T Y P I C A L FAILURE DETECTED


1 2 Not used. Open isolation valve wiring or bad control module. Open dump valve wiring or bad control module. Closed RWAL valve switch. Over 16 dump pulses generated in 2WD vehicles (disabled for 4WD). Erratic speed sensor reading while rolling. Electronic control module fuse pellet open, isolation output missing, or valve wiring shorted to ground. Dump output missing or valve wiring shorted to ground. Speed sensor wiring/resistance (usually high reading). Sensor wiring/resistance (usually low reading). Brake switch always on. RWAL light comes on when speed exceeds 40 mph. Not used. Electronic control module phase lock loop failure. Electronic control module program check failure. Electronic control module RAM failure. J9005-101

ANTILOCK COMPONENT SERVICEABILITY The RWAL valve, combination valve, electronic module, rear wheel speed sensor, exciter ring and in terconnecting brakelines are not repairable. These components are serviced by replacement only. The combination valve mounting bracket is not ser viced separately. The bracket and valve are serviced as an assembly. RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL (1) Disconnect ground wire and harness wires from combination valve switch and RWAL valve (Fig. 7).

4
5

6 7

10 11

Fig. 7 Valve Harness Connector And Ground Wire Locations

12 13

(2) Disconnect lines to front and rear brakes from RWAL and combination valves (Fig. 8).

14

15

Fig. 6 RWAL Antilock System Flash Codes

warning light to illuminate, despite the fact that an actual fault has not occurred. Another driver induced fault involves holding the brake pedal in an applied position while starting the engine. This practice causes the stoplamp switch to be in a closed position when the engine is started. With the switch closed, the RWAL system self check feature will not be completed. The result is illumina tion of both warning lights and trouble code 11 to be registered in system memory.

BRAKES

J9405-82

Fig. 8 Master Cylinder Brakeline

Removal

BR

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM

5 - 31

(3) Remove brakelines connecting master cylinder to combination valve (Fig. 9).

VALVE INTEGRAL MOUNTING BRACKET

RWAL VALVE ATTACHING BOLT J9405-84 Fig. 10 RWAL Valve/Combination Valve Disassembly

J9405-83 Fig. 9 Master Cylinder Brakeline Removal/ Installation

(8) Install and connect all remaining brakelines (Figs. 11 and 12). Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. lbs.) torque.

(4) Remove nutsattaching master cylinder and combination valve bracket to booster studs (Fig. 9). (5) Remove master cylinder. (6) Remove combination valve, valve bracket and RWAL valve as assembly. (7) Remove brakeline connecting combination valve to RWAL valve (Fig. 10). (8) Remove bolt attaching RWAL valve to combina tion valve bracket (Fig. 10). Then separate RWAL valve from bracket. RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION INSTALLATION (1) Install RWAL valve on combination valve bracket (Fig. 10). Do not tighten RWAL valve bolt completely at this time. (2) Install short brakeline that connects RWAL valve to combination valve (Fig. 10). Tighten line fit tings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (3) Tighten RWAL valve attaching bolt to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Install master cylinder on booster mounting studs. (5) Attach antilock harness ground wire to combi nation valve bracket. (6) Install combination valve bracket on booster mounting studs and against master cylinder. (7) Loosely install nuts that retain master cylinder and combination valve on booster studs.

J9405-1 Fig. 11 Master Cylinder Brakeline Connections

(9) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and to combination valve switch (Fig. 7). (10) Fill and bleed brake system. CONTROL MODULE REMOVAL/INSTALLATION The RWAL electronic control module is located un der the central portion of the instrument panel. It is

5 - 32

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM -

- BR

J948F-7

Fig. 14 RWAL Mule Lower Attaching Screw Location


LINES FROM COMBINATION

/. VALVE TO ^FRONT/REAR BRAKES

J9405-2

Fig. 12 Master Cylinder And Combination Valve Mounting

mounted on a bracket attached to the back side of the panel. The module is accessible through the panel opening created by removal of the knee bolster. (1) Remove knee bolster (Fig. 13). Bolster is at tached to panel flanges with screws.

J948F-8

Fig. 15 RWAL Module Upper Attaching Screw Location

Fig. 13 Knee Bolster

Removal

(6) If module is to be replaced, remove module from bracket. However, if module is only being re moved for access to another component, leave module in place on bracket. (7) Install module on mounting bracket, if re moved. (8) Connect harness wires to module. (9) Position module and bracket on instrument panel and install attaching screws (Figs. 14 and 15). (10) Install knee bolster. REAR SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL/INSTALLATION (1) Raise vehicle on hoist. (2) Clean sensor, cover and sensor mounting area of axle housing (Figs. 16 and 17). This is necessary to prevent dirt entry when sensor is removed from housing. Mopar brake cleaner or carb cleaner are equally acceptable for cleaning purposes. (3) Disconnect harness wires from sensor (Fig. 16).

(2) Remove module lower attaching screws (Fig. 14). Screws are partially hidden by air duct but can be removed with long shank, number 2 Phillips screwdriver as shown. (3) Remove module upper attaching screw (Fig. 15). (4) Remove module and bracket from underside of instrument panel. (5) Disconnect harness wires from module.

B R

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK 1RAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM

5 - 33

(6) Cover sensor opening in axle housing to pre vent dirt entry. (7) Insert sensor in axle housing opening. Then po sition cover over sensor and install cover and sensor attaching screw. (8) Connect harness wires to sensor and lower ve hicle. REAR SPEED SENSOR REAR HARNESS

REM0WAL/1NSTALLAT10N
(1) Raise vehicle on hoist. (2) Disconnect sensor harness at sensor. Then dis engage small harness clip from sensor cover (Fig. 18). (3) Disconnect sensor harness at axle connector. (4) Unclip sensor harness from plastic retainer that secures harness and rear brake hose (Fig. 19). (5) Remove rear harness from vehicle. (6) Install new harness and secure it in retainers. (7) Connect each end of new harness and lower ve hicle. RWAL SYSTEM BRAKE BLEEDING Use Mopar DOT 3 brake fluid, or an equivalent meeting SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards, to fill and bleed the system. Bleeding can be performed either manually or with pressure equipment. However, if pressure equipment is used, it will be necessary to hold the front brake metering valve open in order to bleed the front brakes. The valve can be held open with a tension clip tool or by hand. It will also be necessary that a suitable size pressure tank hose adapter be available for use on the master cylinder reservoir caps.

Fig. 16 Rear Speed Sensor Mounting

(4) Remove screw that secures brake cable, brakeline, sensor cover and sensor in axle housing (Figs. 16. and 17). (5) Remove sensor and cover.
REAR BRAKE
HOSE

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REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM


HARNESS CUP SENSOR HARNESS CONNECTOR

Bit

J9405-92 Fig. 18 Disengaging Harness Sensor ctorAt Rear

SENSOR HARNESS

HOSE U-CLIP

(6) Top off master cylinder reservoir again. (7) Bleed brakes in following sequence: master cylinder combination valve rear antilock valve passenger side rear wheel driver side rear wheel passenger side front wheel driver side front wheel (8) Observe following precautions during bleeding procedure: Do not pump brake pedal at any time while bleed ing. Air in system will be compressed into small bub bles that are distributed throughout hydraulic system. This will make a second and third bleeding operation necessary. Bleed only one valve, or wheel brake unit at a time and use a bleed hose on each wheel cylinder and caliper bleed screw. Attach one end of bleed hose to bleed screw and insert opposite end in glass container partially filled with brake fluid (Fig. 20). Glass container makes it easier to see air bubbles as they exit the bleed hose. Be sure end of bleed hose is immersed in fluid. Im mersing hose end in fluid prevents air from being drawn back into cylinder and brakeline. (9) Bleed master cylinder first. Have helper oper ate brake pedal while bleeding each master cylinder fluid outlet line.
CAUTION: Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid during bleed operations. An empty cyl inder will allow additional air to be drawn into the system. Check the cylinder fluid level frequently and add fluid as needed.

J9405-93 Fig. 19 Sensor Rear Harness Attachment M A N U A L BLEEDING PROCEDURE

(1) If master cylinder has been overhauled or a new cylinder will be installed, bleed cylinder on bench before installation. This shortens time needed to bleed system and ensures proper cylinder opera tion. (2) Wipe master cylinder reservoir and filler caps clean with shop towels. Use Mopar brake cleaner if exterior of reservoir and filler caps are extremely dirty. (3) Remove reservoir filler caps and fill reservoir with Mopar, or equivalent DOT 3 brake fluid. (4) Open all caliper and wheel cylinder bleed screws. (5) Close bleed screws when fluid starts dripping from bleed screws.

FLUID CONTAINER PARTIALLY FILLED WITH FLUID

J8905-1I Fig. 20 Typical Fluid Container And Bleed Hose

REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE (RWAL) SYSTEM (10) Bleed combination valve next and rear brake antilock valve afterward. Bleed valves at brakeline fittings one at a time. Surround line fittings with shop towels to catch fluid bled from valve. (11) Bleed first wheel brake unit as follows. Start at passenger side rear wheel: (a) Open caliper or wheel cylinder bleed fitting 1/2 to 3/4 turn. (b) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor. (c) Tighten bleed fitting and have helper release brake pedal. (d) Continue bleeding operation until fluid enter ing bleed container is clear and free of bubbles. (12) Repeat bleeding operation at remaining wheel brake units. Discard fluid bled into glass container. It should not be reused. (13) Check and top off master cylinder reservoir fluid level. (14) Verify proper brake operation before moving vehicle.
PRESSURE BLEEDING

5 - 35

(6) Bleed master cylinder and valves. Bleed master cylinder first, combination valve second and RWAL/ ABS valves third. (7) Bleed rear wheel brake units as described in manual bleeding procedure. (8) Bleed front wheel brake units. Use a clip style tool to hold metering valve in or out. Or have a helper hold valve in or out by hand. Amount of valve stem movement needed to hold valve open is quite modest. Do not use excessive force. (9) Remove pressure bleeding equipment and top off master cylinder reservoir.
CAUTION: Verify that the diaphragm seal is firmly seated in the master cylinder cover. If the seal is improperly seated, it will be displaced when the cover is installed. This will result in fluid leakage and eventual contamination.

(10) Verify firm brake pedal before moving vehicle. (11) Repeat bleeding procedure if system warning lights come on, remain on, or if pedal is still spongy.

The front brake metering valve (in the combi nation valve), must be held open when using pressure bleeding equipment. This is necessary because the 20 psi exerted by pressure equip ment exceeds the valve hold off point causing it to close. The metering valve is in the forward end of the combination valve. The valve stem is accessible after removing the rubber protector cap that covers the stem. The stem must be ei ther pressed inward, or held outward slightly in order to bleed the front brakes. Use a clip style tool such as Special Tool C-4121 to hold the stem in or out. Do not use pliers or similar tools a the stem and valve will be damaged. (1) Fill bleeder tank if necessary. (2) Purge air from bleeder tank and lines before proceeding. (3) Clean master cylinder reservoir and cover thor oughly. (4) Remove master cylinder cover and install suit able adapter (Fig. 21). Various types of adapters are usually available from the pressure tank manufac turer. (5) Connect bleeder tank pressure hose to adapter (Fig. 21).

Fig. 21 Typical Pressure Bleeder Tank And Adapter END OF DOC BR9505.1

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ALL-WHEEL ANIiLOCI BFtAlE SYSTEM (ABS) ALL-WHEEL


A H Y I L O C 1 C B R A K E

B R

SYSTEM {ABS}

iiDEX
page ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS Components Control Module Diagnosis Diagnostic Connector Location . . . . . . . . . . . Manual Brake Bleeding Procedure . . Normal and Fault Conditions System Brake Bleeding System Diagnosis Valve and Control Module Installation . . . . . . . Valve and Control Module Removal . . . . . . . . Valve Service and Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warning Light Display 36 40 40 46 40 44 39 41 41 41 40 page All Wheel Antilock System (ABS) Operation Combination Valve Operation Combination Valve Testing Front Speed Sensor Installation Front Speed Sensor Removal Front Tone Wheel Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Speed Sensor Harness Replacement . . . . . . Rear Speed Sensor Installation . Rear Speed Sensor Removal/Installation . . . . . . . . RWAL Valve/Combination Installation . . . . . . . . . . . RWAL Valve/Combination Valve Removal . . . . . . . 38 39 41 43 43 44 44 44 44 43 42

ABS COMPONENTS The all-wheel antilock brake system (ABS), is a unique combined system. It consists of the standard rear wheel antilock (RWAL) system components, plus the additional parts needed to create an all wheel an tilock brake system. ABS components include: rear brake (RWAL) antilock valve rear wheel speed sensor and exciter ring front wheel speed sensors and tone rings front brake antilock valve ABS electronic control module o electrical harnesses o combination valve diagnostic connector
Front Brake ABS Valve

tronic control module. The pump supplies the addi tional fluid volume needed during antilock braking.

The front brake ABS valve consists of a solenoid valve body and pump/motor unit combined into a sin gle assembly (Fig. 1). The valve is mounted on the driver side inner fender panel (Fig. 1). The valve and motor assembly are attached to a one piece mounting bracket and a stud plate. A molded, flexible shield is used to protect the top of the valve * assembly. The valve body contains the solenoid valves that modulate brake fluid apply pressure during antilock braking. The valves are operated by the antilock sys tem electronic control module. The antilock valve provides two channel pressure control of the front brakes. One channel controls the left front brake unit. The second channel controls the right front brake unit. Each front brake unit is con trolled independently. The solenoid valves are cycled open and closed as needed during antilock braking. The valves are not static. They are cycled rapidly and continuously to modulate pressure and control wheel slip and decel eration. The pump and motor are controlled by the elec-

Fig. 1 ABS Component Location RWAL


Valve

The RWAL valve is mounted on the combination valve bracket (Fig. 2). The bracket is secured to the master cylinder mounting studs on the power brake booster. The RWAL valve modulates rear brake apply pres sure during antilock braking. The valve is controlled and operated by the electronic control module. Two solenoid valves in the RWAL valve isolate, decrease, or increase rear brake pressure as needed during an tilock braking. The solenoid valves are inactive during periods of normal braking. The solenoids allow free flow of brake fluid to the wheel cylinders during normal

BR

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

5 - 37

braking. The solenoid valves are activated only when braking effort and rate of wheel slip and deceleration exceed normal limits.
MASTER CYLINDER ASSEMBLY

COMBINATION VALVE AND MOUNTING BRACKET ASSEMBLY

J9405-96 Fig. 3 Combination Waive And integral Mounting Bracket

The module controls front/rear valve solenoid oper ation during all phases of antilock braking. Module electrical inputs are provided by wheel speed signals from the front and rear wheel speed sensors.
ABS Diagnostic Connector

RWAL VALVE

J9405-76

Fig. 2 RWAL Waive And Combination Waive Location Combination Valve

The ABS diagnostic connector is at the underside of the knee bolster. The connector is a six-way style and is either black, or blue in color. The connector is the ABS access point for the DRB scan tool. System cir cuits can be checked once the scan tool is plugged into the connector.
Wheel Speed Sensors And Tone Wheels

The combination valve used with the ABS system contains a front disc brake metering valve and a front/rear pressure differential valve and switch. The metering valve controls fluid apply pressure to the front disc brake calipers. Caliper apply pressure is temporarily limited until the rear drum brakeshoes contact the drum surface. This feature provides balanced front/rear braking. The pressure differential valve is connected to the front and rear brake hydraulic systems. A leak in ei ther part of the system will actuate the valve causing it to shuttle toward the leaking side of the system. Movement of the valve trips the warning switch plunger which closes the electrical circuit to the red warning light. The combination valve is permanently attached to its mounting bracket. The valve bracket is also used to mount the rear brake antilock valve (Fig. 3). Combination valve operation and testing is fully described in the antilock system diagnosis section. Refer to this information when diagnosing system faults.
ABS Control Module

A separate electronic control module is used to monitor and operate the ABS system. The module is located at the drivers inner fender panel (Fig. 1). The module is attached to the forward side of the front antilock valve mounting bracket.

Three wheel speed sensors are used in the ABS system. A separate sensor is used at each front wheel. A single sensor is used for both rear wheels (Fig. 4). The sensors convert wheel speed into an electrical signal. The signal is transmitted to the electronic control module for processing. The trigger mechanism for each front wheel sensor is a gear-type tone wheel. The tone wheels are mounted on the inboard side of the disc brake rotor hub (Fig. 5). A single sensor is used to monitor rear wheel speed and rate of deceleration. The sensor is mounted at the top of the rear axle housing (Fig. 6). The trigger mechanism for the sensor, is an exciter ring pressed onto the differential case next to the ring gear. The teeth on the tone wheels and exciter ring in terrupt the sensor magnetic field as they rotate. The rate of interruption is converted into speed signals which are transmitted to the electronic control mod ule. The front and rear sensors are fixed and not ad justable. A front or rear sensor must be replaced when diagnosis indicates a fault has occurred.
Master Cylinder And Power Brake Booster

A standard master cylinder and vacuum power brake booster are used with the ABS system. The

S - 38

ILL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

Bit

RFTAINING

SCREW SENSOR BOLTS (2) CABLE ~~~~~~~~~~ CLAMP""^ BRAKE LINE COVER-^*"^ SENSOR' STEERING KNUCKLE ~~~~~

AXLE_ HOUSING SPLASH SHIELD FRONT SENSOR J9505-118

Fig. 4 Front Wheel Sensor Location -ROTOR

Fig. 6 Rear Wheel Sensor Location

J9305-71 Fig. 5 Front Tone Wheel Location (In Rotor)

same master cylinder and dual or single diaphragm boosters are used with either antilock system. ALL WHEEL ANTILOCK SYSTEM (ABS) OPERATION The all wheel ABS system is a three channel de sign. The front wheel brakes are controlled individu ally and the rear wheel brakes in tandem (Fig. 7). The ABS system is designed to retard wheel lockup during periods of high wheel slip when braking. Re tarding wheel lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the wheel brake units. The antilock electrical system is separate from other electrical circuits in the vehicle. A specially pro grammed electronic control module is used to operate the system components. The front and rear antilock valves contain electri cally operated solenoid valves. The solenoid valves modulate brake fluid apply pressure during antilock braking. The valves are operated by the antilock elec tronic module.

The ABS valve provides two channel pressure con trol of the front brakes. Each front wheel brake unit is controlled separately. Two solenoid valves are used in each control channel. The RWAL valve controls the rear wheel brakes in tandem. The rear brake valve contains two solenoid valves. During antilock braking, the solenoid valves are opened and closed as needed. The valves are not static. They are cycled rapidly and continuously to modulate pressure and control wheel slip and decel eration. The pump/motor assembly on the front antilock valve provides the fluid volume needed during an tilock braking. The pump is operated by an integral electric motor. The DC type motor is controlled by the ABS control module.
mS O P E R A T I O N IN NORMAL BRAKING MODE

The ABS electronic control module monitors wheel speed sensor inputs continuously while the vehicle is in motion. However, the module will not activate any ABS components as long as sensor inputs indicate normal braking. During normal braking, the master cylinder, power booster and wheel brake units all function as they would in a vehicle without ABS. The solenoid valves are not activated.

BR

ILL-WHEEL

ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

39

FRONT ANTILOCK VALVE


J""L-Tj,

MASTER hj=(Jf-* CYLINDER #

POWER BRAKE BOOSTER

RF WHEEL

RR WHEEL COMBINATION VALVE REAR ANTILOCK VALVE

LF WHEEL

LR WHEEL

J9305-113 Fig. 7 ABS ABS OPERATION MODE IN ANTILOCK Hydraulic System Connections

BRAKING

The ABS module activates the system whenever sensor signals indicate the onset of high wheel slip. High wheel slip can be described as the point where wheel rotation begins approaching zero (or lockup) during braking. The antilock system retards lockup during high slip conditions by modulating fluid apply pressure to the wheel brake units. Brake fluid apply pressure is modulated according to wheel speed, degree of slip and rate of decelera tion. A sensor at each wheel converts wheel speed into electrical signals. These signals are transmitted to the module for processing and determination of wheel slip and deceleration rate. The ABS system has three fluid pressure control channels. The front brakes are controlled separately and the rear brakes in tandem. A speed sensor input signal indicating high slip conditions activates the control module antilock program. The solenoid valves are not static during antilock braking. They are cycled continuously to modulate pressure. Solenoid cycle time in antilock mode can be measured in milliseconds.

switch valve pushes the switch plunger upward. This action closes the switch internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to the warning light. The switch valve will remain in an actuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels.
Metering Valve

The metering valve is used to balance brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brakeshoes are in full contact with the drums. The valve is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. At this point, the metering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brakes. ABS SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS ABS system diagnosis involves checking only those components that form the antilock system. Antilock system diagnosis involves three basic steps which are: observation of the warning light display visual examination for low fluid, leaks, or dam aged wires identification of the problem circuit Visual examination includes a check of reservoir fluid level and condition of the system components. This includes inspection of the sensor wires and elec trical connections. Things to look for are leaks, loose connections, or obvious component damage. Identifi cation involves using the DRB scan tool to identify the faulty circuit.

COMBINATION ALWE OPERATION


Pressure Differential Switch

The pressure differential switch is connected to the red brake warning light. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve. A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shuttle forward or rearward in re sponse to the pressure differential. Movement of the

5 - 40

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

BR

ABS DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR LOCATION The ABS diagnostic connector is clipped to the un der side of the knee bolster (Fig. 8). The connector is positioned just below the steering column. The diagnostic connector is a six-way type, is either light blue or black in color, and is the ABS access point for the DRB scan tool. System circuits can be tested once the scan tool is plugged into the connec tor.

differing traction surfaces would be when the left side wheels are on ice and the right side wheels are on relatively dry pavement.
Brake Pedal Pulsing

A pulsing sensation may be felt through the brake pedal during antilock mode braking. This is a nor mal occurrence and should not be mistaken for a sys tem fault.
Loss Of Sensor Input

Wheel speed sensor malfunctions will most likely be due to loose connections, damaged sensor wires, or incorrect sensor air gap. An additional fault would be a result of sensor and tone wheel misalignment or physical damage. A faulty sensor can be located with the scan tool.
Driver Induced Faults

J9405-164

Fig. 8 ABS Diagnostic Connector

Location

ABS NORMAL AND FAULT CONDITIONS


Wheel/Tire Size And Input Signals

Antilock system operation depends on accurate sig nals from the wheel speed sensors. Ideally, the vehi cle wheels and tires should all be the same size and type to ensure accurate signals and satisfactory oper ation.
Operating Sound Levels

The driver can induce system faults by pumping or riding the brake pedal, or leaving the parking brakes partially applied. Either condition will cause the an tilock warning light to illuminate, despite the fact that an actual malfunction has not occurred. Another driver induced fault involves holding the brake pedal in an applied position while starting the engine. This practice causes the stoplamp switch to be in a closed position when the engine is started. With the switch closed, the ABS system self check feature will not be completed. The result is illumina tion of both warning lights and the entry of a trouble code in system memory. A1S WARNING LIGHT DISPLAY
Light Illuminates At Startup

The pump, motor, and antilock valve solenoids may produce some sound as they cycle on and off. This is a normal condition and should not be mistaken for faulty operation. Under most conditions however, pump and solenoid valve operating sounds should not be audible.
Vehicle Response In Antilock Mode

The amber antilock light illuminates at startup as part of the system self check feature. The light illu minates for 2-3 seconds then goes off as part of the normal self check routine.
Light Remains On After Startup

During antilock braking, the front/rear solenoid valves cycle rapidly in response to antilock electronic control unit inputs. The driver will experience a light pulsing sensation in the brake pedal and in the vehicle. This occurs as the solenoid valves modulate fluid pressure as needed. This is a normal condition during antilock mode braking.
Steering Response

An ABS fault is indicated when the amber light re mains on after startup. Diagnosis with the DRB scan tool will be necessary to determine the faulty circuit.
Light Illuminates During Brake Stop

A system fault such as loss of speed sensor signal or solenoid failure, will cause the amber warning light to illuminate. The most effective procedure here is to check for obvious damage first. Then check elec tronic circuits with the scan tool. ABS CONTROL MODULE DIAGNOSIS . The electronic module controls all phases of an tilock system operation. The module also differenti ates between normal and antilock mode braking.

A modest amount of steering input is required dur ing extremely high deceleration braking, or when braking on differing traction surfaces. An example of

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ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

5 - 41

The module monitors and processes signals gener ated by the system sensors at all times. The module operating program includes a self check routine that tests each of the system compo nents. A failure of the self check program will cause illumination of the amber warning light. The light will also illuminate if a solenoid or other system com ponent fails during the dynamic phase of initializa tion. If a system malfunction should occur, do not imme diately replace the control module. A blown system fuse, bad ground, low voltage, or loss of feed voltage will cause system faults similar to a module failure. Never replace the module unless scan tool diag nosis indicates replacement is actually neces sary. ABS VALWE SERWICE AND DIAGNOSIS The front and rear antilock valves are serviced only as assemblies. Neither valve should be replaced un less a fault has actually been confirmed. COMBINATION ALE TESTING
TESTING METERING VALVE

ABS VALVE AND CONTROL MODULE REMOVAL (1) If desired, battery can be removed for improved access to ABS valve and connecting lines. (2) Disconnect ABS harness at valve (Fig. 9). (3) Unlatch and disconnect harness at ABS mod ule.

Fig. 9 ABS Valve Harness Connections

Metering valve operation can be checked visually and with the aid of a helper. Observe the metering valve stem while a helper applies and releases the brakes. If the valve is operating correctly, the stem will extend slightly when the brakes are applied and retract when the brakes are released. If the valve is faulty, replace the entire combination valve as an as sembly.
TESTING PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH

(4) Disconnect lines to front brakes at ABS valve (Fig. 10).

(1) Have helper sit in drivers seat to apply brake pedal and observe red brake warning light. (2) Raise vehicle on hoist. (3) Connect bleed hose to a rear wheel cylinder and immerse hose end in container partially filled with brake fluid. (4) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor and observe warning light. (a) If warning light illuminates, switch is operat ing correctly. (b) If light fails to illuminate, check circuit fuse, bulb and wiring. Repair as necessary and repeat test steps (3) and (4). (5) If warning light still fails to illuminate, check brakelight and parking brake switches and wiring with test lamp. Repair or replace parts as necessary and test differential pressure switch operation again. (6) If warning light still does not illuminate, switch is faulty. Replace combination valve assembly, bleed brake system and verify proper switch and valve op eration.

Fig. 10 ABS Valve Hydraulic Connections

(5) Remove stud nuts and bolt that attach ABS valve to inner fender panel (Fig. 11). Then remove valve from engine compartment. (6) If valve is only being removed for access to an other component, cover brakeline fluid ports with tape or plugs to prevent dirt entry. (7) Remove bolts attaching module to valve and re move module. ABS VALVE AND CONTROL MODULE INSTALLATION (1) Install replacement module on valve if neces sary. (2) Position ABS valve on mounting studs.

5 - 42

ALL -WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

ABS VALVE AND MODULE ASSEMBLY INNER FENDER PANEL

STUD PLATE (ON UNDERBODY) Fig. 11 ABS Valve Mounting

COMBINATION VALVE J9405-99 RWAL VALVE LINE TO FRONT BRAKES

(3) Install and tighten mounting bolt and stud nuts. Tighten bolts and nuts to 10-13 N-m (92-112 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Connect ABS harnesses to valve and electronic module. Be sure module harness is securely latched in place. (5) Connect brakelines to ABS valve. Tighten line fittings to 19-23 N-m (170-200 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Install battery, if removed. (7) Fill and bleed brake system. Refer to procedure in this section. RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL (1) Disconnect ground wire and harness wires from combination valve switch and RWAL valve (Fig. 12).
GROUND.

J9405-82

Fig. 13 Master Cylinder Brakeline Removal

SECONDARY BRAKEUNE PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH WIRE

J9405-83 Fig. 14 Master Cylinder Brakeline Installation Removal/

RWAL VALVE HARNESS AND CONNECTOR

J9405-77

Fig. 12 Valve Harness Connector And Ground Wire Locations

(2) Disconnect lines to front and rear brakes from RWAL and combination valves (Fig. 13). (3) Remove brakelines connecting master cylinder to combination valve (Fig. 14). (4) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder and combination valve bracket to booster studs.

(5) Remove master cylinder. (6) Remove combination valve, valve bracket and RWAL valve as assembly. (7) Remove brakeline connecting combination valve to RWAL valve. (8) Remove bolt attaching RWAL valve to combina tion valve bracket (Fig. 15). Then separate RWAL valve from bracket.

BR
VALVE INTEGRAL MOUNTING BRACKET

ILL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

I - 43

RWAL VALVE ATTACHING HOLT J9405-84 J9405-1

Fig. 15 RWAL Valve/Combination Valve Disassembly

Fia. II

faster Cylinder

Brakeline

Connections

iWAL WALWE/COMBINATION INSTALLATION (1) Install RWAL valve on combination valve bracket (Fig. 15). Do not tighten RWAL valve bolt completely at this time. (2) Install short brakeline that connects RWAL valve to combination valve (Fig. 15). Tighten line fit tings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (3) Tighten RWAL valve attaching bolt to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Install master cylinder on booster mounting studs. (5) Attach antilock harness ground wire to combi nation valve bracket. (6) Install combination valve bracket on booster mounting studs and against master cylinder. (7) Loosely install nuts that retain master cylinder and combination valve on booster studs. (8) Install and connect all remaining brakelines (Figs. 16 and 17). Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and to combination valve switch (Fig. 17). (10) Fill and bleed brake system. Refer to manual bleeding procedure in this section. FRONT SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle and support vehicle front end. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. (3) Press caliper piston back into bore with pry tool. (4) Remove brake caliper bolts and lift caliper from knuckle and rotor. Secure caliper to frame or chassis component with wire. Do not allow brake hose to support caliper weight.

LINES FROM COMBINATION / VALVE TO ^FRONT/REAR BRAKES

J9405-2

Fig. 17 Master Cylinder And Combination Valve Mounting

(5) Remove rotor. (6) Remove bolts attaching sensor to steering knuckle (Fig. 18). Retain bolts. They are special and must be reused if in good condition. (7) Disconnect sensor wire and remove sensor from vehicle. FRONT SPEED SENSOR INSTALLATION (1) Position sensor in knuckle.

5 - 44

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

Bit

RETAINING SCREW SENSOR BOLTS (2)

STEERING
KNUCKLE

SPLASH SHIELD

FRONT SENSOR J9505-118

fig.

18 Front Speed Sensor Mounting (2-Wheel Drive Shown)

(2) Install and tighten sensor bolts to 21-25 N-m (190-250 in. lbs.) torque. Use original or replace ment sensor bolts only. The bolts are special and must not be substituted. (3) Connect sensor wire to harness wire from ABS controller. (4) Install rotor and brake caliper. (5) Install wheel and tire assembly. (6) Lower vehicle. (7) Verify sensor operation with scan tool. FRONT TONE WHEEL SERVICE The tone wheel for the front speed sensor is located in the rotor hub on 2-wheel drive models. On 4-wheel drive models, the tone wheel is located on the driveshaft. The tone wheel is not a serviceable component. On 2-wheel drive models, the complete rotor and hub as sembly will have to be replaced if the tone wheel be comes damaged. On 4-wheel drive models, the driveshaft is necessary if the tone wheel becomes damaged. REAR SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL/INSTALLATION (1) Raise vehicle on hoist. (2) Clean sensor, cover and sensor mounting area of axle housing (Figs. 19 and 20). This is necessary to prevent dirt entry when sensor is removed from housing. Mopar brake cleaner or carb cleaner are equally acceptable for cleaning purposes. (3) Disconnect harness wires from sensor. (4) Remove screw that secures brake cable, brakeline, sensor cover and sensor in axle housing (Figs. 19 and 20). (5) Remove sensor and cover. (6) Cover sensor opening in axle housing to pre vent dirt entry.

J9405-80 Fig. 19 Rear Speed Sensor Mounting

REAR SPEED SENSOR INSTALLATION (1) Insert sensor in axle housing opening. (2) Position cover over sensor and install cover and sensor attaching screw. (3) Connect harness wires to sensor. (4) Lower vehicle. REAR SPEED SENSOR HARNESS REPLACEMENT (1) Raise vehicle on hoist. (2) Disconnect wire harness at sensor. Then disen gage small harness clip from sensor cover (Fig. 21). (3) Disconnect sensor harness at axle connector. (4) Unclip sensor harness from plastic retainer that secures harness and rear brake hose (Fig. 22). (5) Remove rear harness from vehicle. (6) Install and connect new rear harness. Verify that harness is securely clipped to retainers. (7) Lower vehicle. ABS SYSTEM BRAKE BLEEDING Use Mopar DOT 3 brake fluid, or equivalent meet ing SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards, to fill and bleed the system. Bleeding can be performed manually, with vacuum equipment, or with pressure equipment. Manual bleeding is preferred. If vacuum or pressure equip-

B R

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

5 - 45

REAR BRAKE HOSE

REAR SENSOR HARNESS CONNECTOR

REAR SENSOR

REAR AXLE HOUSING Fig. 20 Rear Speed Sensor Harness Routing And Attachment SENSOR HARNESS SENSOR HARNESS CONNECTOR

J9405-81

HOSE UCLIP

J9405-92 Fig. 21 Disengaging Harness Connector At Rear Sensor

ment is used, it is important that the manufacturers instructions be followed for proper results. Vacuum bleeding does not require that the front brake metering valve be held open. However, if pres sure equipment is used, it will be necessary to hold the front brake metering valve open in order to bleed the front brakes. The valve can be held open with a tension clip tool or by hand. It will also be necessary that a suitable size pressure tank hose adapter be available for use on the master cylinder reservoir caps. Recommended bleeding sequence is: master cylinder rear antilock valve combination valve

J9405-93 Fig. 22 Sensor Rear Harness Attachment

front antilock valve left rear wheel right rear wheel right front wheel left front wheel Observe following precautions while bleeding the brake system: Bleed only one valve, or wheel brake unit at a time. Use a bleed hose on each wheel cylinder and caliper bleed screw. Attach one end of the bleed hose to the bleed

5 - 46

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

BR

screw and insert the opposite end of the hose in glass container partially filled with brake fluid (Fig. 23). A glass container makes it easier to see air bubbles as they exit the bleed hose. Be sure the end of the bleed hose remains im mersed in fluid. This is necessary to prevent air from being drawn back into the cylinder or caliper and brakeline. Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid when bleeding the brakes. An empty cylinder will al low additional air to be drawn into the system. Check the cylinder fluid level frequently and add fluid as needed.

J8905-18

Fig. 23 Typical Fluid Container And Bleed Hose

ABS MANUAL BRAKE BLEEDING PROCEDURE (1) If master cylinder has been overhauled, or a new cylinder will be installed, bleed cylinder on bench before installation. This shortens bleed time and ensures proper cylinder operation. Refer to pro cedure in Master Cylinder Service section. (2) If master cylinder was not serviced, wipe cylin der reservoir and cover clean with shop towels. Use Mopar brake cleaner if reservoir and cover are ex tremely dirty. Then remove cover and fill reservoir with Mopar, DOT 3 brake fluid. (3) Open all caliper and wheel cylinder bleed screws. Close bleed screws when fluid starts dripping from bleed screws. Then top off master cylinder res ervoir again. (4) Bleed master cylinder first. Have helper oper ate brake pedal while bleeding each master cylinder fluid outlet line. (5) Bleed RWAL valve next and combination valve afterward. Bleed each valve at brakeline fittings one at a time. Surround line fittings with shop towels to catch fluid from fittings.

(6) There are two bleed procedures for the front antilock valve. If a new front valve is being installed, bleed the valve as described in step (7). However, if the original valve is still in the vehicle, bleed the valve as described in step (8). (7) If a new front antilock valve and motor as sembly is being installed, bleed new valve as fol lows: (a) Loosen bleed plug on new front valve about 1/4 to one full turn (Fig. 23). Plug must be open to fully bleed upper and lower sections of front an tilock valve. (b) Remove cap from bleed valve stem (Fig. 24). (c) Install Valve Depressor Tool 6670 on bleed valve stem (Figs. 24 and 25). To install tool, slide notched side of tool onto boss that surrounds bleed valve stem (Fig. 25). Stem must be held inward (in open position) to fully bleed upper section of new valve assembly. (d) Tighten thumbscrew on bleed Tool 6670 just enough to push valve stem inward about 0.51 0.76 mm (0.020 - 0.030 in.). (e) Apply brake pedal. Pedal will fall off signifi cantly when bleed plug is properly open and bleed valve stem is correctly unseated (pressed inward) by tool. (f) Stroke brake pedal rapidly 5-10 times. This action will fill upper and lower sections of valve rapidly. (g) Bleed new valve assembly at each brakeline fitting one at a time. Remember to close valve bleed plug before each brake pedal stroke. Con tinue bleeding until fluid flowing from fittings is clear and free of bubbles. (h) Remove depressor tool from valve stem and install cap on stem. Then tighten bleed plug to 7-9 N-m (60-84 in. lbs.) torque. (8) If original front antilock valve assembly is still in place, bleed plug and bleed valve do not have to be open during bleeding operations. Just bleed the valve assembly at each brakeline fit ting one at a time. (9) Bleed wheel brake units one at a time in rec ommended sequence and as follows: (a) Bleed first wheel brake unit as follows. Start at left rear wheel. (b) Open caliper or wheel cylinder bleed fitting 1/2 to 3/4 turn. (c) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor. (d) Tighten bleed fitting and have helper release brake pedal. (e) Continue bleeding operation until fluid flow ing into bleed fluid container is clear and free of bubbles.

IR

ALL-WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)

5 - 47

(10) Check and top off master cylinder reservoir fluid level. Then verify proper brake operation before moving vehicle. (11) Repeat bleeding procedure if either brake warning light illuminates, or if pedal is still spongy.
BLEED VALVE STEM

Fig. 25 Front Antilock Valve Bleed Pressure Heeding

Tool Installation

If pressure bleeding equipment will be used, the metering valve stem in the combination valve must be either pressed inward, or held outward slightly in order to bleed front brakes. The stem can be held open, or pressed inward with a tension clip tool, or by hand. Follow the bleed equipment manufacturers instruc tions for use. Also do not pressure bleed without a proper adapter for the master cylinder reservoir.

Fig. 24 Location

Of Front Antilock Valve Bleed Stern And Plug

Valve

Vacuum Brake Bleeding

If vacuum bleeding equipment is used, no special precautions are required. Just bleed the brakes in ac cordance with the equipment manufacturers instruc tions.

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DISC BRAKES

D I S C BRAKES
INDEX
page Caliper Operation and Wear Compensation . . . . . . Disc Brake Caliper Cleaning and Inspection . . . . . . Disc Brake Caliper Disassembly Disc Brake Caliper Installation Disc Brake Caliper Overhaul and Reassembly . . . . Disc Brake Caliper Removal Disc Brake Rotor Inspection and Service Disc Brake Rotor Installation (With Tapered Bearings) Disc Brake Rotor Installation (With Unit Bearings) . 48 54 53 56 55 53 57 59 61 page Disc Brake Rotor Removal (With Tapered Bearings) . . 58 Disc Brake Rotor Removal (With Unit Bearings) . . . 60 Disc Brakeshoe and Caliper Inspection 51 Disc Brakeshoe Installation 51 Disc Brakeshoe Removal . 50 Front Wheel Bearing Replacement 62 General Service Information 48 Wheel Bearing Adjustment (With Tapered Bearings) . . 59 Wheel Nut Tightening 62

GENERAL SERVICE INFORMATION


Caliper Tpes

BR models are equipped with Delco slider type, front disc brake calipers. The calipers slide laterally on the mounting bolts attaching each caliper to the steering knuckle.
Caliper Sizes A i l Application

Two different caliper styles and three different cal iper bore sizes are used on BR models (Figs. 1, 2 and 3). Caliper styles are similar in appearance. The main difference between them being physical size and caliper mounting bolt bushing type. Caliper piston bore sizes are: calipers on 1/2 ton models have a 75 mm (2.95 in.) bore calipers on 3/4 ton models have an 80 mm (3.14 in.) bore calipers on 1 ton models have an 86 mm (3.38 in.) bore The three different size calipers are not inter changeable. Use the specified caliper or compo nents when diagnosis indicates caliper or component replacement is necessary. Do not in termix calipers, or components.
Brakeshoe Types And Wear Tabs

Fig. 1 Model 1500 Disc Brake Caliper (75 mm Piston)

The outboard brakeshoes on all BR models have wear tabs. The metal tabs are attached to the trail ing end of each outboard brakeshoe (Figs. 1, 2 and 3). The tabs contact the rotor surface when lining mate rial has worn to a thickness of approximately 5 to 6 mm (3/16 to 1/4 in.). The resulting noise alerts the driver that brakeshoe replacement is necessary. The brakeshoes on 1/2 ton models are different from those used on 3/4 and 1 ton models. Do not in termix the shoes for any reason.
Caliper Mounting

knuckles. Separate mounting brackets are not re quired. Caliper mounting arms are built right into the knuckle (Fig. 4). The caliper mounting bolts are encased within steel collars. The collars are permanently attached to the bolts and cannot be serviced separately. CALIPER OPERATION AND WEAR COMPENSATION
Caliper Operation

The significant feature of single piston caliper op eration is that the calipers are free to slide laterally on the mounting bolts. It is the freedom of lateral movement that allows continuous compensation for lining wear.

The calipers are attached directly to the steering

BR
gfcy:TAB
WEAR CALIPER MOUNTING ARMS (PART OF KNUCKLE)

DISC BRAKES

I - 41

80MM CALIPER (3/4 TON)

INBOARD BRAKESHOE J9405-45 Fig. 4 Caliper Mounting (in Steering

J9405-26 Knuckle)

Fig, 2 Model 2500 Disc Brake Caliper (80 mm Piston) 86MM CALIPER (1 TON)

the same as pressure on the piston. In other words, pressure against piston and caliper bore will be equal. . Fluid pressure applied to the piston is transmitted directly to the inboard brakeshoe. This forces the shoe lining against the inner surface of the disc brake rotor (Fig. 5). At the same time, fluid pressure within the piston bore, forces the caliper to slide inward on the mount ing bolts. This action brings the outboard brakeshoe lining into contact with the outer surface of the disc brake rotor (Fig. 5). . ' In summary, fluid pressure acting simultaneously on both piston and caliper, produces a strong clamp ing action. When sufficient force is applied, friction will stop the rotors from turning and bring the vehi cle to a stop.
Brakeshoe Wear Compensation

WEAR TAB

OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE

J9405-46

Fig. 3 Model 3500 Disc Brake Caliper (86 mm Piston)

A simplified cross section of a single piston caliper is shown in Figure 1. The illustration graphically portrays the forces at work when the brakes are ap plied. Upon brake application, fluid pressure exerted against the caliper piston increases greatly. Of equal importance, is the fact that this fluid pressure is ex erted equally and in all directions. What this means, is that pressure in the caliper bore, will be exactly

Application and release of the brake pedal gener ates only a very slight movement of the caliper and piston. Upon release of the pedal, the caliper and pis ton return to a rest position. The brakeshoes do not retract an appreciable distance from the rotor. In fact, clearance is usually at, or close to zero. The rea sons for this are to keep road debris from getting be tween the rotor and lining and in wiping the rotor surface clear each revolution. The caliper piston seal controls the amount of pis ton extension needed to compensate for normal lining wear. During brake application, the seal is deflected out ward by fluid pressure and piston movement (Fig. 6).

5 - li

iiSC BRAKES

mi

Fig. 7 Pressing Caliper Piston Back Into Bore

SHOE
w

J9405-102

Fig. 5 Disc Brake Caliper Operation

When the brakes and fluid pressure are released, the seal relaxes and retracts the piston. The amount of piston retraction is determined by brakelining wear. Generally, the amount is just enough to maintain contact between the piston and inboard brakeshoe. In addition, running clearance at the rotor will be held between zero and a maximum of 0.12 mm (0.005 in.).
Fig. 8 Caliper Mounting Bolt Removal/Installation (1/2 Ton)

Fig. 6 Lining Wear Compensation (By Piston Seal)

DISC BRAKESHOE RE10WAL (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. (3) Press caliper piston back into bore with large flat blade screwdriver (Fig. 7). Use large C-clamp to bottom piston in bore if additional force is required. (4) Remove caliper mounting bolts with 3/8 hex wrench or socket (Figs. 8 and 9). (5) Rotate caliper rearward off rotor and out of steering knuckle support ledges (Fig. 10). (6) Remove inboard and outboard brakeshoes (Figs. 11 and 12). Inboard shoe has spring clip that holds it

Fig. 9 Caliper Mounting Bolt Removal/Installation (3/4 and 1 Ton)

in caliper piston. Tilt this shoe out at top to unseat

DISC BRAKES

5 - 51

Fig. 12 Outboard Brakeshoe

Removal

J9405-28 Fig. 10 Caiiper Removai/instailation

clip. Outboard shoe has retaining spring that secures it in caliper. Unseat one spring end and rotate shoe out of caliper.
INBOARD

J9405-30 Fig. 13 Supporting 2-Wheel Drive Caliper

J9405-49 Fig. 11 inboard Brakeshoe Removal

(7) Secure caliper to convenient chassis or suspen sion component with wire (Figs. 13 and 14).
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake hose to support the caliper. Suspending the caliper by the brake hose can damage the hose and fitting joints. Use wire to support and secure the caliper to a chassis or suspension component.

DISC BRAKESHOE AND CALIPER INSPECTION Inspect the brakeshoe lining for wear. Replace riv eted lining if worn to within 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) of rivet heads. Replace bonded lining if thickness is 3 mm (3/16 in.) or less. If the brakeshoes will be reused, do not intermix them. Keep the brakeshoes with the caliper they were removed from. Examine the caliper piston area for evidence of leaks. Also check condition of the piston boot. Over haul the caliper if leakage is evident or the boot is cut or torn. Inspect condition of the caliper and steering knuckle arm slide surfaces (Fig. 15). Remove rust and corrosion from the these surfaces with a wire brush. Then lubricate the surfaces with Mopar multimileage grease, or equivalent. DISC BRAKESHOE INSTALLATION (1) Clean caliper and steering knuckle slide sur faces with wire brush (Fig. 15). Then apply coat of Mopar multi-mileage grease to slide surfaces.

I -12

DISC BRAKES

BR
APPLY SILICONE GREASE WHERE INDICATED

BUSHINGS J9405-32 Fig. 14 Supporting 4-Wheel Drive Caliper Fig. 16 Mounting Bolt Lubrication (75mm Caliper) APPLY SILICONE GREASE WHERE INDICATED MOUNTING BOLT

Fig. 15 Caliper And Steering Knuckle Slide Surfaces

(2) Lubricate caliper mounting bolts, collars, bush ings and bores with Dow 111, or GE 661 silicone grease as follows: (a) On 1/2 ton models with 75 mm caliper, apply silicone grease to mounting pins and collars. Then fill space between bushings in caliper as shown (Fig. 16). (b) On 3/4 and 1 ton models with 80 or 86 mm calipers, coat mounting pin and interior of bushing with silicone grease as shown (Fig. 17). (3) Install inboard brakeshoe in caliper. Be sure spring clip on shoe is properly aligned and seated in caliper piston (Fig. 18 and 19). (4) Install outboard brakeshoe in caliper. Be sure spring ends are seated in dimples in caliper (Fig. 19).

J9405-33 Fig. 17 Mounting Bolt Lubrication (80 or 86mm Caliper)

(5) Install caliper over rotor and into steering knuckle mounting arms. Be sure caliper is seated flush on mounting arm surfaces as shown (Fig. 20). (6) Start caliper mounting bolts by hand to avoid cross threading. Then tighten mounting bolts to 51 N-m (38 ft.lbs.) torque. (7) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (8) Lower vehicle and tighten wheel lug nuts to fol lowing torque: 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. lbs.) on 5 stud wheel

BR

DISC BRAKES

5 -13

Fig, 20 Caliper installation

(6) Rotate caliper rearward off rotor and out of steering knuckle support ledges (Fig. 10). (7) Remove front brake hose fitting bolt completely and remove caliper and brakeshoes as assembly.. (8) Cover open end of front brake hose fitting to prevent dirt entry. DISC BRAKE CALIPER D1SASSE1BLY (1) Drain brake fluid from caliper. (2) Remove brakeshoes from caliper. (3) Pad interior of caliper with minimum, one-inch thickness of shop towels (Fig. 21). Towels will cush ion and protect caliper piston during removal. (4) Remove caliper piston with several short bursts of low pressure compressed air. Direct air through fluid inlet port to ease piston out of bore (Fig. 21).
CAUTION: Do not blow the piston out of the bore with sustained high pressure. This practice will re sult in a chipped, or cracked piston. In addition, NEVER attempt to catch the piston as it exits the bore. This will result in personal injury.

Fig, 19 Correct Brakeshoe Position in Caliper

168-203 N-m (120-150 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud single wheel (9) Pump brake pedal to reseat caliper pistons and brakeshoes. Do not move vehicle until shoes have been properly seated. (10) Check brake fluid level and add fluid if neces sary. DISC BRAKE CALIPER REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. (3) Press caliper piston back into bore with large flat blade screwdriver (Fig. 7). Use large C-clamp if more force is required to bottom piston in bore. (4) Loosen bolt that secures front brake hose fit ting bolt in caliper. (5) Remove caliper mounting bolts with 3/8 hex wrench or socket (Figs. 8 and 9).

INLET J9405-38

Fig. 21 Caliper Piston Removal

(5) Remove piston dust boot with a suitable pry tool (Fig. 22). Discard dust boot as it is not reusable. Do not scratch piston bore while removing boot.
PRY

(8) Remove caliper bleed screw (Figs. 23 and 24). DISC BRAKE CALIPER CLEANING AND INSPECTION Clean the caliper and piston with Mopar brake cleaner, clean brake fluid, or denatured alcohol. Do not use any other cleaning agents. Inspect condition of the caliper piston bore. A fiber brush can be used to clean the bore if necessary. The bore should be free of corrosion, pitting, or scoring. Discoloration of the bore is a normal condition and not cause for replacement. The bore can be lightly polished by hand but only with crocus cloth. Do NOT use any other type of abrasive material for polishing. Check condition of the caliper piston carefully. The piston must be free of corrosion, rust, pitting, or scor ing, replace the piston if it exhibits any of these con ditions. Do NOT use any kind of abrasive material to restore surface finish of the piston. Abrasives will damage, or destroy the coating applied to the piston during manufacture.
CAUTION; Never hone the caliper piston bore, or use any kind of abrasive material on the piston sur face. Honing will result in an oversize bore and abrasives will damage the piston coating. Either of these practices will result in piston bind and even tual seizure.

TOOL

DUST
BOOT J9405-39

Fig. 22 Dust Boot Removal

(6) Remove seal from caliper piston (Figs. 23 and 24). Discard seal as it is not reusable. (7) Remove mounting bolts from calipers and in spect seals, boots, and bushings (Figs. 23 and 24). Remove these components only if cut, worn, or dam aged.

Fig. 23 Caliper Components (75mm Caliper)

BR
MOUNTING BOLTS

DISC BRAKES

5 - 55

CALIPER PISTON SEAL INBOARD BRAKESHOE OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE

BUSHINGS

j
CALIPER PISTON DUST BOOT J9405-37 Fig. 24 Caliper Components (80/86mm Caliper)

BLEED SCREW

Inspect condition of the threads in the inlet and bleed screw ports. Replace the caliper if thread dam age is evident. Do not attempt to salvage the threads. Check the bushings in the caliper mounting bolt bores. Replace the bushings if worn, cut, or torn. Bushing condition is important as they keep road dirt and water from the mounting bolts. DISC BRAKE CALIPER OVERHAUL AND REASSEMBLY (1) Be sure caliper assembly area of workbench is clean and dry. This is important as dust, dirt, foreign material, oil, or solvents can damage seals, harm pis ton surfaces and contaminate fluid. (2) Lubricate caliper piston, piston seal and piston bore with liberal quantity of clean, fresh brake fluid. (3) Install new dust boot on piston as follows: (a) Lightly lubricate lip of new boot with Dow or GE silicone grease. Then work boot lip into boot groove at top of piston (Fig. 25). (b) Stretch boot rearward as shown to straighten boot folds. Then move boot forward until folds snap into place (Fig. 25). (4) Install new seal on piston. Slide seal onto pis ton and seat in groove. Be sure square cut seal is fully seated and is not twisted. (5) Install caliper piston. Apply more brake fluid to piston, seal and bore. Then work caliper piston into bore. Once piston seal is properly started, press pis ton 3/4 of way to bottom of bore by hand or with hammer handle. (6) Seat dust boot in caliper with appropriate in staller tool (Fig. 26): use Installer Tool 6753 on 75mm (1/2 ton) caliper

CALIPER PISTON

IN PISTON GROOVE

^J9405-40 Fig. 25 Installing Dust Boot On Caliper Piston

use Installer Tool 6754 on 80 mm (3/4 ton) caliper use Installer Tool 6755 on 86mm (1 ton) caliper (7) Finish pressing caliper piston to bottom of bore after dust boot is seated.

I -II

DISC BRAKES
SHOE RETAINING SPRING OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE

J9405-43 Fig. 28 Outboard Brakeshoe Installation

J9405-41 Fig. 26 Seating Dust Boot in Caliper

(8) Lubricate caliper mounting bolts, collars, bush ings and bores with Dow 111, or GE 661 silicone grease (Figs. 16 and 17). (9) Install bushings, seals, boots and mounting bolts in caliper (Figs. 23 and 24). (10) Install but do not fully tighten caliper bleed screw. (11) Install inboard brakeshoe in caliper. Be sure brakeshoe spring clip is centered and seated in cali per piston (Fig. 27).
INBOARD

DISC BRAKE CALIPER INSTALLATION (1) Clean caliper and steering knuckle slide sur faces with wire brush (Fig. 16). Then apply coat of Mopar multi-mileage grease, or Dow/GE silicone grease to slide surfaces. (2) Install caliper over rotor and seat it on steering knuckle mounting arms. (3) Start caliper mounting bolts by hand to avoid cross threading. Then tighten mounting bolts to 51 N-m (38 ft.lbs.) torque. (4) Connect brake hose to caliper (Figs. 29 and 30). Be sure brake hose fitting is correctly seated against locating shoulder on caliper before tightening fitting bolt.
CAUTION: B e very sure the front brake hose is not twisted, or kinked. Also be sure the hose is cor rectly routed and clear of adjacent chassis and sus pension components. This is important as hose damage will result if it is twisted or incorrectly routed.

Fig. 27 inboard Brakeshoe

installation

(12) Install outboard brakeshoe in caliper (Fig. 28). Align shoe and retaining spring in caliper. Then push shoe downward into place. Be sure spring ends are correctly seated in caliper dimples.
Fig. 29 Front Brake Hose Attachment

BR
CONTROL

DISC BRAKES

I -17

Measure rotor thickness at 6 to 12 points around the rotor face (Fig. 31). Position the micrometer ap proximately 25.4 mm (1 in.) from the rotor outer cir cumference for each measurement. Thickness should not vary by more than 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) from point-to-point on the rotor. Refinish or replace the rotor if necessary.

FRONT HOSE AND TUBE ASSEMBLY

J9405-51

Fig. 30 Front Brake Hose Routing (4-Wheel Drive)

(5) Fill and bleed brake system. Refer to procedure in appropriate antilock brake section. (6) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower ve hicle. DISC BRAKE ROTOR INSPECTION AND SERVICE Rotor condition and tolerances can be checked with the rotor mounted in a brake lathe, or on the axle. If the rotor is checked on the axle, be sure wheel bear ing end play is reduced to zero before measuring lat eral runout. The rotor braking surfaces should not be machined unless actually necessary. Light surface rust and scale can be removed in a lathe equipped with dual sanding discs. Worn, or scored rotor surfaces can be restored by machining in a disc brake lathe but only if surface scoring and wear are light. The rotor should be replaced if: severely scored tapered has hard spots cracked warped too thin machining would take rotor below minimum thick ness
CHECKING ROTOR MINIMUM THICKNESS

Fig. 31 Measuring Rotor Thickness Variation Checking Rotor Lateral Runout

Measure rotor thickness at the center of the brakeshoe contact surface. Replace the rotor if it is worn below minimum thickness, or if refinishing would re duce thickness below the allowable minimum. Rotor minimum thickness is usually specified on the rotor hub, or on the outer edge of the rotor ventilated sur face. ROTOR THICKNESS VARIATION Variations in rotor thickness will cause pedal pul sation, noise and shudder.

Check rotor lateral runout if constant pedal pulsa tion or an occasional low pedal condition was experi enced. Excessive lateral runout will cause pedal pulsation, uneven wear of the brakeshoes, and brakeshoe knockback. Measure runout with a dial indica tor (Fig. 32). Check runout with Dial Indicator C-3339 (Fig. 32). Position the indicator plunger at least 25.4 mm ( 1 in.) inward from the outer edge of the rotor. On 2 -wheel drive models, be sure wheel bearing end play is reduced to zero before checking runout. Maximum allowable lateral runout is 0.127 mm (0.005 in.).
mOTOm MEFINISHING

Rotor braking surfaces can be refinished by sand ing and/or machining in a disc brake lathe (Fig. 33). The lathe must be capable of machining both rotor surfaces simultaneously with dual cutter heads. Equipment capable of machining only one side at a time will produce a tapered rotor.

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DISC BRAKES

BR

INDICATOR

Fig. 32 Measuring Rotor Lateral Runout

The lathe should also be equipped with a grinder attachment or dual sanding discs for light refinishing, or final cleanup. If the rotor surfaces only need minor cleanup of rust, scale, or scoring, use abrasive discs to clean up the rotor surfaces. However, when a rotor is scored or worn, machining with cutting tools will be required.
CAUTION: Do not refinish a rotor if machining would cause the rotor t o fall below minimum allow able thickness.

The recommended final finish on a rotor braking surface is shown in Figure 34. The final finish should be a non-directional, cross hatch pattern. Sanding discs are required to produce this type of finish. DISC BRAKE ROTOR REMOVAL (WITH TAPERED BEARINGS) (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. (3) Bottom caliper piston in bore. Use screwdriver or large C-clamp to press piston back to bottom of caliper bore (Fig. 7). (4) Remove caliper mounting bolts (Figs. 8 and 9). (5) Remove caliper from rotor. Position caliper on steering knuckle and secure it with wire (Figs. 13 and 14).
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake hose to support the caliper. Suspending the caliper by the brake hose can damage the hose and fitting joints. Use wire to support and secure the caliper to a suspen sion component as shown (Figs. 13 and 14).

J8905-70

Fig. 33 Rotor Refinishing

Equipment

(6) On models with removable adapter hub, re move hub from rotor.

(7) On models with one-piece rotor and hub assem bly, remove grease cap that covers cotter pin and hub nut. (8) Remove grease cap from hub. On models with long adapter, use long pry tool with angled end to re move grease cap. Pry against flats at each side of cap to loosen and remove it. (9) Remove cotter pin from spindle and wheel bear ing adjusting nut (Fig. 35). (10) Remove locknut from wheel bearing adjusting nut. Then remove tabbed thrust washer and outer wheel bearing (Fig. 35).

BR
FINAL FINISH SHOULD BE NON-DIRECTIONAL CROSSHATCH PATTERN ABS FRONT

DISC BRAKES
SENSOR WIRE

5 - 51

SPLASH SHIELD J8905-71 Fig. 34 Recommended Rotor Surface Finish J9405-177 Fig. 36 Front Sensor Tone Wheel Location (2-Wheel Drive With ABS Brakes)

(11) Remove rotor and hub assembly from spindle. (12) Inspect wheel bearings and interior of hub. If bearings need repacking, remove grease seal and in ner wheel bearing from rotor hub. On 2-wheel drive models with ABS brakes, also check condition of front sensor tone wheel located in rotor hub (Fig. 36). En tire rotor and hub assembly will have to be re placed if tone wheel is damaged. Tone wheel is not available as a separate part.
SPLASH SHIELD

DISC BRAKE ROTOR INSTALLATION (WITH TAPERED BEARINOS) (1) Repack wheel bearings, if necessary, with Mo par high temperature bearing grease. Apply grease to bearing races as well. Then install inner bearing in hub and install new grease seal. (2) Apply liberal coat of bearing grease to spindle, interior of rotor hub, grease seal lip and seal surface of spindle. (3) Install rotor and hub assembly on spindle. (4) Install outer wheel bearing, tabbed thrust washer and bearing adjusting nut. Tighten nut only enough to remove end play at this time. (5) Install disc brake caliper and tighten caliper mounting bolts to 51 N-m (38 ft. lbs.) torque. Do not seat caliper pistons at this time. Pistons must not be seated until after wheel bearing adjust ment has been completed. (6) On models with removable hub adapter (Fig. 37), install adapter on rotor. (7) Install wheel and tire assembly. Tighten wheel nuts snug but not to final torque at this time. (8) Adjust wheel bearings. Refer to procedure in this section. (9) Lower vehicle and tighten wheel lug nuts to fol lowing torque: 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. lbs.) on 5 stud wheel 163-203 N-m (120-150 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud wheel (10) Install grease cap and wheel cover/hub cap. WHEEL BEARING ADJUSTMENT (WITH TAPERED BEARINGS) (1) Raise vehicle front end.

CAP J9405-178 Fig. 35 Rotor And Huh Assembly (With Tapered Bearings)

I - il

DISC BRAKES
HUB AND ROTOR ASSEMBLY

BR

(2) Remove front wheel covers/hub caps. (3) Remove grease caps. (4) Remove cotter pin and nut lock. (5) Rotate wheel and fully tighten bearing adjust ing nut to seat bearings. (6) Loosen and tighten bearing adjusting nut once again while rotating wheel. (7) Continue rotating wheel and back off adjusting nut until wheel end play is no more than 0.0254 to 0.0508 mm (0.001 to 0.002 in.). (8) Install nut lock on adjusting nut and install new cotter pin. Adjusting nut can be tightened slightly to align cotter pin holes if necessary. Verify that wheel bearing adjustment is still OK. Readjust if needed. (9) Lower vehicle and tighten wheel lug nuts to- fol lowing torque: 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. lbs.) on 5 stud wheel 163-203 N-m (120-150 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud wheel (10) Install wheel covers/hub caps. DISC BRAKE ROTOR REMOVAL (WITH UNIT BEARIN0S) (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. (3) Bottom caliper piston in bore. Use screwdriver or large C-clamp to press piston back to bottom of caliper bore (Fig. 7). (4) Remove caliper mounting bolts (Figs. 8 and 9). (5) Remove caliper from rotor. Position caliper on steering knuckle and secure it in place with wire. Or suspend caliper from adjacent chassis or suspension component with wire (Figs. 13 and 14).
CAUTION; Do not allow the brake hose to support the caliper. Suspending the caliper by the hose can damage the hose and fitting joints. Use wire to sup port and secure the caliper to a suspension compo nent as shown (Figs. 13 and 14).

ADAPTER HUB

J9405-53 37 Adapter Hub Removal/Installation COTTER PIN

J9405-54 Fig. 38 Hub Nut Cotter Pin Removal

(6) On models with removable adapter hub, re move hub from rotor (Fig. 37). Then remove grease cap. (7) On models with one-piece rotor and hub assem bly, remove grease cap that covers cotter pin and hub nut. (8) Remove cotter pin from rotor hub nut (Fig. 38). (9) Remove rotor hub nut (Fig. 39). An appropriate size, 3/4 in. drive socket and ratchet wrench will be required for removal.

3/4 INCH DRIVE RATCHET Fig. 39 Hub Nut

SUITABLE SIZE SOCKET J9405-55 Removal/Installation

IBIR

DISC BRAKES

5 61

(10) Remove bolts that secure rotor arid hub to steering knuckle. Bolts are accessible from inboard (back) side of steering knuckle (Fig. 40).

Fig. 42 Hub Spacer

Removal

Fig. 40 Rotor And Hub Attaching Bolt Location

(11) Remove rotor and hub assembly. Turn assem bly over and check unit bearing and seal (Fig. 41). Replace seal if necessary. Replace bearing assembly if damaged.

(3) Insert two rearmost, top and bottom rotor hub bolts in steering knuckle. Insert bolts through back side of knuckle so they extend out front face as shown (Fig. 43). (4) Position hub spacer on bolts just installed in knuckle. Be sure flat on spacer is positioned toward rear (Fig. 43). Use chassis grease to hold spacer in place on knuckle.

Fig. 41 Rotor Hub And Unit Wheel Bearing Assembly

Fig. 43 Hub Spacer Positioning And Installation

(12) Remove hub spacer from steering knuckle (Fig. 42). Note spacer position for installation refer ence. DISC BRAKE ROTOR INSTALLATION (WITH UNIT BEARINGS) (1) Apply liberal quantity of Mopar, or Permatex anti-seize compound to splines of front drive shaft (Fig. 43). (2) Replace grease seal in wheel hub if old one is damaged (Fig. 43). Install new wheel bearing assem bly in rotor hub if necessary. Refer to procedure in this section.

(5) Apply 1-2 drops of Mopar Lock N' Seal, or Loctite 242 to threads of rotor and hub retaining bolts. (6) Align rotor hub with drive shaft. Then start shaft into rotor hub splines. (7) Align bolt holes in unit bearing flange with bolts previously installed in knuckle. Then thread bolts into bearing flange far enough to hold assembly in place. (8) Install remaining rotor retaining bolts. Tighten all bolts securely (9) Install washer and hub nut. Tighten nut se curely.

5 - 2

DISC BRAKES

BR
Impact wrenches are not the best tools for tighten ing wheel nuts. A torque wrench should be used for this purpose at all times. The correct tightening sequence is important in avoiding rotor and drum distortion. The correct se quence is in a diagonal crossing pattern as shown (Figs 45 and 46). Seat the wheel and install the wheel nuts finger tight. Tighten the nuts in recommended sequence to 1/2 required torque. Then repeat the tightening se quence to final specified torque. Wheel nut torques are: 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. lbs.) on 5 stud wheel 163-203 N-m (120-150 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud single wheel 176-217 N-m (130-160 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud dual wheels

(10) Install new cotter pin in hub nut. Tighten nut as needed to align cotter pin hole in shaft with open ing in nut. (11) Install disc brake caliper. Tighten caliper mounting bolts to 51 N-m (38 ft. lbs.) torque. (12) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. (13) Tighten wheel lug nuts to following torque: 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. lbs.) on 5 stud wheel * 163-203 N-m (120-150 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud single wheel (14) Apply brakes several times to reseat brakeshoes and caliper piston. Do not move vehicle until firm brake pedal is obtained. FRONT WHEEL BEARING REPLACEMENT On models with tapered roller front wheel bear ings, the bearings and races can be serviced sepa rately when necessary. The bearing races do not require special tools for removal. Either race can be removed with a long tapered brass drift. On models with unit style wheel bearings (Fig. 41), the rotor, hub and bearing assembly are all pressed together. However, it is only necessary to drive out the wheel studs with a copper mallet, in order to sep arate the rotor, bearing and hub for replacement pur poses (Fig. 44).

Fig. 44 Front Wheel Stud Removal (With Unit Style Bearing)

WHEEL NUT TIGHTENING The wheel attaching nuts should be properly tight ened to ensure efficient brake operation. Overtighten ing the nuts or tightening them in the wrong sequence could cause distortion of the brake rotors and drums.

Fig. 46 Wheel Nut Tightening Sequence (8 Stud Wheel)

DRUM BRAKES

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mmmm b h a i c e s
iiiEX
page Brake Drum Service 72 Brake Support Plate Installation 71 Brake Support Plate Removal 71 Brakelining Wear Compensation . 63 Brakeshoe Installation (11-Inch Brake) . . . . . . . . . . 65 Brakeshoe Installation (13-Inch Brake) . . 67 Brakeshoe Removal (11-Inch Brake) 63 Brakeshoe Removal (13-Inch Brake) 66 page Drum Brake Adjustment Drum Brake Operation General Service Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheel Cylinder Installation (All) . . . . ....... Wheel Cylinder Overhaul (All) Wheel Cylinder Removal (All) . Wheel Nut Tightening 71 63 63 70 69 69 72

GENERAL SERVICE INFORMATION All BR models are equipped with Delco rear drum brake assemblies. They are two-shoe, duo-servo units with an automatic adjuster mechanism. ' Three different size drum brake assemblies are used which are: 1/2 ton (1500) models have 11 x 2 in. drum brakes 3/4 ton (2500) models have 13 x 2.5 in. drum brakes 1 ton (3500) models have 13 x 3.5 in. drum brakes Two different wheel cylinders are used. The differ ence being cylinder bore size. The cylinders used on 1/2 and 3/4 ton models have a bore diameter of 23.8 mm (0.937 or 15/16 in.). The cylinders used on 1 ton models have a bore diameter of 27 mm (1.06 or 1-1/16 in.). DRUM BRAKE OPERATION Drum brakes on BR models are a semi-floating, self-energizing, servo action design. The brakeshoes are not fixed on the support plate. This type of brake allows the shoes to pivot and move vertically to a cer tain extent. In operation, fluid apply pressure causes the wheel cylinder pistons to move outward. This movement is transferred directly to the brakeshoes by the cylinder connecting links. The resulting brakeshoe expansion brings the lining material into contact with the rotat ing brake drum. Two forces affect the brakeshoes once they contact the drum. The first force being hydraulic pressure ex erted through the wheel cylinder pistons. And the second force is the friction generated turning torque of the rotating drum. The drum forces both brakeshoes to move in the same direction of rotation. Servo action begins with the primary brakeshoe which begins to wedge (or wrap) itself against the rotating drum surface. This force is transmitted equally to the secondary brakeshoe through the adjuster screw and anchor pin. The net result is that each shoe helps the other exert ex tra force against the drum. It is servo action that cre-

ates the wedging (or wrap) effect which produces increased force on the drum braking surface. BRAKELINING WEAR COMPENSATION All drum brake assemblies used on BR models are equipped with a self adjusting mechanism. The com ponents forming the mechanism consist of the: ad juster screw, adjuster lever, actuating lever (11 inch brake), lever return spring and the adjuster lever spring. The adjuster lever on the 13 inch brake, is also equipped with a lever and tension spring. The adjuster mechanism performs two important functions. First, is in maintaining proper brakeshoe operating clearance. And second, is to maintain brake pedal height. The mechanism does so, by adjusting the shoes in small increments to compensate for lin ing wear. The adjustment process is continuous throughout the useful life of the brakelining. The adjuster components are all connected to the secondary brakeshoes. Actual adjustment only occurs during reverse brake stops. Secondary brakeshoe movement (during reverse stops), is what activates the adjuster components. In operation, secondary shoe movement causes the adjuster lever spring to exert pull on the lever. This pivots the lever away from the adjuster screw teeth. When the stop is completed and the brakes released, the adjuster lever pivots back to a normal position. It is during this return movement of the lever when ad justment occurs. At this point, the lever comes back into contact with the adjuster screw teeth as it moves upward. The lever will then rotate the adjuster screw one or two teeth as needed for adjustment. The adjustment process requires a complete stop to actually occur. Rolling stops will NOT activate the adjuster components. In addition, the adjuster screws are left and right hand parts and must NOT be interchanged. BRAKESHOE REMOVAL (11-INCH BRAKE) (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove rear wheels. (3) Remove brake drums.

14

DRUM BRAKES BR
(5) Remove primary shoe holddown spring, pin and retainers. Use brake spring tool to rotate retainers and disengage pins. (6) Tilt primary brakeshoe outward. Then disen gage shoe spring and remove primary brakeshoe. (7) Remove adjuster screw, shoe spring and park brake strut and spring.
CAUTION: The adjuster screw assemblies have dif ferent threads and must be kept separate. The driver side adjuster screw has a right hand thread. And the passenger side adjuster screw has a left hand thread. Do not interchange them as the brake shoes will not adjust properly.

(4) Remove primary (front) brakeshoe return spring (Fig. 1). Use brake spring pliers to unseat and remove spring from anchor pin.
ADJUSTER SPRING PRIMARY SHOE AND RETURN SPRING SECONDARY SHOE AND RETURN SPRING STRUT

SHOE SPRING ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY

ACTUATOR LEVER AND SPRING J9405-16

Fig. 1 Brakeshoe Mounting And Spring Attachment (11-Inch Brake)

(8) Remove secondary brakeshoe holddown spring, pin and retainers (Fig. 1). (9) Pull adjuster lever and retainer out of second ary brakeshoe. Then rotate brakeshoe out and up and remove adjuster spring and secondary shoe re turn spring. (10) Disconnect park brake cable from lever on sec ondary brakeshoe. Then remove brakeshoe. (11) If brakeshoes are to be replaced, remove E-clip (or U-clip) that attaches park brake lever to second ary brakeshoe and remove lever. (12) Inspect wheel cylinder (Fig. 2). If leakage is evident, remove and overhaul cylinder. Refer to over haul procedure in this section.
PARK BRAKE LEVER

CYLINDER SCREWS

SUPPORT PLATE

HOLDDOWN PINS

LINK SECONDARY SHOE RETURN SPRING

PRIMARY (FRONT) BRAKESHOE

FRONT

ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY

HOLDDOWN SPRING AND* RETAINERS

PRIMARY SHOE RETURN SPRING J9405-4

Fig. 2 Drum Brake Components (11-Inch Brake)

BR BRAKESHOE INSTALLATION (11-INCH BRAKE) (1) Clean support plate with Mopar brake cleaner. Then smooth shoe contact pads with wire brush or emery cloth. (2) Apply coat of Mopar multi-mileage, or high temp bearing grease to each shoe contact pad on sup port plate (Fig. 3).

DRUM 1RAIES

5 - 5

(11) Install primary brakeshoe on support plate. Use new holddown spring, pin and retainers to se cure shoe. Be sure parking brake strut is seated in both brakeshoes. (12) Install actuator lever and spring. Hook actua tor lever under adjuster lever as shown (Fig. 4). Large diameter end of spring goes on shoe and small end on lever. (13) Install adjuster screw assembly. Be sure star wheel is positioned adjacent to adjuster lever and that notches in buttons are properly seated on brakeshoes.
CAUTION: B e sure the adjuster screws were not in termixed and are installed on the correct side. The driver side adjuster screw has right hand threads and the passenger side has left hand threads. Also be sure the short end of the screw is toward the secondary brakeshoe.

Fig. 3 Typical Contact Pad Locations On Support Plate

(3) Lubricate adjuster levers and anchor pin and shoe contact surfaces on support plate with Mopar multi-mileage grease, or high temp bearing grease. (4) Clean and check operation of adjuster screw as semblies. Make sure each screw assembly rotates freely. Lubricate screw threads with Mopar spray lube. Replace either assembly if threads are heavily rusted, corroded, or damaged. (5) Attach park brake lever to secondary brakeshoe (Fig. 2). use new U-clip to secure lever to shoe. If Uclip is used to secure shoe, pinch clip together with channel lock pliers to secure it. If E-clip is used, be sure clip is fully seated in notch. (6) Attach park brake cable to lever. (7) Position adjuster lever on secondary brakeshoe (Fig. 4). Then install spring retainer with shoulder on in lever and into shoe. (8) Position secondary brakeshoe on support plate. Use new holddown spring, pin and retainer to secure shoe and adjuster lever. (9) Attach shoe spring to secondary brakeshoe. Connect long end of spring in secondary shoe. (10) Engage parking brake strut in secondary brakeshoe and install oval shaped spring on opposite end of strut (spring end of strut goes in primary shoe).

(14) Attach shoe spring to primary brakeshoe. (15) Install guide plate on anchor pin. (16) Attach adjuster spring to adjuster lever. ' (17) Install secondary brakeshoe return spring in shoe. (18) Attach secondary shoe return spring to ad juster spring. Then install adjuster spring on anchor pin (Fig. 4). (19) Install primary brakeshoe return spring (Fig. 4). (20) Verify that adjuster and return springs are properly installed (Fig. 5). (21) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge. (22) Install brake drum and wheel and tire assem blies. (23) Lower vehicle. (24) Tighten wheel lug nuts to 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. lbs.) torque. (25) Install wheel cover, or hub cap.

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DRUM BRAKES
ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING SECONDARY SHOE RETURN SPRING ADJUSTER LEVER PRIMARY SHOE RETURN SPRING (INSTALL LAST) ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING (INSTALL FIRST) SECONDARY SHOE RETURN SPRING

J9405-15 Fig. 5 Checking Return/Adjuster Spring installation

ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY

LEVER SPRING J9405-3 Fig. 6 Return Spring jf J9405-17

Fig. 4 Self Adjuster Component Installation (11 Inch Brake)

Removal/Installation HOLDDOWN SPRING TOOL

BRAKESHOE REMOfAL (13-INCH BRAKE) (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove rear wheel and tire assemblies. (3) Remove brake drums. (4) Remove primary (front) brakeshoe return spring from anchor pin with brake spring pliers (Fig. 6). (5) Remove primary brakeshoe holddown spring, pin and retainers with holddown spring tool (Fig. 7). (6) Disconnect shoe spring and remove primary brakeshoe and parking brake lever strut.

HOLDDOWN SPRING ASSEMBLIES

J9405-18 Fig. 7 Holddown Spring, Pin And Retainer Removal/ Installation

PRIMARY SHOE

BR (7) Remove adjuster screw assembly (Fig. 8). (8) Remove secondary brakeshoe holddown spring, pin and retainers. Then remove adjuster lever, spring and spring retainer assembly (Fig. 8). It is not nec essary to disassemble adjuster lever components un less they are worn, or damaged. (9) Disconnect parking brake cable from lever at tached to secondary brakeshoe (Fig. 8). Then remove brakeshoe. (10) If brakeshoes are to be replaced, remove E-clip attaching parking brake lever to secondary brakeshoe and remove lever (Fig. 8). (11) Inspect wheel cylinder. If leakage is evident, remove and overhaul cylinder. Refer to overhaul pro cedure in this section.

DRUM BRAKES

5 - 67

BRAKESHOE INSTALLATION (13-INCH BRAKE) (1) Clean support plate with Mopar brake cleaner. Then smooth shoe contact pads with wire brush or emery cloth. (2) Lubricate adjuster levers and anchor pin and shoe contact surfaces on support plate with Mopar multi-mileage grease, or high temp bearing grease. (3) Clean and check operation of both adjuster screw assemblies. Replace either assembly if threads are heavily rusted, corroded, or damaged. Make sure each screw assembly rotates freely. Then lubricate adjuster screw threads with Mopar spray lube. (4) Attach parking brake lever to secondary brakeshoe. Use new E-clip to secure lever to shoe. If lever is secured with U-clip, pinch new clip together with channel lock pliers to secure it.

RETAINERS'

ASSEMBLY

ASSEMBLY

J9405-65

Fig. 8 Drum Brake Components (13-inch Brake)

S -18

DRUM BRAKES

BR
(c) Position adjuster lever on brakeshoe and in sert holddown spring inner retainer into lever and shoe. Inner retainer has shoulder on it which seats in lever and shoe. (d) Install holddown spring over pin and seat it in inner retainer. Then install and seat holddown spring outer retainer on pin with holddown spring tool (Fig. 7). (8) Install adjuster lever spring between brakeshoe and lever. Be sure spring is seated on lever tang. (9) Attach shoe spring to secondary brakeshoe. Long end of spring goes in secondary shoe. (10) Install oval shaped spring on park brake strut and engage spring end of strut in secondary brakeshoe. (11) Install primary brakeshoe on support plate. Use new holddown spring, pin and retainers to se cure shoe. Be sure parking brake strut is seated in both brakeshoes.
**

(5) Attach parking brake cable to parking brake le ver. (6) If adjuster lever was disassembled, reassemble it as follows: (a) Clamp adjuster lever in vise (Fig. 9). Clamp center portion of lever in vise only. Do not clamp bottom end of lever in vise. Lever flange that rotates adjuster screw star wheel teeth is at bottom of lever .and will be dam aged. (b) Position small, hooked spring retainer in up per end of lever (Fig. 9). Be sure tang on retainer is securely engaged in hole in lever. Locking pliers can be used to hold retainer in place after position ing. (c) Secure retainer in lever with retainer spring. Hook spring over end of retainer as shown (Fig. 10). Needlenose pliers and number 2 Phillips screwdriver can, be used to attach spring to lever and retainer.
ADJUSTER LEVER ADJUSTER SPRING RETAINER

(12) Install adjuster screw assembly. Be sure star wheel is positioned adjacent to adjuster lever and that notches in adjuster screw are properly seated on brakeshoes.
CAUTION: B e sure the adjuster screws were not in termixed and are installed on the correct side. The driver side adjuster screw has right hand threads and the passenger side has left hand threads. Also be sure the short end of the screw is toward the secondary brakeshoe.

J9405-68 Fig. 9 Positioning Retainer On Adjuster Lever ADJUSTER LEVER ADJUSTER SPRING RETAINER

HOOK SPRING ON RETAINER

J9405-66 Fig. 10 Assembling Adjuster Lever, Spring And Retainer

(7) Install secondary brakeshoe and adjuster lever as follows: (a) Insert secondary shoe holddown pin through support plate. (b) Position secondary , brakeshoe on support plate and insert pin through shoe.

(13) Attach shoe spring to primary brakeshoe. Use brake spring pliers and long screwdriver to seat spring in shoe. (14) Install shoe guide plate on anchor pin. (15) Attach adjuster spring to spring retainer at top of adjuster lever. Then seat spring on anchor pin with brake spring pliers. (16) Install secondary brakeshoe return spring. At tach short end of spring to brakeshoe. Then hook op posite end on adjuster spring (Fig. 8). Use brake spring pliers, or a long shank screwdriver to engage return spring in adjuster spring. (17) Install primary brakeshoe return spring. (18) Check component installation. Be sure ad juster screw, wheel cylinder links and park brake strut are all seated in brakeshoes (Fig. 11). (19) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge. (20) Install brake drums. (21) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. (22) Tighten wheel lug nuts to following torque: 163-203 N-m (120-150 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud single wheel 176-217 N-m (130-160 ft. lbs.) on 8 stud dual wheel (23) Install wheel cover or hub cap.

BR
SECONDARY SHOE RETURN SPRING SECONDARY BRAKESHOE SPRING RETAINER SUPPORT PLATE WHEEL CYLINDER

DRUM BRAKES

5 - 69

ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING

ANCHOR PIN SHOE GUIDE PLATE

RETAINER SPRING

PARK BRAKE STRUT AND SPRING

PRIMARY BRAKESHOE

PRIMARY SHOE RETURN SPRING . ADJUSTER LEVER HOLDDOWN SPRING, PIN, RETAINERS LEVER SPRING ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY Fig. 11 Brakeshoe PARK BRAKE STRUT

SHOE SPRING Component installation (13 Inch Brake)

HOLDDOWN SPRING, PIN, RETAINERS " J9405-19

WHEEL CYLINDER REMOVAL (ALL) (1) Lift adjuster lever away from adjuster screw. Then turn screw star wheel until screw is fully re tracted. (2) Remove brakeshoe return springs, adjuster spring and adjuster screw. Move upper ends of brakeshoes apart to provide removal clearance for wheel cylinder links. (3) If brakeline and fitting are rusty, or corroded, apply liberal quantity of Mopar rust penetrant to line and fitting. This will break corrosion and avoid dam aging brakeline during removal. (4) Disconnect brakeline from wheel cylinder. (5) Remove wheel cylinder attaching screws and remove cylinder from support plate WHEEL CYLINDER OWERHAUL (ALL)
Wheel Cylinder Disassembly

Wheel Cylinder Cleaning And Inspection

(1) Pull links out of cylinder boots. (2) Remove piston boots. Use plastic or wood tool to either pry boots out or pull them out with needlenose pliers. (3) Push pistons, cups and expander spring out one end of cylinder bore (Fig. 12). (4) Discard boots, piston cups and expander spring. They are not reusable parts. (5) Remove bleed screw from cylinder.

Clean the cylinder, pistons and links with Mopar brake cleaner. Clean the wheel cylinder and support plate mounting surfaces with a wire brush to ensure proper seating at installation. Inspect the cylinder bore. The bore should be smooth and free of scoring, corrosion, or pitting. Light discoloration of the bore is a normal condition and does indicate replacement is necessary. Very slight scratches, or nicks can be polished out by hand with crocus cloth. The cylinder bore can be cleaned out with a fiber bristle brush if necessary. However, DO NOT hone the cylinder bore. Replace the wheel cylinder as an assembly if the bore surface is corroded, pitted or scored. _ Check condition of the cylinder brakeline and bleed screw threads. Replace the wheel cylinder if the threads are damaged in any way. replace the bleed screw if the screw threads are damaged, or the screw is corroded, or distorted. Inspect the wheel cylinder pistons. Replace the pis tons if worn, scored, corroded, or pitted. Do not sand the pistons in an attempt to restore the surface and reuse them. In most cases, if the pistons are dam aged, the cylinder bore will also be damaged requir ing complete replacement.

5 - 70

DRUM BRAKES
CUPS

- BR

The wheel cylinder connecting links can be cleaned up with a wire brush if rusty or corroded. However, be sure the link notches are in good condition and will seat properly in the brakeshoes.
BLEED SCREW WHEEL CYLINDER PISTON CUP BOOT

PISTONS PISTON COMPRESSION SPRING AND EXPANDERS Fig. 12 Wheel Cylinder Components Wheel Cylinder Assembly J9405-6 (All)

J9405-69

Fig. 13 Assembling Wheel Cylinder Pistons, Cups And Expander VISE BOOT

(1) Install bleed screw in cylinder. Finger tighten cylinder only at this time. (2) Coat cylinder bore, pistons and piston cups with liberal quantity of fresh, clean brake fluid. (3) Cylinder components can be installed two ways. Either as an assembly (Fig. 13), or individually. Pro cedures are as follows: (a) To install as assembly, assemble pistons, new cups and expander spring as shown (Fig. 13). Start one piston and cup into bore. Then slide expander and remaining cup and piston into bore in one mo tion. (b) To install parts individually, install first pis ton cup in bore. Be sure open end of cup faces bore interior and flat side of cup faces piston. Install first piston in bore and seat it against piston cup. Then insert expander spring and remaining piston cup and piston. (4) Start piston dust boots in each end of cylinder bore by hand. Then seat boots in cylinder with a bench vise (Fig. 14). Press boots into place until flush with ends of cylinder. (5) Apply light coat of silicone grease, or multi-pur pose grease to wheel cylinder links. Then insert links into dust boots and seat them against pistons. WHEEL CYLINDER INSTALLATION (ALL) (1) Clean support plate and lubricate shoe contact pads with multi-mileage or silicone grease (Fig. 3). (2) Apply thin coat of Mopar silicone sealer to wheel cylinder mounting surface of support plate (Fig. 15). Sealer prevents road splash from entering brake drum past cylinder. (3) Start brakeline in cylinder inlet by hand. Do not tighten fitting at this time.

J9405-67 Fig. 14 Seating Wheel Cylinder Dust Boots CYLINDER MOUNTING SURFACE SUPPORT PLATE

J9405-70 Fig. 15 Wheel Cylinder Mounting Surface (On Support Plate)

(4) Mount wheel cylinder on support plate and in stall cylinder attaching screws. Tighten screws to 20 N-m (15 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Tighten brakeline fitting to 13 N-m (115 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Install brakeshoe components. (7) Adjust brakeshoes to drum using brake gauge. (8) Install brake drum.

BR (9) Fill and bleed brake system. (10) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. DRUM BRAKE ADJUSTMENT The rear drum brakes are equipped with a self-ad justing mechanism. Under normal circumstances, the only time adjustment is required is when the shoes are replaced, removed for access to other parts, or when one or both drums are replaced. Adjustment can be made with a standard brake gauge. Adjustment is performed with the complete brake assembly in place on the support plate. Proce dure is as follows:
A D J U S T M E N T P R O C E D U R E (WITH GAUGE) BRAKE

DRUM BRAKES
BRAKE SHOES

5 - 71

Fig. 17 Adjusting Brakeshoes

To Gauge

(1) Be sure parking brakes are fully released. (2) Raise rear of vehicle and remove wheels and brake drums. (3) Verify that left and right automatic adjuster le vers and cables are properly connected. (4) Insert brake gauge in drum. Expand gauge un til gauge inner legs contact drum braking surface. Then lock gauge in position (Fig. 16).

(10) Make final adjustment as follows: (a) Drive vehicle and make one forward stop fol lowed by one reverse stop. (b) Repeat procedure 8-10 times to operate auto matic adjusters and equalize adjustment. (c) Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each stop. Incomplete, rolling stops will not activate automatic adjusters. BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE REMOVAL (1) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. (2) Remove brake drums (3) Remove axle shaft and retainer. Refer to Group 3 for procedures. (4) Remove primary brakeshoe for access to park ing brake cable. (5) Compress parking brake cable retainer tabs with a hose clamp (Fig. 18). Then push retainer and cable through and out of support plate. (6) Disconnect brake line at wheel cylinder. (7) Remove wheel cylinder and secondary brakeshoe from support plate. (8) On models with full float rear axle, remove axle shaft. Then remove hub and bearing assembly. (9) Remove bolts attaching support plate to axle and remove support plate. BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE INSTALLATION (1) Apply thin bead of Mopar silicone sealer around wheel cylinder mounting surface. Then trans fer wheel cylinder to new support plate. (2) Apply thin bead of Mopar silicone sealer around axle mounting surface of support plate. (3) Install support plate on axle flange. Tighten at taching bolts to 47-68 N-m (35-50 ft. lbs.). (4) Install parking brake cable in support plate. (5) Install axle shaft and retainer.

Fig. 16 Setting Gauge To Brake Drum Diameter

(5) Reverse gauge and install it on brakeshoes (Fig. 17). Position gauge legs at shoe centers as shown. If gauge does not fit (too loose/too tight), ad just shoes. (6) Pull shoe adjuster screw star wheel away from adjuster lever. (7) Turn adjuster screw star wheel (by hand) to ex pand or retract brakeshoes. Continue adjustment un til gauge outside legs are light drag-fit on shoes (Fig. 17). (8) Repeat adjustment at opposite brakeshoe as sembly. (9) Install brake drums and wheels and lower ve hicle.

AIRCRAFT TYPE HOSE CLAMP

RB763

KHHr
m a m

Fig. 18 Compressing Parking Brake Cabie Retainer Tabs

(6) On models with full float axle, install bearing hub and axle shaft. (7) Start brakeline in wheel cylinder and install cylinder on support plate. Tighten brakeline fitting after cylinder installation. (8) Connect parking brake cable to lever on second ary shoe and install brakeshoes on support plate. (9) Adjust brakeshoes to dram with brake gauge. (10) Install brake drams. (11) Fill and bleed brake system. (12) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. BRAKE DRUM SERVICE
B R A K S

"

RB762A

Fig. 19 Typical Location Of Drum Maximum Diameter

'

mj>oa REFINISHING The brake drums can be resurfaced, on a drum lathe when necessary. Initial machining cuts should be no more than 0.12 mm (0.005 in.) as heavier feed rates can produce taper and surface variation. Final finish cuts of 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) are recommended and will generally provide the best surface finish. Be sure the drum is securely mounted in the lathe before machining operations. A damper strap should always be used around the drum to reduce vibration and avoid chatter marks.
S - ^ K i l ttaKGC 13LIMNISH LIMITS

ment involves mounting the drum in a brake lathe and checking variation and runout with a dial indi cator. Variations in dram diameter should not exceed 0.076 mm (0.003 in). Drum runout should not exceed 0.20 mm (0.008 in.) out of round. Refinish the drum if runout or variation exceed these values. Replace the drum if refinishing would cause the drum to ex ceed maximum allowable diameter. WHEEL NUT TIGHTENING The wheel attaching nuts should be properly tight ened to ensure efficient brake operation. Overtighten ing the nuts or tightening them in the wrong sequence could cause distortion of the brake rotors and drums. Impact wrenches are not the best tools for tighten ing wheel nuts. A torque wrench should be used for this purpose at all times. The correct tightening sequence is important in avoiding rotor and drum distortion. The correct se quence is in a diagonal crossing pattern. Seat the wheel and install the wheel nuts finger tight. Tighten the nuts in the sequence to 1/2 re quired torque. Then repeat the tightening sequence to final specified torque.

The maximum allowable diameter of the drum braking surface is stamped or cast into the drum outer edge (Fig. 19). Generally, a drum can be ma chined to a maximum of 1.5 mm (0.060 in.) oversize. Always replace the drum if machining would cause drum diameter to exceed indicated size limit. BRAKE DRUM RUNOUT Measure drum diameter and runout with an accu rate gauge. The most accurate method of measure-

BR PARKING BRAKES

PARKING BRAKES

5 - 73

INDEX
page Front Cable Replacement Parking Brake Cable Tensioner Adjustment 73 74 page Parking Brake Pedal Assembly Replacement . . . . . Rear Cable Replacement 75 73

FRONT CABLE REPLACEMENT (1) Remove knee bolster. (2) Release parking brake pedal completely. (3) Raise vehicle. (4) Loosen tensioner nut to create slack in front ca ble and extension cable (Fig. 1).
EXTENSION CABLE

FRONT CABLE TENSIONER GROMMET/SEAL J9405-171

Fig. 2 Front Cable Grommet (In Floorpan) PEDAL ASSEMBLY CABLE CONNECTORS Fig. 1 Extension-To-Front

J9405-169 Cable Attachment

(5) Disengage front cable from extension cable con nector (Fig. 1). Note that extension cable also be re moved at this time if necessary. (6) Lower vehicle. (7) Roll back carpet and loosen cable grommet (Fig. 2). Then pull cable through floorpan grommet and re move cable. (8) Disengage front cable from arm on foot pedal assembly (Fig. 3). (9) Insert new cable through floorpan grommet (Fig. 3). Then feed cable up to arm on pedal assembly (Fig. 2). (10) Hook cable T-connector in arm on pedal as sembly (Fig. 2). (11) Secure floorpan grommet/seal. (12) Realign floor carpet. (13) Install knee bolster (if removed). (14) Engage front cable and extension cable in ca ble connectors. Make sure right rear cable is secured in tensioner connector (Fig. 4).

FRONT CABLE J9405-170 Fig. 3 Front Cable Attachment (At Foot Pedal)

(15) Adjust cable tensioner. Refer to procedure in this section. REAR CABLE REPLACEMENT (1) Raise vehicle and remove necessary wheel and brake drum. (2) Remove secondary brakeshoe. Then disconnect cable from parking lever attached to secondary shoe.

5 - 74

PARKING BRAKES ^ ^

BR

FRONT CABLE F/g. 4 Cable Attachment At Tensioner

R.R. CABLE J9505-117

(3) Compress rear cable retainer with hose clamp or pliers and pull cable out of support plate (Fig. 5).
REAR CABLE (LH. SHOWN)

R.R. SPRING

REACTION BRACKET

REAR CABLE REACTION BRACKET

10-16 Nm (90-140 in. lbs.) J9405-174

J9405-172

SUPPORT PLATE Fig. 5 Rear Cable Routing

Fig. 6 Rear Cable Reaction Bracket

Location

(11) Seat cable in body clips, reaction bracket, and frame bracket. (12) Connect cable to tensioner. (4) Remove one (or both) cables as needed from re (13) Adjust cable tensioner, Refer to procedure in action bracket on right rear fame rail (Fig. 6). this section. (5) Disengage rear cable from tensioner (Fig. 7). (14) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (6) Remove cable from bracket on frame (Fig. 7). (15) Lower vehicle. Compress cable retainer with hose clamp or pliers (16) Verify parking brake operation. and slide cable out of bracket. (7) Remove cable. PARKING BRAKE CABLE TENSIONER ADJUSTMENT (8) Route new cable to rear brake support plate. Tensioner adjustment is only necessary when (9) Insert cable through support plate, seat cable the tensioner, or a cable has been replaced or retainers and attach cable to parking brake lever on disconnected for service. When adjustment is secondary brakeshoe. necessary, perform adjustment only as de (10) Install brakeshoes but do not install brake scribed in the following procedure. This is nec drum at this time. essary to avoid faulty parking brake operation.

mm

PARKING BRAKES

I - 75

L.R. CABLE

(10) Lower vehicle until rear wheels are 15-20 cm (6-8 in.) off shop floor. (11) Release parking brake foot pedal and verify that rear wheels rotate freely without drag. Then lower vehicle.
CABLE CONNECTOR

EQUALIZER

THREADED ROD (TO EQUALIZER)

CABLE BRACKET R.R. CABLE CABLE TENSIONER J9405-173

TENSIONER ROD

Fig, 7 Cabie And Tensioner Attachment

PLACE MARK HERE

(1) Eaise vehicle. (2) Back off cable tensioner adjusting nut to create slack in cables. (3) Remove rear wheel/tire assemblies. Then re move brake drums. (4) Check rear brakeshoe adjustment with stan dard brake gauge. Also check condition of brake parts as follows: (a) Replace worn parts if necessary. Excessive shoe-to-drum clearance, or worn components will result in faulty parking brake adjustment and operation. (b) Verify that parking brake cables operate freely and are not binding, or seized. Replace faulty cables, before proceeding. (c) Adjust rear brakeshoes to drums. (d) Install drums and verify that drums rotate freely without drag. (5) Reinstall wheel/tire assemblies after brakeshoe adjustment is complete. (6) Lower vehicle enough for access to parking brake foot pedal. Then fully apply parking brakes. Leave brakes applied until adjustment is complete. (7) Raise vehicle again. (8) Mark tensioner rod 6.5 mm (1/4 in.) from edge of tensioner bracket (Fig. 8).
(9) Tighten adjusting nut at equalizer u n t i l

TENSIONER BRACKET J9405-176

Fig. 8 Placing Adjustment Mark On Cable Tensioner Rod

mark o n tensioner rod moves into alignment with tensioner bracket (Fig. 8).
CAUTION: Do not loosen, or tighten the tensioner adjusting nut for any reason after completing ad justment.

PARKING BRAKE PEDAL ASSEMBLY REPLACEMENT (1) Release parking brakes. (2) Raise vehicle. (3) Loosen cable tensioner nut at equalizer to cre ate slack in front cable. (4) Lower vehicle. (5) Remove knee bolster. (6) remove necessary dash trim, or ducting for bet ter access to pedal assembly as needed. (7) Disconnect brakelight wire from switch on pedal assembly. (8) Roll carpet back and loosen front cable grommet/seal from floorpan (Fig. 2). (9) Disengage cable end connector from arm on pedal assembly (Fig. 3). (10) Remove bolts/nuts attaching pedal assembly to cowl, dash panels, and instrument panels (Fig. 9). (11) Remove old pedal assembly. (12) Position replacement pedal assembly on dash and cowl. (13) Install and tighten pedal assembly bolts/nuts to 21-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.) torque. (14) Connect front cable to arm on pedal assembly. (15) Connect wires to brakelight switch on pedal assembly.

I - 76

PARKING BRAKES
COWL
DASH

BR (17) Raise vehicle. (18) Adjust parking brake cable tensioner. Refer to procedure in this section.

PEDAL ASSEMBLY

J9405-175

< s >

ITEM A

TORQUE 21-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs.)

Fig, 9 Parking Brake Pedal Mounting

(16) Install knee bolster and any trim removed for pedal access..

BR

PARKING BRAKES

5 - 77

SPECIFICATIONS BRAKE SIZE CHART

Disc Brake Caliper Type (All)

Single Piston,

Slider

Disc Brake Caliper Piston Diameter: 1/2 Ton Models 3/4 Ton Models 1 Ton Models

.75 mm (2.95 in.) 80 mm (3.14 in.) . . 86 mm (3.38 in.)

Disc Brake Rotor Diameter x Thickness: 1/2 Ton Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 Ton Models 1 Ton Models

.2.94x32 mm (11.57x1.26 in.) 317.5x38 mm (12.5x1.5 in.) 317.5x38 mm (12.5x1.5 in.)

Drum Brake Size: 1/2 Ton Models . 3/4 Ton Models 1 Ton Models

11x2 in. (279x51 mm) 13x2.5 in. (330x63.5 mm) 13x3.5 in. (330x89 mm)

Drum Brake Type (All)

Dual Shoe With Self-Adjusting Mechanism

Master Cylinder Bore Size: 1/2 Ton Models 3/4 Ton Models . . . . 1 Ton Models

28.6 mm (1.125 in.) . . .31.8 mm (1.25 in.) 31.8 mm (1.25 in.)

Wheel Cylinder Bore Size: 1/2 Ton Models . 3/4 Ton Models 1 Ton Models ...................

23.8 mm (0.937 in.) 23.8 mm (0.937 in.) 27 mm (1.06 in.)

Recommended Brake Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MOPAR Brake Fluid or Equivalent Meeting SAE Standard J1703 and Federal Standard DOT 3 J9405-14

3R

CLUTCH

6 -1

CLUTCH
CONTENTS page page

CHECKING NV4500 CLUTCH HOUSING RUNOUT 19 CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION . . . . . . . . . 3 CLUTCH COMPONENTS 1 CLUTCH COVER AND DISC INSTALLATION . . . 1 2 CLUTCH COVER AND DISC REMOVAL . . . . . . . 12 CLUTCH COVER APPLICATION 2 CLUTCH DISC APPLICATION 1 CLUTCH HOUSING REPLACEMENT (NV4500) . 14 CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE 3 CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID 3 CLUTCH COMPONENTS The clutch mechanism in BR models with a gas or diesel engine consists of a single, dry-type clutch disc and a diaphragm style clutch cover. A hydraulic linkage is used to engage/disengage the clutch disc and cover. The transmission input shaft is supported in the crankshaft by a bearing. A sleeve type release bear ing is used to engage and disengage the clutch cover pressure plate. The release bearing is operated by a release fork in the clutch housing. The fork pivots on a ball stud mounted inside the housing. The release fork is actu ated by a hydraulic slave cylinder mounted in the housing. The slave cylinder is operated by a clutch
FACING MATERIAL

CLUTCH LINKAGE SERVICE 16 CLUTCH PEDAL INSTALLATION 17 CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH 3 CLUTCH PEDAL REMOVAL 17 CLUTCH PROBLEM CAUSES .. 4 FLYWHEEL SERVICE 18 GENERAL DIAGNOSIS INFORMATION .3 INSPECTION AND DIAGNOSIS CHARTS . . . . . . . 5 PILOT BEARING REPLACEMENT 15 RELEASE BEARING REPLACEMENT 15 master cylinder mounted on the dash panel. The cyl inder push rod is connected to the clutch pedal. The clutch disc has damper springs in the disc hub. The clutch disc facing is riveted to the hub. The fac ing is made from a non-asbestos material. The clutch cover pressure plate is a diaphragm type with a onepiece spring and multiple release fingers. The pres sure plate release fingers are preset during manufacture and are not adjustable. CLUTCH DISC APPLICATION Two clutch disc diameters and four different thick nesses are used. A 281 mm (11 in.) diameter clutch disc is used with a 3.9L, 5.2L, or 5.9L gas engines (Figs. 1 and 2).
FACING MATERIAL

IHM Fig. 1 dutch Disc (V6 Engine)

J9406-7

HE]

J9406-8

Fig. 2 dutch Disc (V8 Engine)

6 -2

CLUTCH

BR
CLUTCH COVER APPLICATION Two clutch covers are used for all applications. The 281 mm cover (Fig. 5), is used for 3.9L, 5.2L and 5.9L gas engine applications. The 312.5 mm cover (Fig. 6), is used for 5.9L diesel and VI0 gas engine applications.
COVER

A 312.5 mm (12.3 in.) diameter clutch disc is used with diesel and V10 engines (Figs. 3 and 4). All the discs have damper springs in the hub. The 281 mm discs have four springs while the 312.5 mm disc has five springs. The damper springs provide smoother torque transfer and disc engagement.
DAMPER SPRINGS (5)

312.5 mm

(12.3

in.)

Lviol
Fig. 3 dutch FACING MATERIAL Disc (WW Engine)

J9406-9 Fig. 5 dutch COVER

[DIESEL/VIOl

J9406-11

Cover (WW/Diesel Engine)

PRESSURE PLATE LMESELj Fig. 4 dutch Disc (Diesei Engine) J9406-10 281 mm (11 in.) J9406-12 Fig. 6 Clutch Cover (W6/W8 Gas Engine)

BR

CLUTCH

6-3

CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH All BR models are equipped with a clutch pedal po sition switch (Fig. 7). The switch is in circuit with the starter relay and is mounted on the clutch mas ter cylinder push rod. The switch is actuated by clutch pedal movement. The clutch pedal must be fully depressed in order to start the engine. The position switch is an integral part of the clutch master cylinder push rod and is not serviced sepa rately. Position switch circuitry is provided at the end of this section (refer to Figure 10).
CLUTCH CLUTCH PEDAL

CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID The clutch fluid reservoir, master cylinder, slave cylinder and fluid lines are prefilled with fluid at the factory during assembly operations. The hydraulic system should not require additional fluid under normal circumstances. In fact, the reser voir fluid level will actually increase as normal clutch wear occurs. For this reason, it is important to avoid overfilling, or removing fluid from the reser voir. If inspection or diagnosis indicates additional fluid may be needed, use Mopar brake fluid, or an equiv alent meeting SAE and DOT standards J1703 and DOT 3. Do not use any other type of fluid. CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION Proper clutch component lubrication is important to satisfactory operation. The correct lubricant and not overlubricating are equally important. Apply rec ommended lubricant sparingly to avoid disc and pres sure plate contamination. Clutch and transmission components requiring lu brication are: pilot bearing release lever pivot ball stud release lever contact surfaces clutch disc hub splines clutch pedal pivot shaft bore clutch pedal bushings input shaft splines input shaft pilot hub o transmission front bearing retainer slide surface Do not apply grease to any part of the clutch cover, disc, or release bearing.
Recommended Lubricants

J9506-26

Fig. 7 Clutch Pedal Position (Interlock) Switch

CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE The hydraulic linkage consists of a remote reser voir, clutch master cylinder, clutch slave cylinder and interconnecting fluid lines (Fig. 8). The clutch master cylinder is connected to the clutch pedal and the slave cylinder is connected to the clutch release fork. The master cylinder is mounted on the drivers side of the dash panel adja cent to the brake master cylinder.
3

DASH OPENING

Use Mopar multi-purpose grease for the clutch pedal bushings and pivot shaft. Use Mopar high tem perature grease (or equivalent) for all other lubrica tion requirements. Apply recommended amounts and do not overlubricate. GENERAL DIAGNOSIS INFORMATION Unless the cause of a clutch problem is obvious, a road test and component inspection will be required for accurate diagnosis. A road test will help determine the type of fault while component inspection will identify the problem component. During a road test, drive the vehicle at normal speeds. Shift the transmission through all gear ranges and observe clutch action. If chatter, grab, slip, or improper release is experi enced, remove and inspect the clutch components. However, if the problem is noise or hard shifting, fur ther diagnosis is needed. The transmission or an other driveline component may actually be at fault.

SLAVE CYLINDER

BODY CLIP

J9406-15

Fig. 8 Clutch Hydraulic Linkage

6-4

CLUTCH

BR Very light scratches or surface roughness on the flywheel face can be cleaned up by scuff sanding with 180 grit emery cloth. However, if the surface is warped or severely scored, replace the flywheel. Clean the crankshaft flange before mounting the flywheel. Dirt and grease on the flange surface may cock the flywheel causing runout. Use new bolts when remounting a flywheel and se cure the bolts with Mopar Lock And Seal, or Loctite 242. Tighten flywheel bolts to specified torque only. Overtightening could distort the flywheel hub caus ing runout.
Clutch Cover And Disc Runout

Careful observation during a road test will help narrow the problem area. CLUTCH PROBLEM CAUSES
CONTAMINATION

Fluid contamination is one of the more common causes of clutch malfunctions. Oil, water, or clutch fluid on the clutch contact surfaces will result in faulty operation. The usual result is chatter, slip, or grab. During inspection, note if any components are con taminated with oil, hydraulic fluid, or water/road splash. Oil contamination indicates a leak at either the rear main seal or transmission input shaft. Oil leakage produces a residue of oil on the housing interior and on the clutch cover and flywheel. Heat buildup caused by slippage between the cover, disc and flywheel, can sometimes bake the oil residue onto the components. The glaze-like residue ranges in color from amber to black. Road splash contamination means dirt and water are entering the clutch housing due to loose bolts, housing cracks, vent openings, or through the slave cylinder opening. Driving through deep water pud dles can force water/road splash into the housing through such openings. An additional problem caused by water contamina tion and especially by steam cleaning, involves clutch disc sticking and poor release. Water and steam vapors can be absorbed by the clutch facing material. If the vehicle sits idle for long periods after water contamination, the force exerted by the pressure plate may cause the disc to bond it self to the flywheel or pressure plate. Frequently, the only remedy for the above condition is component replacement. To avoid this problem, a vehicle should be driven as soon as possible to heat and dry the clutch components. Clutch fluid leaks are from a loose or damaged slave cylinder line or connection. However, clutch fluid leaks will usually be noted and corrected before severe contamination occurs.
CLUTCH MISALIGNMENT

Check the clutch disc before installation. Axial (face) runout of a new disc should not exceed 0.5 mm (0.020 in.). Measure runout about 6 mm (1/4 in.) from the outer edge of the disc facing. Obtain another disc if runout is excessive. Check condition of the clutch before installation. A warped cover or diaphragm spring will cause grab and incomplete release or engagement. Be careful when handling the cover and disc. Im pact can distort the cover, diaphragm spring, release fingers and the hub of the clutch disc. Use an alignment tool when positioning the disc on the flywheel. The tool prevents accidental misalign ment which could result in cover distortion and disc damage. A frequent cause of clutch cover distortion (and consequent misalignment) is improper bolt tighten ing. To avoid warping the cover, tighten the bolts al ternately (in a diagonal pattern) and evenly (2-3 threads at a time) to specified torque.
Clutch Housing Misalignment And Runout

Clutch components must be in proper alignment with the crankshaft and transmission input shaft. Misalignment caused by excessive runout or warpage of any clutch component will cause grab, chatter and improper clutch release.
Flywheel Runout

Common causes of runout are heat warping, im proper machining, mounting the flywheel on a dirty crankshaft flange, incorrect bolt tightening, or im proper seating on the crankshaft flange shoulder.

Clutch housing alignment is important to proper operation. The housing bore maintains alignment be tween the crankshaft and transmission input shaft. Misalignment can cause noise, incomplete clutch release and chatter. It can also result in premature wear of the pilot bearing, cover release fingers and clutch disc. In severe cases, misalignment can. also cause premature wear of the transmission input shaft and bearing. Housing face misalignment is generally caused by incorrect seating on the engine or transmission, loose housing bolts, missing alignment dowels or housing damage. Infrequently, misalignment may also be caused by housing mounting surfaces that are not parallel. If housing misalignment is suspected, the housing is probably not fully seated on either the engine, alignment dowels, or transmission front face. Since the NV3500 clutch housing is an integral part of the transmission front case, it will be necessary to re move the transmission and housing as an assembly to check seating. Housing bore and face runout can

BR

CLUTCH

6 -5

only be checked in the vehicle on models with a NV4500 transmission. The runout check procedure is described in detail in the Clutch Service section. INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS USAGE Distortion of clutch components during installation and the use of non-standard components are addi tional causes of clutch malfunction. Improper, clutch cover bolt tightening can distort the cover. The usual result is clutch grab, chatter and rapid wear. Tighten the cover bolts as described in the Clutch Service section. Improperly seated flywheels and clutch housings are other causes of clutch failure. Improper seating will produce misalignment and subsequent clutch problems. Tighten the clutch housing bolts to proper torque before installing any struts. Also be sure the align ment dowels are in place and seated in the block and housing beforehand.

The use of non-standard or low quality parts can also lead to problems and wear. Use the recom mended factory quality parts to avoid comebacks. INSPECTION AND DIAGNOSIS CHARTS The clutch inspection chart (Fig. 9) outlines items to be checked before and during clutch installation. Use the chart as a check list to help avoid overlooklug potential problem sources during service opera tions. The diagnosis charts describe common clutch prob lems, causes and correction. Fault conditions are listed at the top of each chart. Conditions, causes and corrective action are outlined in the indicated col umns. The charts are provided as a convenient reference when diagnosing faulty clutch operation.

6-6

CLUTCH

Inspect release bearing slide surface of trans, front bearing retainer. Surface should be smooth, free of nicks, scores. Replace retainer if necessary. Lubricate slide surface before installing release bearing. Do not replace release bearing unless actually faulty. Replace bearina only if seized, noisy, or damaged. Check clutch cover diaphragm spring and release fingers. Replace cover ir spring or fingers are bent, warped, broken, cracked. Do not tamper with factory spring setting as clutch problems will result. Check condition of clutch cover. Replace clutch cover if plate surface is deeply scored, warped, worn, or cracked. Be sure cover is correct size and properly aligned on disc and flywheel. Inspect clutch housing. Be sure bolts are tight. Replace housing if damaged. Verify that housing alignment dowels are in position before installing housing. Clean engine block surface before installing clutch housing. Dirt, grime can produce misalignment. Make sure side of clutch disc marked "flywheel side" is toward flywheel. Check rear main seal if clutch disc and cover were oil covered. Replace seal if necessary. Check crankshaft flange (if flywheel is removed). Be sure flange is clean andflywneelbolt threads are in good condition. Check pilot bearing. Replace bearing if damaged. Lube with Mopar high temp, bearing grease before installation. Check transmission input shaft. Disc must slide freely on shaft splines. Lightly grease splines before installation. Replace shaft if splines or pilot bearing hub are damaged. Check flywheel bolt torque. If bolts are loose, replace them. Use Mopar Lock N'Seal to secure new bolts. Check clutch disc facing. Replace disc if facing is charred, scored, flaking off, or worn. Also check runout of new disc. Runout should not exceed 0.5 mm (0.02 in.).

10

11

12

13 14 15 16 17 18

Check clutch housing bolts. Tighten if loose. Be sure housing is fully seated on engine block. Check flywheel. Scuff sand face to remove glaze.

Clean surface with wax and grease remover.


Replace flywheel if severely scored, worn or cracked. Secure flywheel with new bolts (if removed). Do not reuse old bolts. Use Mopar Lock

N'Seal on bolts.
3 Tighten clutch cover bolts 2-3 threads at a time, alternately and evenly (in a star pattern) to specified torque. Failure to do so could warp the cover. Check release fork. Replace fork if bent or worn. Make sure pivot and bearing contact surfaces are lubricated.

19

20

5 6

Check release fork pivot (in housing). Be sure pivot is secure and ball end is lubricated. Transmission input shaft bearina will cause noise, chatter, or improper release ir damaged. Check condition before installing transmission. Check slave cylinder. Replace it if leaking. Be sure cylinder is properly secured in housing and cylinder piston is seated in release fork. Check input shaft seal if clutch cover and disc were oil covered. Replace seal if worn, or cut.

21

22

J9506-2

Fig. 9 Clutch Inspection

Points

BR
CONDITION DISC FACING WORN OUT POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Normal wear. Driver frequently rides (slips) clutch. Results in rapid wear overheating. Insufficient clutch cover diaphragm spring tension. 1 . Leak at rear main seal or at transmission input shaft seal. Excessive amount of grease applied to input shaft splines. Road splash, water entering housing. Slave cylinder leaking. 1. Release bearing stickingbinding. Does not return to normal running position.

CLUTCH
CORRECTION

6-7

1 . Replace clutch disc. Also replace cover if spring is weak or pressure plate surface is damaged.

CLUTCH DISC FACING CONTAMINATED WITH OIL, G R E A S E , OR CLUTCH FLUID

1 . Replace leaking seals. Apply less grease to input shaft splines. Replace clutch disc (do not clean and reuse). Clean clutch cover and reuse only if cover is in good condition. Replace slave cylinder if leaking.

CLUTCH IS RUNNING PARTIALLY DISENGAGED

1. Verify that bearing is actually binding, then replace bearing and transmission front bearing retainer if sleeve surface is damaged. 1 . Replace flywheel.

FLYWHEEL HEIGHT INCORRECT

1. Flywheel surface improperly machined. Too much stock removed or surface is tapered. 1 . Incorrect parts order or model number. 1. Rough handling (impact) bent cover, spring, or disc. Incorrect bolt tightening sequence and method caused warped cover. 1. Flywheel surface scored and nicked.

WRONG DISC OR P R E S S U R E PLATE INSTALLED CLUTCH DISC, COVER AND/OR DIAPHRAGM SPRING, WARPED, DISTORTED FACING ON FLYWHEEL SIDE OF DISC TORN, GOUGED, WORN

1 . Replace with correct parts. Compare old and new parts before installation. 1. Install new disc or cover as needed. Follow installation/tightening instructions.

1. Reduce scores and nicks by sanding or surface grinding. Replace flywheel if scores-nicks are deeper than .002-.004 inch. 1 . Scuff sand flywheel. Replace clutch cover and disc. Alert driver to problem cause.

CLUTCH DISC FACING BURNT (CHARRED). FLY W H E E L AND COVER P R E S S U R E PLATE SURFACES HEAVILY GLAZED

1 . Frequent operation under high loads or hard acceleration conditions. Driver frequently rides (slips) clutch. Results in rapid wear and overheating of disc and cover.

J9506-18

6-8

CLUTCH
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. New disc not checked for axial runout before Installation. 1. Clutch disc hub splines damaged during installation. Input shaft splines rough, damaged. Corrosion, rust formations on splines of disc and input shaft. 1 . Occurs in vehicles stored, or not driven for extended periods of time. Also occurs after steam cleaning if vehicle is not used for extended period. 1 . Vacuum may form in pockets over rivet heads in clutch disc. Occurs as clutch cools down after use. 1 . Wrong disc installed. 1. Bearing cocked during installation. Bearing defective. Bearing not lubricated. Clutch misalignment. 1 . Low clutch fluid level. 2. Clutch cover loose. 3. Wrong clutch disc. 4. Disc bent, distorted during installation. 5. Clutch cover diaphragm spring bent or warped during transmission installation. 6. Clutch disc installed backwards. CORRECTION 1. Replace disc. Be sure runout of new disc is less than .5 mm (.020 in.). 1. Clean, smooth and lubricate disc and shaft splines. Replace disc and/or input . shaft if splines are severely damaged.

CLUTCH DISC WARPED

CLUTCH DISC BINDS ON INPUT SHAFT SPLINES

CLUTCH DISC RUSTED TO FLYWHEEL AND/OR P R E S S U R E PLATE

1. Remove clutch cover and disc. Sand rusted surfaces clean with 180 grit paper. Replace disc cover, and flywheel if corrosion is severe.

CLUTCH DISC FACING STICKS TO FLYWHEEL

1. Drill 1 /16 inch diameter hole through rivets and scuff sand disc facing with 180 grit paper.

CLUTCH DISC TOO THICK PILOT BEARING SEIZED, LOOSE, OR ROLLERS ARE WORN

1. Replace disc. 1. Lubricate and install new bearing. Check and correct any misalignment.

CLUTCH WILL NOT DISENGAGE PROPERLY

1. Top off reservoir and check for leaks. 2. Tighten bolts. 3. Install correct disc. 4. Replace disc. 5. Replace cover.

7. Release fork bent or fork pivot is loose or damaged. 8. Clutch master or slave cylinder fault.

6. Remove and reinstall disc correctly. Be sure disc side marked "to flywheel" is actually toward flywheel. 7. Replace fork and pivot if worn or damaged. 8. Replace master and slave cylinder as assembly.

J9506-1

BR

CLUTCH
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Oil leak at rear main or input shaft seal. 2. Too much grease applied to splines or disc and input shaft. CORRECTION

6-9

CLUTCH DISC FACING COVERED WITH OIL, GREASE, OR CLUTCH FLUID

1. Correct leak and replace disc (do not clean and reuse the disc). 2. Apply lighter grease coating to splines and replace disc (do not clean and reuse the disc). 1. Replace disc and/or cover with correct parts.

CLUTCH DISC AND/OR COVER WARPED, OR DISC FACINGS EXHIBIT UNUSUAL WRONG TYPE

1. Incorrect or substandard parts.

CLUTCH MASTER OR 1 . Master or slave cylinder SLAVE CYLINDER PLUNGER components worn or corroded. DRAGG1NG-BINDING NO FAULT FOUND WITH CLUTCH COMPONENTS 1. Problem actually related to suspension or driveline component.

1. Replace both cylinders as assembly (and reservoir).

2. Engine related problem. PARTIAL ENGAGEMENT OF CLUTCH DISC (ONE SIDE WORN-OPPOSITE . SIDE GLAZED AND LIGHTLY WORN) 1. Clutch pressure plate position setting incorrect or modified. 2. Clutch cover, spring, or release fingers bent, distorted (rough handling, improper assembly). 3. Clutch disc damaged or distorted. 4. Clutch misalignment.

1. Further diagnosis required. Check engine/transmission mounts, propeller shafts and U-joints, tires, suspension attaching parts and other driveline components as needed. 2. Check EFl and ignition systems. 1 . Replace clutch cover and disc.

2. Replace clutch cover and disc.

3. Replace disc. 4. Check alignment and runout of flywheel, disc, or cover and/or clutch housing. Correct as necessary.

J9506-20

6 -10

CLUTCH
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSE 1. Incorrect or sub-standard clutch parts. 1. Bearing cocked during installation. Bearing not lubricated prior to installation. Bearing defect. 2. Clutch misalignment. CORRECTION 1. Replace with parts of correct type and quality. 1. Replace bearing. Be sure it is properly seated and lubricated before installing clutch. 2. Check and correct misalignment caused by excessive runout of flywheel, disc, cover or clutch housing. Replace input shaft if bearing hub is damaged. 1. Tighten bolts to specified torque. Replace any clutch bolts that are damaged. 1. Replace parts as needed. Alert driver to condition causes.

Clutch components damaged or worn out prematurely. Pilot bearing damaged.

Loose components.

1. Attaching bolts loose at flywheel, cover, or clutch housing. 1. Frequent high load, full throttle operation.

Components appear overheated. Hub of disc cracked or torsion damper springs are distorted or broken. Contact surface of release bearing damaged.

1. Clutch cover incorrect, or release fingers are bent or distorted causing damage. 2. Release bearing defect. 3. Release bearing misaligned.

1. Replace clutch cover and bearing.

2. Replace bearing. 3. Check and correct runout of clutch components. Check front bearing retainer sleeve surface. Replace if damaged. 1. Replace bearing. 1. Tighten pivot pin. Replace bushings if worn or damaged. Lubricate pin and bushings with silicone base lubricator chassis grease.

Release bearing is noisy. Clutch pedal squeak.

1. Release bearing defect. 1. Pivot pin loose. Pedal bushings worn out or cracked.

J9506-21

BR

CLUTCH

6 -11

TO FUEL SHUT DOWN RELAY

DISTRIBUTION CENTER

TO IGNITION SWITCH

-A41 20YL AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION (SWITCH) (ON CLUTCH CYLINDER PUSH ROD)

A41 18YL MANUAL TRANSMISSION

J9406-24 Fig. 10 Clutch Pedal Position Switch Circuitry

6 -12

CLUTCH

BR

CLUTCH COVER AND DISC REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove transmission and transfer case if equipped. Refer to Group 21 for procedures. (3) > On models with NV4500 transmission, remove clutch slave cylinder from clutch housing (Fig. 1). Then remove transmission and clutch housing from engine (Fig. 2).
MOUNTING STUDS 19-26 N-m (170-230 in. lbs.]

J9106-22 FLUID LINE

Fig. 3 Supporting Engine With Jack Stand And Wood Block (Diesel Model Shown)
ALIGNMENT MARKS (SCRIBE OR PAINT)

CLUTCH HOUSING SLAVE CYLINDER

FLYWHEEL

J9406-13

Fig. 1 Slave Cylinder Mounting


CLUTCH HOUSING

NV4500 TRANSMISSION

CLUTCH COVER

J9406-17

J9406-16

Fig. 4 Marking Clutch Cover Position Housing (With NV4500)

Fig. 2 Transmission/Clutch

(4) Support engine with wood block and adjustable jack stand (Fig. 3). Supporting engine is necessary to avoid undue strain on engine mounts. (5) If clutch cover will be reused, mark position of cover on flywheel with paint or scriber (Fig. 4). (6) Insert clutch alignment tool in clutch disc and into pilot bushing. Tool will hold disc in place when cover bolts are removed. (7) If clutch cover will be reused, loosen cover bolts evenly, only few threads at a time, and in a diagonal pattern (Fig. 5). This relieves cover spring tension evenly to avoid warping. (8) Remove cover bolts completely and remove cover, disc and alignment tool.

CLUTCH COWER AND DISC INSTALLATION (1) Check runout and free operation of new clutch disc: (a) Install disc on transmission input shaft splines and check fit. Disc should slide freely on splines. (b) Leave disc on shaft and check disc runout with dial indicator. (c) Position indicator plunger about 1/4 inch from outer edge of disc facing. (d) Runout should not exceed 0.5 mm (0.020 in.). Obtain another clutch disc if runout exceeds this limit. (2) Lubricate crankshaft pilot bearing with Mopar high temperature bearing grease. (3) Insert clutch alignment tool in clutch disc hub.

CLUTCH

6 -13

CLUTCH COVER AND DISC

CLUTCH DISC ALIGNMENT TOOL

FLYWHEEL.

^~Y

J f 106-18 Alignment/Installation

Fig. 7 Clutch Disc And Cover CLUTCH HOUSING J9106-17 Fig. 5 dutch Cover Boit Loosening/Tightening

Pattern

(4) Verify that disc hub is positioned correctly. Side of hub marked "Flywheel Side" should face flywheel (Fig. 6).
CLUTCH DISC RELEASE FORK (HIGH TEMP. " GREASE)

COAT RELEASE FORK PIVOT BALL STUD WITH HIGH TEMP. GREASE LUBE POINTS (HIGH TEMP. GREASE) GAS

"FLYWHEEL SIDE" STAMPED ON THIS SURFACE J9006-33 Fig. 6 Clutch Disc Position (Typical)

LUBE POINTS

(5) Insert alignment tool in pilot bearing and posi tion disc on flywheel surface (Fig. 7). (6) Position clutch cover over disc and onto fly wheel (Fig. 7). (7) Align and hold clutch cover in position and in stall cover bolts finger tight. (8) Tighten cover bolts evenly and a few threads at a time. Cover bolts must be tightened evenly and to specified torque to avoid distorting cover. Tighten 5/16 in. diameter bolts to 23 N-m (17 ft. lbs.) Tighten 3/8 in. diameter bolts to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.). (9) Remove release lever and release bearing from clutch housing. Apply Mopar high temperature bear ing grease to bore of release bearing, release lever

APPLY LIGHT COAT HIGH TEMP. GREASE TO RELEASE BEARING BORE Fig. 8 Clutch Release Component Points

J9106-19 Lubrication

contact surfaces and release lever pivot stud (Fig. 8). (10) Apply light coat of Mopar high temperature bearing grease to splines of transmission input shaft (or drive gear) and to release bearing slide surface of the transmission front bearing retainer (Fig. 9). Do not overlubricate shaft splines. This can result in grease contamination of disc.

6 -14

CLUTCH

BR

APPLY LIGHT COAT OF HI-TEMP GREASE TO THESE SURFACES BEFORE INSTALLATION Fig. 9 input Shaft Lubrication Points

J9106-15 (Typical)

(11) Install release lever and bearing in clutch housing. Be sure spring clips that retain fork on pivot ball and release bearing on fork are properly installed and (Fig. 10).
FORK

J9006-32 Fig. 11 Clutch Housing Installation (NV4500)

J9406-18 Fig. 10 Release Fork And Bearing Spring Clip Position

(12) Install clutch housing (Figs. 11 and 12). Be sure housing is properly seated on alignment dowels before tightening housing bolts. (13) Install transmission. (14) Check fluid level in clutch master cylinder. CLUTCH HOUSING REPLACEMENT (NV4500) Only the NV4500 clutch housing is serviced sepa rately. The NV3500 clutch housing is part of the transmission front case and is therefore serviced only as part of the case assembly. (1) Raise vehicle and remove transmission and transfer case if equipped. (2) Remove clutch housing bolts and remove hous ing from engine (Figs. 2 and 11). (3) Clean housing mounting surface of engine block with wax and grease remover.

Fig. 12 Clutch Housing/Transmission (Diesel Engine)

Installation

(4) Verify that clutch housing alignment dowels are in good condition and properly seated.

BR

CLUTCH

6-15

(5) Transfer slave cylinder, release fork and boot, fork pivot stud and wire/hose brackets to new hous ing. (6) Lubricate release fork and pivot contact sur faces with Mopar High Temperature wheel bearing grease before installation. (7) Align and install clutch housing on transmis sion. Tighten housing bolts closest to alignment dow els first and to torque values indicated (Figs. 2 and 11). (8) Install transmission-to-engine strut after in stalling clutch housing. Tighten bolt attaching strut to clutch housing first and engine bolt last. (9) Install transmission and transfer case if equipped. Refer to procedure in Group 21. RELEASE BEARING REPLACEMENT (1) Remove transmission. (2) On models with gas engine and new style re lease fork, remove clutch housing for access to re lease fork and release bearing retainer springs. (3) Disconnect release bearing from release fork and remove bearing (Fig. 12). (4) Inspect bearing slide surface on transmission front bearing retainer. Replace retainer if slide sur face is scored, worn or cracked. (5) Inspect release lever and pivot stud. Be sure stud is secure and in good condition. Be sure fork is not distorted or worn. Replace fork spring clips if bent or damaged. (6) Lubricate crankshaft pilot bearing, input shaft splines, bearing retainer slide surface, lever pivot ball stud and release lever pivot surface with Mopar high temperature bearing grease. (7) Install release fork and release bearing (Fig. 14). Be sure fork and bearing are properly secured by spring clips. (8) Install clutch housing, if removed. (9) Install transmission. Also install transfer case on 4-wheel drive models.
Fig. 14 Clutch Release Fork And Bearing Installation

PILOT BEARING REPLACEMENT (1) Remove transmission and clutch housing. (2) Remove clutch cover and disc. (3) Remove pilot bearing. Use blind hole puller tools such as those included in Snap-On set CG40CB to remove bearing. (4) Clean bearing bore with solvent and wipe dry with shop towel. (5) Install new bearing with clutch alignment tool (Fig. 15). Keep bearing straight during installation. Do not allow bearing to become cocked. Tap bearing into place until flush with edge of bearing bore. Do not recess bearing.

BEARING SEAL MUST FACE

J9206-8

Fig. 15 Typical Method Of Installing Pilot Bearing


RELEASE BEARING AND SLEEVE RELEASE FORK RN1232

Fig. 13 Clutch Release

Components

(6) Lubricate bearing with Mopar high tempera ture grease, or an equivalent quality grease. (7) Install clutch cover and disc.

6-16

CLUTCH

BR

(8) Install clutch housing, transmission and trans fer case on 4-wheel drive models. CLUTCH LINKAGE SERVICE The clutch master cylinder, remote reservoir, slave c y l i n d e r and connecting lines are all ser viced as an assembly.. These components cannot
be serviced separately. T h e l i n k a g e cylinders a n d c o n n e c t i n g lines a r e sealed units. They are prefilled w i t h fluid during manufacture and m u s t n o t b e disassembled n o r disconnected. LINKAGE MEMOWAL

(1) Raise vehicle. (2) On diesel models, remove slave cylinder shield from clutch housing if equipped. (3) Remove nuts attaching slave cylinder to studs on clutch housing. (4) Remove slave cylinder from clutch housing. (5) Disengage slave cylinder fluid line from body retainer clips. (6) Lower vehicle. (7) Disconnect clutch pedal interlock switch wires. (8) Remove locating clip from clutch master cylin der mounting bracket (Fig. 16). (9) Remove retaining clip, flat washer and wave washer that attach clutch master cylinder push rod to clutch pedal (Fig. 17). (10) Slide clutch master cylinder push rod off pedal pin. (11) Inspect condition of bushing on clutch pedal pin (Fig. 17). Remove and replace bushing if worn or damaged.
CYLINDER RESERVOIR

(12) Verify that cap on clutch master cylinder res ervoir is tight. This will avoid spillage during re moval. (13) Remove screws that attach clutch fluid reser voir to dash panel. (14) Remove reservoir mounting bracket screws and remove reservoir from dash panel. (15) Rotate clutch master cylinder 45 counter clockwise to unlock it. Then remove cylinder from dash panel. (16) Remove clutch master cylinder rubber seal from dash panel (Fig. 16). (17) Remove clutch cylinders, reservoir and con necting lines from vehicle.
LINKAGE INSTALLATION

(1) Tighten cap on clutch fluid reservoir to avoid spillage during installation. (2) Position cylinders, connecting lines and reser voir in vehicle engine compartment. (3) Lubricate cylinder seal with liquid dish soap to ease installation. Then seat seal in dash and around cylinder. (4) Insert clutch master cylinder in dash panel. Ro tate cylinder 45 clockwise to lock it in place. (5) If cylinder seal is hard to seat, unlock cylinder and reseat seal if necessary. Then relock cylinder af terward. (6) Position clutch fluid reservoir on dash panel and install reservoir screws. Tighten screws to 5 N-m (40 in. lbs.) torque. (7) Install reservoir mounting bracket on dash panel, if removed.
DASH

LOCATING PIN

CLUTCH PUSH ROD

CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER

SLAVE CYLINDER Fig. 16 dutch Hydraulic Linkage

J9506-25

CLUTCH
PIN

6 -17

Fig. 18 Knee Bolster PEDAL SUPPORT J9406-21 Fig. 17 Clutch Cylinder Push Rod Attachment PEDAL PSVOT

Removal

PEDAL

(8) Install replacement bushing on clutch pedal pin if necessary. (9) Install clutch master cylinder push rod on clutch pedal pin. Secure rod with wave washer, flat washer and retainer ring. (10) Connect clutch pedal position (interlock) switch wires. (11) Install locating clip in clutch master cylinder mounting bracket. (12) Raise vehicle. (13) Install slave cylinder. Be sure cap at end of cylinder rod is seated in release lever. Check this be fore installing cylinder attaching nuts. (14) Install and tighten slave cylinder attaching nuts to 23 N-m (200 in. lbs.) torque. (15) Lower vehicle. (16) If new linkage has been installed, remove plastic shipping stop from master cylinder push rod. Do this after installing slave cylinder and before op erating linkage. (17) Operate linkage several times to verify proper operation. CLUTCH PEDAL REMOVAL (1) Remove retaining ring, flat washer and wave washer that secure brake and clutch pedals to push rods (Fig. 17). (2) Remove knee bolster (Fig. 18) for access to pedal pivot shaft. (3) Remove brakelight switch. Turn switch clock wise about 30 to release it then remove switch from bracket. (4) Remove retainer from passenger side of pedal pivot shaft (Fig. 19).

J9406-22 * Fig. 19 Clutch/Brake Pedal Mounting

(5) Push pedal pivot shaft toward driver side of support only enough to remove clutch pedal. It is not necessary to remove shaft from pedal support en tirely. (6) Remove clutch pedal. CLUTCH PEDAL INSTALLATION (1) Inspect bushings in clutch and brake pedals (Fig. 20). Replace bushings if worn, cracked, or dis torted. (2) Lubricate pedal shaft, pedal shaft bore (Figs. 19 and 20) and all bushings with Mopar Multi Mile age, or high temperature bearing grease. -

-18

CLUTCH

BR
Install new attaching bolts whenever the flywheel is replaced and use Mopar Lock N' Seal, or Loctite 242 on replacement bolt threads. Recommended flywheel bolt torques are: 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) for gas engine flywheels 137 N-m (101 ft. lbs.) for diesel flywheels Inspect the teeth on the starter ring gear. If the teeth are worn or damaged, the flywheel should be replaced as an assembly. This is the recom mended and preferred method of repair. In cases where a new flywheel is not readily avail able, a replacement ring gear can be installed. How ever, the following precautions must be observed to avoid damaging the flywheel and replacement gear. (a) Mark position of the old gear for alignment reference on the flywheel. Use a scriber for this purpose. (b) Wear protective goggles or approved safety glasses. Also wear heat resistent gloves when han dling a heated ring gear. (c) Remove the old gear by cutting most of the way through it (at one point) with an abrasive cut off wheel. Then complete removal with a cold chisel or punch. (d) The ring gear is a shrink fit on the flywheel. This means the gear must be expanded by heating in order to install it. The method of heating and expanding the gear is extremely important. Every surface of the gear must be heated at the same time to produce uniform expansion. An oven or similar enclosed heating device must be used. Temperature required for uniform expansion is 325-350 F.
CAUTION: Never use an oxy/acetylene torch to re move the old gear, or to heat and expand a new gear. The high temperature of the torch flame will cause localized heating and damage the flywheel. In addition, using the torch to heat a replacement gear will cause uneven heating and expansion. The torch flame will also anneal the gear teeth resulting in rapid wear and damage after installation.

Fig. 20 dutch/Brake

Pedal

Bushings

(3) Position clutch pedal in support. Align pedal with pivot shaft and slide shaft through pedal bush ings. Then repeat process for brake pedal. (4) Slide pedal shaft through support and install shaft retainer. (5) Secure push rods to clutch and brake pedals. (6) Install brakelight switch in bracket. Rotate switch into place to lock it in bracket. (7) Install knee bolster. FLYWHEEL SERVICE Inspect the flywheel whenever the clutch disc, cover and housing are removed for service. Check condition of the flywheel face, hub, ring gear teeth, and flywheel bolts. Minor scratches, burrs, or glazing on the flywheel face can be scuff sanded with 180 grit emery cloth. However, the flywheel should be replaced if the disc contact surface is severely scored, heat checked, cracked, or obviously worn. Cleanup of minor flywheel scoring should be per formed with surface grinding equipment. Remove only enough material to reduce scoring (approximate ly 0.001 - 0.003 in.). Heavy stock removal is not rec ommended. Replace the flywheel if scoring is severe and deeper than 0.076 mm (0.003 in.). Excessive stock removal can result in flywheel cracking or warpage after installation; it can also weaken the fly wheel and interfere with proper clutch release. Check flywheel runout if misalignment is sus pected. Runout should not exceed 0.08 mm (0.003 in.). Measure runout at the outer edge of the fly wheel face with a dial indicator. Mount the dial indi cator on a stud installed in place of one of the flywheel attaching bolts. Clean the crankshaft flange before mounting the flywheel. Dirt and grease on the flange surface may cock the flywheel causing excessive runout. Check condition of the flywheel hub and attaching bolts. Replace the flywheel if the hub exhibits cracks in the area of the attaching bolt holes.

(e) The heated gear must be installed evenly to avoid misalignment or distortion. A shop press and suitable press plates should be used to install the gear if at all possible. (f) Be sure to wear eye and hand protection. Heat resistent gloves and safety goggles are needed for personal safety. Also use metal tongs, vise grips, or similar tools to position the gear as necessary for installation. (g) Allow the flywheel and ring gear to cool down before installation. Set the assembly on a work bench and let it cool in normal shop air.

BR
CAUTION: .Never use water, or compressed air t
cool the flywheel. The rapid cooling produced by

CLUTCH

6-19

water or compressed air can distort, or crack the gear and flywheel. CHECIili 114111 CLUTCH HOUSING RUNOUT Only t h e NV4500 clutch housing c a n b e checked using t h e following bore and. face runout procedures. The NV3500 clutch housing
is a n integral p a r t of t h e transmission front
case a n d c a n only be checked off t h e v e h i c l e . MEASURING CLUTCH HOUSING BORE RUNOUT (NV4S00 ONLY) (1) Remove the clutch housing and strut. (2) Remove the clutch cover and disc. (3) Replace one o f t h e flywheel bolts w i t h a n ap propriate size threaded rod t h a t is 10 i n . (25.4 cm) long (Fig. 21). The rod w i l l be used to mount the dial indicator. (4) Remove the release fork from the clutch hous ing. (5) Reinstall the clutch housing. Tighten the hous i n g bolts nearest t h e alignment dowels first. (6) M o u n t the dial indicator on t h e threaded r o d and position the indicator plunger on t h e surface of the clutch housing bore (Fig. 22). (7) Rotate the crankshaft u n t i l t h e indicator plunger is a t the top center of the housing bore. Zero the indicator at this point. (8) Rotate the crankshaft and record the indicator readings at eight points (45 apart) around t h e bore (Figs. 21-22). Repeat the measurement at least twice for accuracy. (9) Subtract each reading from t h e one 180 oppo site to determine magnitude and direction of runout. Refer to Figure 23 and following example. Bore runout example:

available to correct runout on diesel engines. If bore runout exceeds the stated maximum on a diesel engine, it may be necessary to replace ei ther the clutch housing, or transmission adapter plate.
CORRECTING CLUTCH HOUSING BORE RUNOUT (NV4S00 GAS ENGINE ONLY) On gas engine vehicles, clutch housing bore runout is corrected w i t h offset dowels. However, i f bore r u n o u t exceeds 0.015 i n . T I R on a diesel equipped model, t h e clutch housing, or transmission adapter plate m a y have to be replaced. Offset dowels are not available for diesel models. The dial indicator reads positive when the plunger moves i n w a r d (toward indicator) a n d negative when i t moves outward (away from indicator). As a result, the lowest or most negative reading determines the direction of housing bore offset (runout). I n t h e sample readings shown i n Figure 24 and i n step (7) above, t h e bore is offset toward t h e 0.010 inch reading. To correct this, remove the housing and original dowels. Then install the new offset dowels i n the direction needed to center t h e bore w i t h t h e crankshaft centerline. I n t h e example, T I R was 0.012 inch. The dowels needed for correction would have a n offset of 0.007 i n . (Fig. 24). I n s t a l l t h e dowels w i t h the slotted side facing out so they can be t u r n e d w i t h a screwdriver. Then i n stall t h e housing, remount t h e dial indicator and check bore r u n o u t again. Rotate the dowels u n t i l t h e T I R is less t h a n 0.010 i n . i f necessary. I f a T I R o f 0.053 i n . or greater is encountered, i t may be necessary to replace the clutch housing. 7/16 - 20 THREAD NUT

0.000 - (-0.007) = 0.007 in. +0.002 - (-0.010) = 0.012 in. +0.004 - (-0.005) = 0.009 in. -0.001 - (+0.001) = -0.002 in. (= 0.002 inch)
I n t h e above example, the largest difference is 0.012 i n . and is called the total indicator reading (TIR). This means t h a t the housing bore is offset from the crankshaft centerline by 0.006 i n . (which is ^ 10 INCHES L O N G ^

1/2 of 0.012 in.).


On gas engines, the acceptable m a x i m u m T I R for housing bore runout is 0.010 inch. I f measured T I R is more t h a n 0.010 i n . (as i n the example), bore r u n o u t w i l l have to be corrected w i t h offset dowels. Offset dowels are available i n 0.007, 0.014 and 0.021 i n . sizes for this purpose (Fig. 23). Refer to Correcting Housing Bore Runout for dowel installation.

J9Q06-25

Fig. 21 Dial Indicator Mounting Stud Or Rod MEASURING CLUTCH HOUSING FACE RUNOUT (NV4500) (1) Reposition the dial indicator plunger on t h e housing face (Fig. 25). Place the indicator plunger at the r i m of the housing bore as shown. (2) Rotate the crankshaft u n t i l the indicator plunger is a t the 10 O'clock position on the bore. Then zero the dial indicator.

On diesel engines, the acceptable maximum TIR for housing bore runout is 0.015 inch. How ever, unlike gas engines, offset dowels are not

- 21

CLUTCH
MOUNTING STUD OR ROD DIAL INDICATOR

BR
(4) Subtract the lowest reading from the highest to determine total runout. As an example, refer to the sample readings shown in Figure 26. If the low read ing was minus 0.004 in. and the highest reading was plus 0.009 in., total runout is actually 0.013 inch. (5) Total allowable face runout is 0.010 inch. If runout exceeds this figure, runout will have to be corrected. Refer to Correcting Clutch Housing Face Runout.
C O R R E C T I N G CLUTCH RUNOUT (NW4500) HOUSING FACE

INDICATOR PLUNGER

CLUTCH HOUSING BORE Fig. 22 Checking Clutch Housing Bom

J9006-26 Runout

.000 + .002

+ 004

-.001

CLUTCH HOUSING
BORE

CIRCLE

(SAMPLE READINGS)

J9Q06-27 And

Housing face runout, on gas or diesel engines, can be corrected by installing shims between the clutch housing and transmission (Fig. 27). The shims can be made from shim stock or similar materials of the re quired thickness. As an example, assume that face runout is the same as shown in Figure 26 and in step (4) above. In this case, three shims will be needed. Shim thick nesses should be 0.009 in. (at the 0.000 corner), 0.012 in. (at the -0.003 corner) and 0.013 in. (at the -0.004 corner). After installing the clutch assembly and housing, tighten the housing bolts nearest the alignment dow els first. Clutch housing preferred bolt torques are: 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) for 3/8 in. diameter bolts 68 N-m (50 ft. lbs.) for 7/16 in. diameter bolts 47 N-m (35 ft. lbs.) for V10 and diesel clutch hous ing bolts

Fig. 23 Housing Bore Measurement Points Sample Readings SLOT SHOWS DIRECTION OF OFFSET

OFFSET DOWEL

D O W E L SELECTION TIR VALUE 0.011 -0.021 inch 0.022 - 0.035 inch 0.036 - 0.052 inch OPFSET D O W E L KiWiHiD 0.007 inch 0.014 inch 0.021 inch J9206-7 Fig. 24 Housing Bore Alignment Dowel Selection

(3) Measure and record face runout at four points 90 apart around the housing face (Fig. 26). Perform the measurement at least twice for accuracy.

BR

CLUTCH
CUT/DRILL iOLT HOLE TO SIZE

6 - 21

During final transmission installation, install the shims between the clutch housing and transmission at the appropriate bolt locations.
INDICATOR PLUNGE! DIAL INDICATOR CLUTCH HOUSING FACE

SHIM STOCK

MAKE SHIM 1-INCH DIAMETER Fig. 27 Housing Face Alignment INDICATOR MOUNTING STUD OR ROD
1

J9006-31

Shims

^ J90G6-29

Fig. 25 Measuring Clutch Housing Face Runout

(AT RIM OF BORE) Fig. 26 Housing Face Measurement Sample Readings J9006-30 Points And

BR

COOLING SYSTEM

7-1

COOLING SYSTEM
CONTENTS page page

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS DIAGNOSIS ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS

.. 50 4 54

ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS SERVICE PROCEDURES SPECIFICATIONS

61 18 63

GENERAL INFORMATION Throughout this group, references are made to par ticular vehicle models by alphabetical designation or by the particular vehicle nameplate. A chart showing a breakdown of alphabetical designations is included in the Introduction section at the beginning of this manual. All vehicles are equipped with either a 3.9L V-6 en gine, a 5.2L V-8 engine, two different 5.9L V-8 en gines, an 8.0L V-10 engine or a 5.9L Cummins in-line 6 cylinder diesel engine. The 3.9L V-6 and 5.2L V-8 engines will be referred to in this Cooling group as: LDC (Light Duty Cycle) engines. The 5.9L V-8 gas powered engine will be re ferred to as either: LDC (Light Duty Cycle) or HDC (Heavy Duty Cycle) engine. The 8.0L V-10 engine will be referred to as: HDC (Heavy Duty Cycle) engine. Either of the HDC gas powered engines can be eas ily identified by the use of an engine mounted air in jection pump. The 3.9L V-6, 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC gas engines or the diesel engine will not use an air injec tion pump. COOLING SYSTEM The cooling system regulates engine operating tem perature. It allows the engine to reach normal oper ating temperature as quickly as possible. It also maintains normal operating temperature and pre vents overheating. The cooling system also provides a means of heat ing the passenger compartment and cooling the auto matic transmission fluid (if equipped). The cooling system is pressurized and uses a centrifugal water pump on all engines to circulate coolant throughout the system. An optional factory installed maximum duty cool ing package is available for some engines on most models. This package will provide additional cooling capacity for vehicles used under extreme conditions such as trailer towing in high ambient temperatures. COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTSALL EXCEPT DIESEL ENGINE The cooling system consists of: A cross-flow radiator

Thermal viscous fan drive Fan shroud Radiator pressure cap Thermostat Coolant reserve/overflow system Transmission oil cooler (automatic transmission) Coolant Water pump (to circulate coolant) Hoses and hose clamps Typical coolant flow circuits for gas powered , en gines are shown in figure 1. COOLING S f S T E i C01P01E1TSDIESEL ENGINE Coolant flow circuits for the 5.9L diesel engine are shown in figure 2. The diesel cooling system consists of: a cross-flow radiator, engine driven cooling fan, thermal viscous fan drive, fan shroud, radiator pressure cap, thermo stat, a vertically mounted one-way check valve (jiggle pin) at cylinder head, a bypass hose at thermostat, coolant reserve/overflow system, transmission oil cooler (if equipped with an automatic transmission), coolant, water pump, hoses and hose clamps. Coolant is drawn from radiator into the water pump. Water pump output is directed to the engine oil cooler cavity of the cylinder block (Fig. 3). From the oil cooler cavity, the coolant circulates around each cylinder. It then crosses to the transfer (lift) pump side of the engine where it flows up into the cylinder head through openings in top of the cyl inder block (Fig. 3). Coolant flows past the valve bridges (Fig. 4), to exhaust manifold side of engine and to thermostat. As coolant flows toward the ther mostat, it provides cooling for the injector nozzle. Also refer to Thermostat Operation5.9L Diesel Engine. This can be found in the Thermostat section of this group.

7 -2

COOLING S f S T E i

BR

THERMOSTAT OPENLOW FLOW Fig. 1 Typical Cooling System FlowGas Powered Engines

J9407-1

Fig. 2 Typical Cooling System FlowDiesel Powered

Engine

BR

COOLING SYSTEM

7-3

Fig. 3 Cylinder Block Coolant RoutingDiesel Engine

7 -4

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS

mm
DIAGNOSIS
INDEX
page page Preliminary Checks 5

DRB Scan Tool On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)

5 4

ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD)


FOR CERTAIN COMPONENTS COOLING SYSTEM

The powertrain control module (PCM) has been programmed to monitor certain cooling system com ponents on gasoline powered engines only: If the engine has remained cool for too long a pe riod, such as with a stuck open thermostat, a Diag nostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 can be observed at the malfunction indicator lamp. This lamp is displayed on the instrument panel as the CHECK ENGINE lamp (Fig. 5). DTC number 17 is not used with diesel powered engines.

It is possible that a DTC for a monitored circuit may not be entered into memory even though a mal function has occurred. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) in Group 14, Fuel Systems for additional in formation.
ACCESSING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES

A stored Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) can be dis played by cycling the ignition key On-Off-On-Off-On within three seconds and observing the malfunction indicator lamp. This lamp is displayed on the instru ment panel as the CHECK ENGINE lamp (Fig. 5). They can also be displayed through the use of the Diagnostic Readout Box (DRB) scan tool. The DRB connects to the data link connector in the engine compartment (Fig. 6). For operation of the DRB, refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual.

Fig. 5 Check Engine Lamp Location

If the problem is sensed in a monitored circuit of ten enough to indicate an actual problem, a DTC is stored. The DTC will be stored in the PCM memory for eventual display to the service technician. If the problem is repaired or ceases to exist, the PCM can cels the DTC after 51 engine starts. Certain criteria must be met for a DTC to be en tered into PCM memory. The criteria may be a spe cific range of engine rpm, engine temperature and/or input voltage to the PCM. A DTC indicates that the PCM has recognized an abnormal signal in a circuit or the system. A DTC may indicate the result of a failure, but never iden tify the failed component directly.

POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE (PCM) Fig. 6 PCM and Data Link EXAMPLES:

J9414-11 ConnectorTypical

If the lamp (Fig. 5) flashes 1 time, pauses and flashes 2 more times, a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 12 is indicated. If this code is observed, it is indicating that the battery has been disconnected within the last 50 key-on cycles. It could also indicate that battery voltage has been dis connected to the PCM. In either case, other DTC's may have been erased.

BR

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS

7-5

If the lamp flashes 1 time,, pauses and flashes 7 more times, a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 is indicated. After any stored DTC information has been ob served, the display will end with a flashing DTC number 55. This will indicate the end of all stored in formation.
E R A S I N G TROUBLE CODES

After the problem has been repaired, use the DRB scan tool to erase a DTC. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual for operation of the DRB scan tool. DRB SCAN TOOL For operation of the DRB scan tool, refer to the ap propriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual. PRELIMINARY CHECKS
E N G f f f E COOLING SYSTEM OVERHEATING

Establish what driving conditions caused the com plaint. Abnormal loads on the cooling system such as the following may be the cause: 1. PROLONGED IDLE, VERY HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, SLIGHT TAIL WIND AT IDLE, SLOW TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC JAMS, HIGH SPEED OR STEEP GRADES. Driving techniques that avoid overheating are: Idle with A/C off when temperature gauge is at end of normal range.

Increasing engine speed for more air flow is recom mended. 2. TRAILER TOWING: Consult Trailer Towing section of owners manual. Do not exceed limits. 3." AIR CONDITIONING; ADD-ON OR AFTER MARKET: A maximum cooling package should have been or dered with vehicle if add-on or after market A/C is installed. If not, maximum cooling system compo nents should be installed for model involved per manufacturer's specifications. 4. RECENT SERVICE OR ACCIDENT REPAIR: Determine if any recent service has been performed on vehicle that may effect cooling system. This may be: Engine adjustments (incorrect ignition timing) Slipping engine accessory drive belt(s) Brakes (possibly dragging) Changed parts. Incorrect water pump or pump ro tating in wrong direction due to belt not correctly routed Reconditioned radiator or cooling system refilling (possibly under filled or air trapped in system). If investigation reveals none of the previous items as a cause for an engine overheating com plaint, refer to following Cooling System Diag nosis charts. These charts are to be used as a quick-reference only. Refer to the group text for information.

7-6

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING CONDITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSISALL EXCEPT DIESEL CORRECTION

BR

POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Has a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 been set indicating a stuck open engine thermostat?

TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS LOW

2. Is the temperature gauge (if equipped) connected to the temperature gauge coolant sensor on the engine? 3. Is the temperature gauge (if equipped) operating OK? 4. Coolant level low in cold ambient temperatures accompanied with poor heater performance.

1. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the service manual text. Replace thermostat if necessary. If a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 has not been set, the problem may be with the temperature gauge. 2. Check the engine temperature sensor connector in the engine compartment. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 3. Check gauge operation. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 4. Check coolant level in the coolant reserve/overflow tank and the radiator. Inspect system for leaks. Repair leaks as necessary. Refer to the Coolant section of the manual text for WARNINGS and precautions before removing the radiator cap. 5. Inspect heater and repair as necessary. Refer to Group 24, Heating and Air Conditioning for procedures. 1. This may be a temporary condition and repair is not necessary. Turn off the air conditioning and attempt to drive the vehicle without any of the previous conditions. Observe the temperature gauge. The gauge should return to the normal range. If the gauge does not return to normal range, determine the cause for overheating and repair. Refer to POSSIBLE CAUSES (numbers 2 through 20). 2. Check gauge. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 3. Check warning lamp operation. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 4. Check for coolant leaks and repair as necessary. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 5. Tighten cap.

5. Improper operation of internal heater doors or heater controls. TEMPERATURE G A U G E READS HIGH OR ENGINE COOLANT WARNING LAMP ILLUMINATES. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT B E LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING SYSTEM 1. Trailer is being towed, a steep hill is being climbed, vehicle is operated in slow moving traffic, or engine is being idled with very high ambient (outside) temperatures and the air conditioning is on. Higher altitudes could aggravate these conditions. 2. Is temperature gauge (if equipped) reading correctly? 3. Is temperature warning lamp (if equipped) illuminating unnecessarily? . 4. Coolant low in coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator? 5. Pressure cap not installed tightly. If cap is loose, boiling point of coolant will be lowered. Also refer to the following step 6. 6. Poor seals at radiator cap.

6. (a) Check condition of cap and cap seals. Refer to Radiator Cap. Replace cap if necessary. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. If neck is bent or damaged, replace radiator.

J9507-41

BR
COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSISALL EXCEPT

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


DIESELCONTINUED

7 -7

CONDITION T E M P E R A T U R E GAUGE READS HIGH OR ENGINE COOLANT WARNING LAMP ILLUMINATES. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT B E LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING S Y S T E M - CONT.

POSSIBLE C A U S E S 7. Coolant level low in radiator but not in coolant reserve/overflow tank. This means the radiator is not drawing coolant from the coolant reserve/overflow tank as the engine cools. As the engine cools, a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of the engine and radiator. If radiator cap seals are defective, or cooling system has leaks, a vacuum can not be formed.

CORRECTION 7. (a) Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. Replace cap if necessary. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. If neck is bent or damaged, replace radiator. (c) Check the condition of the hose from the radiator to the coolant tank. It should fit tight at both ends without any kinks or tears. Replace hose if necessary. (d) Check coolant reserve/overflow tank and tank hoses for blockage. Repair as necessary. 8. Check antifreeze. Refer to Coolant section of this group. Adjust antifreeze-to-water ratio as required. 9. Check for coolant flow at radiator filler neck with some coolant removed, engine warm and thermostat open. Coolant should be observed flowing through radiator. If flow is not observed, determine reason for lack of flow and repair as necessary. 10. Clean insects or debris. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. 11. Have radiator re-cored or replaced. 12. Install proper radiator. 13. Refer to Fuel and Ignition System groups for diagnosis. Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual for operation of the DRB scan tool. 14. Check and correct as necessary. Refer to Group 5, Brakes in the manual text. 15. Remove bug screen. 16. Check thermostat operation and replace as necessary. Refer to Thermostats in this group. 17. Check fan drive operation and replace if necessary. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. 18. Check for cylinder head gasket leaks. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. For repair, refer to Group 9, Engines. 19. Check heater core for leaks. Refer to Group 24, Heating and Air Conditioning. Repair as necessary.

8. Freeze point of antifreeze not correct. Mixture may be too rich. 9. Coolant not flowing through system.

10. Radiator or A/C condenser fins are dirty or clogged. 11. Radiator core is corroded or plugged. 12. Aftermarket A/C installed without proper radiator. 13. Fuel or ignition system problems.

14. Dragging brakes. 15. Bug screen is being used reducing airflow. 16. Thermostat partially or completely shut. This is more prevalent on high mileage vehicles. 17. Thermal viscous fan drive not operating properly. 18. Cylinder head gasket leaking.

19. Heater core leaking.

J9507-50

7 -8

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING CONDITION SYSTEM

EXCEPT

DIESELCONTINUED CORRECTION 1. A normal condition. No correction is necessary.

DIAGNOSISALL POSSIBLE CAUSES

TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING IS INCONSISTENT (FLUCTUATES, CYCLES OR IS ERRATIC)

1. During cold weather operation, with the heater blower in the high position, the gauge reading may drop slightly. 2. Temperature gauge or engine mounted gauge sensor defective or shorted. Also, corroded or loose wiring in this circuit. 3. Gauge reading rises when vehicle is brought to a stop after heavy use (engine still running). 4. Gauge reading high after re starting a warmed-up (hot) engine. 5. Coolant level low in radiator (air will build up in the cooling system causing the thermostat to open late). 6. Cylinder head gasket leaking allowing exhaust gas to enter cooling system causing thermostat to open late.

2. Check operation of gauge and repair if necessary. Refer to Group 8E, Instrument Panel And Gauges. 3. A normal condition. No correction is necessary. Gauge reading should return to normal range after vehicle is driven. 4. A normal condition. No correction is necessary. The gauge should return to normal range after a few minutes of engine operation. 5. Check and correct coolant leaks. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 6. (a) Check for cylinder head gasket leaks with a commercially available Block Leak Tester. Repair as necessary. (b) Check for coolant in the engine oil. Inspect for white steam emitting from exhaust system. Repair as necessary. 7. Check water pump and replace as ^ necessary. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. 8. Refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Check and correct as necessary. 9. Locate leak and repair as necessary.

7. Water pump impeller loose on shaft. 8. Loose accessory drive belt (water pump slipping). 9. Air leak on the suction side of water pump allows air to build up in cooling system causing thermostat to open late. PRESSURE CAP IS BLOWING OFF STEAM AND/OR COOLANT TO COOLANT TANK. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING MAY BE ABOVE NORMAL BUT NOT HIGH. COOLANT LEVEL MAY BE HIGH IN COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK COOLANT LOSS TO THE GROUND WITHOUT PRESSURE CAP BLOWOFF. GAUGE IS READING HIGH OR HOT 1. Pressure relief valve in radiator cap is defective.

1. Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. Refer to Radiator Caps in this . group. Replace cap as necessary.

1. Coolant leaks in radiator, cooling system hoses, water pump or engine.

1. Pressure test and repair as necessary. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group.

J9507-51

BR

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSISALL

EXCEPT

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


DIESELCONTINUED

7-9

CONDITION DETONATION OR P R E IGN1T10N (NOT CAUSED BY IGNITION SYSTEM). GAUGE MAYOR MAY NOT BE READING HIGH HOSE OR H O S E S COLLAPSE W H E N ENGINE IS COOLING

POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Engine overheating. 2. Freeze point of antifreeze not correct. Mixture is too rich or too lean. 1. Vacuum created in cooling system on engine cool-down is not being relieved through coolant reserve/overflow system.

CORRECTION 1. Check reason for overheating and repair as necessary. 2. Check antifreeze. Refer to the Coolant section of this group. Adjust antifreezeto-water ratio as required. 1. (a) Radiator cap relief valve stuck. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. Replace if necessary. (b) Hose between coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator is kinked. Repair as necessary. (c) Vent at coolant reserve/overflow tank is plugged. Clean vent and repair as necessary. (d) Reserve/overflow tank is internally blocked or plugged. Check for blockage and repair as necessary. 1. Replace fan blade assembly. Refer to Cooling System Fans in this group. 2. Locate point of fan blade contact and repair as necessary. 3. Remove obstructions and/or clean debris or insects from radiator or A/C condenser. 4. Replace fan drive. Bearing is not serviceable. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. 5. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group for an explanation of normal fan noise.

NOISY FAN

1. Fan blades.loose. 2. Fan blades striking a surrounding object. 3. Air obstructions at radiator or air conditioning condenser. 4. Thermal viscous fan drive has defective bearing. 5. A certain amount of fan noise (roaring) may be evident on models equipped with a thermal viscous fan drive. Some of this noise is normal.

INADEQUATE AIR CONDITIONER PERFORMANCE (COOLING SYSTEM SUSPECTED)

1. Radiator and/or A/C condenser is restricted, obstructed or dirty (insects, leaves etc.). 2. Thermal viscous fan drive is free wheeling. 3. Engine is overheating (heat may be transferred from radiator to A/C condenser. High underhood temperatures due to engine overheating may also transfer heat to A/C components). 4. Some models with certain engines are equipped with air seals at the radiator and/or A/C condenser. If these seals are missing or damaged, not enough air flow will be pulled through the radiator and A/C condenser.

1. Remove restriction and/or clean as necessary. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. 2. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive for diagnosis. Repair as necessary. 3. Correct overheating condition. Refer to text in Group 7, Cooling.

4. Check for missing or damaged air seals and repair as necessary.

J9507-52

7 - 10

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING CONDITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSISALL POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Has a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) number 17 been set? 2. Coolant level low. EXCEPT DIESELCONTINUED ORRECTION

BR

INADEQUATE HEATER PERFORMANCE. THERMOSTAT FAILED IN OPEN POSITION

3. Obstructions in heater hose fittings at engine. 4. Heater hose kinked. 5. Some models with certain engines are equipped with a water control valve located on one of the heater hoses. This valve may be defective. 6. Water pump is not pumping water to heater core. When the engine is fully warmed up, both heater hoses should be hot to the touch. If only one of the hoses is hot, the water pump may not be operating correctly. The accessory drive belt may also be slipping causing poor water pump operation. HEAT ODOR 1. Various heat shields are used at certain drive line components. One or more of these shields may be missing. 2. Is temperature gauge reading above the normal range? 3. Is cooling fan operating correctly? 4. Has undercoating been applied to any unnecessary component? 5. Engine may be running rich causing the catalytic converter to overheat. POOR DRIVEABILITY (THERMOSTAT POSSIBLY STUCK OPEN). GAUGE MAY BE READING LOW 1. For proper driveability, good vehicle emissions and for preventing build-up of engine oil sludge, the thermostat must be . operating properly. Has a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) number 17 been set?

1. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the manual text and replace thermostat if necessary. 2. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in the manual text. Repair as necessary. 3. Remove heater hoses at both ends and check for obstructions. Repair as necessary. 4. Locate kinked area and repair as necessary. 5. Refer to Group 24, Heating and Air Conditioning for diagnosis. Repair as necessary.

6. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. Repair as necessary. If a slipping belt is detected, refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Repair as necessary.

1. Locate missing shields and replace or repair as necessary.

2. Refer to the previous Temperature Gauge Reads High in these Diagnosis Charts. Repair as necessary. 3. Refer to Cooling System Fan in this group for diagnosis. Repair as necessary. 4. Clean undercoating as necessary. 5. Refer to the DRB scan tool and the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual. Repair as necessary. 1. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in this group. DTC's may also be checked using the DRB scan tool. Refer to the proper Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures service manual for checking the thermostat using the DRB scan tool. Replace thermostat if necessary.

J9507-53


COOLING Condition STEAM IS COMING FROM FRONT OF VEHICLE NEAR GRILL AREA W H E N WEATHER IS WET, ENGINE IS WARMED UP AND RUNNING, AND VEHICLE IS STATIONARY. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE SYSTEM DIAGNOSISALL Possible Causes

EXCEPT

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


DIESELCONTINUED Correction

7-11

1. During wet weather, moisture (snow, ice or rain condensation) on the radiator will evaporate when the thermostat opens. This opening allows heated water into the radiator. When the moisture contacts the hot radiator, steam may be emitted. This usually occurs in cold weather with no fan or airflow to blow it away. 1. Coolant color is not necessarily an indication of adequate corrosion or temperature protection. Do not rely on coolant color for determining condition of coolant. ' 1. Level changes are to be expected as coolant volume fluctuates with engine temperature. If the level in the tank was between the FULL and ADD marks at normal engine operating temperature, the level should return to within that range after operation I at elevated temperatures.

1. Occasional steam emitting from this area is normal. No repair is necessary.

COOLANT COLOR

1. Refer to Coolant in this group for antifreeze tests. Adjust antifreeze-towater ratio as necessary.

COOLANT LEVEL CHANGES IN COOLANT RESERVE/ OVERFLOW TANK. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE

1. A normal condition. No repair is necessary.

J9507-55

7 -12

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING

-
ENGINE
CORRECTION

BR

SYSTEM

DIAGNOSISDIESEL

CONDITION TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS LOW

POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Diesel engines, due to their inherent efficiency are slower to warm up than gasoline powered engines, and will operate at lower temperatures when the vehicle is unloaded. 2. Is the temperature gauge connected to the temperature gauge coolant sensor on the engine? 3. Is the temperature gauge operating OK? 4. Coolant level low in cold ambient temperatures accompanied with poor heater performance.

1. The low gauge reading may be normal. Refer to thermostats in the manual text for information. See Thermostat Diagnosis - Diesel Engine.

2. Check the engine temperature sensor connector in the engine compartment. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 3. Check gauge operation. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 4. Check coolant level in the coolant reserve/overflow tank and the radiator. Inspect system for leaks. Repair leaks as necessary. Refer to the Coolant section of the manual text for WARNINGS and precautions before removing the radiator cap. 5. Inspect heater and repair as necessary. Refer to Group 24, Heating and Air Conditioning for procedures. 1. This may be a temporary condition and repair is not necessary. Turn off the air conditioning and attempt to drive the vehicle without any of the previous conditions. Observe the temperature gauge. The gauge should return to the normal range. If the gauge does not return to normal range, determine the cause for overheating and repair. Refer to POSSIBLE CAUSES (numbers 2 through 17). 2. Check gauge. Refer to Group 8E. Repair as necessary. 3. Check for coolant leaks and repair as necessary. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 4. Tighten cap.

5. Improper operation of internal heater doors or heater controls. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS HIGH. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT B E LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING SYSTEM 1. Trailer is being towed, a steep hill is being climbed, vehicle is operated in slow moving traffic, or engine is being idled with very high ambient (outside) temperatures and the air conditioning is on. Higher altitudes could aggravate these conditions. 2. Is temperature gauge reading correctly? 3. Coolant low in coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator? 4. Pressure cap not installed tightly. If cap is loose, boiling point of coolant will be lowered. Also refer to the following step 5. 5. Poor seals at radiator cap.

5. (a) Check condition of cap and cap seals. Refer to Radiator Cap. Replace cap if necessary. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. If neck is bent or damaged, replace radiator.

J9507-57

BR
COOLING SYSTEM CONDITION T E M P E R A T U R E GAUGE READS HIGH. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING S Y S T E M - CONT. DIAGNOSISDIESEL

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


ENGINECONTINUED CORRECTION

7 -13

POSSIBLE CAUSES 6. Coolant level low in radiator but not in coolant reserve/overflow tank. This means the radiator is not drawing coolant from the coolant reserve/overflow tank as the engine cools. As the engine cools, a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of the engine and radiator. If radiator cap seals are defective, or cooling system has leaks, a vacuum can not be formed.

6. (a) Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. Replace cap if necessary. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. If neck is bent or damaged, replace radiator. (c) Check the condition of the hose from the radiator to the coolant tank. It should fit tight at both ends without any kinks or tears. Replace hose if necessary. (d) Check coolant reserve/overflow tank and tank hoses for blockage. Repair as necessary. * 7. Check antifreeze. Refer to Coolant section of this group. Adjust antifreeze-to-water ratio as required. 8. Check for coolant flow at radiator filler neck with some coolant removed, engine warm and thermostat open. Coolant should be observed flowing through radiator. If flow is not observed, determine reason for lack of flow and repair as necessary. 9. Clean insects or debris. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. 10. Have radiator re-cored or replaced. 11. Install proper radiator. 12. Check and correct as necessary. Refer to Group 5, Brakes in the manual text. 13. Remove bug screen. 14. Check thermostat operation and replace as necessary. Refer to Thermostats in this group. 15. Check fan drive operation and replace if necessary. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. 16. Check for cylinder head gasket leaks. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. For repair, refer to Group 9, Engines. 17. Check heater core for leaks. Refer to Group 24, Heating and Air Conditioning. Repair as necessary.

7. Freeze point of antifreeze not correct. Mixture may be too rich. 8. Coolant not flowing through system.

9. Radiator or A/C condenser fins are dirty or clogged. 10. Radiator core is corroded or plugged. 11. Aftermarket A/C installed without ' proper radiator. 12. Dragging brakes. 13. Bug screen is being used reducing airflow. 14. Thermostat partially or completely shut. This is more prevalent on high mileage vehicles. 15. Thermal viscous fan drive not operating properly. 16. Cylinder head gasket leaking.

17. Heater core leaking.

J9507-58

7 -14

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING CONDITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSISDIESEL POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. During cold weather operation, with the heater blower in the high position, the gauge reading may drop slightly. Fluctuation is also influenced by loads, outside temperature and extended idle time with diesel engines. 2. Temperature gauge or engine mounted gauge sensor defective or shorted. Also, corroded or loose wiring in this circuit. 3. Gauge reading rises when vehicle is brought to a stop after heavy use (engine still running). 4. Gauge reading high after re starting a warmed-up (hot) engine. 5. Coolant level low in radiator (air will build up in the cooling system causing the thermostat to open late). 6. Cylinder head gasket leaking allowing exhaust gas to enter cooling system causing thermostat to open late. ENGINECONTINUED CORRECTION 1. A normal condition. No correction is necessary.

BR

TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING IS INCONSISTENT (FLUCTUATES, CYCLES OR IS ERRATIC)

2. Check operation of gauge and repair if necessary. Refer to Group 8E, Instrument Panel And Gauges. 3. A normal condition. No correction is necessary. Gauge reading should return to normal range after vehicle is driven. 4. A normal condition. No correction is necessary. The gauge should return to normal range after a few minutes of engine operation. 5. Check and correct coolant leaks. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 6. (a) Check for cylinder head gasket leaks with a commercially available Block Leak Tester. Repair as necessary. (b) Check for coolant in the engine oil. Inspect for white steam emitting from exhaust system. Repair as necessary 7. Check water pump and replace as necessary. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. 8. Refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Check and correct as necessary. 9. Locate leak and repair as necessary.

7. Water pump impeller loose on shaft. 8. Loose accessory drive belt (water pump slipping). 9. Air leak on the suction side of water pump allows air to build up in cooling system causing thermostat to open late. PRESSURE CAP IS BLOWING OFF STEAM AND/OR COOLANT TO COOLANT TANK. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING MAY BE ABOVE NORMAL BUT NOT HIGH. COOLANT LEVEL MAY BE HIGH IN COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK COOLANT LOSS TO THE GROUND WITHOUT PRES SURE CAP BLOWOFF. GAUGE IS READING HIGH OR HOT 1. Pressure relief valve in radiator cap is defective.

1. Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. Refer to Radiator Caps in this group. Replace cap as necessary.

1. Coolant leaks in radiator, cooling system hoses, water pump or engine.

1. Pressure test and repair as necessary. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. J9507-59

BR
COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSISDIESEL

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


ENGINECONTINUED

15

CONDITION HOSE OR HOSES COLLAPSE WHEN ENGINE IS COOLING

P O S S I B L E CAUSES 1. Vacuum created in cooling system on engine cool-down is not being relieved through coolant reserve/overflow system.

CORRECTION 1. (a) Radiator cap relief valve stuck. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. Replace if necessary. (b) Hose between coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator _ kinked. Repair as necessary. (c) Vent at coolant reserve/overflow tank is plugged. Clean vent and repair as necessary. (d) Reserve/overflow tank is internally blocked or plugged. Check for blockage and repair as necessary. 1. Replace fan blade assembly. Refer to Cooling System Fans in this group. 2. Locate point of fan blade contact and repair as necessary. 3. Remove obstructions and/or clean debris or insects from radiator or A/C condenser. 4. Replace fan drive. Bearing is not serviceable. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. 5. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group for an explanation of normal fan noise.

NOISY FAN

1. Fan blades loose. 2. Fan blades striking a surrounding object. 3. Air obstructions at radiator or air conditioning condenser. 4. Thermal viscous fan drive has defective bearing. 5. A certain amount of fan noise (roaring) may be evident on models equipped with a thermal viscous fan drive. Some of this noise is normal.

INADEQUATE AIR CONDITIONER PERFORMANCE (COOLING SYSTEM SUSPECTED)

1. Radiator and/or A/C condenser is restricted, obstructed or dirty (insects, leaves etc.). 2. Thermal viscous fan drive is free wheeling. 3. Engine is overheating (heat may be transferred from radiator to A/C condenser. High underhood temperatures due to engine overheating may also transfer heat to A/C components). 4. Some models with certain engines are equipped with air seals at the radiator and/or A/C condenser. If these seals are missing or damaged, not enough air flow will be pulled through the radiator and A/C condenser.

1. Remove restriction and/or clean as necessary. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. 2. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive for diagnosis. Repair as necessary. 3. Correct overheating condition. Refer to text in Group 7, Cooling.

4. Check for missing or damaged air seals and repair as necessary.

J9507-60

7 -16

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING CONDITION SYSTEM


ENGINECONTINUED CORRECTION 1. The low gauge reading may be normal. Refer to Thermostats in the manual text for information. See Thermostat Diagnosis - Diesel Engine.

BR

DIAGNOSISDIESEL POSSIBLE CAUSES

INADEQUATE HEATER PERFORMANCE. MAY B E ACCOMPANIED B Y LOW GAUGE READING

1. Diesel engines, due to their inherent efficiency are slower to warm up than gasoline powered engines, and will operate at lower temperatures when the vehicle is unloaded. 2. Coolant level low.

3. Obstructions in heater hose fittings at engine. 4. Heater hose kinked. 5. Water pump is not pumping water to heater core. When the engine is fully warmed up, both heater hoses should be hot to the touch. If only one of the hoses is hot, the water pump may not be operating correctly. The accessory drive belt may also be slipping causing poor water pump operation. HEAT ODOR 1. Various heat shields are used at certain drive line components. One or more of these shields may be missing. 2. Is temperature gauge reading above the normal range? 3. Is cooling fan operating correctly? 4. Has undercoating been applied to any unnecessary component?

2. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in the manual text. Repair as necessary. 3. Remove heater hoses at both ends and check for obstructions. Repair as necessary. 4. Locate kinked area and repair as necessary. 5. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. Repair as necessary. If a slipping belt is detected, refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Repair as necessary

1. Locate missing shields and replace or repair as necessary.

2. Refer to the previous Temperature Gauge Reads High in these Diagnosis Charts. Repair as necessary. 3. Refer to Cooling System Fan in this group for diagnosis. Repair as necessary 4. Clean undercoating as necessary.

J9507-61

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSISDIESEL ENGINECONTINUED

7 -17

Condition STEAM IS COMING FROM FRONT OF VEHICLE NEAR GRILL AREA WHEN WEATHER IS WET, ENGINE IS WARMED UP AND RUNNING, AND VEHICLE IS STATIONARY. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE

Possible Causes 1. During wet weather, moisture (snow, ice or rain condensation) on the radiator will evaporate when the thermostat opens. This opening allows heated water into the radiator. When the moisture contacts the hot radiator, steam may be emitted. This usually occurs in cold weather with no fan or airflow to blow it away. 1. Coolant color is not necessarily an indication of adequate corrosion or temperature protection. Do not rely on coolant color for determining condition of coolant. 1. Level changes are to be expected as coolant volume fluctuates with engine temperature. If the level in the tank was between the FULL and ADD marks at normal engine operating temperature, the level should return to within that range after operation at elevated temperatures.

Correction 1. Occasional steam emitting from this area is normal. No repair is necessar

COOLANT COLOR

1. Refer to Coolant in this group for antifreeze tests. Adjust antifreeze-towater ratio as necessary.

COOLANT LEVEL CHANGES IN COOLANT RESERVE/ OVERFLOW TANK. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE

1. A normal condition. No repair is necessary.

J9507-55

7 -18

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES SERVICE PROCEDURES INDEX


page

BR

page Refilling Cooling System Testing Cooling System for Leaks Thermostat Viscous Fan Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Pump Bypass Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Pump5.9L Diesel Water Pump8.0L V-10 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water PumpsExcept Diesel and 8.0L V-10 Engine 38 40 30 48 26 25 21 18

Coolant 37 Coolant Reserve /Overflow System 41 Cooling System Cleaning/Reverse Flushing 39 Cooling System FanDiesel Engine 47 Cooling System FanGas Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Cooling System Hoses 45 Draining Cooling System . 38 Radiator Pressure Cap . 42 Radiators 43

WATER PUMPSEXCEPT DIESEL AND 8.0L V-10 ENGINE A centrifugal water pump circulates coolant through the water jackets, passages, intake manifold, radiator core, cooling system hoses and heater core. The pump is driven from the engine crankshaft by a drive belt. The water pump impeller is pressed onto the rear of a shaft that rotates in a bearing pressed into the water pump body. The body has a small hole for ven tilation. The water pump seals are lubricated by an tifreeze in the coolant mixture. Additional lubrication is not necessary. A quick test to determine if pump is working is to check if heater warms properly. P. defective water pump will not be able to circulate heated coolant through the long heater hose to the heater core.
MEMOWAl

(3) Remove windshield washer reservoir tank from radiator fan shroud. Refer to Group 8K, Windshield Wiper and Washer Systems. (4) Disconnect the coolant reserve/overflow tank-toradiator hose at the tank. (5) Remove the four fan shroud mounting bolts at the radiator (Fig. 1). Do not attempt to remove shroud from vehicle at this time.
RADIATOR

The water pump on all models can be removed without discharging the air conditioning system (if equipped). The water pump on all gas powered engines is bolted directly to the engine timing chain case/cover. On all 3.9L/5.2L/5.9L gas powered engines, a gas ket is used as a seal between the water pump and timing chain case/cover. If water pump is replaced because of bearing/shaft damage or leaking shaft seal, the mechanical cooling fan assembly should also be inspected. Inspect for fa tigue cracks, loose blades or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. Replace fan if any of these conditions are found. Also check condi tion of the thermal viscous fan drive. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse.

FAN SHROUD MOUNTING BOLTS Fig. 1 Typical Fan Shroud Mounting

J9407-37

W A R N I N G : CONSTANT T E N S I O N HOSE C L A M P S ARE U S E D ON HOST C O O L I N G SYSTEM HOSES. W H E N R E M O V I N G OR I N S T A L L I N G , USE ONLY T O O L S D E S I G N E D FOR S E R V I C I N G THIS T Y P E O F CLAMP SUCH AS SPECIAL C L A M P TOOL (NUMBER 6094) ( F I G . 2). S N A P - O N C L A M P TOOL ( N U M B E R H P C - 2 0 ) M A Y B E U S E D F O R L A R G E R CLAMPS. AL W A Y S W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S WHEN SERVICING C O N S T A N T T E N S I O N CLAMPS.
S

BR
CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 3). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

COOLING SYSTEM SERWiCE PROCEDURES

7-19

(6) Remove upper radiator hose at radiator.


HOSE CLAMP TOOL 6094 HOSE CLAMP

If water pump is being replaced, do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. 4) from the thermal control fan drive. (8) Remove fan blade/fan drive and fan shroud as an assembly from vehicle. After removing fan blade/fan drive assembly, do not place the thermal viscous fan drive in the hori zontal position. If stored horizontally, the silicone fluid in the viscous drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate the bearing lubricant. Do not remove the water pump pulley bolts at this time.
FAN BLADE ASSEMBLY THREADED NUT WATER PUMP PULLEY WATER PUMP

J9207-36 Fig. 2 Hose Clamp ToolTypical TYPICAL CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMP

THREADED SHAFT (WATER PUMP HUB) VISCOUS FAN DRIVE

CRANKSHAFT PULLEY J9307-32

Fig. 4 Fan Blade and Viscous Fan DriveTypical

TYPICAL HOSE CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION Fig. 3 Clamp Number/Letter

J9407-39

Location

(7) The thermal viscous fan drive is attached (threaded) to the water pump hub shaft (Fig. 4). Re move the fan/fan drive assembly from water pump by turning the mounting nut counterclockwise (as viewed from front). Threads on the fan drive are RIGHT-HAND. A Snap-On 36 MM Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Place a bar or screwdriver between the water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 4) to prevent the pulley from rotating.

(9) Remove accessory drive belt as follows: The drive belt is equipped with a spring loaded automatic tensioner (Figs. 5 or 6). 3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines: Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the tensioner clockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 5). When all belt tension has been relaxed, remove accessory drive belt. 5.9L HDC-Gas Engine: Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the tensioner counterclockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 6). When all belt tension has been relaxed, remove accessory drive belt. (10) Remove the four water pump pulley-to-water pump hub bolts (Fig. 4) and remove pulley from ve hicle. (11) Remove the lower radiator hose and heater hose from water pump. (12) Loosen heater hose coolant return tube mounting bolt (Figs. 7 or 8) and remove tube from water pump. Discard the old tube o-ring. (13) Remove the seven water pump mounting bolts (Fig. 9).

7 - 20

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

Fig. 5 Beit Tensioner3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDG-Gas Engines

Fig. 7 Coolant Return Tube3.91 V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LBG-Gas Engines

Fig. 6 Belt Tensioner5.9L HDC-Gas Engine

Fig. 8 Coolant Return Tube5.9L HDC-Gas Engine INSPECTION

(14) Loosen the clamp at the water pump end of bypass hose (Fig. 4). Slip the bypass hose from the water pump while removing pump from vehicle. Do not remove the clamp from the bypass hose. (15) Discard old gasket.
CAUTION: Do not pry the water pump at timing chain case/cover. The machined surfaces may be damaged resulting in leaks.

Replace water pump assembly if it has any of the following conditions: The body is cracked or damaged Water leaks from the shaft seal. This is evident by traces of coolant below the vent hole Loose or rough turning bearing. Also inspect ther mal fan drive Impeller rubs either the pump body or timing chain case/cover

BR

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 - 21

Fig. 9 Water Pump Bolts3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 Gas INSTALLATION EnginesTypical *IF VEHICLE IS NOT EQUIPPED WITH POWER STEERING, THIS WILL BE AN IDLER PULLEY.

(1) Clean gasket mating surfaces. (2) Using a new gasket, install water pump to en gine as follows: Guide water pump nipple into bypass hose as pump is being installed. Install water pump bolts (Fig. 9). Tighten water pump mounting bolts to 40 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Position bypass hose clamp to bypass hose. (4) Spin water pump to be sure that pump impeller does not rub against timing chain case/cover. (5) Install a new o-ring to the heater hose coolant return tube (Figs. 7 or 8). Coat the new o-ring with antifreeze before installation. (6) Install coolant return tube and its mounting bolt to engine (Figs. 7 or 8). Be sure the slot in tube bracket is bottomed to mounting bolt. This will prop erly position return tube. (7) Connect radiator lower hose to water pump. (8) Connect heater hose and hose clamp to coolant return tube. (9) Install water pump pulley. Tighten bolts to 27 N-m (20 ft. lbs.) torque. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 4) to prevent pulley from rotating. (10) Relax tension from automatic belt tensioner (Figs. 5 or 6). Install drive belt.
CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, en gine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Figs. 10, 11 or 12) for cor rect belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used.

J9307-26

Fig. 10 Belt Routing3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

J9307-55 Fig. 11 Belt Routing5.9L HDC-Gas A/C EngineWith

(14) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (15) Connect negative battery cable. (16) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks. WATER PUMP8.0L V-10 ENGINE A centrifugal water pump circulates coolant through the water jackets, passages, intake manifold,

(11) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. (12) Install fan shroud. (13) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft.

7 - 22
AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

BR (2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. (3) Remove windshield washer reservoir tank from radiator fan shroud. Refer to Group 8K, Windshield Wiper and Washer Systems. (4) Remove the four fan shroud mounting bolts at the radiator (Fig. 13). Do not attempt to remove shroud from vehicle at this time.
RADIATOR

J9307-56

Fig. 12 Belt Routing5.9L HDC-Gas Without A/C

Engine

radiator core, cooling system hoses and heater core. The pump is driven from the engine crankshaft by a drive belt. The water pump impeller is pressed onto the rear of a shaft that rotates in a bearing pressed into the water pump body. The body has a small hole for ven tilation. The water pump seals are lubricated by an tifreeze in the coolant mixture. Additional lubrication is not necessary. A quick test to determine if pump is working is to check if heater warms properly. A * defective water pump will not be able to circulate heated coolant through the long heater hose to the heater core.
REMOWAL

FAN SHROUD MOUNTING BOLTS

J9407-37

Fig. 13 Typical Fan Shroud Mounting WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 14). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. AL WAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.

The water pump on all models can be removed without discharging the air conditioning system (if equipped). The water pump on all gas powered engines is bolted directly to the engine timing chain case/cover. On the 8.0L V-10 engine, a rubber o-ring (instead of a gasket) is used as a seal between the water pump and timing chain case/cover. If water pump is replaced because of bearing/shaft damage or leaking shaft seal, the mechanical cooling fan assembly should also be inspected. Inspect for fa tigue cracks, loose blades or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. Replace fan if any of these conditions are found. Also check condi tion of the thermal viscous fan drive. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery.

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 15). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

(5) Remove upper radiator hose at radiator. (6) The thermal viscous fan drive is attached (threaded) to the water pump hub shaft (Fig. 16). Re move the fan/fan drive assembly from water pump by turning the mounting nut counterclockwise (as viewed from front). Threads on the fan drive are RIGHT-HAND. A Snap-On 36 MM Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool

BR
HOSE CLAMP HOSE

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


FAN BLADE WATER

7 - 23

WATER PUMP

J9207-36 Fig. 14 Hose Clamp ToolTypical TYPICAL CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMP

VISCOUS FAN DRIVE J9307-32 Fig. 16 Fan Blade and Viscous Fan DriveTypical

(8) Remove accessory drive belt as follows: The drive belt is equipped with a spring loaded automatic tensioner (Fig. 17). Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the ten sioner counterclockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 17). The threads on the pulley bolt are left-hand. When all belt tension has been relaxed, remove ac cessory drive belt.

TYPICAL HOSE CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION Fig. 15 Clamp Number/Letter J9407-39

Location

Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Place a bar or screwdriver between the water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 16) to prevent the pulley from rotating. If water pump is being replaced, do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. 16) from the thermal control fan drive. (7) Remove fan blade/fan drive and fan shroud as an assembly from vehicle. After removing fan blade/fan drive assembly, do not place the thermal viscous fan drive in the hori zontal position. If stored horizontally, the silicone fluid in the viscous drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate the bearing lubricant. Do not remove the water pump pulley bolts at this time.

Fig. 17 Belt Tensioner8. OL V-10 Engine

(9) Remove the four water pump pulley-to-water pump hub bolts (Fig. 16) and remove pulley from ve hicle.

7 - 24

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

BR
CAUTION: Do not pry the water pump at timing chain case/cover. The machined surfaces may be damaged resulting in leaks. (INSPECTION

(10) Remove the lower radiator hose at water pump. (11) Remove heater hose at water pump fitting. (12) Remove the seven water pump mounting bolts (Fig. 18).

Replace water pump assembly if it has any of the following conditions: The body is cracked or damaged Water leaks from the shaft seal. This is evident by traces of coolant below the vent hole Loose or rough turning bearing. Also inspect ther mal fan drive Impeller rubs either the pump body or timing chain case/cover
INSTALLATION

(1) If water pump is being replaced, install the heater hose fitting to the pump. Tighten fitting to 16 N-m (144 in. lbs.) torque. After fitting has been torqued, position fitting as shown in figure 20. When positioning fitting, do not back off (rotate counter clockwise). Use a sealant on the fitting such as Mo par Thread Sealant With Teflon. Refer to the directions on the package.
J9407-19

Fig. 18 Water Pump Bolts8.0L V-10Typical

CAUTION: This heater hose fitting must be installed to pump before pump is installed to engine.

(13) Loosen the clamp at the water pump end of bypass hose. Slip the bypass hose from the water pump while removing pump from vehicle. Do not re move the clamp from the bypass hose. (14) Discard the water pump-to-timing chain/case cover o-ring seal (Fig. 19).
WATER PUMP

HEATER HOSE FITTING

WATER PUMP

O-RING SEAL

<^

1 FRONT

J9407-17 J9407-18

Fig. 20 Heater Hose Fitting Position8.0L V-10

Fig. 19 Water Pump O-Ring Seal8.0L V-10

(15) Remove the heater hose fitting from water pump if pump replacement is necessary. Note posi tion (direction) of fitting before removal. Fitting must be re-installed to same position.

(2) Clean the o-ring mating surfaces at rear of wa ter pump and front of timing chain/case cover. (3) Apply a small amount of petroleum jelly to oring (Fig. 19). This will help retain o-ring to water pump.

en
(4) Install water pump to engine as follows: Guide water pump fitting into bypass hose as pump is being installed. Install water pump bolts (Fig. 18). Tighten water pump mounting bolts to 40 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Position bypass hose clamp to bypass hose. (6) Spin water pump to be sure that pump impeller does not rub against timing chain case/cover. (7) Connect radiator lower hose to water pump. (8) Connect heater hose and hose clamp to heater hose fitting. (9) Install water pump pulley. Tighten bolts to 22 N-m (16 ft. lbs.) torque. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 16) to prevent pulley from rotating. (10) Relax tension from automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 17). Install drive belt.
CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, en gine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Figs. 21 or 22) for correct belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used.
AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

7 - 25

J9307-56

Fig. 22 Belt Routing8.0L V-10 EngineWithout A/C

WATER PUMP5.9L DIESEL The diesel engine water pump draws coolant from radiator outlet and circulates it through engine, heater core and back to radiator inlet. The crank shaft pulley drives the water pump with a serpentine drive belt (Fig. 23). An automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 23) is used to prevent the belt from slipping.

J9307-55

Fig. 21 Belt Routing8.0L V-10 EngineWith A/C

(11) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. (12) Install fan shroud to radiator. Tighten bolts to 6 N-m (50 in. lbs.) torque. (13) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft. (14) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (15) Connect negative battery cable. (16) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

Fig. 23 Water Pump5.9L DieselTypical shown) MEMOWML

(non-A/C

(1) Disconnect the negative battery cables from both batteries. (2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this section.

7 - 21

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

lit
WATER PUMP BYPASS HOSE A water pump bypass hose (Fig. 26) is used be tween the intake manifold and water pump on all gas powered engines. To test for leaks, refer to Test ing Cooling System for Leaks in this group.
FAN BLADE WATER WATER PUMP

(3) Remove the bolt retaining the wiring harness near the top of water pump. Position wire harness to the side. (4) Remove the accessory drive belt. Refer to the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (5) Remove water pump mounting bolts (Fig. 24).

Fig, 24 Pump Removal/Installation5.9L

Diesel
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
J9307-32

(6) Clean water pump sealing surface on cylinder block.


INSTALLATION

(1) Install new o-ring seal in groove on water pump (Fig. 25).

Fig. 26 Water Pump Bypass REMOVAL3.&L WITHOUT AIR

HoseTypical ENGINES

V*6 OR 5.2/5BL -8 CONDITIONING

(1) Partially drain cooling system. Refer to Drain ing Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If the solution is clean, drain the coolant into a clean container for re use.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE C L A M P S A R E U S E D ON MOST COOLING S Y S T E M H O S E S . W H E N REMOVING OR INSTALLING, U S E ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS T Y P E OF CLAMP, SUCH A S S P E C I A L CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 27). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY B E U S E D FOR L A R G E R C L A M P S . AL WAYS W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S W H E N SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION C L A M P S .

Fig. 25 Pump O-ring Seal5.9L Diesel

(2) Install water pump. Tighten mounting bolts to 24 N-m (18 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Install accessory drive belt. Refer to the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (4) Install the bolt retaining the wiring harness near top of water pump. (5) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this section. (6) Connect both battery cables. (7) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 28). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

(2) Loosen both bypass hose clamps and position to the center of hose. (3) Remove hose from vehicle.

BU
HOSE CLAMP HOSE

COOLING S Y S I E 1 SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 - 27

system is not necessary. Do not remove any refriger ant lines from A/C compressor.
SUPPORT BRACKET (ROD)

J9207-36 Fig. 27 Hose Clamp ToolTypical

GEN ERATOR/COMPRESSOR MOUNTING BRACKET J9307-66 Fig. 29 GeneratorA/C Compressor Mounting BracketTypical WARNING: THE A/C SYSTEM IS UNDER P R E S S U R E E V E N WITH THE ENGINE OFF. R E F E R TO R E F R I G ERANT WARNINGS IN G R O U P 24 HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING.
?

TYPICAL HOSE CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION J9407-39

Fig, 28 Clamp Number/Letter Location INSTALLATION

(1) Position bypass hose clamps to the center of hose. (2) Install bypass hose to engine.* (3) Secure both hose clamps. (4) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (5) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.
REMOVAL3.BL W6 OR 5.2/5*BL WITH AIR CONDITIONING V-8 ENGINE

If equipped with A/C, the generator and A/C com pressor along with their common mounting bracket (Fig. 29) must be partially removed. Removing the generator or A/C compressor from their mounting bracket is not necessary. Also, discharging the A/C

(1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Partially drain cooling system. Refer to Drain ing Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If the solution is clean, drain the coolant into a clean container for re use. (3) Remove upper radiator hose clamp at radiator. A special clamp tool (Fig. 27) must be used to remove the constant tension clamps. Remove hose at radia tor. (4) Disconnect throttle cable from clip at radiator fan shroud. (5) Unplug wiring harness from A/C compressor. (6) Remove the air cleaner assembly. (7) Remove accessory drive belt. Refer to Belt Re moval/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (8) 3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-6as: The drive belt idler pulley must be removed to gain access to one of the A/C compressor/generator bracket mount ing bolts. Remove the idler pulley bolt and remove idler pulley (Fig. 30). . 5.9L HDC-Gas: The automatic belt tensioner/pulley assembly must be removed to gain access to one

7 - 28

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES (11) Remove heater hose coolant return tube mounting bolt (Figs. 32 or 33) and remove tube from engine. Discard the old tube o-ring.

GENERATOR/COMPRESSOR AND BRACKET SUPPORT BRACKET 1 IDLER PULLEY 2

AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER J9307-33 IGNITION COIL BRACKET Fig. 30 idler Pulley3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines WATER PUMP

J9307-34

of the A/C compressor/generator bracket mounting bolts. Remove the tensioner mounting bolt (Fig. 31) and remove tensioner.
PULLEY BOLT

Fig. 32 Coolant Return Tube3.9L I ~6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines COOLANT RETURN TUBE

TENSIONER MOUNTING BOLT

TUBE MOUNTING BOLT

TENSIONER Fig. 31 Belt Tensioner5.9L HDC-Gas

J9307-64

WATER PUMP

J9307-61 Engine

Engine

Fig. 33 Coolant Return Tube5.9L HDC-Gas

(9) Remove the engine oil dipstick tube mounting bolt at the side of the A/C-generator mounting bracket. (10) Disconnect throttle body control cables. Refer to Accelerator Pedal and Throttle Cable in Group 14, Fuel System.

(12) Remove bracket-to-intake manifold bolts (number 1 and 2 Fig. 29). (13) Remove remaining bracket-to-engine bolts (Figs. 34 or 35). (14) Lift and position generator and A/C compres sor (along with their common mounting bracket) to

BR

COOLING SYSTEM'SERVICE PROCEDURES


INSTALLATION

7 - 21

Fig. 34 Bracket Bolts3.9L -6 or 5.2/5.91 -8 LDC-Gas Engines

(1) Position bypass hose clamps to the center of hose. (2) Install bypass hose to engine. (3) Secure both hose clamps. (4) Install generator-A/C mounting bracket assem bly to engine. Tighten bolt number 1 (Fig. 29) to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten bolt number 2 (Fig. 29) to 28 N-m (20 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten bracket mounting bolts (Figs. 34 or 35) to 40 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Install a new o-ring to the heater hose coolant return tube (Figs. 32 or 33). Coat the new o-ring with antifreeze before installation. (6) Install coolant return tube and its mounting bolt to engine (Figs. 32 or 33). (7) Connect throttle body control cables. (8) Install oil dipstick mounting bolt. (9) 3.9L V-6 or S.2/S.9L -8 LDC-Gas Engines; Install idler pulley. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. 5.9L HDC-Gas: Install automatic belt tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. A dowel pin is located on back of tensioner (Fig. 36). Align this to dowel hole (Fig. 37) in tensioner mounting bracket. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque.
" BELT TENSIONER

DOWEL PIN

J9307-63

Fig. 36 Tensioner Dowel Pin5.9L HDC-Gas

Engine

(10) Install drive belt. Refer to Belt Removal/In stallation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group.
Fig. 35 Bracket BoltsSSL HDC-Gas Engine

gain access to bypass hose. A block of wood may be used to hold assembly in position. (15) Loosen and position both hose clamps to the center of bypass hose. A special clamp tool (Fig. 27) must be used to remove the constant tension clamps. Remove hose from vehicle.

CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory drive belt, the belt must be routed correctly. If not, the engine may overheat due to the water pump ro tating in the wrong direction. Refer to Belt Schemat ics in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group for correct belt routing. The correct belt with the correct length must be used.

(11) Install air cleaner assembly. (12) Install upper radiator hose to radiator.

7 - 30

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES ~


TEMP. GAUGE SENDING UNIT

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR (FOR PCM)

BR

HEATER SUPPLY FITTING BOLTS (6)

HOUSING

GASKET J9307-62 Fig, 37 Tensioner Mounting Bracket Dowel HoleSSL HDC-Gas Engine

THERMOSTAT

(13) Connect throttle cable to clip at radiator fan shroud. (14) Connect wiring harness to A/C compressor. (15) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. - (16) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks. THERMOSTAT
GENERAL INFORMATION RUBBER LIP SEAL Fig. 39 Thermostat8.0L J9407-16 V-10 Engine

The thermostat on all gas powered engines is lo cated beneath the thermostat housing at the front of the intake manifold (Figs. 38 or 39).

The thermostat of the 5.9L diesel engine is located in the thermostat housing (Fig. 40). The housing is located behind the generator mounting bracket, at front of cylinder head.
HOUSING

HOSE

LIFT BRACKET

THERMOSTAT HOUSING

GASKET

THERMOSTAT

HOUSING BOLTS

OUTER SEAL

THERMOSTAT

INNER SEAL

J9507-22

INTAKE MANIFOLD

MACHINED GROOVE J9207-14

Fig. 40 Thermostat5.9L

DieselTypical

Fig. 38. Thermostat8.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 Gas Powered Engines

Gas powered engines: The thermostat is a wax pel let driven, reverse poppet choke type (3.9L/5.2L/ 5.9L), or moveable sleeve type (8.0L V-10). The wax pellet is located in a sealed container at the spring end of the thermostat. When heated, the pellet ex pands, overcoming closing spring tension and water

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES pump pressure to force the valve to open. Coolant leakage into the pellet container will cause the ther mostat to fail in the open position. Thermostats very rarely stick. Do not attempt to free a thermostat with a prying device. The same thermostat is used for winter and sum mer seasons. An engine should not be operated with out a thermostat, except for servicing or testing. Operating without a thermostat causes longer engine warmup time, unreliable warmup performance, in creased exhaust emissions and crankcase condensa tion that can result in sludge formation.
CAUTION: Do not operate an engine without a ther mostat, except for servicing or testing. THERMOSTAT OPERATIONEXCEPT DIESEL

7 - 31

Vehicles equipped with a 5.9L diesel engine do not have the DTC number 17 check engine lamp feature. The DTC can also be accessed through the DRB scan tool. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diag nostic Procedures manual for diagnostic information and operation of the DRB scan tool.
THERMOSTAT REMOVAL3.9L
5.2/5.9L V-8 GAS POWERED

V-6 OR
ENGINES

WARNING: DO NOT L O O S E N THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE S Y S T E M HOT AND P R E S SURIZED. S E R I O U S B U R N S FROM THE COOLANT CAN OCCUR.

The thermostat controls the operating temperature of the engine by controlling the amount of coolant flow to the radiator. The thermostat is closed below 88C (192F). When the coolant reaches this temper ature, the thermostat begins to open, allowing cool ant flow to the radiator. This provides quick engine warm-up and overall temperature control. The ther mostat is designed to provide a minimum engine op erating temperature of 88 to 93C (192 to 199F). It should be fully open for maximum coolant flow dur ing operation in hot ambient temperatures of approx imately 104C (220F). Above 104C (220F), coolant temperature is controlled by the radiator, fan and ambient temperature.
CAUTION: Never operate the diesel engine without a thermostat. Without a thermostat, coolant will not flow to radiator causing engine overheating. ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS

Do not waste reusable coolant. If the solution is clean, drain the coolant into a clean container for re use. If the thermostat is being replaced, be sure that the replacement is the specified thermostat for the vehicle model and engine type. Factory installed thermostat housings on 3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 engines are installed on a gasket with an anti-stick coating. This will aid in gasket removal and clean-up. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery. (2) Drain cooling system until coolant level is be low thermostat. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. If not equipped with air conditioning, pro ceed to step number 4. (3) If equipped with air conditioning: (a) Remove the support bracket (rod) located near the rear of generator (Fig. 41).

FOR CERTAIN COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

All gasoline powered models are equipped with On-Board Diagnostics for certain cooling system com ponents. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) in the Diagnosis section of this group for additional infor mation. If the powertrain control module (PCM) de tects low engine coolant temperature, it will record a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) in the PCM memory. The DTC number for low coolant temperature is 17. Do not change a thermostat for lack of heat as indi cated by the instrument panel gauge or by poor heater performance unless a DTC number 17 is present. Refer to the Diagnosis section of this group for other probable causes. For other DTC numbers, refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the General Diagno sis section of Group 14, Fuel Systems.

Fig. 41 Support BracketGenerator Mounting Bracket-to-lntake ManifoldTypical

(b) The drive belt must be removed. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (c) The generator must be partially removed. Re move the two generator mounting bolts. Do not re-

7 - 32

COOLIii SYSTE1 SERVICE PROCEDURES

BR

move any wiring at generator. If equipped with 4WD, unplug the 4WD indicator lamp wiring har ness (located near rear of generator). (d) Remove generator. Position generator to gain access for thermostat gasket removal.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE C L A M P S A R E U S E D ON MOST COOLING S Y S T E M H O S E S . W H E N REMOVING OR INSTALLING, U S E ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS T Y P E OF CLAMP, S U C H A S S P E C I A L CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R 604) ( F I G . 42). SNAP -ON CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R HPC-20) MAY B E U S E D FOR L A R G E R C L A M P S . AL W A Y S W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S W H E N SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION C L A M P S .

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 43). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

TYPICAL HOSE CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION Fig. 43 Clamp Number/Letter J9407-39

(4) Remove upper radiator hose clamp. Remove up per radiator hose at thermostat housing.
HOSE CLAMP HOSE

Location

J9207-36 Fig. 42 Hose Clamp ToolTypical

THERMOSTAT

(5) Position the wiring harness (behind the ther mostat housing) to gain access to thermostat hous ing. (6) Remove thermostat housing mounting bolts, thermostat housing, gasket and thermostat (Fig. 44). Discard old gasket.
INSTALLATION

MACHINED GROOVE J9207-14 Fig. 44 Thermostat3.9L -6 or 5.2/5.9L -8 Gas Engines

(1) Clean mating areas of intake manifold and thermostat housing. (2) Install thermostat (spring side down) into re cessed machined groove on intake manifold (Fig. 44). (3) Install gasket on intake manifold and over thermostat (Fig. 44). (4) Position the thermostat housing to the intake manifold. Note the word FRONT stamped on the housing (Fig. 45). For adequate clearance, this must

be placed towards the front of vehicle. The housing should be slightly angled forward after installation to intake manifold. (5) Install two housing-to-intake manifold bolts. Tighten bolts to 23 N-m (200 in. lbs.) torque.

B R

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 33

Do not waste reusable coolant. If the solution is clean, drain the coolant into a clean container for re use. If the thermostat is being replaced, be sure that the replacement is the specified thermostat for the vehicle model and engine type. A rubber lip-type seal with a metal shoulder is pressed into the intake manifold beneath the thermo stat (Fig. 46).

Fig, 45 Thermostat Position33L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 Gas Engines CAUTION; Housing must be tightened evenly and thermostat must be centered into recessed groove in intake manifold. If not, it may result in a cracked housing, damaged intake manifold threads or cool ant leak.

Fig. 46 Thermostat Seal8.01 V-10 Engine

(6) Install upper radiator hose to thermostat hous ing. (7) Air conditioned vehicles: (a) Install generator. Tighten bolts to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (b) Install support bracket (generator mounting bracket-to-intake manifold) (Fig. 41). Tighten bolts to 54 N-m (40 ft. lbs.) torque.
CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory drive belt, the belt must be routed correctly. If not, the engine may overheat due to the water pump ro tating in the wrong direction. Refer to Belt Schemat ics in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group for correct engine belt routing. The cor rect belt with the correct length must be used.

(1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery. (2) Drain cooling system until coolant level is be low thermostat. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. (3) Remove the two support rod mounting bolts and remove support rod (intake manifold-to-genera tor mount) (Fig. 47).

(8) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (9) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (10) Start and warm engine. Check for leaks.
Fig. 47 Support Rod8.0L V-10 Engine THERMOSTAT REMOVAL8.0L V-10 ENGINE

WARNING: DO NOT L O O S E N THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE S Y S T E M HOT AND PRES SURIZED. S E R I O U S B U R N S FROM THE COOLANT CAN OCCUR.

7 - 34

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

mm
(2) Check the condition (for tears or cracks) of the rubber thermostat seal located in the intake manifold (Figs. 46 or 48). The thermostat should fit snugly into the rubber seal. If seal replacement is necessary, coat the outer (metal) portion of the seal with Mopar Gasket Maker. Install the seal into the manifold using Spe cial Seal Tool number C-3995-A with handle tool number C-4171. (3) Install thermostat into recessed machined groove on intake manifold (Fig. 48). (4) Install gasket on intake manifold and over thermostat (Fig. 48). (5) Install housing-to-intake manifold bolts. Tighten bolts to 25 N-m (220 in. lbs.) torque.
CAUTION: Housing bolts should be tightened evenly to prevent damage to housing and to pre vent leaks.

WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION H O S E C L A M P S A R E U S E D ON MOST COOLING S Y S T E M H O S E S , W H E N REMOVING OR INSTALLING, U S E ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS T Y P E O F CLAMP, S U C H A S S P E C I A L CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R 6094) (FIG. 42) SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R HPC-20) MAY B E U S E D FOR L A R G E R C L A M P S . AL WAYS W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S W H E N SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION C L A M P S .
B

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 43). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

(4) Remove upper radiator hose clamp. Remove up per radiator hose at thermostat housing. (5) Disconnect the wiring connectors at both of the sensors located on thermostat housing. (6) Remove six thermostat housing mounting bolts, thermostat housing, gasket and thermostat. Discard old gasket.
TEMP. COOLANT

(6) Connect the wiring to both sensors. (7) Install the upper radiator hose and hose clamp to thermostat housing. (8) Install support rod. (9) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (10) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (11) Start and warm engine. Check for leaks.
THERMOSTAT ENGINE OPERATION5.9L DIESEL

The thermostat controls the operating temperature of the engine by controlling the amount of coolant flow to the radiator. When coolant temperature is be low 83C (181F), the thermostat is closed (Fig. 49).

RUBBER LIP SEAL

J9407-16

Fig. 48 Thermostat8.0L -10 Engine INSTALLATION

Fig. 49 Thermostat Operation5.9L

DieselTypical

(1) Clean mating . areas of intake manifold and thermostat housing.

When coolant temperature reaches 83C (181F), the thermostat begins to open allowing coolant flow to the radiator. This provides quick engine warm-up and overall temperature control. The thermostat is designed to provide a minimum engine operating

BR temperature of 83C (181F) and to be fully open for maximum coolant flow at approximately 95C (203F). Above 95C (203F), coolant temperature is controlled by the radiator, fan and ambient tempera ture. The air bleeds (jiggle pins) that were used on the thermostats of diesel engines in previous years are no longer used. They have been replaced by a verti cally mounted one-way check valve (jiggle pin) and a rubber bypass hose. The check valve is used as a ser vicing feature and will vent air when the system is being filled. It is also used to block the flow of cool ant during engine operation (all coolant will pass through the thermostat). Water pressure (or flow) will hold the pin closed. When the engine is off, the check valve will be in the open position. When the engine is operating, the check valve will be in the closed position. The check valve is located inside of a brass fitting. This fitting is threaded into the front of the cylinder head (Fig. 50). It is connected to the thermostat housing with a rubber hose and screw-type clamps (Fig. 50).

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 - 35

Fig. 50 One-Way Check Vaive (Jiggle Pin) Location THERMOSTAT DIAGNOSISDIESEL ENGINE

The cooling system used with the diesel engine pro vides the extra coolant capacity and extra cooling protection needed for higher GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating) and GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating) vehicles. This system capacity will not effect warm up or cold weather operating characteristics if the thermo-

stat is operating properly. This is because coolant will be held in the engine until it reaches the ther mostat "set" temperature. Diesel engines, due to their inherent efficiency are slower to warm up than gasoline powered engines, and will operate at lower temperatures when the ve hicle is unloaded. Because of this, lower temperature gauge readings for diesel versus gasoline engines may, at times be normal. Typically, complaints of low engine coolant temper ature are observed as low heater output when com bined with cool or cold outside temperatures. To help promote faster engine warm-up, the electric engine block heater must be used with cool or cold outside temperatures. This will help keep the engine coolant warm when the vehicle is parked. Use the block heater if the outside temperature is below 4C (40F). Do not use the block heater if the out side temperature is above 4C (40F) A "Cold Weather Cover" is available from the parts department through the Mopar Accessories product line. This accessory cover is designed to block airflow entering the radiator and engine compartment to promote faster engine warm-up. It attaches to the front of the vehicle at the grill opening. The cover is to be used with cool or cold temperatures only. If used with high outside temperatures, serious engine damage could result. Refer to the litera ture supplied with the cover for additional informa tion. TESTING: The following test procedure is to be used for the diesel engine only. The DRB scan tool cannot be used to monitor engine coolant temperature on the diesel en gine. (1) To determine if the thermostat is defective, it must be removed from the vehicle. Refer to Thermo stats for removal and installation procedures. (2) After the thermostat has been removed, exam ine the thermostat and inside of thermostat housing for contaminants. If contaminants are found, the thermostat may already be in a "stuck open" position. Flush the cooling system before replacing thermostat. Refer to Cooling System Cleaning/Reverse Flushing in this group for additional information. (3) Place the thermostat into a container filled with water. (4) Place the container on a hot plate or other suit able heating device. (5) Place a commercially available radiator ther mometer into the water. (6) Apply heat to the water while observing the thermostat and thermometer. (7) When the water temperature reaches 83C (181F) the thermostat should start to open (valve will start to move). If the valve starts to move before
o

7 - 36

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


HOUSING HOSE

B R

this temperature is reached, it is opening too early. Replace thermostat. The thermostat should be fully open (valve will stop moving) at 95C (203F). If the valve is still moving when the water temper ature reaches 203, it is opening too late. Replace thermostat. If the valve refuses to move at any time, replace thermostat.
THERMOSTAT REMOW&L&IESEL ENGINE

LIFT BRACKET

WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES SURIZED, SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT CAN OCCUR.

HOUSING BOLTS

OUTER SEAL

THERMOSTAT

INNER SEAL

J9507-22

Do not waste reusable coolant. If the solution is clean, drain the coolant into a clean container for re use. (1) Disconnect both negative battery cables from both batteries. (2) Remove accessory drive belt. Refer to Belt Re moval/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section in this group. (3) Drain cooling system until coolant level is be low thermostat. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this section.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS A R E U S E D ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. W H E N REMOVING OR INSTALLING, U S E ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. SUCH A S SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 42). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. AL WAYS W E A R SAFETY GLASSES W H E N SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.

Fig. 51 Thermostat Removal5.9L

Diesel

J9407-13

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 43). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

Fig. 52 Generator Mounting Bracket

BoltsDiesel

(4) Remove radiator hose clamp and hose from thermostat housing. A special clamp tool (Fig. 42) must be used to remove the constant tension clamps. (5) Remove the hose clamp and check valve hose at thermostat housing (Fig. 51). (6) Remove the two upper generator bracket mounting bolts (Fig. 52). (7) Remove the upper generator mounting bracket (Fig. 52). (8) Loosen but do not remove the generator lower pivot bolt. (9) Position the generator to gain access to thermo stat housing and housing bolts. (10) Remove thermostat housing mounting bolts.

(11) Remove the thermostat housing, thermostat, inner and outer seals and lift bracket (Fig. 51). (12) Clean the mating surfaces of the thermostat housing and the cylinder head.
INSTALLATION

(1) Install the outer seal (Figs. 51 or 53) into the machined shoulder on the thermostat housing. (2) Install the thermostat into the machined shoul der next to the outer seal. Note direction of thermo stat in figures 51 and 53. (3) Position the inner thermostat seal with the shoulder towards the thermostat housing (Fig. 53). (4) Install thermostat, lift bracket, seals and hous ing to the engine as an assembly. Install and tighten mounting bolts to 24 N-m (18 ft. lbs.) torque.

BR
LIFT

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 - 37

OUTER
SEAL SHOULDER

J9507-23 DieselTypical

Fig. 53 Thermostat Seals5.9L

temperature is hot enough to melt plastic and soften solder. The increased temperature can result in en gine detonation. In addition, 100 percent ethyleneglycol freezes at -22C (-8F). 50/50 Ethylene-Glycol and Water-Is the recom mended mixture, it provides protection against freez ing to -37C (-35F). The antifreeze concentration must always be a minimum of 44 percent, yearround in all climates. If percentage is lower, engine parts may be eroded by cavitation. Maximum protec tion against freezing is provided with a 68 percent antifreeze concentration, which prevents freezing down to -67.7C (-90F). A higher percentage will freeze at a warmer temperature. Also, a higher per centage of antifreeze can cause the engine to over heat because specific heat of antifreeze is lower than that of water.
CAUTION: Richer antifreeze mixtures cannot be measured with normal field equipment and can cause problems associated with 100 percent ethyl ene-glycol.

(5) Position- generator to thermostat housing. In stall and tighten mounting bolt to 24 N-m torque. Tighten pivot bolt to 43 N-m (32 ft. lbs.) torque. (6) Install the check valve hose and hose clamp at thermostat housing (Fig. 51). (7) Install accessory drive belt. Refer to Belt Re moval/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (8) Connect negative battery cables to both batter ies. (9) Fill cooling system and check for leaks. Refer to Refilling' Cooling System in this group. COOLANT GENERAL INFORMATION The cooling system is designed around the coolant. Coolant flows through the engine water jacket ab sorbing heat produced during engine operation. The coolant carries the heat to radiator and heater core. Here it is transferred to the ambient air passing through the radiator and heater core fins. The cool ant also removes heat from the automatic transmis sion fluid in vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission.
COOLANT PERFORMANCE

COOLANT

SELECTION-ADDITIVES

The presence of aluminum components in the cool ing system requires strict corrosion protection. Main tain coolant at specified level with a mixture of ethylene-glycol based antifreeze and water. Only use an antifreeze containing ALUGARD 340-2 such as Mopar Antifreeze. If coolant becomes contaminated or looses color, drain and flush cooling system and fill with correctly mixed solution.
CAUTION: Do not use coolant additives that are claimed to improve engine cooling.

COOLANT

SERVICEEXCEPT

DIESEL

It is recommended that the cooling system be drained and flushed at 84,000 kilometers (52,500 miles) or 3 years, whichever occurs first. Then every two years or 48,000 kilometers (30,000 miles), which ever occurs first.
COOLANT SERVICEDIESEL ENGINE

The required ethylene-glycol (antifreeze) and water mixture depends upon climate and vehicle operating conditions. The coolant performance of various mix tures follows: Pure Water- Water can absorb more heat than a mixture of water and ethylene-glycol. This is for pur pose of heat transfer only. Water also freezes at a higher temperature and allows corrosion. 100% Ethylene-Glycol-The corrosion inhibiting additives in ethylene-glycol need the presence of wa ter to dissolve. Without water, additives form depos its in system. These act as insulation causing temperature to rise to as high as 149C (300F). This

It is recommended that the cooling system be drained and flushed every 24 months or 38,600 kilo meters (24,000 miles), whichever occurs first.
COOLANT LEVEL CHECKROUTINE

Do not remove radiator cap for routine cool ant level inspections. The coolant level can be checked at the coolant reserve/overflow tank. The coolant reserve/overflow system provides a quick visual method for determining the coolant level without removing the radiator pressure cap. With en gine idling and at normal operating temperature, ob-

7 - 38

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

H R

serve coolant level in coolant reserve/overflow tank. The coolant level should be between the ADD and FULL marks.
ADDING ADDITIONAL COOLANTROUTINE

the tank. When engine cools down the coolant, it will be drawn from reserve/overflow tank into radiator to replace removed air. DRAINING COOLING SYSTEM
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER B L O C K DRAIN PLUGS OR L O O S E N THE RADIATOR DRAIN P L U G WITH S Y S T E M HOT AND UNDER P R E S S U R E . S E R I O U S B U R N S FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR.

Do not remove the radiator cap to a d d cool ant to the system. When adding coolant to main tain the correct level, do so at the coolant reserve/ overflow tank with a 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol antifreeze (containing Alugard 340-2 ) and water. Remove the radiator cap only for testing or when re filling the system after service. Removing cap unnec essarily can cause loss of coolant and allow air to enter system. This produces corrosion.
COOLANT LEVEL CHECKSERVICE

The cooling system is closed and designed to main tain coolant level to the top of the radiator.
WARNING: DO NOT O P E N RADIATOR DRAINCOCK

WITH ENGINE RUNNING OR WHILE ENGINE IS HOT


AND COOLING S Y S T E M IS UNDER P R E S S U R E .

When vehicle servicing requires a coolant level check in the radiator, drain several ounces of coolant from the radiator drain cock. Do this while observing the coolant reserve/overflow system tank. The coolant level in the reserve/overflow tank should drop slightly. If not, inspect for a leak between radiator and coolant reserve/overflow system connection. Re move radiator cap. The coolant level should be to the top of the radiator. If not and if coolant level in re serve/overflow tank is at the ADD mark, check for: o An air leak in the coolant reserve/overflow tank An air leak in the radiator filler neck Leak in the pressure cap seal to the radiator filler neck
LOW COOLANT LEVEL-AERATION

DO NOT WASTE reusable coolant. If the solution is clean, drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. (1) Start the engine and place the heater control temperature selector in the Full-On position. Engine vacuum is needed to actuate the heater controls. (2) Turn the ignition off. (3) Do not remove radiator cap when draining cool ant from reserve/overflow tank. Open radiator drain plug and when tank is empty, remove radiator cap. If the coolant reserve/overflow tank does not drain, re fer to the Testing Cooling System for Leaks section in this group. The coolant need not be removed from tank unless the system is being refilled with fresh mixture. (4) On vehicles equipped with gas powered en gines, remove the cylinder block drain plugs. These are located on the sides of the block just above the oil pan (Fig. 54).

If the coolant level in the radiator drops below the top of the radiator core tubes, air will enter the sys tem. Low coolant level can cause the thermostat pellet to be suspended in air instead of coolant. This will cause the thermostat to open later, which in turn causes higher coolant temperature. Air trapped in cooling system also reduces the amount of coolant circulating in the heater core. This may result in low heat output.
DEAERATION

Fig. 54 Drain PlugsGas Powered

EnginesTypical

(5) Remove radiator pressure cap. REFILLING COOLING SYSTEM Clean cooling system prior to refilling. Refer to Cooling' System Cleaning section of this group. (1) Install the cylinder block drain plugs (Fig. 54). (2) Close radiator drain plug. (3) Fill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze. 5.9L Diesel Engine Only: The

As the engine operates, air trapped in the cooling system gathers under the radiator cap. The next time engine is operated, thermal expansion of coolant will push trapped air past radiator cap into coolant re serve/overflow tank. Here it escapes to atmosphere in

BR diesel engine is equipped with a one-way check valve (jiggle pin). The check valve is used as a servicing feature and will vent air when the system is being filled. Water pressure (or flow) will hold the valve closed. D u e to the use of this valve, t h e engine must not be operating when refilling the cool ing system. Refer to Thermostat Operation5.9L Diesel Engine in the Thermostat section of this group for more information. (4) Fill coolant reserve/overflow tank to the FULL mark. (5) Start and operate engine until thermostat opens. Upper radiator hose should be warm to touch. (6) If necessary, add 50/50 water and antifreeze mixture to the coolant reserve/overflow tank to main tain coolant level. This level should be between the ADD and FULL marks. The level in the reserve/over flow tank may drop below the ADD mark after three or four warm-up and cool-down cycles. COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING/REVERSE FLUSHING
CLEANING

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


REVERSE DIESEL FLUSHING ENGINEEXCEPT

7 - 39

Drain cooling system. Remove thermostat housing and thermostat. Install thermostat housing. Discon nect radiator upper hose from radiator and attach flushing gun to hose. Disconnect radiator lower hose from water pump and attach a lead-away hose to wa ter pump inlet fitting. Connect water supply hose and air supply hose to flushing gun. Allow engine to fill with water. When engine is filled, apply air in short blasts, allowing system to fill between air blasts. Continue until clean water flows through the lead away hose. Remove lead away hose, flushing gun, water supply hose and air supply hose. Remove thermostat hous ing and install thermostat. Install thermostat hous ing with a replacement gasket. Refer to Thermostat Replacement. Connect radiator hoses. Refill cooling system with correct antifreeze/water mixture. Refer to Refilling the Cooling System.
REVERSE FLUSHING ENGINEDIESEL

Drain cooling system and refill with water. Run en gine with radiator cap installed until upper radiator hose is hot. Stop engine and drain water from sys tem. If water is dirty, fill system with water, run en gine and drain system. Repeat until water drains clean.
MEVE^SE FLUSHING

(1) Drain the cooling system. (2) Disconnect the upper hose from the radiator. (3) Disconnect the radiator lower hose from the water pump. (4) Remove the heater core inlet hose from tube (Fig. 55).

Reverse flushing of cooling system is the forcing of water through the cooling system. This is done using air pressure in the opposite direction of normal cool ant flow. It is usually only necessary with very dirty systems with evidence of partial plugging.
REVERSE FLUSHING RADIATOR

Disconnect radiator hoses from radiator inlet and outlet. Attach a section of radiator hose to radiator bottom outlet fitting and insert flushing gun. Con nect a water supply hose and air supply hose to flushing gun.
CAUTION: Internal radiator pressure must not ex ceed 138 kPa (20 psi) as damage to radiator may re sult. Fig. 55 Typical Reverse-flushing5.9L Diesel

Allow radiator to fill with water. When radiator is filled, apply air in short blasts. Allow radiator to re fill between blasts. Continue this reverse flushing until clean water flows out through rear of radiator cooling tube passages. Have radiator cleaned more extensively by a radiator repair shop.

(5) Attach water supply hose to heater tube. (6) Back-flush the engine until clean water exits the water pump inlet.
CHEMICAL CLEANING

In some instances, use a radiator cleaner (Mopar Radiator Kleen or equivalent) before flushing. This will soften scale and other deposits and aid flushing operation.
CAUTION: Follow manufacturers instructions when using these products.

7 - 40

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

BR Inspect cams on outside of filler neck. If cams are bent, seating of pressure cap valve and tester seal will be affected. Replace cap if cams are bent. Attach pressure tester (7700 or an equivalent) to radiator filler neck (Fig. 57).

TESTING COOLING SYSTEM FOR LEAKS


ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT METHOD

A leak detection additive is available through the parts department that can be added to cooling sys tem. The additive is highly visible under ultraviolet light (black light). Pour one ounce of additive into cooling system. Place heater control unit in HEAT position. Start and operate engine until radiator up per hose is warm to touch. Aim the commercially available black light tool at components to be checked. If leaks are present, black light will cause additive to glow a bright green color. The black light can be used in conjunction with a pressure tester to determine if any external leaks ex ist (Fig. 56).

Fig. 57 Pressure Testing Cooling

SystemTypical

Fig. 56 Leak Detection Using Black LightTypical PRESSURE TESTER METHOD

The engine should be at normal operating temper ature. Recheck the system cold if cause of coolant loss is not located during the warm engine examina tion.
WARNING: HOT, PRESSURIZED COOLANT CAN C A U S E I N J U R Y B Y SCALDING.

Operate tester pump to apply 103.4 kPa (15 psi) pressure to system. If hoses enlarge excessively or bulges while testing, replace as necessary. Observe gauge pointer and determine condition of cooling sys tem according to following criteria: Holds Steady: If pointer remains steady for two minutes, serious coolant leaks are not present in sys tem. However, there could be an internal leak that does not appear with normal system test pressure. If it is certain that coolant is being lost and leaks can not be detected, inspect for interior leakage or per form Internal Leakage Test. ' Drops Slowly: Indicates a small leak or seepage is occurring. Examine all connections for seepage or slight leakage with a flashlight. Inspect radiator, hoses, gasket edges and heater. Seal small leak holes with a sealer lubricant (or equivalent). Repair leak holes and inspect system again with pressure ap plied. Drops Quickly: Indicates that serious leakage is occurring. Examine system for external leakage. If leaks are not visible, inspect for internal leakage. Large radiator leak holes should be repaired by a reputable radiator repair shop.
INTERNAL LEAKAGE INSPECTION

Carefully remove radiator pressure cap from filler neck and check coolant level. Push down on cap to disengage it from stop tabs. Wipe inside of filler neck and examine lower inside sealing seat for nicks, cracks, paint, dirt and solder residue. Inspect radia tor-to-reserve/overflow tank hose for internal obstruc tions. Insert a wire through the hose to be sure it is not obstructed.

Remove engine oil pan drain plug and drain a small amount of engine oil. If coolant is present in the pan, it will drain first because it is heavier than oil. An alternative method is to operate engine for a short period to churn the oil. After this is done, re move engine dipstick and inspect for water globules. Also inspect transmission dipstick for water globules and transmission fluid cooler for leakage.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


WARNING: WITH COOLING S Y S T E M P R E S S U R E TESTER TOOL INSTALLED ON RADIATOR, DO NOT A L L O W P R E S S U R E TO E X C E E D 110 KPA (20 PSI). P R E S S U R E W I L L BUILD UP QUICKLY IF A COM BUSTION LEAK IS P R E S E N T TO RELEASE PRES S U R E , ROCK T E S T E R FROM SIDE TO SIDE. W H E N REMOVING T E S T E R , DO NOT TURN T E S T E R MORE THAN 1/2 TURN IF SYSTEM IS UNDER P R E S S U R E .

7 - 41

gases are leaking into cooling system, bubbles will appear in coolant. If bubbles do not appear, internal combustion gas leakage is not present. COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM The coolant reserve/overflow system works in con junction with the radiator pressure cap. It utilizes thermal expansion and contraction of coolant to keep coolant free of trapped air. It provides a volume for expansion and contraction of coolant. It also provides a convenient and safe method for checking coolant level and adjusting level at atmospheric pressure. This is done without removing the radiator pressure cap. The system also provides some reserve coolant to the radiator to cover minor leaks and evaporation or boiling losses. As the engine cools, a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of both the radiator and engine. Cool ant will then be drawn from the coolant tank and re turned to a proper level in the radiator. On 3.9L/5.2L/5.9L gas engines and the 5.9L diesel engine, the coolant reserve/overflow tank is mounted to the side of the fan shroud (Fig. 58). On the 8.0L V-10 engine the tank is mounted to right inner fender (Fig. 59).

Operate engine without pressure cap on radiator until thermostat opens. Attach a pressure tester to filler neck. If pressure builds up quickly it indicates a combustion leak exists. This is usually the result of a cylinder head gasket leak or crack in engine. Repair as necessary. If there is not an immediate pressure increase, pump the pressure tester. Do this until indicated pressure is within system range of 110 kPa (16 psi). Fluctuation of gauge pointer indicates compression or combustion leakage into cooling system. Because the vehicle is equipped with a catalytic converter, do not remove spark plug cables or short out cylinders (non-diesel engines) to isolate compres sion leak. If the needle on dial of pressure tester does not fluctuate, race engine a few times to check for an ab normal amount of coolant or steam. This would be emitting from exhaust pipe. Coolant or steam from exhaust pipe may indicate a faulty cylinder head gas ket, cracked engine cylinder block or cylinder head. A convenient check for exhaust gas leakage into cooling system is provided by a commercially avail able Block Leak Check tool. Follow manufacturers in structions when using this product.
COMBUSTION PRESSURE LEAKAGE TESTER TESTWITHOUT

DO NOT WASTE reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE CYLINDER B L O C K DRAIN P L U G S OR L O O S E N RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH S Y S T E M HOT A N D UNDER P R E S S U R E . S E R I O U S B U R N S FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR.

Drain sufficient coolant to allow thermostat re moval. Refer to Thermostat Replacement. Disconnect water pump drive belt. Add coolant to radiator to bring level to within 6.3 mm (1/4 in) of top of thermostat housing.
CAUTION: Avoid overheating. Do not operate en gine for an excessive period of time. Open draincock immediately after test to eliminate boil over.

Fig. 58 Coolant Reserve/Overflow TankAll Except 8.0L V-10 Engine

Start engine and accelerate rapidly three times, to approximately 3000 rpm (2000 rpm for diesel) while observing coolant. If internal engine combustion

Refer to Coolant Level CheckService, Deaeration and Radiator Pressure Cap sections in this group for coolant reserve/overflow system operation and ser vice. Should the reserve/overflow tank become coated with corrosion, it can be cleaned with detergent and

42

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


COOLANT
RESERVE/OVERFLOW

BR

BOLTS (2)

J948D-21

Fig. 60 Radiator Pressure Cap and Filler Typical

Neck-

Fig. 59 Coolant Reserve/Overflow Engine

Tank8.01 V-10

water. Rinse tank thoroughly before refilling cooling system as described in the Coolant section of this group.
TANK MBm&WAlALl ENGINE EXCEPT 8.0L -10

(1) Remove overflow hose from radiator. (2) Unsnap the coolant reserve/overflow tank from fan shroud. Lift straight up. The fan shroud is equipped with T-shaped slots (Fig. 58) to attach the tank. An alignment pin is located on the side of tank.
INSTALLATION!

A vent valve in the center of cap allows a small coolant flow through cap when coolant is below boil ing temperature. The valve is completely closed when boiling point is reached. As the coolant cools, it con tracts and creates a vacuum in the cooling system. This causes the vacuum valve to open and coolant in the reserve/overflow tank to be drawn through its connecting hose into radiator. If the vacuum valve is stuck shut, the radiator hoses will collapse on cooldown. Clean the vent valve (Fig. 60). A rubber gasket seals radiator filler neck to pre vent leakage. This is done to keep system under pressure. It also maintains vacuum during coolant cool-down allowing coolant to return from reserve/ overflow tank.
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP-TO-FILLER NECK RELIEF CHECK SEAL-

The pressure cap upper gasket (seal) pressure re lief can be tested by removing overflow hose from ra diator 'filler neck nipple. Attach hose of pressure (1) Remove overflow hose from radiator. (2) Remove three tank mounting bolts (Fig. 59) tester tool 7700 (or equivalent) to nipple. It will be and remove tank. necessary to disconnect hose from its adapter for filler neck. Pump air into radiator. The pressure cap INSTALLATION upper gasket should relieve at 69-124 kPa (10-18 psi) (1) Position tank to inner fender. and hold pressure at a minimum of 55 kPa (8 psi). (2) Install bolts and tighten to 6 N-m (50 in. lbs.) torque. WARNING: THE WARNING W O R D S DO NOT (3) Connect overflow hose to radiator. O P E N HOT- ON RADIATOR P R E S S U R E CAP, A R E
TANK REMOVAL8.0L V-1G ENGINE

(1) Snap the tank into the two T-slots and the alignment pin on fan shroud. (2) Connect overflow hose to radiator.

RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP Radiators are equipped with a pressure cap, which releases pressure at some point within a range of 97124 kPa (14-18 psi). The pressure relief point (in pounds) is engraved on top of cap. The cooling system will operate at pressures slightly above atmospheric pressure. This results in a higher coolant boiling point allowing increased radi ator cooling capacity. The cap (Fig. 60) contains a spring-loaded pressure relief valve that opens when system pressure reaches release range of 97-124 kPa (14-18 psi).

A SAFETY PRECAUTION. W H E N HOT, P R E S S U R E BUILDS U P IN COOLING S Y S T E M . TO P R E V E N T SCALDING OR INJURY, RADIATOR CAP SHOULD NOT B E REMOVED WHILE SYSTEM IS HOT AND/OR UNDER P R E S S U R E .

Do not remove radiator cap at any time except for the following purposes: Check and adjust antifreeze freeze point Refill system with new antifreeze Conducting service procedures Checking for vacuum leaks

COOLING SYSTEI SERVICE PROCEDURES


WARNING: IF VEHICLE HAS B E E N RUN RECENTLY, WAIT AT L E A S T 15 MINUTES B E F O R E REMOVING RADIATOR CAP, WITH A R A G , S Q U E E Z E RADIATOR U P P E R H O S E TO C H E C K IF S Y S T E M IS UNDER P R E S S U R E . P L A C E A R A G OVER CAP AND WITH OUT PUSHING CAP DOWN, ROTATE IT COUNTER C L O C K W I S E TO FIRST STOP. A L L O W FLUID TO E S C A P E THROUGH THE COOLANT R E S E R V E / O V E R F L O W HOSE INTO R E S E R V E / O V E R F L O W TANK. S Q U E E Z E RADIATOR U P P E R HOSE TO DE TERMINE W H E N P R E S S U R E HAS B E E N R E L E A S E D . W H E N COOLANT AND STEAM STOP B E I N G P U S H E D INTO TANK AND S Y S T E M P R E S S U R E D R O P S , R E M O V E RADIATOR CAP COM PLETELY.

7 - 43

CAUTION: Radiator pressure testing tools are very sensitive to small air leaks, which will not cause cooling system problems. A pressure cap that does not have a history of coolant loss should not be re placed just because it leaks slowly when tested with this tool. Add water to tool. Turn tool upside down and recheck pressure cap to confirm that cap needs replacement.

INSPECTION

PRESSURE

TESTING SSADIATOR

GAPS

Remove cap from radiator. Be sure that sealing surfaces are clean. Moisten rubber gasket with water and install cap on pressure tester 7700 or an equiv alent (Fig. 61).

Hold cap at eye level, right side up. The vent valve (Fig. 61) at bottom of cap should open. If rubber gas ket has swollen and prevents vent valve from open ing, replace cap. Hold cap at eye level, upside down. If any light can be seen between vent valve and rubber gasket, re place cap. Do not use a replacement cap that has a spring to hold vent shut. A replacement cap must be the type designed for a coolant reserve/over flow system with a completely sealed diaphragm spring and a rubber gasket. This gasket is used to seal to radiator filler neck top surface. Use of proper cap will allow coolant return to radiator. RADIATORS
GENERAL INFORMATION

The radiator used on all engines (both gas powered and diesel) are of a cross-flow design with horizontal tubes through the radiator core and vertical side tanks. Aluminum cores with plastic side tanks are used on all 3.9L V-6 and 5.2/5.9L V-8 engines. Copperbrass cores are used with the 8.0L V-10 and diesel engines. The radiator supplies sufficient heat transfer to cool the engine and automatic transmission (if equipped).
RADIATOR
J9507-3

COOLANT

FLOW

CHECK

Fig. 61 Pressure Testing Radiator CapTypical Tester

Operate tester pump to bring pressure to 104 kPa (15 psi) on gauge. If pressure cap fails to hold pres sure of at least 97 kPa (14 psi) replace cap. Refer to CAUTION below. The pressure cap may test properly while posi tioned on tool 7700 (or equivalent). It may not hold pressure or vacuum when installed on radiator. If so, inspect radiator filler neck and cap's top gasket for damage. Also inspect for dirt or distortion that may prevent cap from sealing properly.

Use the following procedure to determine if coolant is flowing through the cooling system. (1) Idle engine until operating temperature is reached. If the upper radiator hose is warm to the touch, the thermostat is opening and coolant is flow ing to the radiator.
WARNING: HOT, P R E S S U R I Z E D COOLANT CAN C A U S E INJURY B Y SCALDING. USING A R A G TO COVER THE RADIATOR P R E S S U R E CAP, O P E N RA DIATOR CAP S L O W L Y TO THE FIRST STOP. THIS WILL A L L O W ANY BUILT-UP P R E S S U R E TO VENT TO THE R E S E R V E / O V E R F L O W TANK. AFTER P R E S S U R E BUILD-UP HAS B E E N R E L E A S E D , REMOVE CAP FROM F I L L E R NECK.

7 - 44

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

BR

(2) Drain a small amount of coolant from the radi ator until the ends of the radiator tubes are visible through the filler neck. Idle the engine at normal op erating temperature. If coolant is flowing past the ex posed tubes, the coolant is circulating.
RADIATOR REMOVALALL ENGINES

(1) All Engines Except Diesel: Disconnect nega tive battery cable from battery. Diesel engine: Disconnect both negative battery cables at both batteries. Remove the nuts retaining the positive cable to the top of radiator. Position pos itive battery cable to rear of vehicle.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER B L O C K DRAIN P L U G S OR L O O S E N THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE S Y S T E M HOT AND UNDER P R E S S U R E . S E R I O U S B U R N S FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR.

TYPICAL HOSE CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION

(2) Drain the cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. (3) Disconnect throttle cable from clip at top of ra diator fan shroud.
HOSE CLAMP HOSE

J9407-39

Fig. 63 Clamp Number/Letter

Location

J9207-36

Fig. 62 Hose Clamp ToolTypical WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE C L A M P S A R E U S E D ON MOST COOLING S Y S T E M H O S E S . W H E N REMOVING OR INSTALLING, U S E ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS T Y P E OF CLAMP, S U C H A S S P E C I A L CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 62). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R HPC-20) MAY B E U S E D FOR L A R G E R C L A M P S . AL WAYS W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S W H E N SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 63). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

(4) Remove hose clamps and hoses from radiator.

(5) All engines: Remove coolant reserve/overflow tank hose from radiator filler neck nipple. (6) All engines except 8.0L V-10: Remove the cool ant reserve/overflow tank from the fan shroud (pull straight up). The tank slips into T-slots on the fan shroud. (7) Disconnect electrical connectors at windshield washer reservoir tank and remove tank. Refer to Group 8K, Windshield Wiper and Washer Systems for procedures. (8) If equipped with an automatic transmission (all engines except diesel), disconnect oil cooler lines (hoses) at radiator tank. Refer to Group 21, Trans missions for procedures. (9) Diesel Engine Only: Remove the two metal clips retaining the upper part of fan shroud to the top of radiator. (10) Remove the four fan shroud mounting bolts (Fig. 64). Position shroud rearward over the fan blades towards engine. (11) All Engines Except 8.0L V-10 and Diesel: Re move the plastic clips retaining the rubber shields to the sides of radiator. Position rubber shields to the side. (12) Remove the two radiator upper mounting bolts (Fig. 65). (13) Lift radiator straight up and out of engine compartment. The bottom of the radiator is equipped with two alignment dowels that fit into holes in the lower radiator support panel (Fig. 65). Rubber bis cuits (insulators) are installed to these dowels. Take care not to damage cooling fins or tubes on the radi ator and air conditioning condenser when removing.

BR
RADIATOR

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 - 45

FAN SHROUD MOUNTING BOLTS

J9407-37

Fig. 64 Typical Fan Shroud Mounting MOUNTING BOLTS

(5) 3.9L -6 or 5.2L/5.9L V-8 Engines: Position the rubber shields to the sides of radiator. Install the plastic clips retaining the rubber shields to the sides of radiator. (6) Connect both radiator hoses. Refer to previous CAUTION and install hose clamps. (7) If equipped, connect transmission oil cooler lines to radiator tank. Refer to Group 21, Transmis sions for procedures. (8) Install windshield washer reservoir tank. Refer to Group 8K. (9) Position fan shroud to flanges on sides of radi ator. Install fan shroud mounting bolts (Fig. 64). Tighten bolts to 6 N-m (50 in. lbs.) torque. (10) Diesel Engines: Install metal clips to top of fan shroud. (11) All engines: Install coolant reserve/overflow tank hose to radiator filler neck nipple. (12) All Engines Except 8.0L V-10: Install coolant reserve/overflow tank to fan shroud (fits into T-slots on shroud). (13) Connect throttle cable to fan shroud. (14) Install negative battery cable(s) to battery(s). (15) Diesel Engine: Install positive battery cable to top of radiator. Tighten radiator-to-battery cable mounting nuts. (16) Position heater controls to full heat position. (17) Fill cooling system with coolant. Refer to Re filling Cooling System in this group. (18) Operate engine until it reaches normal tem perature. Check cooling system and automatic trans mission (if equipped) fluid levels.
RADIATOR CLEANING

The radiator and air conditioning fins should be cleaned when an accumulation of bugs, leaves etc. has occurred. Clean radiator fins are necessary for good heat transfer. With the engine cold, apply cold water and compressed air to the back (engine side) of the radiator to flush the radiator and/or A/C con denser of debris.
ALIGNMENT DOWELS (2) Fig. 65 Typical Radiator Mounting J9407-38

RADIATOR

INSTALLATION

(1) Position fan shroud over the fan blades rear ward towards engine. (2) Install rubber insulators to alignment dowels at lower part of radiator. (3) Lower the radiator into position while guiding the two alignment dowels into lower radiator sup port. Different alignment holes are provided in the lower radiator support for each engine application. (4) Install two upper radiator mounting bolts. Tighten bolts to 11 N-m (95 in. lbs.) torque.

COOLING SYSTEM HOSES Rubber hoses route coolant to and from the radia tor, intake manifold and heater core. Radiator lower hoses are spring-reinforced to prevent collapse from water pump suction at moderate and high engine speeds. Inspect the hoses at regular intervals. Replace hoses that are cracked, feel brittle when squeezed or swell excessively when system is pressurized. The use of molded replacement hoses is recommended. When performing a hose inspection, inspect radiator lower hose for proper position and condition of spring.

7 - 46

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


TYPICAL CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMP

B R

WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE C L A M P S A R E U S E D ON MOST COOLING S Y S T E M H O S E S . W H E N REMOVING OR INSTALLING, U S E ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS T Y P E OF CLAMP, SUCH A S S P E C I A L CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R 6094) (FIG. S i ) . SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL ( N U M B E R HPC-20) MAY B E U S E D FOR L A R G E R C L A M P S . AL WAYS W E A R S A F E T Y G L A S S E S W H E N SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION C L A M P S .

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 67). If re placement is necessary, use only an original equip ment clamp with a matching number or letter.

Ordinary worm gear type hose clamps (when equipped) can be removed with a straight screw driver or a hex socket. To prevent damage to hoses or clamps, the hose clamps should be tightened to 4 N-m (34 in. lbs.) torque. Do not over tighten hose clamps. For all vehicles: In areas where specific routing clamps are not provided, be sure that hoses are posi tioned with sufficient clearance. Check clearance from exhaust manifolds and pipe, fan blades, drive belts and sway bars. Improperly positioned hoses can be damaged, resulting in coolant loss and engine overheating.
HOSE CLAMP HOSE

TYPICAL HOSE CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION J9407-39

Fig. 67 Clamp Number/Letter

Location

J9207-36

Fig. 66 Hose damp

ToolTypical

COOLING SYSTEM FINGAS ENGINES Also refer to the proceeding Viscous Fan Drive sec tion for additional information.
REMOVAL

(4) The thermal viscous fan drive/fan blade assem bly is attached (threaded) to water pump hub shaft (Fig. 68). Remove fan blade/viscous fan drive assem bly from water pump by turning mounting nut coun terclockwise as viewed from front. Threads on viscous fan drive are RIGHT-HAND. A Snap-On 36 MM Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 68) to prevent pulley from ro tating. Do not attempt to remove fan/viscous fan drive as sembly from vehicle at this time. Do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. 68) from viscous fan drive at this time. (5) Remove four fan shroud-to-radiator mounting bolts. (6) Remove fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly as a complete unit from vehicle. After removing fan blade/viscous fan drive assem bly, do not place viscous fan drive in horizontal po sition. If stored horizontally, silicone fluid in the viscous fan drive could drain into its bearing assem bly and contaminate lubricant.
CAUTION: Do not remove water pump pulley-to-wa ter pump bolts (Fig. 68). This pulley is under spring tension.

(1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Remove throttle cable at top of fan shroud. (3) All Except 8.0L V-10 Engine: Unsnap coolant reserve/overflow tank from fan shroud and lay aside. The tank is held to shroud with T-shaped slots. Do not disconnect hose or drain coolant from tank.

(7) Remove four bolts securing fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive (Fig. 68).
INSPECTION

The fan cannot be repaired. If fan is damaged, it must be replaced. Inspect fan as follows:

BR
FAN BLADE

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


WATER PUMP PULLEY WATER PUMP

47

ASSEMBLY THREADED NUT

PULLEY BOLTS

(4) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft (Fig. 68). (5) Except 8.0L V-10 Engine: Install coolant re serve/overflow tank to fan shroud. Snaps into posi tion. (6) Install throttle cable to fan shroud. (7) Connect negative battery cable. COOLING SYSTEM FANDIESEL ENGINE Also refer to the proceeding Viscous Fan Drive sec tion for additional information.
REMOVAL

THREADED SHAFT (WATER PUMP HUB) VISCOUS FAN DRIVE

(1) Disconnect both negative battery cables at both batteries. (2) Remove the fan shroud mounting bolts. Posi tion fan shroud towards engine.
CRANKSHAFT PULLEY J9307-32

CAUTION: Do not remove the fan pulley bolts. This pulley is under spring tension.

Fig. 68 Fan Blade/Viscous Fan DriveGas EnginesTypical

(1) Remove fan blade and viscous fan drive as an assembly from the engine. Refer to preceding Re moval procedure. (2) Remove fan blade assembly from viscous fan drive unit (four bolts). (3) Lay fan on a flat surface with leading edge fac ing down. With tip of blade touching flat surface, re place fan if clearance between opposite blade and surface is greater than 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Rocking motion of opposite blades should not exceed 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Test all blades in this manner.
WARNING;, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO B E N D OR STRAIGHTEN FAN B L A D E S IF NOT WITHIN S P E C I FICATIONS.

(3) The thermal viscous fan drive/fan blade assem bly is attached (threaded) to the fan hub shaft (Fig. 69). Remove the fan blade/fan drive assembly from fan pulley by turning the mounting nut clockwise (as viewed from front). Threads on the viscous fan drive are LEFT-HAND. A Snap-On 36 MM Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Place a bar or screwdriver between the fan pulley bolts to prevent pulley from rotating.
THREADED SHAFT FAN BLADE ASSEMBLY

(4) Inspect fan assembly for cracks, bends, loose rivets or broken welds. Replace fan if any damage is found.
CAUTION: If fan blade assembly is replaced be cause of mechanical damage, water pump and vis cous fan drive should also be inspected. These components could have been damaged due to ex cessive vibration.

THREADED NUT

INSTALLATION (1) Install fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive. Tighten bolts (Fig. 68) to 23 N-m (17 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. (3) Install fan shroud.

VISCOUS FAN DRIVE

FAN BLADE BOLTS (4)

J9307-65

Fig. 69 Fan Blades/Viscous

Fan Drive5.9L Diesel

(4) Remove the fan shroud and the fan blade/vis cous drive as an assembly from vehicle.

7 - 48

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

BR A thermostatic bimetallic spring coil is located on the front face of the viscous fan drive unit (a typical viscous unit is shown in figure 70). This spring coil reacts to the temperature of the radiator discharge air. It engages the viscous fan drive for higher fan speed if the air temperature from the radiator rises above a certain point. Until additional engine cooling is necessary, the fan will remain at a reduced rpm re gardless of engine speed.
MOUNTING NUT TO WATER PUMP

(5) Remove fan Hade-to-viscous fan drive mount ing bolts. Inspect the fan for cracks, loose rivets, loose or bent fan blades. INSPECTION The fan cannot be repaired. If the fan is damaged, it must be replaced. Inspect the fan as follows: (1) Remove fan blade and thermal viscous fan drive assembly from engine. Refer to the preceding Removal procedure. (2) Remove fan blade assembly from thermal vis cous fan drive unit (four bolts). (3) Lay fan on a flat surface with leading edge fac ing down. With tip of blade touching flat surface, re place fan if clearance between opposite blade and surface is greater than 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Rocking motion of opposite blades should not exceed 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Test all blades in this manner.
WARNING: FICATIONS. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BEND OR

STRAIGHTEN FAN B L A D E S IF NOT WITHIN S P E C I

(4) Inspect fan assembly for cracks, bends, loose rivets or broken welds. Replace fan if any damage is found.
CAUTION: If the fan blade assembly is replaced be cause of mechanical damage, the fan pulley and viscous fan drive should also be inspected. These components could have been damaged due to ex cessive vibration.

Fig. 70 Viscous Fan

DriveTypical

INSTALLATION' (1) Install fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive. Tighten mounting bolts to 23 N-m (17 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Position the fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive to the vehicle as an assembly. (3) Install viscous fan drive assembly on fan hub shaft. Tighten mounting nut to 57 N-m (42 ft. lbs.) torque. (4) Install fan shroud bolts. (5) Install battery cables to batteries. VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
OESCilPTIOl AID 0PERATI0I

Only when sufficient heat is present, will the vis cous fan drive engage. This is when the air flowing through the radiator core causes a reaction to the bi metallic coil. It then increases fan speed to provide the necessary additional engine cooling. Once the engine has cooled, the radiator discharge temperature will drop. The bimetallic coil again re acts and the fan speed is reduced to the previous dis engaged speed.
CAUTION: Some engines equipped with serpentine drive belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan drives. They are marked with the word R E V E R S E to designate their usage. Installation of the wrong fan or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheating.

Also refer to either of the previous Cooling System Fan sections. The thermal viscous fan drive (Figs. 68 or 69) is a silicone-fluid-filled coupling used to connect the fan blades to the water pump shaft. The coupling allows the fan to be driven in a normal manner. This is done at low engine speeds while limiting the top speed of the fan to a predetermined maximum level at higher engine speeds.

CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive is replaced be cause of mechanical damage, the cooling fan blades should also be inspected. Inspect for fatigue cracks, loose blades, or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. Replace fan blade assembly if any of these conditions are found. Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft assembly for any related damage due to a viscous fan drive malfunction.

BR
NOISE

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

7 - 49

It is normal for fan noise to be louder (roar ing) when: The underhood temperature is above the engage ment point for the viscous drive coupling. This may occur when ambient (outside air temperature) is very high. Engine loads and temperatures are high such as when towing a trailer. Cool silicone fluid within the fan drive unit is be ing redistributed back to its normal disengaged (warm) position. This can occur during the first 15 seconds to one minute after engine start-up on a cold engine.
LEAIS

(4) Block the air flow through the radiator. Secure a sheet of plastic in front of the radiator (or air con ditioner condenser). Use tape at the top to secure the plastic and be sure that the air flow is blocked. (5) Be sure that the air conditioner (if equipped) is turned off. WARNING: USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN THE ENGINE I S OPERATING. DO NOT STAND IN A DI RECT LINE WITH THE FAN. DO NOT PUT YOUR HANDS NEAR THE PULLEYS, BELTS OR FAN. DO NOT WEAR LOOSE CLOTHING. (6) Start the engine and operate at 2400 rpm. Within ten minutes the air temperature (indicated on the dial thermometer) should be up to 88 C (190 F). Fan drive engagement should have started to occur at between 74 to 82 C (165 to 180 F). Engage ment is distinguishable by a definite increase in fan flow noise (roaring). The timing light also will indi cate an increase in the speed of the fan (non-diesel only). (7) When the air temperature reaches 88 C (190 F), remove the plastic sheet. Fan drive disengage ment should have started to occur at between 57 to 79 C (135 to 175 F). A definite decrease of fan flow noise (roaring) should be noticed. If not, replace the defective viscous fan drive unit.
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE INSTALLATION REMOVAL/

Viscous fan drive operation is not affected by small oil stains near the drive bearing. If leakage appears excessive, replace the fan drive unit.
TEST1NI

If the fan assembly free-wheels without drag (the fan blades will revolve more than five turns when spun by hand), replace the fan drive. This spin test must be performed when the engine is cool. For the following test, the cooling system must be in good condition. It also will ensure against exces sively high coolant temperature. WARNING: BE SURE THAT THERE IS ADEQUATE FAN BLADE CLEARANCE BEFORE DRILLING. (1) Drill a 3.18-mm (1/8-in) diameter hole in the top center of the fan shroud. (2) Obtain a dial thermometer with an 8 inch stem (or equivalent). It should have a range of -18-to105C (0-to-220 F). Insert thermometer through the hole in the shroud. Be sure that there is adequate clearance from the fan blades. (3) Connect a tachometer and an engine ignition timing light. The timing light is to be used as a strobe light. This step cannot be used on the diesel engine.

For removal and installation procedures, refer to either of the previous Cooling System Fan sections. Viscous Fan Drive Fluid Pump Out Require ment: After installing a new viscous fan drive, bring the engine speed up to approximately 2000 rpm and hold for approximately two minutes. This will ensure proper fluid distribution within the drive.

7 - 50

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS


AUTOMATIC

BR

T R A N S M I S S I O N OIL COOLERS
INDE1
page page Automatic Transmission Oil CoolersExcept Diesel Engines

Automatic Transmission Oil CoolersDiesel Engine

52

50

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERSEXCEPT DIESEL ENGINES


WATER-TO-OIL COOLER

All gas powered models equipped with an auto matic transmission are equipped with a transmission oil cooler mounted internally within the radiator side tank. This internal cooler is supplied as standard equipment on all gas powered models equipped with an automatic transmission. The internal radiator oil cooler is not used with the diesel engine. Transmission oil is cooled when it passes through this separate cooler. In case of a leak in the internal radiator mounted transmission oil cooler, engine cool ant may become mixed with transmission fluid or transmission fluid may enter engine cooling system. Both cooling system and transmission should be drained and inspected if the internal radiator mounted transmission cooler is leaking. Also refer to the section on Transmission Air-to-Oil Coolers. This heavy duty air-to-oil cooler is an option on most engine packages. It is supplied as standard equipment on both the 8.0L V-10 and 5.9L diesel en gines.
REPLACING WATER-TO-OIL COOLER i l RAiiATOR SIDE

this' optional cooler is located between the radiator and air conditioning condenser (Fig. 1). 8.0L V-10 Engine: The air-to-oil cooler is located in front of and to the left side of the radiator (Fig. 2). This secondary cooler is supplied as standard equip ment on models equipped with the 8.0L V-10 engine and an automatic transmission.
UPPER RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET BOLT RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER TRANS. OIL COOLER UPPER MOUNTING BOLTS (2)

LOWER RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET BOLTS (2)

TA1I The internal transmission oil cooler located within the radiator is not serviceable. If it requires service, the radiator must be replaced. Once the repaired or replacement radiator has been installed, fill the cooling system and inspect for leaks. Refer to the Refilling Cooling System and Test ing Cooling System For Leaks sections in this group. If the transmission operates properly after repairing the leak, drain the transmission and remove the transmission oil pan. Inspect for sludge and/or rust. Inspect for a dirty or plugged inlet filter. If none of these conditions are found, the transmission and torque convertor may not require reconditioning. Re fer to Group 21 for automatic transmission servicing.
AIR-TO-OIL
0

TRANS. OIL COOLER LOWER MOUNTING BOLT J9407-40

1 Air-To-Oil Cooler3.91 V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 Engines

The oil coolers on all gas powered engines operate in conjunction with the internal radiator mounted main oil cooler. The transmission oil is routed through the main cooler first, then the optional cooler, before returning to the transmission.
RE10ALAIR-TO-OIL COOLER3JL/I.2L/5JL ENGINES

COOLER

5 2/5.9L V-8 Gas Powered Engines: An optional air-to-oil transmission oil cooler is available with most engine packages. On the 5.2/5.9L V-8 engines,

If a leak should occur in the internal radiator mounted transmission air-to-oil cooler (gas engines only), engine coolant may become mixed with trans mission fluid. Transmission fluid may also enter en gine cooling system. Both cooling system and transmission should be drained and inspected in case of oil cooler leakage. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery.

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RADIATOR SUPPORT TRANS. OIL COOLER

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS


MOUNTING BOLTS

7 - 51

TRANS. OIL COOLER LINES

QUICK-CONNECT FITTINGS (2) OIL COOLER MOUNTING BOLTS (3) J9407-41 ALIGNMENT DOWELS (2) Fig. 3 Radiator Mounting INSTALLATION

RADIATOR

J9407-38 BoltsTypical

Fig. 2 Air-To-Oil Cooler8.0L V-10 Engine

(2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System. (3) Place a drain pan under the oil cooler lines. (4) Disconnect the two transmission oil cooler line quick-connect fittings at the radiator. Refer to Group 21, Transmissions for procedures. Plug cooler lines to prevent oil leakage. (5) Disconnect the oil cooler quick-connect fitting at the transmission oil cooler line. Refer to Group 21, Transmissions for procedures. (6) Disconnect the windshield washer reservoir tank at the fan shroud. Refer to Group 8K, Wind shield Wiper and Washer Systems for procedures. (7) Remove the rubber shield at right side of radi ator. The shield is held to vehicle body with plastic clips. (8) Remove the two radiator upper mounting bolts (Fig. 3). (9) Position the upper part of radiator towards en gine. (10) Remove the oil cooler lower mounting bolt (oil cooler-to-vehicle body) (Fig. 1). (11) Remove three bolts (radiator support bracketto-body) (Fig. 1). Remove this A-shaped support bracket and the transmission oil cooler as an assem bly from the vehicle. Take care not to damage the ra diator core or A/C condenser fins with the cooling lines when removing. (12) Remove oil cooler from A-shaped support bracket by removing two upper mounting strap bolts and mounting straps at support bracket (Fig. 1). (13) Remove oil cooler from the A-shaped radiator support bracket.

(1) Install the oil cooler assembly to the A-shaped radiator support bracket using the two upper mount ing bolts and mounting straps. Install the bolts but do not tighten at this time. (2) Install the radiator support bracket and oil cooler (as an assembly) to the vehicle. (3) Install the two lower radiator A-shaped support bracket bolts. Do not tighten bolts at this time. (4) Slide and position the oil cooler on the A-shaped bracket until its lower mounting hole lines up with the bolt hole on the vehicle body. Tighten the oil cooler mounting strap bolts to 6 N-m (50 in. lbs.) torque. (5) Install the upper radiator A-shaped support bracket bolt. Tighten all three radiator support bracket mounting bolts to 11 N-m (95 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Install the two radiator upper mounting bolts (Fig. 1). Tighten bolts to 11 N-m (95 in. lbs.) torque. (7) Install windshield washer reservoir tank. (8) Install rubber shield to radiator. (9) Install the quick-connect fittings on the two oil cooler lines to the radiator. Refer to Group 21, Trans missions for procedures. (10) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling the Cool ing System in this group. (11) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (12) Start the engine and check all fittings for leaks. (13) Check the fluid level in the automatic trans mission. Refer to Group 21, Transmissions for proce dures.

7 - 52

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS

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REMOVALAii-TO-OiL COOLER8.IL -11 ENGINE

If a leak should occur in the internal radiator mounted transmission oil cooler (gas engines only), engine coolant may become mixed with transmission fluid. Transmission fluid may also enter engine cool ing system. Both cooling system and transmission should be drained and inspected in case of oil cooler leakage. (1) Place a drain pan under the oil cooler lines. (2) Disconnect the two transmission oil cooler line quick-connect fittings from the transmission oil cooler lines (Fig. 2). Refer to Group 21, Transmis sions for procedures. Plug cooler lines to prevent oil leakage. (3) Remove three oil cooler-to-radiator support mounting bolts (Fig. 2). (4) Remove the oil cooler and line assembly from the vehicle.
INSTALLATION

(1) Install the oil cooler and cooler line assembly to the vehicle. (2) Install three mounting bolts and tighten to 6 N-m (50 in. lbs.) torque. (3) Connect the quick-connect fittings. Refer to Group 21, Transmissions for procedures. (4) Start the engine and check all fittings for leaks. (5) Check the fluid level in the automatic trans mission. Refer to Group 21, Transmissions for proce dures. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERSDIESEL ENGINE All diesel models equipped with an automatic transmission are equipped with both a main waterto-oil cooler and a separate air-to-oil cooler. Both cool ers are supplied as standard equipment on diesel engine powered models when equipped with an auto matic transmission. Transmission oil is cooled when it passes through these coolers. The main water-to-oil transmission oil cooler is mounted to a bracket on the turbocharger side of the engine (Fig. 4). The air-to-oil cooler is located in front of and to the left side of the radiator (Fig. 5). The diesel engine is not equipped with an internal radiator mounted oil cooler.
REMOVALWATER-TO-OIL DIESEL ENGINE COOLER5.&L

I MOUNTING NUTS (2)

QUICKCONNECT FITTINGS (2)

'

J9407-42

Fig. 5 Air-To-Oil CoolerDiesel

Engine

If a leak should occur in the water-to-oil cooler mounted to the side of the engine block, engine cool ant may become mixed with transmission fluid. Transmission fluid may also enter engine cooling sys tem. Both cooling system and transmission should be drained and inspected in case of oil cooler leakage.

(1) Disconnect both negative battery cables at bat teries. (2) Remove air cleaner assembly and air cleaner intake hoses. Refer to Group 14, Fuel System for pro cedures. (3) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System. (4) Disconnect coolant lines from cooler. (5) Disconnect transmission oil lines from cooler. Plug cooler lines to prevent oil leakage. (6) Remove oil cooler mounting straps. (7) Lift oil cooler off of mounting bracket.
INSTALLATION

(1) Position oil cooler on bracket. (2) Install mounting straps.

IR
(3) Connect transmission oil lines to cooler. (4) Connect coolant hoses to cooler. (5) Connect negative battery cables to both batter ies. (6) F i l l cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System i n this section. (7) Check transmission oil level and f i l l as neces sary. (8) I n s t a l l air cleaner assembly and air cleaner i n take hoses. Refer to Group 14, Fuel System for pro cedures. REMOVALAIR-TO-OIL COOLER5.9L DIESEL ENGINE (1) Remove front bumper. Refer to Group 23, Body. (2) Place a drain pan under the oil cooler. (3) Raise the vehicle. (4) Disconnect the oil cooler quick-connect fittings from the transmission lines. These are located near the power steering gearbox. Refer to Group 2 1 , Transmissions for procedures.

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS

7 - 53

(5) Remove the charge air cooler-to-oil cooler bolt

(Fig. 5).
(6) Remove two mounting nuts. (7) Remove the oil cooler and line assembly to wards the front of vehicle. Cooler must be rotated and tilted into position while removing. INSTALLATION (1) Carefully position the oil cooler assembly to the vehicle. (2) Install two nuts and one bolt. Tighten to 11 N-m (95 i n . lbs.) torque. (3) Connect the quick-connect fittings to the trans mission cooler lines. Refer to Group 2 1 , Transmis sions for procedures. (4) Install front bumper. Refer to Group 23, Body. (5) Start the engine and check all fittings for leaks. (6) Check the f l u i d level i n the automatic trans mission. Refer to Group 2 1 , Transmissions for proce dures.

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


NGINE

BR

ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS INDEX


page page Belt Schematics Belt Tension General Information . 54 54 54

Automatic Belt Tensioner Belt Diagnosis Belt Removal/Installation

58 54 54

GENERAL INFORMATION All vehicles are available with either a 3.9L V-6, a 5.2L V-8, two different 5.9L V-8 engines, an 8.0L V-10 or a 5.9L in-line 6 cylinder diesel engine. The accessory drive components are operated by a single, crankshaft driven, serpentine drive belt on all engines. An automatic belt tensioner is also used to maintain correct belt tension at all times. This is used on all engines. Refer to Automatic Belt Ten sioner proceeding in this group. BELT DiAiNOSiS
SERPENTINE ENGINES DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSISALL

NORMAL CRACKS BELT OK

When diagnosing serpentine drive belts, small cracks that run across ribbed surface of belt from rib to rib (Fig. 1), are considered normal. These are not a reason to replace belt. However, cracks running along a rib (not across) are not normal. Any belt with cracks running along a rib must be replaced (Fig. 1). Also replace belt if it has excessive wear, frayed cords or severe glazing. Refer to the Serpentine Drive Belt Diagnosis chart for further belt diagnosis. Also refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner proceeding in this group. BELT SCHEMATICS Refer to figures 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 for belt routing. The belt routing schematics are published from the latest information available at the time of publication. If anything differs between these schematics and the Belt Routing Label, use the schematics on Belt Routing Label. This label is located in the en gine compartment. BELT TENSION
ALL ENGINES

NOT NORMAL CRACKS REPLACE BELT

J9007-44

Fig, 1 Serpentine Accessory Drive Belt Wear Patterns

gine. All engines are equipped with an automatic belt tensioner. The tensioner maintains correct belt ten sion at all times. For other tensioner information and removal/installation procedures, refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner proceeding in this group. Due to use of this belt tensioner, do not attempt to use a belt tension gauge on any engine. BELT REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
Caution: Do not attempt to check belt tension with a belt tension gauge on vehicles equipped with an automatic belt tensioner. Refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner in this group.

Correct accessory drive belt tension is required to be sure of optimum performance of belt driven engine accessories. If specific tension is not maintained, belt slippage may cause; engine overheating, lack of power steering assist, loss of air conditioning capac ity, reduced generator output rate and greatly re duced belt life. It is not necessary to adjust belt tension on any en-

3.9L V-6 OR 5.2/5.9L REiOWAl

V-8 LDC-GAS

ENGINES

Drive belts on these engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 7). This belt tensioner will be used on all belt configurations, such as with or without power steering or air condi-

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SERPENTINE DRIVE CONDITION RIB CHUNKING (ONE OR MORE R i B S HAS SEPARATED FROM BELT BODY RIB OR BELT W E A R POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Foreign objects imbedded in pulley grooves. 2. Installation damage. 1. 2. 3. 4. Pulley(s) misaligned. Abrasive environment. Rusted pulley(s). Sharp or jagged pulley groove tips. 5. Rubber deteriorated. BELT

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION 1. Remove foreign objects from pulley grooves. Replace belt. 2. Replace belt. 1. 2. 3. 4.

7 - 55

Align pulley(s). Clean pulley(s). Replace belt if necessary. Clean rust from pulley(s). Replace pulley.

5. Replace belt. 1. Replace belt. 2. Replace belt. i 1. Replace automatic belt tensioner. 2. Replace belt. 3. Replace belt and clean pulleys.

LONGITUDINAL BELT CRACKING (CRACKS B E T W E E N TWO RIBS)

1. Belt has mistracked from pulley groove. 2. Pulley groove tip has worn away rubber to tensile member. 1. Belt slipping because of insufficient tension. 2. Incorrect belt. 3. Belt or pulley subjected to substance (belt dressing, oil, ethylene glycol) that has reduced friction. 4. Driven component bearing failure. 5. Belt glazed and hardened from heat and excessive slippage.

BELT S L I P S

4. Replace faulty component bearing. 5. Replace belt.

"GROOVE JUMPING (BELT DOES NOT MAINTAIN CORRECT POSITION ON PULLEY)

55

1. Belt tension either too high or too low. 2. Incorrect belt. 3. Pulley(s) not within design tolerance. 4. Foreign object(s) in grooves. 4. Pulley misalignment. 5. Belt cordline is broken. 1. Excessive tension. 2. Incorrect belt. 3. Tensile member damaged during belt installation. 4. Severe misalignment. 5. Bracket, pulley, or bearing failure. 1. 2. 3. 4. Belt slippage. Bearing noise. Belt misalignment. Belt-to-pulley mismatch.

1. Replace automatic belt tensioner. 2. Replace belt. 3. Replace pulley(s). 4. Remove foreign objects from grooves. 4. Check and replace. 5. Replace belt. 1. Replace belt and automatic belt tensioner. 2. Replace belt. 3. Replace belt. 4. Check and replace. 5. Replace defective component and belt. 1. Replace belt or automatic belt tensioner. 2. Locate and repair. 3. Replace belt. 4. Install correct belt.
J9507-27

BELT BROKEN (NOTE; IDENTIFY AND CORRECT P R O B L E M B E F O R E N E W BELT IS INSTALLED)

NOISE (OBJECTIONAL SQUEAL, SQUEAK, OR R U M B L E IS HEARD OR FELT WHILE DRIVE BELT IS IN OPERATION)

7 - 56

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

BR

*IF VEHICLE IS NOT EQUIPPED WITH POWER STEERING, THIS WILL BE AN IDLER PULLEY.

J9307-26

J9307-56

Fig. 2 Belt Routing3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5,91 V-8 LDC-Gas Engines


AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

Fig. 4 Belt Routing5.9L HDC-Gas Engine and 8.0 L


-10Without A/C

POWER STEERING PUMP IS NOT BELT DRIVEN

39307-55 Fig. 3 Belt Routing5.9L HDC-Gas Engine W'10With A/C and 8.0 L Fig. 5 Belt Routing5.9L Diesel EngineWith A/C
INSTALLATlOi

tioning. For more information, refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner, proceeding in this group. (1) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 7). (2) Rotate tensioner assembly clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (3) Remove belt from idler pulley first. (4) Remove belt from vehicle.

CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, en gine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Fig. 2) for correct engine belt routing. The correct belt with. correct length must be used.

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POWER STEERING PUMP IS NOT BELT DRIVEN

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS

7 - 57

(4) Check belt indexing marks. Refer to the pro ceeding Automatic Belt Tensioner for more belt infor mation.
5,BL HDC-GAS AND 8.0L V-10 ENGINES

iEiOWAL
Drive belts are equipped with a spring loaded au tomatic belt tensioner (Fig. 8). This belt tensioner will be used on all belt configurations, such as with or without power steering or air conditioning. For more information, refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner, proceeding in this group.
PULLEY IDLER

BOLT AUTOMATIC TENSIONER

AlUik

PULLEY

TENSIONER MOUNTING BOLT

J9307-58

Fig. 6 Belt Routing5.9L Diesel EngineWithout A/C


IDLER \JJ

TENSIONER

J9307-64

Fig. 8 Belt Tensioner5.9L HDC-Gas and 8.0L V-10 EnginesTypical

(1) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 8). The threads on the pulley mounting bolt are left- hand. (2) Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the tensioner counterclockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 8). When all belt tension has been relaxed, re move belt from tensioner pulley first and other pul leys last.
Fig. 7 Belt Tensioner3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines

I N S T A L L A T I O N
CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, en gine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Figs. 3 or 4) for correct engine belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used. CAUTION: If the pulley is to be removed from the tensioner, its mounting bolt has left-hand threads.

(1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except idler pulley. This pulley is located between generator and A/C compressor. (2) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 7). (3) Rotate socket/wrench clockwise. Place belt over idler pulley. Let tensioner rotate back into place. Re move wrench. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys.

7 - 58

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS

B R

(1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except ten sioner pulley. (2) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 8). (3) Rotate socket/wrench counterclockwise. Install belt over tensioner pulley. Let tensioner rotate back into place. Remove wrench. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys.
5.9L DIESEL REMOWAL ENGINE

(1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except wa ter pump pulley. (2) Attach a 3/8 inch ratchet to tensioner. (3) Rotate ratchet and belt tensioner counterclock wise. Place belt over water pump pulley. Let ten sioner rotate back into place. Remove ratchet. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys. AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER Drive belts on all engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Figs. 10, 11 or 12). This belt tensioner will be used with all belt configurations, such as with or without power steer ing or air conditioning.
Caution: Do not attempt to check belt tension with a belt tension gauge on vehicles equipped with an automatic belt tensioner.

Drive belts on diesel engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 9). Fig u r e i displays the tensioner for vehicles with out air conditioning. This belt tensioner will be used on all belt configu rations, such as with or without air conditioning. For more information, refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner, proceeding in this group.

Fig. 9 Beit Tensioner5.91 DieselTypical (non-A/C shown)

(1) A 3/8 inch square hole is provided in the auto matic belt tensioner (Fig. 9). Attach a 3/8 inch drivelong handle ratchet to this hole. (2) Rotate ratchet and tensioner assembly counter clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (3) Remove belt from water pump pulley first. (4) * Remove belt from vehicle.
INSTALLATION CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, en gine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Figs. 5 or 6) for correct engine belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used.

Fig. 10 Beit Tensioner3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines

On 3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-gas engines, the tensioner is equipped with an indexing arrow (Fig. 13) on back of tensioner and an indexing mark on tensioner housing. If a new belt is being installed, ar row must be within approximately 3 mm (1/8 in.) of indexing mark (point B-figure 13). Belt is considered new if it has been used 15 minutes or less. If this specification cannot be met, check for: The wrong belt being installed (incorrect length/ width) Worn bearings on an engine accessory (A/C com pressor, power steering pump, water pump, idler pul ley or generator) A pulley on an engine accessory being loose Misalignment of an engine accessory

B R

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


TENSIONER ASSEMBLY

7 - 59

INDEXING ARROW

Fig, If Belt Tensioner5.9L HDC-Gas and 8.0L -10 Engines

Fig. 13 Indexing Marks3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines

(3) Remove ignition coil from coil mounting bracket (two bolts). Do not remove coil mounting bracket from cylinder head. (4) Remove tensioner assembly from mounting bracket (one nut) (Fig. 13).
WARNING: BECAUSE O F HIGH SPRING P R E S SURE, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO D I S A S S E M B L E AUTO MATIC TENSIONER. UNIT IS S E R V I C E D A S AN A S S E M B L Y ( E X C E P T FOR P U L L E Y ) . Fig. 12 Belt Tensioner6.91 DieselTypical (non-A/C shown)

Belt incorrectly routed. Refer to figures 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 On 3.9L V-6 or 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-gas engines, a used belt should be replaced if tensioner indexing ar row has moved to point-A (Fig. 13). Tensioner travel stops at point-A.
3 . 9 L V-6 OR 5.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-GAS ENGINES

(5) Remove pulley bolt. Remove pulley from ten sioner.

liSTALLATIOI
(1) Install pulley and pulley bolt to tensioner. Tighten bolt to 61 N-m (45 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. An indexing tab is located on back of tensioner. Align this tab to slot in mounting bracket. Tighten nut to 67 N-m (50 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Connect all wiring to ignition coil. (4) Install coil to coil bracket. If nuts and bolts are used to secure coil to coil bracket, tighten to 11 N-m (100 in. lbs.) torque. If coil mounting bracket has been tapped for coil mounting bolts, tighten bolts to 5 N-m (50 in. lbs.) torque.

iEiOWAL
(1) Remove accessory drive belt. Refer to Belt Re moval/Installation in this group. (2) Disconnect wiring and secondary cable from ig nition coil.

7 - 81

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS

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BELT TENSIONER

CAUTION: To prevent damage to coll case, coil mounting bolts must be torqued.

(5) Install drive belt. Refer to Belt Removal/Instal lation in this group. (6) Check belt indexing marks (Fig. 13).
S.BL HDC-GAS AMD 8.0L -10 ENGINES

IEiOWAL

(1) Remove accessory drive belt. Refer to Belt Re moval/Installation in this group. (2) Remove tensioner mounting bolt (Fig. 11) and remove tensioner.
CAUTION: If the pulley is to be removed from the tensioner, its mounting bolt has left-hand threads. WARNING: B E C A U S E OF HIGH S P R I N G P R E S S U R E , DO NOT ATTEMPT TO D I S A S S E M B L E AUTO MATIC TENSIONER. UNIT IS SERVICED AS AN A S S E M B L Y ( E X C E P T FOR P U L L E Y ) . INSTALLATION
DOWEL PIN J9307-<

Fig. 14 Tensioner Dowel Pin5.9L HDC-Gas and 8.0L V-10 Engines

(1) Install pulley and pulley bolt to tensioner (ob serve the previous CAUTION). Tighten bolt to 88 N-m (65 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. A dowel pin is located on back of tensioner (Fig. 14). Align this to dowel hole (Fig. 15) in tensioner mount ing bracket. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Install drive belt. Refer to Belt Removal/Instal lation in this group.
5.9L DIESEL iEiOWAL ENGINE Fig. 15 Tensioner Dowel Hole5.9L HDC-Gas and 8.0L V-10 Engines INSTALLATION

(1) Remove accessory drive belt. Refer to Belt Re moval/Installation in this group. (2) Remove tensioner mounting bolt (Fig. 12) and remove tensioner.
WARNING: B E C A U S E OF HIGH S P R I N G P R E S S U R E , DO NOT ATTEMPT TO D I S A S S E M B L E AUTO MATIC TENSIONER. UNIT IS S E R V I C E D AS AM A S S E M B L Y ( E X C E P T FOR P U L L E Y ) .

(1) Install pulley to tensioner. (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. A dowel is located on back of tensioner. Align this dowel to hole in tensioner mounting bracket. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Install drive belt. Refer to Belt Removal/Instal lation in this group.

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ENGINE BLOCI HEATERS

7 - 81

ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS


DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION An optional engine Mock heater is available with for all models. The heater is equipped with a power cord. The cord is attached to an engine compartment component with tie-straps. The heater warms the en gine providing easier engine starting and faster warm-up in low temperatures. The heater is mounted in a core hole of the engine cylinder block (in place of a freeze plug) with the heating element immersed in engine coolant. Connect the power cord to a grounded 110-120 volt AC electrical outlet with a grounded, three wire extension cord.
WARNING: DO NOT OPERATE ENGINE U N L E S S B L O C K HEATER CORD HAS B E E N DISCONNECTED FROM P O W E R S O U R C E AND S E C U R E D IN P L A C E . THE P O W E R CORD MUST B E S E C U R E D IN ITS R E TAINING C L I P S AND ROUTED AWAY FROM E X HAUST MANIFOLDS AND MOVING PARTS.

The 3.9L/5.2L/5.9L gas powered engine has the block heater located on the right side of engine next to the oil filter (Fig. 1). The 8.0L V-10 engine has the block heater located on the right side of engine next to the engine oil dip stick tube (Fig. 2). The 5.9L diesel engine has the block heater located on the right side of the engine below the exhaust manifold (Fig. 3).

HEATER

J9407-43

Fig. 2 Engine Block Heater8.0L V-10 Engine

Fig. 3 Engine Block Heater5.9L Diesel Engine

Fig. 1 Engine Block Heater3.9U5.2U5.9L Powered Engine

Gas

REMOVAL (1) Disconnect negative battery cable(s) from batteryGs). (2) Drain coolant from radiator and cylinder block. (3) Remove power cord from heater by unplugging (Figs. 1 or 2). On the diesel engine, the cord is con nected to the heater with a knurled cap. Unscrew this cap for cord removal. (4) Loosen (but do not completely remove) the screw at center of block heater (Fig. 1 or 2). On the diesel engine, an alien headed screw is used. (5) Remove block heater from engine by carefully prying from side-to-side. When removing block

7 - 62

ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS

_.

_ _ _

BR

heater, note direction of heating element coil (up or down). Element coil must be installed correctly to prevent damage. INSTALLATION (1) Thoroughly clean the cylinder block freeze plug hole and block heater seat. (2) Install new o-ring seal(s) to heater.

(3) Insert block heater into cylinder block. (4) With heater fully seated, tighten center screw. (5) Fill cooling system with recommended coolant. Refer to Refilling Cooling System section in this group. (6) Start and warm the engine. (7) Check block heater for leaks.

BR

COOLING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

7 - 63

SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL INFORMATION The following specifications are published from the latest information available at the time of publica tion. If anything differs between t h e specifica tions found on t h e Vehicle Emission Control Information (VECI) label a n d t h e following specifications? use specifications on VECI label. The VECI label is located in the engine compart ment. DRIVE BELT TENSION All engines are equipped with a spring loaded au tomatic belt tensioner. Do not attempt to check belt tension with a belt tension gauge on vehicles equipped with an automatic belt tensioner. Refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner in this group.
COOLANT CAPACITIES

3.9L/5.2L/5.9L Gas Engines 8.0L Engine

19 Liters . (20 Qts. or 5.0 Gals.) 25 Liters (26 Qts. or 6.5 Gals.) 23 Liters (24 Qts. or 6.0 Gals.)

5.9L Diesel Engine

* Nominal refill capacities are shown. A variation may be observed from vehicle to vehicle due to manufacturing tolerances and refill procedures. * Capacities shown include vehicles with air conditioning and or heavy-duty cooling systems.

J9407-21

TORQUE Description _ j cription Radiator Mounting Bolts . . . . . . . . Thermal Viscous Fan-to-Hub-DoesI Engine . Thermostat Housing Bolts All Gas Engines Except 8.0L V-10 . Thermostat Housing Bolts 8.0LV-10. Thermostat Housing Bolts Diesel Engine Water Pump Mounting Bolts All Gas Engines Water Pump Pulley Bolts All Gas Engines Water Pump Mounting Bolts Diesel Engine Torque) ^"""1

Automatic Belt Tensioner Pulley Bolt 3.9L/5.2L/5.9L LDC Gas Engine . . . 61 Nm (45 ft. lbs.) Automatic Belt Tensioner Pulley Bolt 5.9L HDC Gets and S.OL V-10 Engine 88 N*m (65 ft. lbs.) Automatic Belt Tensioner-to-Mounting Bracket-3.9L/5.2L/5.9l LDC Gas Engine 67Nm (50 ft. lbs.) Automatic Belt Tensioner-to-Mounting Bracket 5.9L HDC Gas and S.OL V-10 Engines . 41 Nm (30 ft lbs.) Fan Shroud-to-Radiator Mounting Bolts . 6 N*m (50 in. lbs.) Heater Hose Fitting at Water Pump 8.0L V-10 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hose Clamps Idler Pulley Mounting Bolt All Gas Engines . 16 Nm {1441n. lbs.) 4 Nm (34 in. lbs.) 61 Nm (45 ft. lbs.)

11 N*m(95 in. lbs.) 57N*itt(42 ft. lbs.) 23 N*m (200 in. lbs.) 25Nm(220 in. lbs.) 24N*m(18ft. lbs.) 4 0 N # m ( 3 0 ft. lbs.) 22Nm(16ft. lbs.) 24 N<m (18 ft. lbs.)

J9407-20

BR

ELECTRICAL

8A

ELECTRICAL
GROUP group INDEX group

AUDIO SYSTEMS . . . 8F BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE . . . . 8B BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS . . . 8A CHIME/BUZZER WARNING SYSTEMS . . . 8U HORNS . . . 8G IGNITION SYSTEMS . . . 8D INSTRUMENT PANEL AND GAUGES . . . 8E LAMPS . . . 8L OVERHEAD CONSOLE . . . 8C

POWER LOCKS POWER MIRRORS POWER SEATS POWER WINDOWS RESTRAINT SYSTEMS TURN SIGNAL AND HAZARD WARNING SYSTEMS VEHICLE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM WIPER AND WASHER SYSTEMS WIRING DIAGRAMS

8P . . . . 8T . . . . 8R 8S 8M . . 8J . . . . 8H . . . 8K . . . 8W

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


CONTENTS page page

BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM IGNITION-OFF DRAW

.... 2 ...18 . . . 10

SPECiFlClTiOlS STARTING SYSTE1 USING ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM

...23 ...11 . . . 22

GENERAL INFORMATION The battery, starting, and charging systems operate with one another; therefore, they must be tested as a complete system. In order for the vehicle to start and charge properly, all of the components involved in these systems must perform within specifications. Group 8A covers battery, starting (Fig. 1) and charging (Fig. 2) system diagnostic procedures. These procedures include the most basic conventional diag nostic methods, to On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) built into the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Use of an induction milliamp ammeter, volt/ohmmeter, battery charger, carbon pile rheostat (load tester), and 12volt test lamp will be required. All OBD-sensed systems are monitored by the PCM. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos tic Trouble Code (DTC). The PCM will store a DTC in electronic memory for any failure it detects. See Us-

IGNITION SWITCH
r

CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH

1 |

''^PARK/NEUTRAL P O S I T I O N ^
SWITCH . | .^.^.J

STARTER RELAY

J958A-13

Fig. 1 Starting System Components - Typical

ing On-Board Diagnostic System in this group for more information.

BATTERY
GENERAL INFORMATION The storage battery is a device used to store electrical energy potential in a chemical form. When an electrical load 'is applied to the battery terminals, an electrochem ical reaction occurs within the battery. This reaction causes the battery to discharge electrical current. The battery is made up of 6 individual cells that are connected in series. Each cell contains positively charged plate groups made of lead oxide, and nega tively charged plate groups made of sponge lead. These dissimilar metal plates are submerged in a sulfuric acid and water solution called electrolyte. As the battery discharges, a .gradual chemical change takes place within each cell. The sulfuric acid in the electrolyte combines with the plate materials, causing both plates to change to lead sulfate. At the same time, oxygen from the positive plate material combines with hydrogen from the sulfuric acid, caus ing the electrolyte to become mainly water. The chemical changes within the battery are caused by movement of excess or free electrons between the positive and negative plate groups. This movement of electrons produces a flow of electrical current through the load device attached to the battery terminals. As the plate materials become more * similar chem ically, and the electrolyte becomes less acid, the volt age potential of each cell is reduced. However, by charging the battery with a voltage higher than that of the battery, the process is reversed. Charging the battery gradually changes the sulfated lead plates back into sponge lead and lead oxide, and the water back into sulfuric acid. This action restores the difference in electron charges deposited on the plates, and the voltage potential of the battery cells. For a battery to remain useful, it must be able to produce high-amperage current over an extended pe riod. A battery must also be able to accept a charge, so that its voltage potential may be restored. In addition to producing and storing electrical en ergy, the battery serves as a capacitor or voltage sta bilizer for the vehicle electrical system. It absorbs abnormal or transient voltages caused by switching of any of the vehicle's electrical components.

mm

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS

8A - 3

The battery is vented to release excess gas that is created when the battery is being charged or dis charged. However, even with these vents, hydrogen gas can collect in or around the battery. If hydrogen gm is exposed to flame or sparks, it can ignite. If the electrolyte level is low, the battery could arc in ternally and explode. If the battery is equipped with re movable cell caps, add distilled water whenever the electrolyte level is below the top of the plates. If the bat tery cell caps cannot be removed, the battery must be replaced when the electrolyte level is low.
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO A S S I S T BOOST, CHARGE, OR T E S T BATTERY W H E N E L E C T R O LYTE L E V E L IS B E L O W THE TOP OF THE P L A T E S . P E R S O N A L INJURY MAY OCCUR.

.BATTERY RATINGS Currently, there are 2 commonly accepted methods for rating and comparing battery performance. These rat ings are called Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA), and Re serve Capacity (RC). Be certain that a replacement battery has CCA and RC ratings that equal or exceed the original equipment specification for the vehicle be ing serviced. See Battery Classifications and Ratings charts in Specifications at the back of this group.
COLD CRANKING AMPERAGE

The Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating speci fies how much current (in amperes) the battery can deliver for 30 seconds at -17.7C (0F). Terminal volt age must not fall below 7.2 volts during or after the 30 second discharge. The CCA required is generally higher as engine displacement increases, depending also upon the starter current draw requirements.
RESERVE CAPACITY

The Reserve Capacity (RC) rating specifies the time (in minutes) it takes for battery terminal volt age to fall below 10.2 volts at a discharge rate of 25 amps. RC is determined with the battery fullycharged at 26.7C (80F). This rating estimates how long the battery might last after a charging system failure, under minimum electrical load. DIAGNOSIS The battery must be completely charged and the top, posts, and terminal clamps should be properly cleaned before diagnostic procedures are performed. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Ser vice for more information. Models equipped with the diesel engine op tion are equipped with two 12-volt batteries connected in parallel (positive-to-positive/nega tive-to-negative). The secondary battery on the passenger side is dedicated to providing cur rent for the operation of the intake manifold

air heater. The primary battery on the driver's side is dedicated to all other vehicle electrical requirements. In order to ensure accurate diag nostic results, these batteries MUST be discon nected from each other as well as from the vehicle electrical system when being tested. The condition of a battery is determined by two cri teria: (1) State-Of-Charge - This can be determined by viewing the built-in test indicator, by checking spe cific gravity of the electrolyte (hydrometer test), or by checking battery voltage (open circuit voltage test). (2) Cranking Capacity - This can be determined by performing a battery load test, which measures the abil ity of the battery to supply high-amperage current. If the battery has a built-in test indicator, use this test first. If it has no test indicator, but has remov able cell caps, perform the hydrometer test first. If cell caps are not removable, or a hydrometer is not available, perform the open circuit voltage test first. The battery must be charged before proceeding with a load test if: the built-in test indicator has a black or dark color visible the temperature corrected specific gravity is less than 1.235 the open circuit voltage is less than 12.4 volts. A battery that will not accept a charge is faulty and further testing is not required. A battery that is fully-charged, but does not pass the load test is faulty and must be replaced. Completely discharged batteries may take several hours to accept a charge. See Charging Completely Discharged Battery. A battery is fully-charged when: all cells are gassing freely during charging a green color is visible in the sight glass of the built-in test indicator three corrected specific gravity tests, taken at 1-hour intervals, indicate no increase in specific gravity open circuit voltage is 12.4 volts or greater.
ABNORMAL BATTERY DISCHARGING

Any of the following conditions can result in abnor mal battery discharging: (1) Corroded battery posts and terminals. (2) Loose or worn generator drive belt. (3) Electrical loads that exceed the output of the charging system, possibly due to equipment installed after manufacture or repeated short trip use. (4) Slow driving speeds (heavy traffic conditions) or prolonged idling with high-amperage draw systems in use. (5) Faulty circuit or component causing excessive ignition-off draw. See Ignition-Off Draw in this group for diagnosis. (6) Faulty charging system. (7) Faulty or incorrect battery.

- 4

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


BATTERY DIAGNOSIS

BATTERY SEEMS W E A K OR DEAD?

YES

IS THIS THE CORRECT BATTERY FOR THIS VEHICLE? REFER TO SPECIFICATIONS, IN THIS GROUP. YES

NO

REPLACE W I T H CORRECT BATTERY.

ARE BATTERY POSTS TIGHT A N D IS BATTERY CASE FREE OF DAMAGE OR LEAKS? YES ARE BATTERY CONNECTIONS CLEAN A N D TIGHT YES

NO

REPLACE DAMAGED BATTERY.

NO

CLEAN A N D TIGHTEN A S REQUIRED. DONE

IS BATTERY FULLY CHARGED? REFER TO TEST INDICATOR, HYDROMETER TEST, OR O P E N CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST, IN THIS GROUP. YES

NO

CHARGE BATTERY DOES BATTERY ACCEPT A CHARGE? REFER TO BATTERY C H A R G I N G , IN THIS GROUP.

NO

REPLACE FAILED BATTERY.

WILL BATTERY PASS A LOAD TEST? REFER TO LOAD TEST, IN THIS GROUP. YES

NO

t
BATTERY STILL S E E M S W E A K OR DEAD W H E N STARTING? YES REFER TO STARTER D I A G N O S I S , IN THIS GROUP. J958A-1 NO REFER TO ABNORMAL BATTERY DISCHARGING, IN THIS GROUP.

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


BUILT-IN TEST INDICATOR

8A - 5

A test indicator (hydrometer) built into the top of the battery case, provides visual information for bat tery testing (Fig. 3). It is important when using the test indicator that the battery be level and have a clean sight glass to see correct indications. Additional light may be required to view indicator.
WARNING: DO NOT U S E OPEN FLASHE A S A S O U R C E O F ADDITIONAL LIGHT FOR VIEWING T E S T INDICATOR. E X P L O S I V E HYDROGEN G A S MAY B E P R E S E N T IN THE A R E A SURROUNDING BATTERY.

may be caused by an over-charging condition. See Charging System in this group to diagnose an over charging condition.
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CHARGE, TEST, OR A S S I S T BOOST BATTERY W H E N Y E L L O W OR BRIGHT COLOR I S V I S I B L E IN SIGHT G L A S S OF T E S T INDICATOR. LOW ELECTROLYTE L E V E L CAN A L L O W BATTERY TO ARC INTERNALLY AND EX PLODE. P E R S O N A L INJURY MAY OCCUR.
TEST INDIGATOR/STATE-OF-CHARGE 100% 75% O LOW ELECTROLYTE

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GREEN

BLACK

YELLOW J958A-6

Fig. 4 Built-in Test Indicator Sight Glass HYDROMETER Fig. 3 Built-in Test Indicator TEST

Like a hydrometer, the built-in test indicator mea sures the specific gravity of the electrolyte. Specific gravity will indicate battery state-of-charge. How ever, the test indicator will not indicate cranking ca pacity of the battery. See Load Test in this group for more information. Look into the sight glass and note the color of the indicator (Fig. 4). See the following description, as the color indicates: GREEN - indicates 75% to 100% state-of-charge. The battery is adequately charged for further test ing or return to use. If the vehicle will not crank for a minimum of 15 seconds with a fully-charged bat tery, perform Load Test. BLACK OR DARK - indicates 0% to 75% state-ofcharge. The battery is inadequately charged and must be charged until green indicator (Fig. 4) is visible in sight glass (12.4 volts or more) before the battery is tested further or returned to use. See Abnormal Bat tery Discharging in this group to diagnose cause of discharged condition. YELLOW OR BRIGHT - indicates low electrolyte level. The electrolyte level in the battery is below test in dicator. A maintenance-free battery with non-remov able cell caps must be replaced if electrolyte level is low. Water can be added to a low-maintenance bat tery with removable cell caps. A low electrolyte level

The hydrometer test reveals the battery state-ofcharge by measuring the specific gravity of the elec trolyte. This test cannot be performed on batteries with non-removable cell caps. If battery has non-re movable cell caps, see Built-in Test Indicator or Open Circuit Voltage Test. Specific gravity is a comparison of the density of the electrolyte to the density of pure water. Pure wa ter has a specific gravity of 1.000, and sulfuric acid has a specific gravity of 1.835. Sulfuric acid makes up approximately 35% of the electrolyte by weight, or 24% by volume. In a fully-charged battery the electrolyte will have a temperature corrected specific gravity of 1.260 to 1.290. However, a specific gravity of 1.235 or above is satisfactory for battery load testing and/or return to service. Before testing, visually inspect battery for any damage (cracked case or cover, loose posts, etc.) that would cause the battery to be faulty. Then remove cell caps and check electrolyte level. Add distilled wa ter if electrolyte level is below the top of the battery plates. To use the hydrometer correctly, hold it with the top surface of the electrolyte at eye level. Refer to the hydrometer manufacturer's instructions for correct use of hydrometer. Remove only enough electrolyte from the battery so the float is off the bottom of the hydrometer barrel with pressure on the bulb re leased.

8A - 6

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS (1) Before measuring open circuit voltage the sur face charge must be removed from the battery. Turn headlamps on for 15 seconds, then allow up to 5 min utes for voltage to stabilize. (2) Remove both battery cables, negative first. On diesel engine models with dual batteries, each bat tery must be disconnected and tested separately from the other. (3) Using a voltmeter connected to the battery posts (refer to instructions provided with voltmeter) measure open circuit voltage (Fig. 5). See Open Circuit Voltage chart. This voltage read ing will indicate state-of-charge, but will not reveal cranking capacity. If a battery has an open circuit voltage reading of 12.4 volts or greater, it may be load tested. A battery that will not endure a load test is faulty and must be replaced.
OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE

Exercise care when inserting the tip of the hydrom eter into a cell to avoid damaging the plate separa tors. Damaged plate separators can cause premature battery failure. Hydrometer floats are generally calibrated to indi cate the specific gravity correctly only at 26.7C (80F). When testing the specific gravity at any other temperature, a correction factor is required. The correction factor is approximately a specific gravity value of 0.004, referred to as 4 points of spe cific gravity. For each 5.5C above 26.7C (10F above 80F), add 4 points. For each 5.5C below 26.7C (10F below 80F), subtract 4 points. Always correct the specific gravity for temperature variation. Test the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each battery cell. Example: A battery is tested at -12.2C (10F) and has a specific gravity of 1.240. Determine the actual specific gravity as follows: (1) Determine the number of degrees above or be low 26.7C (80F): 26.6C - -12.2C = 38.8C (80F - 10F = 70F) (2) Divide the result from step 1 by 5.5 (10): 38.8C/5.5 = 7 (70F/10 = 7) (3) Multiply the result from step 2 by the temper ature correction factor (0.004): 7 x 0.004 = 0.028 (4) The temperature at testing was below 26.7C (80F); therefore, the temperature correction is sub tracted: 1.240 - 0.028 = 1.212 The corrected specific gravity of the battery in this example is 1.212. If the specific gravity of all cells is above 1.235, but variation between cells is more than 50 points (0.050), the battery should be replaced. If the specific gravity of one or more cells is less than 1.235, charge the battery at a rate of approxi mately 5 amperes. Continue charging until 3 consec utive specific gravity tests, taken at 1-hour intervals, are constant. If the cell specific gravity variation is more than 50 points (0.050) at the end of the charge period, replace the battery. When the specific gravity of all cells is above 1.235, and cell variation is less than 50 points (0.050), the battery may be load tested.
OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST

Open Circuit its 11.7 volts or less 12.0 12.2 12.4 12.6 or more 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 928A-3

898A-7 Fig. 5 Testing Open Circuit Voltage LOAD TEST

A battery open circuit voltage (no load) test will show state-of-charge of a battery. This test can be used in place of the hydrometer test if a hydrometer is not available, or for maintenance-free batteries with non-removable cell caps. Before proceeding with this test or load test, completely charge battery as described in Bat tery Charging in this group. Test battery open circuit voltage as follows:

A battery load test will verify battery cranking ca pacity. The test is based on the Cold Cranking Am perage (CCA) rating of the battery. See Battery Classifications and Ratings chart in Specifications, at the back of this group.
WARNING; IF BATTERY S H O W S S I G N S OF F R E E Z ING, LEAKING, L O O S E P O S T S , OR L O W E L E C T R O LYTE L E V E L , DO NOT LOAD TEST. P E R S O N A L INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.

BR

BATTERY/ST1RTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS

8A - 7

Before performing load test, the battery must be FULLY-CHARGED. (1) Remove both battery cables, negative first. Bat tery top and posts should be clean. (2) Connect a suitable volt-ammeter-load tester (Fig. 6) to the battery posts (Fig. 7). Refer to operat ing instructions provided with the tester being used. Check the open circuit voltage (no load) of the bat tery. Open circuit voltage must be 12.4 volts or greater.

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Battery

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898A-8

Fig. 6 Volt-Amps-Load Tester - Typical


INDUCTION AMMETER CLAMP NEGATIVE CLAMP

898All Fig. 9 Load 50% CCA Rating - Note Voltage

POSITIVE CLAMP

charged, boosted, or loaded a few minutes prior to test, the battery will be somewhat warmer. See Load Test Temperature chart for proper loaded voltage reading. (7) If the voltmeter reading falls below 9.6 volts, at a minimum battery temperature of 21C (70F), re place the battery.
J948A-13 LOAD TEST TEMPERATURE

Fig. 7 Volt-Ammeter-Load Tester Connections

Minimum Voltage

(3) Rotate the load control knob (carbon pile rheo stat) to apply a 300 amp load for 15 seconds, then re turn the control knob to OFF (Fig. 8). This will remove the surface charge from the battery. (4) Allow the battery to stabilize to open circuit voltage. It may take up to 5 minutes for voltage to stabilize. (5) Rotate the load control knob to maintain a load equal to 50% of CCA rating (Fig. 9). After 15 seconds, record the loaded voltage reading, then return the load control knob to OFF. (6) Voltage drop will vary with battery tempera ture at the time of the load test. Battery temperature can be estimated by the ambient temperature over the past several hours. If the battery has been

P
9.6
9.5 9.4 70 and above

e
21 and above 16 10 4 -1

9.3
9.1

8.9

8.7
8.5

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

~7
-12

-18
J908A4

81 - 8

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS Some battery chargers are equipped with polarity sensing circuitry. This circuitry protects the charger and/or battery from being damaged if improperly con nected. If the battery state-of-charge is too low for the po larity sensing circuitry to detect, the charger will not operate. This makes it appear that the battery will not accept charging current. Refer to instructions provided with the battery charger being used to by pass the polarity sensing circuitry.
BATTERY CHARGING TIME TABLE

BATTERY CHARGING A battery is fully-charged when: all cells are gassing freely during charging a green color is visible in sight glass of built-in test indicator three corrected specific gravity tests, taken at 1-hour intervals, indicate no increase in specific grav ity open circuit voltage is 12.4 volts or above.
WARNING: DO NOT A S S I S T BOOST OR C H A R G E A BATTERY THAT HAS LOW ELECTROLYTE L E V E L OR IS F R O Z E N . BATTERY MAY A R C INTERNALLY AND E X P L O D E , WARNING: E X P L O S I V E HYDROGEN G A S F O R M S IN AND AROUND BATTERY* DO NOT SMOKE, USE FLAME, OR CREATE S P A R K S NEAR BATTERY. WARNING: POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. BATTERY CONTAINS S U L F U R I C ACID. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN, E Y E S , OR CLOTHING. IN EVENT OF CON TACT, F L U S H WITH WATER AND CALL PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. K E E P OUT OF REACH OF CHIL DREN. CAUTION: Always disconnect the battery negative cable before charging battery to avoid damage to electrical system components. Do not exceed 16.0 volts while charging battery.

Charging Amperage Open Circuit Voltage 12.25to12.39 12.00 to 12.24 11.95to12.09 10.00 to 11.95 10.00to0

5 Amps 10 Amps 20 Amps H@urs Charging at 21C 6Hrs. 3Hrs. 1.5 Hr. 4Hrs. 2Hrs. 8Hrs. 6Hrs. 12Hrs. 3 Hrs. 14Hrs. 7Hrs. 3.5 H s. | See Charging Completely Discharged Battery
1

928A-19

After the battery has been charged to 12.4 volts or greater, perform a load test to determine cranking capacity. If the battery will endure a load test, return the battery to use. If the battery will not endure a load test, it must be replaced. Clean and inspect battery holddowns, tray, termi nals, posts, and top before completing service. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service for more information.
emMmmiNG t i m e REQUIRED

Models equipped with the diesel engine op tion are equipped with two 12-volt batteries connected in parallel (positive-to-positive/nega tive-to-negative). The secondary battery on the passenger side is dedicated to providing cur rent for the operation of the intake manifold air heater. The primary battery on the driver's side is dedicated to all other vehicle electrical requirements. In order to ensure proper charg ing of each battery, these batteries MUST be disconnected from each other as well as from the vehicle electrical system while being charged. Battery electrolyte will bubble inside battery case during normal battery charging. If the electrolyte boils, or is discharged from the vent holes while charging, immediately reduce charging rate or turn OFF charger and evaluate battery condition. Battery should not be hot to the touch. If the battery feels hot to the touch, turn OFF charger and let battery cool before continuing charging operation.

The time required to charge a battery will vary, de pending upon the following factors: (1) Battery Capacity - A completely discharged heavy-duty battery requires twice the recharging time of a small capacity battery.
WARNING: NEVER E X C E E D 20 A M P S W H E N CHARGING A COLD (-1C*30F) BATTERY. PER SONAL INJURY MM RESULT.

(2) Temperature - A longer time will be needed to charge a battery at -18C (0F) than at 27C (80F). When a fast charger is connected to a cold battery, current accepted by the battery will be very low at first. As the battery warms, it will accept a higher charging current rate. (3) Charger Capacity - A charger that supplies only 5 amperes will require a longer charging time. A charger that supplies 20 amperes or more requires a shorter charging time. (4) State-Of-Charge - A completely discharged battery requires more charging time than a partially discharged battery. Electrolyte i s nearly pure water in a completely discharged battery. At first, the

BR

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS

8A- 9

charging current (amperage) will be low. As the bat tery charges, the specific gravity of the electrolyte will gradually rise.
CHARGING COMPLETELY BATTERY DISCHARGED

The following procedure should be used to recharge a completely discharged battery. Unless this proce dure is properly followed, a good battery may be needlessly replaced. (1) Measure voltage at battery posts with a voltme ter, accurate to 1/10 (0.10) volt (Fig. 10). If the read ing is below 10 volts, the charge current will be low. It could take some time before the battery accepts a current greater than a few milliamperes. Such low current may not be detectable on ammeters built into many chargers. (2) Disconnect battery negative cable. Connect charger leads. Some battery chargers are equipped with polarity sensing circuitry. This circuitry protects the charger and/or battery from being damaged if im properly connected. If the battery state-of-charge is too low for the polarity sensing circuitry to detect, the charger will not operate. This makes it appear that the battery will not accept charging current. Re fer to the instructions provided with the battery charger to bypass the polarity sensing circuitry. (3) Battery chargers vary in the amount of voltage and current they provide. The amount of time re quired for a battery to accept measurable charger current at various voltages is shown in Charge Rate chart. If charge current is still not measurable at end of charging times, the battery should be replaced.' If

898A12 Fig. 10 Voltmeter Accurate to 1/10 Volt Connected

charge current is measurable during charging time, the battery may be good and charging should be com pleted in the normal manner.
CHARGE RATE

Voltage 16.0 volts maximum 14.0 to 15.9 volts 13.9 volts or less

Hours

up to 4 hrs. up to 8 hrs. up to 16 hrs. J928A-6

8A -10

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


IGNITIONOFF

DRAW

GENERAL INFORMATION Ignition-Off Draw (10D) refers to power being drained from the battery with the ignition switch turned OFF. A normal vehicle electrical system will draw from 5 to 20 milliamps (0.005 - 0.020 amps). This is with the ignition switch in the OFF position, and all non-ignition controlled circuits in proper working order. The 20 milliamps are needed to sup ply PCM memory, digital clock memory, and electron ically-tuned radio memory. A vehicle that has not been operated for approxi mately 20 days, may discharge the battery to an in adequate level. When a vehicle will not be used for 20 days or more (stored), remove the IOD fuse in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). This will reduce battery discharging. Excessive battery drain can be caused by: electrical items left on faulty or improperly adjusted switches internally shorted generator intermittent shorts in the wiring. If the IOD is over 20 milliamps, the problem must be found and corrected before replacing a battery. In most cases, the battery can be charged and returned to service. .

DIAeiOSiS
Testing for high-amperage IOD must be per formed first to prevent damage to most milliamp meters. When testing a diesel engine-equipped vehicle (dual batteries), do not check IOD between bat teries. One battery may be at a higher state-ofcharge than the other, which will cause a high IOD between the batteries only. Remove nega tive cable from passenger side battery negative post prior to performing the IOD diagnosis out lined below. (1) Verify that all electrical accessories are off. Turn off all lamps, remove ignition key, and close all doors. If the vehicle is equipped with illuminated en try or electronically-tuned radio, allow the systems to automatically shut off (time out). This may take up to 3 minutes. (2) Determine that the underhood lamp is operat ing properly, then disconnect or remove bulb. (3) Disconnect negative cable from battery. (4) Connect a typical 12-volt test lamp (low-watt age bulb) between the negative cable clamp and the

battery negative terminal. Make sure that the doors remain closed so that illuminated entry is not acti vated. The test lamp may light brightly for up to 3 min utes, or may not light at all, depending upon the ve hicle's electrical equipment. The term brightly, as used throughout the following tests, implies the brightness of the test lamp will be * the same as if it were connected across the battery. The test lamp must be securely clamped to the neg ative cable clamp and battery negative terminal. If the test lamp becomes disconnected during any part of the IOD test, the electronic timer function will be activated and all tests must be repeated. (5) After 3 minutes the test lamp should turn off or be dimly lit, depending upon the vehicle's electri cal equipment. If the test lamp remains brightly lit, do not disconnect it. Remove each fuse or circuit breaker (refer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams) until test lamp is either off or dimly lit. This will isolate each circuit and identify the source of the high-am perage draw. If the test lamp is still brightly lit after disconnect ing each fuse and circuit breaker, disconnect the wir ing harness from the generator. If test lamp now turns off or is dimly lit, see Charging System in this group to diagnose faulty generator. Do not disconnect the test lamp. After high-amperage IOD has been corrected, lowamperage IOD may be checked. It is now safe to in stall a milliamp meter to check for low- amperage IOD. (6) With test lamp still connected securely, clamp a milliamp meter between battery negative terminal and negative cable clamp. Do not open any doors or turn on any electri cal accessories with the test lamp disconnected or the milliamp meter may be damaged. (7) Disconnect test lamp. Observe milliamp meter. The current draw should not exceed 0.020 amp. If draw exceeds 20 milliamps, isolate each circuit by re moving circuit breakers and fuses. The milliamp meter reading will drop when the source of the draw is disconnected. Repair this circuit as necessary, whether a wiring short, incorrect switch adjustment or a component failure is found.

BR

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


STARTING SYSTEM

8A -11

GENERAL INFORMATION The starting system (Fig. 11) consists of: ignition switch starter relay park/neutral position switch (automatic transmis sion) clutch pedal position switch (manual transmission) wiring harness and connections battery starter with an integral solenoid.
SOLENOID TERMINAL NEGATIVE

IGNITION SWITCH

CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH (MAN. TRANSMISSION ONLY)

GROUND, CIRCUIT

PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH (AUTO. TRANS. ONLY) THIS CIRCUIT GROUNDED

AT ALL TIMES (MAN. TRANS. ONLY)

958A-T

Fig, 11 Starting System Components - Typical

Following is a general description of the major starting system components. Refer to Group 8W Wiring Diagrams for complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. These components form 2 separate circuits. A highamperage feed circuit that feeds the starter up to 300+ amps (700 amps-diesel engine), and a low-am perage control circuit that operates on less than 20 amps. If the vehicle is equipped with an automatic trans mission, battery voltage is supplied through the lowamperage control circuit to the coil battery terminal of the starter relay when the ignition switch is turned to the START position. If the vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission, it also has a

clutch pedal position switch. The clutch pedal posi tion switch supplies battery voltage to the coil bat tery terminal of the starter relay only if the clutch pedal is depressed while the ignition switch is turned to the START position. If the vehicle is equipped with an automatic trans mission, the park/neutral position switch provides a ground path to the starter relay coil ground terminal. This switch provides ground only with the transmis sion in NEUTRAL or PARK. If the vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission, the starter re lay coil ground terminal is always grounded. With the starter relay coil now energized, the nor mally open relay contacts close. The relay contacts connect the relay common feed terminal to the relay normally open terminal. The closed relay contacts en ergize the starter solenoid coil windings. The energized solenoid coils pull-in and hold-in the solenoid plunger. The solenoid plunger pulls the shift lever in the starter. This engages the starter overrun ning clutch and pinion gear with the flywheel/drive plate ring gear. As the solenoid plunger reaches the end of its travel, the solenoid contact disc completes the highamperage starter feed circuit. Current now flows be tween the solenoid battery terminal and the starter motor, energizing the starter. Once the engine starts, the overrunning clutch pro tects the starter from damage by allowing the starter pinion gear to spin faster than the pinion shaft. When the driver releases the ignition switch to the ON position the starter relay coil is de-energized. This causes the relay contacts to open. When the re lay contacts open, the starter solenoid coil is de-ener gized. When the solenoid coil is de-energized, the solenoid plunger return spring returns the plunger to its re laxed position. This causes the contact disc to open the starter feed circuit, and the shift lever to disen gage the overrunning clutch and pinion gear from the ring gear. The starter motor and solenoid are serviced only as a complete assembly. If either component fails, the entire assembly must be replaced. DIAGNOSIS Before removing any unit from the starting system for repair, perform the following inspections:
INSPECTION

BATTERY IlSPECTiOl To determine condition of the battery, see Battery in this group.

81-12

BATTEif /STAiTIil/CHlRGiiG 8YSTE1S DIAGNOSTICS


SOLENOli, RELAY AND SWITCH I1SPECTI0NS

- B R

WIRING INSPECTION

Inspect wiring for damage. Inspect all connections at: starter solenoid park/neutral position switch (automatic transmis sion) clutch pedal position switch (manual transmission) ignition switch starter relay battery (including all ground connections). Clean, tighten and repair all connections as re quired.

Inspect the solenoid, relay and ignition switch to determine their condition. Also, if equipped with au tomatic transmission, inspect condition of the park/ neutral position switch. If equipped with manual transmission, inspect condition of the clutch pedal position switch. Testing information can be found in the following pages.

- BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


STARTING SYSTEM
CONDITION
STARTER FAILS TO ENGAGE.

8A - 13

DIAGNOSIS

POSSIBLE CAtJSIS
1 . Battery discharged or faulty. 2. Starting circuit wiring faulty. 3. Starter relay faulty. 4. Ignition switch faulty.

COiRiCTION
1 . See Battery, in this group. Charge or replace battery, if required. 2. See Cold Cranking Test, in this group. Test and repair feed and/or control circuits, if required. 3. See Relay Test, in this group. Replace relay. if required. 4. Refer to Group 8D - Ignition Systems, for testing and service information. Replace or adjust switch, if required. 5. Refer to Group 21 - Transmission and Transfer Case, for testing and service information. Replace switch, if required. 6. Refer to Group 6 - Clutch, for testing and service information. Replace switch, if required. 7 See Solenoid Test, in this group. Replace starter assembly, if required. 8 Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for starter service procedures. Replace starter assembly, if required. 1. See Battery, in this group. Charge or replace battery, if required. 2. See Cold Cranking Test, in this group. Test and repair feed and/or control circuits, if required. 3. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for starter service procedures. Replace starter assembly, if required. 4. Refer to Group 9 - Engine, for diagnostic and service procedures. 1 . Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for starter removal procedures. Inspect ring gear and replace, if required. 2. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for starter service procedures. Replace starter assembly, if required. 1. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for starter installation procedures. 2. See Relay Test, in this group. Replace relay, if required. 3. Refer to Group 8D - Ignition Systems, for testing and service information. Replace or adjust switch, if required. 4. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for starter service procedures. Replace starter assembly, if required. J958A-11

5. Park/Neutral position switch (auto trans) faulty or misadjusted. 6. Clutch pedal position switch (man trans) faulty. 7. Starter solenoid faulty. 8. Starter assembly faulty. STARTER ENGAGES, FAILS TO TURN ENGINE. 1. Battery discharged or faulty. 2. Starting circuit wiring faulty. 3. Starter assembly faulty. 4. Engine seized. STARTER ENGAGES, SPINS OUT BEFORE ENGINE STARTS. 1. Broken teeth on flywheel or drive plate ring gear. 2. Starter assembly faulty. 1. Starter improperly installed. 2. Starter relay faulty. 3. Ignition switch faulty.

STARTER DOES NOT DISENGAGE.

4. Starter assembly faulty.

8A -14

BATTEiY/STARTIiG/CHARGiiG SYSTE1S DIAGNOSTICS


TEST

BR

COLD CRANKING

(1) Battery must be fully-charged and load tested before proceeding. See Battery, in this group. (2) Connect a suitable volt-ampere tester to the battery terminals (Fig. 12). Refer to the operating in structions provided with the tester being used.

(6) Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the START position. Note cranking voltage and amper age. (a) If voltage reads above 9.6 volts and amperage draw reads above specifications, see Feed Circuit Tests. (b) If voltage reads 12.5 volts or greater and am perage reads below specifications, see Control Cir cuit Tests. A cold engine will increase starter current and reduce battery voltage.
FEED CIRCUIT TESTS

Fig. 12 Volt-Amps Tester Connections - Typical

(3) Fully engage parking brake. Place manual transmission in NEUTRAL and fully depress clutch pedal. Place automatic transmission in PARK. (4) Verify that all lamps and accessories are OFF. (5) To prevent engine from starting, unplug Auto Shut-Down (ASD) relay from Power Distribution Center (PDC) on gas engine models, or disconnect fuel shutdown solenoid connector (Fig. 13) on diesel engine models. Relay location is shown on underside of PDC cover.
FRONT OF ENGINE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR

SOLENOID

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

J9414-93
J y 4 l 4 V J

Fig. 13 Fuel Shutdown Solenoid - Diesel Engine

The starter feed circuit tests (voltage drop method) will determine if there is excessive resistance in the high-amperage circuit. When performing these tests, it is important that the voltmeter be connected prop erly. Connect voltmeter leads to the terminals that the cable connectors or clamps are attached to, not to the cable connectors or clamps. For example: When testing between the battery and solenoid, touch the voltmeter leads to the battery post and the solenoid threaded stud. The following operation will require a voltmeter ac curate to 1/10 (0.10) volt. Before performing the tests, be certain the following procedures are accomplished: unplug Auto Shut-Down (ASD) relay from Power Distribution Center (PDC) on gas engine models to prevent engine from starting disconnect the fuel shutdown solenoid connector on diesel engine models to prevent engine from starting place transmission in NEUTRAL (manual trans mission) or PARK (automatic transmission) install a jumper wire between two clutch pedal po sition switch connectors (manual transmission) parking brake is applied battery is fully-charged (see Battery, in this group). (1) Connect positive lead of voltmeter to battery negative post. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to battery negative cable clamp (Fig. 14). Rotate and hold ignition switch in the START position. Observe voltmeter. If voltage is detected, correct poor contact between cable clamp and post. (2) Connect positive lead of voltmeter to battery positive post. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to battery positive cable clamp (Fig. 14). Rotate and hold ignition switch in the START position. Observe voltmeter. If voltage is detected, correct poor contact between cable clamp and post. (3) Connect voltmeter to measure between the bat tery positive post and the starter solenoid battery stud (Fig. 15). Rotate and hold ignition switch in the START position. Observe voltmeter. If voltage reads above 0.2 volt, correct poor contact at battery cable to solenoid connection. Repeat test. If reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace battery positive cable.

B R

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


VOLTMETER

SA -15

(5) Connect positive lead of voltmeter to starter housing. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to bat tery negative terminal (Fig. 17). Rotate and hold ig nition -switch in the START position. Observe voltmeter. If voltage reads above 0.2 volt, correct poor starter to engine ground.
STARTER MOTOR BATTERY BATTERY

898A-17 VOLTMETER Fig. 14 Test Battery Connection Resistance BATTERY

898A-26 Fig. 17 Test Starter Ground - Typical

If resistance tests detect no feed circuit problems, remove the starter and see Solenoid Test in this group.
CONTROL STARTER MOTOR VOLTMETER 898A-20 CIRCUIT TESTS

Fig, 15 Test Battery Positive Cable Resistance Typical

(4) Connect voltmeter to measure between the bat tery negative post and a good clean ground on the engine block (Fig, 16), Rotate and hold ignition switch in the START position. Observe voltmeter. If voltage reads above 0.2 volt, correct poor contact at battery negative cable attaching point. Repeat test. If reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace battery nega tive cable.
VOLTMETER

The starter control circuit consists of: starter solenoid starter relay ignition switch park/neutral position switch (automatic transmis sion) clutch pedal position switch (manual transmission) wiring harness and connections. Test procedures for these components are as fol lows, and should be followed in the order described.
CAUTION: Before performing any test, unplug Auto Shut-Down (ASD) relay from Power Distribution Center (PDC)(gas engine) or unplug fuel shutdown solenoid connector (diesel engine) to prevent en gine from starting. SOLENOii TEST

ENGINE v GROUNDX

BATTERY

898A-18

Fig, W Test Ground Circuit Resistance

Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Ser vice for starter removal procedures. (1) Disconnect solenoid field coil wire from field coil terminal. (2) Check for continuity between solenoid terminal and field coil terminal with a continuity tester. There should be continuity (Fig. 18). (3) Check for continuity between solenoid terminal and solenoid case. There should be continuity (Fig. 19).

8A- 16
FIELD COIL TERMINAL

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER (PDC)

RR8BD32 Fig. 18 Continuity Test Between Solenoid Terminal and Field Coil Terminal SOLENOID J9414-10 Fig. 20 Power Distribution Center RR8BD33 Fig. 19 Continuity Test Between Solenoid Terminal and Solenoid Case STARTER RELAY CONNECTIONS RELAY CAVITIES

RELAY TERMINALS 87A

(4) If there is continuity, solenoid is good. If there is no continuity in either test, solenoid has an open circuit and is faulty. Replace starter assembly. (5) Connect solenoid field coil wire to field coil ter minal. (6) Install starter as described in Group 8B - Bat tery/ Starter/Generator Service.
iELAY TEST

85

f&TAT] 86
30 J958A-2

TERMINAL LEGEND NUMBER 30 85 86 87 87A IDENTIFICATION COMMON FEED COIL GROUND COIL BATTERY NORMALLY OPEN NORMALLY CLOSED

The starter relay is in the Power Distribution Cen ter (PDCXFig. 20). Refer to the underside of the PDC cover for relay location. . Remove starter relay from PDC to perform the fol lowing tests: (1) A relay in the de-energized position should have continuity between terminals 87A and 30, and no continuity between terminals 87 and 30. If OK, go to next step. If not OK, replace faulty relay. (2) Resistance between terminals 85 and 86 (elec tromagnet) should be 755 ohms. If OK, go to next step. If not OK, replace faulty relay. (3) Connect a battery to terminals 85 and 86. There should now be continuity between terminals 30 and 87, and no continuity between terminals 87A and 30. If OK, go to Relay Circuit Test. If not OK, replace faulty relay.
iELAY CIRCUIT TEST

(1) The common feed terminal (30) is connected to battery voltage and should be hot at all times. If OK, go to next step. If not OK, check circuit to fuse F12 in Power Distribution Center (PDC). Repair as re quired.

(2) The normally closed terminal (87A) is con nected to terminal 30 in the de-energized position, but is not used for this application. Go to next step. (3) The normally open terminal (87) is connected to the battery terminal (30) in the energized position. This terminal supplies battery voltage to the starter solenoid field coils. There should be continuity be tween cavity for relay terminal 87 and the starter so lenoid terminal at all times. If OK, go to next step. If not OK, repair circuit to solenoid as required. (4) The coil battery terminal (86) is connected to the electromagnet in the relay. It is energized when the ignition switch is in the START position. Check for battery voltage at cavity for relay terminal 86 with ignition switch in the START position. If OK, go to next step. If not OK and vehicle has automatic transmission, refer to Group 8D - Ignition Systems for testing and service of the ignition switch. If not OK and vehicle has manual transmission, refer to Group 6 - Clutch for testing and service of the clutch pedal position switch.

BR

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH TEST

8A -17

(5) The coil ground terminal (85) is connected to the electromagnet in the relay. On vehicles with an automatic transmission, it is grounded through the park/neutral position switch. On vehicles with a manual transmission, it is grounded at all times. Check for continuity to ground at cavity for relay ter minal 85. If not OK and vehicle has manual trans mission, repair circuit as required. If not OK and vehicle has automatic transmission, refer to Group 21 - Transmission and Transfer Case for testing and service of the park/neutral position switch.
IGNITION SWITCH TEST

Refer to Group 21 - Transmission and Transfer Case for testing and service of this component.
CLUTCH PEiAL POSITION SWITCH TEST

Refer to Group 6 - Clutch for testing and service of this component.

Refer to Group 8D - Ignition Systems for testing and service of this component.

8A -18

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


CHARGING SYSTEM

GENERAL INFORMATION The charging system consists of: generator @ voltage regulator circuitry (within PCM) ignition switch battery voltmeter wiring harness and connections. Following is a general description of the major charging system components. Refer to Group 8 W Wiring Diagrams for complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. The charging system is turned on and off with the ignition switch. When the ignition switch is turned to the ON position, battery voltage is applied to the generator rotor through one of the two field termi nals to produce a magnetic field. The generator is driven by the engine through a serpentine belt and pulley arrangement. As the energized rotor begins to rotate within the generator, the spinning magnetic field induces a cur rent into the windings of the stator coil. Once the generator begins producing sufficient current, it also provides the current needed to energize the rotor. The wye (Y) type stator winding connections de liver the induced AC current to 3 positive and 3 neg ative diodes for rectification. From the diodes, rectified DC current is delivered to the vehicle elec trical system through the generator battery and ground terminals. The amount of DC current produced by the gener ator is controlled by the generator voltage regulator (field control) circuitry, contained within the Powertrain Control Module (PCM)(Fig. 21). This circuitry is connected in series with the second rotor field termi nal and ground. Voltage is regulated by cycling the ground path to control the strength of the rotor magnetic field. The generator voltage regulator circuitry monitors system line voltage and ambient temperature. It then com pensates and regulates generator current output ac cordingly. The generator is serviced only as a complete as sembly. If the generator fails for any reason, the en tire assembly must be replaced. The generator voltage regulator (field control) circuitry can be ser viced only by replacing the entire PCM. All vehicles are equipped with On-Board Diagnos tics (OBD). All OBD-sensed systems, including the generator voltage regulator (field control) circuitry, are monitored by the PCM. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC). The PCM will store a DTC in electronic memory for any failure it detects. See Using On-Board Diagnostic System in this group for more information.

Fig. 21 Charging System Components - Typical

DIAGNOSIS When the ignition switch is turned to the ON posi tion, battery potential will register on the voltmeter. During engine cranking a lower voltage will appear on the meter. With the engine running, a voltage reading higher than the first reading (ignition in ON) should register. The following procedures may be used to diagnose the charging system if: the voltmeter does not operate properly an undercharged or overcharged battery condition occurs. Remember that an undercharged battery is often caused by: accessories being left on with the engine not run ning a faulty or improperly adjusted switch that allows a lamp to stay on (see Ignition-Off Draw in this group).
INSPECTION

(1) Inspect condition of battery cable terminals, battery posts, connections at engine block, starter so lenoid and relay. They should be clean and tight. Re pair as required.

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS (2) Inspect all fuses in the fuseblock module and Power Distribution Center (PDC) for tightness in re ceptacles. They should be properly installed and tight. Repair or replace as required. (3) Inspect the electrolyte level in the battery. If cell caps are removable, add water if required. If cell caps are not removable, replace battery if electrolyte level is low. (4) Inspect generator mounting bolts for tightness. Replace or tighten bolts, if required. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service for torque specifications. (5) Inspect generator drive belt condition and ten sion. Tighten or replace belt as required. Refer to Belt Tension Specifications in Group 7 - Cooling Sys tem.

8A -19

(6) Inspect connections at generator field, battery output, and ground terminals. Also check ground con nection at engine. They should all be clean and tight. Repair as required.
OUTPUT WIRE RESISTANCE TEST

This test will show the amount of voltage drop across the generator output wire, from the generator battery terminal to the battery positive post. PREPARATION (1) Before starting test make sure vehicle has a fully-charged battery. See Battery in this group for more information. (2) Turn ignition switch to OFF. (3) Disconnect negative cable from battery. (4) Disconnect generator output wire from genera tor battery output terminal.
DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION

CHARGING CONDITION LOW OR


UNSTEADY

SYSTEM

POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Battery discharged or faulty. 2. Loose or faulty generator drive belt. 3. Loose generator mounting. 4. Loose or corroded charging circuit wiring connections. 5. High resistance in generator output wire. 6. Generator assembly faulty. 7. Faulty generator field control circuit.

1. See Battery, in this group. Charge or replace battery, if required. 2. Refer to Group 7 - Cooling System, for belt inspection and tightening procedures. Replace or tighten belt, if required. 3. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/Starter/Generator Service, for generator service procedures. Tighten generator mounting, if required. 4. Inspect all charging circuit connections, including grounds and fuses. Clean or tighten, if required. 5. See Ouput Wire Resistance Test, in this group. Test and repair, if required. 6. See Current Output Test, in this group. Test and replace, if required. 7. See Using On-Board Diagnostic System, in this group. Diagnose and repair, if required. 1. See Using On-Board Diagnostic System, in this group. Diagnose and repair, if required. 2. See Current Output Test, in this group. Test and replace, if required. 1. Refer to Group 7 - Cooling System, for diagnosis and repair of drive belt problems 2. Refer to Group 7 - Cooling System, for diagnosis and repair of pulley misalignment. 3. Refer to Group 8B - Batttery/Starter/Generator Service, for generator service procedures. J958A-12

CHARGING.

OVER CHARGING.

1. Short in generator field control circuit. 2 Generator assembly faulty.

GENERATOR NOISY.

1. Loose, worn, or damaged drive belt. 2. Drive belt pulleys misaligned. 3. Generator assembly faulty.

8A - 2 0

BITTEiY/STARTiiG/CHARGili SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS

BR

(5) Connect a 0-150 ampere scale DC ammeter (Fig. 22). Install in series between generator battery output terminal and disconnected generator output wire. Connect positive lead to generator battery out put terminal and negative lead to disconnected gen erator output wire. (6) Connect positive lead of a test voltmeter (range 0-18 volts minimum) to disconnected generator out put wire. Connect negative lead of test voltmeter to battery positive cable at positive post. (7) Connect one end of a jumper wire to ground and with other end probe green K20 field wire at back of generator (Fig. 22). This will generate a DTC.
CAUTION: Do not connect green/orange A142 field wire to ground. Refer to Group 8 W - Wiring Dia grams for more information.

(2) Adjust engine speed and carbon pile to main tain 20 amperes flowing in circuit. Observe voltmeter reading. Voltmeter reading should not exceed 0.5 volts.
RESULTS

(8) Connect an engine tachometer, then connect battery negative cable to battery. (9) Connect a variable carbon pile rheostat be tween battery terminals. Be sure carbon pile is in OPEN or OFF position before connecting leads. See Load Test in this group for instructions.
TEST

If a higher voltage drop is indicated, inspect, clean and tighten all connections. This includes any con nection between generator battery output terminal and battery positive post. A voltage drop test may be performed at each connection to locate the connection with excessive resistance. If resistance tests satisfac torily, reduce engine speed, turn OFF carbon pile and turn OFF ignition switch. (1) Disconnect negative cable from battery. (2) Remove test ammeter, voltmeter, carbon pile, and tachometer. (3) Remove jumper wire. (4) Connect generator output wire to generator battery output terminal. Tighten nut to 8.51.5 N-m (7515 in. lbs.). (5) Connect negative cable to battery. (6) Use DRB scan tool to erase DTC.
CURRENT OUTPUT TEST

(1) Start engine. Immediately after starting, re duce engine speed to idle.
FIELD TERMINALS

The generator current output test determines whether generator can deliver its rated current out put.

0 AMP

FUSE

GROUND

Fig. 22 Generator Output Wire Resistance Test - Typical

BR
PREPARATION

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


TEST

3A - 21

(1) Before starting test make sure vehicle has a fully-charged battery. See Battery in this group for more information. (2) Disconnect negative cable from battery. (3) Disconnect generator output wire at the gener ator battery output terminal. (4) Connect a 0-150 ampere scale DC ammeter (Fig. 23). Install in series between generator battery output terminal and disconnected generator output wire. Connect positive lead to generator battery out put terminal and negative lead to disconnected gen erator output wire. (5) Connect positive lead of a test voltmeter (range 0-18 volts minimum) to generator battery output ter minal. (6) Connect negative lead of test voltmeter to a good ground. (7) Connect an engine tachometer, then connect battery negative cable to battery. (8) Connect a variable carbon pile rheostat be tween battery terminals. Be sure carbon pile is in OPEN or OFF position before connecting leads. See Load Test in this group for instructions. (9) Connect one end of a jumper wire to ground and with other end probe green K20 field wire at back of generator (Fig. 23). This will generate a DTC.
CAUTION: Do not connect green/orange A142 field

(1) Start engine. Immediately after starting, re duce engine speed to idle. (2) Adjust carbon pile and engine speed in incre ments until a speed of 1250 rpm and voltmeter read ing of 15 volts is obtained.
CAUTION: Do not allow voltage meter to read above 16 volts.

(3) The ammeter reading must be within limits shown in Generator Output Voltage Specifications.
RESULTS

wire to ground. Refer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams for more information. TO POWERTRAIN BATTERY CONTROL MODULE CASE GROUND TERMINAL VOLTAGE 51 A142

(1) If reading is less than specified and generator output wire resistance is not excessive, generator should be replaced. Refer to Group 8B - Battery/ Starter/Generator Service. (2) After current output test is completed, reduce engine speed, turn OFF carbon pile and turn OFF ig nition switch. * (3) Disconnect negative cable from battery. (4) Remove test ammeter, voltmeter, tachometer and carbon pile. (5) Remove jumper wire (Fig. 23). (6) Connect generator output wire to generator battery output terminal. Tighten nut to 8.51.5 N-m (7515 in. lbs.). (7) Connect negative cable to battery. (8) Use DRB scan tool to erase DTC.

30 AMP FUSE
4

3^ IGNITION SWITCH
ACC OFF frtTART%UNl

10 AMP FUSE

AUTO SHUTDOWN RELAY

POWER DISTRIBUTION Bl CENTER

a 1

^5FF

Ik^N

GROUND POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE GROUND

DISCONNECTED GENERATOR

CARBON PILE RHEOSTAT

IE

BATTERY / q ] CHASSIS ' GROUND J948A-18

Fig. 23 Generator Current Output Test - Typical

8A - 22

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


USING ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM

GENERAL INFORMATION The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) monitors critical input and output circuits of the charging sys tem, making sure they are operational. A Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is assigned to each input and output circuit monitored by the OBD system. Some circuits are checked continuously and some are checked only under certain conditions. If the OBD system senses that a monitored circuit is bad, it will put a DTC into electronic memory. The DTC will stay in electronic memory as long as the circuit continues to be bad. The PCM is programmed to clear the memory after 50 engine starts, if the problem does not occur again.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES

to be set. Therefore, it is important that the test pro cedures be followed in sequence, to understand what caused a DTC to be set. See Generator Diagnostic Trouble Code chart for DTC's which apply to the charging system. Refer to the Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual to di agnose an on-board diagnostic system trouble code.
RETRIEVING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) are two-digit num bers flashed on the malfunction indicator (Check En gine) lamp that identify which circuit is bad. A DTC description can also be read using the DRB scan tool. Refer to Group 14 - Fuel Systems for more informa tion. A DTC does not identify which component in a cir cuit is bad. Thus, a DTC should be treated as a symptom, not as the cause for the problem. In some cases, because of the design of the diagnostic test procedure, a DTC can be the reason for another DTC

To start this function, cycle the ignition switch ONOFF-ON-OFF-ON within 5 seconds. This will cause any DTC stored in the PCM memory to be displayed. The malfunction indicator (Check Engine) lamp will display a DTC by flashing on and off. There is a short pause between flashes and a longer pause be tween digits. All DTC's displayed are two-digit num bers, with a four-second pause between codes. An example of a DTC is as follows: (1) Lamp on for 2 seconds, then turns off. (2) Lamp flashes 4 times pauses and then flashes 1 time. (3) Lamp pauses for 4 seconds, flashes 4 times, pauses, then flashes 7 times. The two DTC's are 41 and 47. Any number of DTC's can be displayed, as long as they are in mem ory. The lamp will flash until all stored DTC's are displayed (55 = end of test).

GENERATOR
Diagnostic Trouble Code 12*. 41**............. DRB Scan Tool Display .. Battery Disconnect Generator Field Not Switching Properly .. Charging System Voltage Too High .. Charging System Voltage Too Low N/A

DIAGNOSTIC

TROUBLE

CODE

Description of Diagnostic Trouble Code Direct battery input to PCM was disconnected within the last 50 key-on cycles. An open or shorted condition detected in the generator field control circuit. Battery voltage sense input above target charging voltage during engine operation.

46**

47**

Battery voltage sense input below target charging during engine operation. Also, no significant change detected in battery voltage during active test of generator output. Completion of fault code display on Check Engine lamp.

55*

* Check Engine lamp will not illuminate at all times if this Diagnostic Trouble Code was recorded. Cycle ignition key as described in manual and observe code flashed by Check Engine lamp.' * * Check Engine lamp will illuminate during engine operation if this Diagnostic Trouble Code was recorded. J958A-7

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BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS


SPECIFICATIONS

8A - 23

BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS
BATTERY CLASSIFICATIONS AND RATINGS Reserve Capacity 120 Minutes 150 Minutes

Load Test
(Amps)
300 Amp

Cold Cranking Rating @ 0F 600 Amp 750 Amp

405 Amp

CRANKING R A T I N G is the c u r r e n t a battery can d e l i v e r for 3 0 s e c o n d s and m a i n t a i n a t e r m i n a l voltage of 7.2 volts or greater at specified temperature. R E S E R V E CAPACITY RATING is the length of time a battery can deliver 25 amps and maintain a minimum terminal voltage of 10.5 volts at 27C (80T). J958A-14

STARTING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS


V -6 AND V-8 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Manufacturer Engine Application Part Number and Power Rating Voltage No. of Fields . No. of Poles Brushes Drive Free Running Test Voltage Amperage Draw Minimum Speed rpm Solenoid Closing Voltage Cranking Amperage Draw Test . . . STARTER

V-10 ENGINE
Manufacturer Engine Application Part Number and Power Rating Voltage No. of Fields No. of Poles Brushes Drive Free Running Test Voltage Amperage Draw Minimum Speed rpm Solenoid Closing Voltage

STARTER

SPECIFICATIONS
Nippondens 8.0L 56004757 1.4 kw 12 4 4 4 Reduction Gear Train 11 73 Amps 3601 rpm 7.5 Volts 125-250 Amps*

Nippondenso 5.91, 5.2L & 3.9L 53005984 1.4 Kw 12 4 4 4 Reduction Gear Train 11 73 Amps 3601 rpm 7.5 Volts 125-250 Amps*

Cranking Amperage Draw Test . . . .

* Engine should be up to operating temperature. Extremely heavy oil or tight engine will increase starter amperage draw. J948B-25

DIESEL

ENGINE

STARTER

SPECIFICATIONS

* Engine should be up to operating temperature. Extremely heavy oil or tight engine will increase starter amperage draw.

R E D U C T I O N G E A R STARTER Manufacturer Engine Application Part Number and Power Rating Voltage No. of Fields No. of Poles Brushes Drive Free Running Test Voltage Amperage Draw Minimum Speed rpm Solenoid Closing Voltage Cranking Amperage Draw Test . . . . Nippondenso 5.9L DIESEL 4741012 2.7 kw 12 4 4 4 Conventional G e a r Train 11 200 Amps M a x . 3000 rpm Min. 8 Volts 4 5 0 - 7 0 0 Amps*

J948B-26

* Engine should be up to operating temperature. Extremely heavy oil or tight engine will increase starter amperage draw. J948B-23

8A - 24

BATTERY/STARTING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS

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CHARGING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

GENERATOR

SPECIFICATIONS

PART

Numn

PULLEY G R O O V E S

ENGINE

RATING

NIPPONDENSO NIPPONDENSO NIPPONDENSO NIPPONDENSO

53008646 53008647 53008651 56027221

7 7 7
8

ALL GASOLINE ALL GASOLINE ALL GASOLINE DIESEL

75 AMPS 90 AMPS 120 AMPS 120 AMPS J948B-24

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BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE

8B - 1

BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE
CONTENTS page page

BATTERY GENERATOR

1 8

SPECiFiCITlOlS ST1RTER Aii STARTER RELAY

I 5

GENERAL INFORMATION Group 8B covers battery, starter and generator ser vice procedures. For diagnosis of these components and their related systems, refer to Group 8A - Bat-

tery/Starting/Charging Systems Diagnostics. Refer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams for complete circuit de scriptions and diagrams.

BATTERY
SE1ERAL HFORiATIOl This section covers battery service procedures only. For battery maintenance procedures, refer to Group 0 Lubrication and Maintenance. While battery charging can be considered a service or maintenance procedure, this information is located in Group 8A - Battery/Start ing/Charging Systems Diagnostics. This was done be cause the battery must be fully charged before any diagnosis can be performed. It is important that the battery, starting, and charging systems be thoroughly tested and inspected any time a battery needs to be charged or replaced. The cause of abnormal discharge, over-charging, or premature failure of the battery must be diagnosed and corrected before a battery is replaced or returned to service. Refer to Group 8A - Battery/Starting/ Charging Systems Diagnostics. The factory-installed maintenance-free battery (Fig. 1) has non-removable battery vent caps. Water can not be added to this battery. The chemical composi tion within the maintenance-free battery reduces battery gassing and water loss at normal charge and discharge rates. Therefore, the battery should not re quire additional water in normal service. The factory-installed battery also has a built-in test indicator (hydrometer). The color visible in the sight glass of the indicator will reveal the battery condi tion, as follows: Green - Battery is fully charged. Black or Dark - Battery is discharged. Yellow or Bright - Electrolyte level is low. If battery electrolyte level becomes low, the battery must be replaced. However, low electrolyte can be caused by an over-charging condition. Be certain to diagnose charging system before returning vehicle to service. Refer to Group 8A - Battery/Starting/Charg ing Systems Diagnostics for more information.

Fig. 1 Maintenance-Free

Battery

BATTERY R E i O f E/ilSTALL (1) Turn ignition switch to OFF position. Make sure all electrical accessories are off. (2) Loosen the cable terminal clamps and remove both battery cables, negative cable first. If necessary, use a puller to remove terminal clamps from battery posts (Fig. 2).

BATTERY ERMINAL PULLER

BATTERY 898A4 Fig. 2 Remove Battery Terminal Clamp

8B - 2

BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE

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(3) Inspect the cable terminals for corrosion and damage. Remove corrosion using a wire brush or post and terminal cleaning tool, and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution (Fig. 3). Replace cables that have damaged or deformed terminals.

Fig. 3 Clean Battery Cable Terminal WARNING: W E A R A SUITABLE PAIR OF R U B B E R G L O V E S (NOT THE HOUSEHOLD T Y P E ) W H E N R E MOVING A BATTERY B Y HAND. S A F E T Y G L A S S E S SHOULD ALSO B E W O R N . IF THE BATTERY IS C R A C K E D OR LEAKING, THE ELECTROLYTE CAN B U R N THE SKIN AND E Y E S .

Fig. 4 Left Battery Holddown

(4) Remove battery holddowns (Figs. 4 or 5) and remove battery from vehicle. (5) Inspect battery tray (Figs. 6, 7, or 8) and holddowns for corrosion or damage. Remove corrosion us ing a wire brush and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution. Paint any exposed bare metal and replace any damaged parts. (6) Inspect the battery case for cracks or other damage that could result in electrolyte leaks. Also check battery terminal posts for looseness. Batteries with damaged cases or loose posts must be replaced. (7) Inspect battery built-in test indicator sight glass for indication of battery condition. If electrolyte level is low, battery must be replaced. If battery is discharged, charge as required. Refer to Group 8A Battery/Starting/Charging Systems Diagnosis for more information. (8) If the battery is to be reinstalled, clean outside of battery case and top cover with sodium bicarbon-

Fig. 5 Right Battery Holddown - Diesel Engine

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BATTERY TRAY

BAITERY/8IARIER/GE1ERAI0R SERVICE

8B - 3

placed, see Specifications to confirm replacement has correct classification and ratings for the vehicle.
CLEANING BRUSH

TEST INDICATOR

WARM WATER AND BAKING SODA SOLUTION

J948B-13 Fig. 6 Left Battery Tray - w/o Speed Control BATTERY TRAY

BATTERY Fig. 9 Clean Battery

RK108

(9) Clean corrosion from battery posts (Fig. 10) with a wire brush or post and terminal cleaner, and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution.
SPEED CONTROL SERVO J948M4 Fig. 7 Left Battery Tray - with Speed Control DIESEL RIGHT SIDE BATTERY TRAY TERMINAL BRUSH

J928B-30 J948B-12 Fig. 10 Clean Battery Post Fig. 8 Right Battery Tray - Diesel Engine

ate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution (Fig. 9) to remove acid film. Flush with clean water. Ensure that cleaning solution does not enter cells through the vent holes. If the battery is being re-

(10) Position battery in tray. Ensure that positive and negative posts are correctly positioned. The cable terminals must reach the correct battery post with out stretching (Fig. 11).

8B - 4

BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE

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CAUTION: B e certain that battery cables are con nected to the correct battery terminals. Reverse po larity can damage electrical components.

(12) Place oiled felt washer on battery positive ter minal post. (13) Install and tighten battery positive cable ter minal clamp. Then install and tighten negative cable terminal clamp. Tighten cable clamp bolts to 8.5 N-m (75 in. lbs.). (14) Apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly or chassis grease to cable terminals and battery posts.
Fig. 11 Battery Cabies

(11) Loosely install battery holddown hardware. Ensure that battery base is correctly positioned in tray, then tighten holddowns to 12 N-m (100 in. lbs.).

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BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE
STARTER

8B - 5

am m&mmm mmim

GENERAL INFORMATION This section covers starter and starter relay service procedures only. For diagnostic procedures, refer to Group 8A - Battery/Starting/Charging Systems Diag nostics. Service procedures for other starting system components can be found as follows; battery - see Battery, in this group ignition switch - refer to Group 8D - Ignition Sys tems park/neutral position switch - refer to Group 21 Transmission and Transfer Case clutch pedal position switch - refer to Group 6 Clutch wiring harness and connectors - refer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams. STARTER The starter motor incorporates several features to create a reliable, efficient, compact and lightweight unit. A planetary gear system (intermediate trans mission) is used between the electric motor and pin ion gear. This feature makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the starter. At the same time, it allows higher armature rotational speed and delivers in creased torque through the pinion gear to the fly wheel or drive plate ring gear. The starter motors for all engines are activated by a solenoid mounted to the overrunning clutch hous ing. However, the starter motor/solenoid are serviced only as a complete assembly. If either component fails, the entire assembly must be replaced.
STARTER RELAY
HARNESS Fig. 13 Starter Remove/Install J948B-16 - V-10 Engine

Fig. 12 Starter Terminal Connector - V-6/V-8 Engine

The, starter relay is an International Standards Or ganization (ISO) type relay. It is located in the Power Distribution Center -(PDC). The PDC is attached to the driver's side inner fender shield, next to the bat tery. Refer to underside of PDC cover for relay iden tification and location. STARTER REMOVE/INSTALL
GASOLINE ENGINE

starter mounting bolts to 68 N-m (50 ft. lbs.) starter mounting nut - 27 N-m (20 ft. lbs.) battery lead terminal nut - 8-12.5 N-m (70-110 in. lbs.) solenoid lead terminal nut - 5-7 N-m (45-65 in. lbs.).
DIESEL ENGINE

(1) Disconnect negative cable from battery. Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove wire terminal connector from starter motor (Figs. 12 or 13). (3) Remove mounting hardware securing starter to bellhousing (Figs. 13 or 14). (4) Move starter forward to clear lower mounting stud (V-6/V-8 engine) and starter gear housing nose. This allows starter to come down past the exhaust pipe (Figs. 13 or 15). (5) Reverse removal procedures to install. Tighten starter hardware as follows:

(1) Disconnect both battery negative cables. Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove battery lead from starter solenoid ter minal by pulling rubber boot up and removing nut (Fig. 16). (3) Remove nut from solenoid lead terminal at starter solenoid. (4) Remove starter motor mounting bolts (Figs. 16 and 17). (5) Remove starter motor.

8B - 6

BATTERY/STARTER/G EN ERATO R SERVICE

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Fig. 16 Starter Terminal Connections - Diesel Engine

starter mounting bolts - 48 N-m (32 ft. lbs.) solenoid lead nut - 6 N-m (55 in. lbs.) battery lead nut - 10 N-m (90 in. lbs.).

STARTER RELAY REMOVE/INSTALL


(1) Disconnect battery negative cable(s). (2) Remove starter relay by unplugging unit from Power Distribution Center (PDC) (Fig. 18). Refer to underside of PDC cover for relay location. (3) Install starter relay by aligning relay terminals with cavities in PDC and plugging relay in. (4) Connect negative cable(s) to battery. (5) Test relay operation.

Fig. 15 Starter Remove/Install

- V-6/V-8 Engine

(6) Reverse removal procedures to install. Tighten starter hardware as follows:

BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE

8B - 7

8B - 8

BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE

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GENERAL INFORMATION This section covers generator service procedures only. For generator or charging system diagnosis, re fer to Group 8A - Battery/Starting/Charging Systems Diagnostics. The generator is belt-driven by the engine. All en gines use serpentine drive. The generator is serviced only as a complete assembly. If the generator fails for any reason, the' entire assembly must be replaced. Three generator output ratings are available on this vehicle, depending upon optional equipment. Be certain that the replacement generator has the same output rating as the original unit. Refer to Group 8A - Battery/Starting/Charging Systems Diagnostics and see Specifications. The generator field control (voltage regulator) cir cuitry is internal to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). If faulty, the entire PCM must be replaced. Refer to Group 14 - Fuel System for PCM service procedure. GENERATOR REMOVE/INSTALL
WARNING: DISCONNECT NEGATIVE C A B L E ( S ) FROM BATTERY(IES) B E F O R E REMOVING BAT TERY OUTPUT W I R E FROM GENERATOR. FAILURE TO DO S O CAN R E S U L T IN INJURY.

Fig. 19 Remove/Install

Generator

(1) Disconnect battery negative cable(s). (2) Remove generator drive belt. Refer to Group 7 Cooling System for procedure. (3) Remove the generator pivot and mounting bolts (Fig. 19). Position generator for access to wire con nectors. (4) Remove nuts from harness holddown, battery terminal, ground terminal and 2 field terminals (Fig. 20). Remove wire connectors. (5) Remove the generator. (6) Reverse removal procedures to install. Tighten generator hardware as follows: generator mounting bolts - 41 N-m (30 ft. lbs.) battery terminal nut - 8.5 N-m (75 in. lbs.) ground terminal nut - 8.5 N-m (75 in. lbs.). harness holddown nut - 8.5 N-m (75 in. lbs.) field terminal nuts - 2.8 N-m (25 in. lbs.)
CAUTION: Never force a belt over a pulley rim us ing a screwdriver. The synthetic fiber of the belt can be damaged.

Fig. 20 Remove/install

Generator

Connectors

CAUTION: When installing a serpentine accessory drive belt, the belt MUST be routed correctly. The water pump will be rotating in the wrong direction if the belt is installed incorrectly, causing the engine to overheat. Refer to belt routing label in engine compartment, or refer to Belt Schematics in Group 7 - Cooling System.

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BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE
SPECIFICATIONS

8B - 9

BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS
BATTERY CLASSIFICATIONS AND RATINGS

Load Test (Amps} 300 Amp 405 Amp

Cold Cranking Rating @ 0T 600 Amp 750 Amp

Reserve Capacity 120 Minutes 150 Minutes

CRANKING RATING is the current a battery can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a terminal voltage of 7.2 volts or greater at specified temperature. RESERVE CAPACITY RATING is the length of time a battery can deliver 25 amps and maintain a minimum terminal voltage of 10.5 volts at 27C (80T). J958A-14

STARTING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS


V-6 AND V-8 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS STARTER

V-10

ENGINE
Manufacturer

STARTER

SPECIFICATIONS

Nippondenso
8.0L 56004757 1.4 kw 12 4 4 4 Reduction Gear Train 11 73 Amps 3601 rpm 7.5 Volts

Engine Application

Manufacturer
Engine Application Part Number and Power Rating Voltage No. of Fields No. of Poles Brushes Drive . Free Running Test Voltage Amperage Draw Minimum Speed rpm Solenoid Closing Voltage Cranking Amperage Draw Test . . .

Nippondenso
5.9L, 5.2L & 3.9L 53005984 1.4 Kw 12 4

Part Number and Power Rating Voltage No. of Fields No. of Poles Brushes Drive Free Running Test Voltage Amperage D r a w . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minimum Speed rpm Solenoid Closing Voltage Cranking Amperage Draw Test . . . .

4
I Reduction Gear Train 11 73 Amps 3601 rpm 7.5 Volts 125-250 Amps*

125-250 Amps*

* Engine should be up to operating temperature. Extremely heavy oil or tight engine will increase starter amperage draw. J948B-25

DIESEL

ENGINE

STARTER

SPECIFICATIONS

* Engine should be up to operating temperature. Extremely heavy oil or tight engine will increase starter amperage draw.

DEDUCTION GEAR STARTER


Manufacturer
Engine Application Part Number and Power Rating Voltage No. of Fields No. of Poles Brushes Drive. Free Running Test Voltage Amperage Draw Minimum Speed rpm Solenoid Closing Voltage Cranking Amperage Draw Test . . . .

Nippondenso
5.9L DIESEL 4741012 2.7 kw 12 4 4 4 Conventional Gear Train 11 200 Amps Max. 3000 rpm Min. 8 Volts 4 5 0 - 7 0 0 Amps*

J948B-26

* Engine should be up to operating temperature. Extremely heavy oil or tight engine will increase starter amperage draw. J948B-23

8B -10

BATTERY/STARTER/GENERATOR SERVICE

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CHARGING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

GENERATOR

SPECIFICATIONS

TYW NIPPONDENSO NIPPONDENSO NIPPONDENSO NIPPONDENSO

PART N U M B E R

PULLEY G R O O V E S

ENGINE ALL GASOLINE ALL GASOLINE ALL GASOLINE DIESEL

RATING

53008646 53008647 53008651 56027221

7 7 7 8

75 AMPS 90 AMPS 120 AMPS 120 AMPS


J948B-24

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_ _ _ _ _ OVERHEAD CONSOLE

8C - 1

OVERHEAD CONSOLE
CONTENTS page page

DIAGNOSIS GENERAL INFORMATION

2 1

SERVICE PROCEDURES

GENERAL INFORMATION

An overhead console featuring an electronic com pass and thermometer is an available option for Ram truck models. Following are general descriptions of major components used in the overhead console. Re fer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams for complete cir cuit descriptions and diagrams.

The self-calibrating compass unit requires no ad justing in normal use. The only calibration that may prove necessary is to drive the vehicle in 3 complete circles, on level ground, in not less than 48 seconds. This will reorient the unit to its vehicle. The unit also will compensate for magnetism the body of the vehicle may acquire during normal use. However, avoid placing anything magnetic directly on the roof of the vehicle. Magnetic mounts for an antenna, a repair order hat, or a funeral procession flag can exceed the compensating ability of the compass unit if placed on the roof panel. Magnetic bit drivers used on the fasten ers that hold the assembly to the roof header can also affect compass operation. If the vehicle roof should become magnetized, the demagnetizing and calibration procedures may be re quired to restore proper operation.

THEilOiETER
The thermometer displays the outside ambient temperature. The temperature displayed can be changed from Fahrenheit to Celsius using the US/ METRIC button. The displayed temperature is not an instant reading of conditions, but an average tem perature. It may take the unit several minutes to re act to a major temperature change such as driving out of a heated garage into winter temperatures. When the ignition switch is turned OFF, the last dis played temperature reading stays in memory. When the ignition switch is turned ON again, the thermometer will display the memory temperature for one minute; then update the display to the current average temper ature reading within five minutes.
J948C-2

COMPASS The compass will display the direction in which the vehicle is pointed using the eight major compass headings (Examples: north is N, northeast is NE). It does not display the headings in actual degrees. The display is turned on or off using the COMP/TEMP button to the left of the display.

READING AND COURTESY LAMPS All reading and courtesy lamps in the overhead console are activated by the door jamb switches. When both doors are closed, the lamps can be indi vidually activated by depressing the corresponding lens. When a door is open, depressing the lamp lens switches will not turn the lamps off. Refer to Group 8L - Lamps, for diagnosis and service of these lamps.

80 - 2

OVERHEAD CONSOLE
DIAGNOSIS COMPASS/THERMOMETER CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES 1 . Display has been switched off. 1. Depress COMP/TEMP button to switch unit to compass or thermometer display option. 2. Refer to Group 8L Lamps, for diagnosis and service of this circuit. 3. Refer to Group 8W Wiring Diagrams, for circuit diagrams. Check and repair wiring, if required. 4. Replace compass/thermometer display module, if required. 1. See Self-Diagnostic Test, in this group. Replace compass/thermometer display module, if required. 1. Remove magnet and perform Demagnetizing Procedure, in this group. 2. See Variation Adjustment Procedure in this group. 3. See Calibration Procedure, in this group. 4. Replace compass/thermometer display module, if required. 1. See Sensor Circuit Test, in this group. Repair wiring, if required. 2. See Sensor Test, in this group. Replace sensor, if required. 3. Replace compass/thermometer display module, if required. J958C-1 DIAGNOSIS

OVERHEAD CONSOLE DISPLAY COMPLETELY DARK

2. Faulty fuse or headlamp delay module. 3. Faulty wiring.

4. Faulty compass/thermometer display module. OVERHEAD CONSOLE DISPLAY S E G M E N T S MISSING ERRATIC C O M P A S S OPERATION 1. Faulty compass/thermometer display module.

1. Magnet or strong magnetic field near compass module. 2. Variance setting incorrect. 3. Calibration incorrect. 4. Faulty compass/thermometer display module.

ERRATIC T H E R M O M E T E R OPERATION

1. Faulty sensor wiring. 2. Faulty sensor. 3. Faulty compass/thermometer display module.

COMPASS/DISPLAY SELF-DIAGNOSTIC TEST This self-diagnostic test is used to determine that the compass and all of its display segments are oper ating properly electrically. Initiate the self-diagnostic tests as follows: (1) With the ignition switch in the OFF position, simultaneously press and hold the COMP/TEMP but ton and the US/METRIC button. (2) Turn ignition switch to ON position. (3) Continue to hold both buttons until segments on the display light. The module is now in self-diagnostic test mode. The display will respond by cycling through the fol lowing characters: N 00 NW 11 o W 22 SW 33 S 44

SE 55 E 66 NE 77 To repeat test, press the COMP/TEMP button. Pressing the US/METRIC button will light every seg ment of the display for 2 seconds. To repeat test, press the COMP/TEMP button. To exit self-diagnos tics mode, press the US/METRIC button. The module will return to compass/thermometer mode. If the compass functions, but accuracy is sus pect, it may be necessary to perform a variation adjustment. This procedure allows the unit to accommodate variations in the earth's mag netic field strength based on geographic loca t i o n . See Compass Variation Adjustment, in this group. If the compass display has blanked out and only CAL appears, demagnetizing may be nec-

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OVERHEAD CONSOLE SENSOR TEST

8C - 3

essary to remove excessive residual magnetic fields from the vehicle. See Compass Demagne tizing, in this group. THERMOMETER DIAGNOSIS
The thermometer function is supported by a tem perature sensor, a w i r i n g circuit and a portion of the overhead console display. The sensor is mounted to the radiator support on t h e driver's side j u s t behind the grille (Fig. 1).
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE SENSOR

(1) T u r n t h e ignition switch to OFF. U n p l u g sensor connector. (2) Measure resistance of sensor. A t -40F the re sistance is 336K ohms. A t 140F the resistance is 2.488K ohms. Sensor resistance should read between these t w o values. I f OK, go to Sensor Circuit Test. I f not OK, replace the sensor.

SENSOR CIRCUIT TEST


(1) T u r n ignition switch to OFF. U n p l u g sensor connector. (2) Short the pins on t h e body h a l f of connector us i n g a j u m p e r wire. (3) Remove the overhead console as described i n Service Procedures. (4) Check continuity between cavities 4 and 5 of overhead console harness connector (Fig. 2). There should be continuity. I f OK, go to next step. I f not OK, repair open circuit as required.
GROUND

ELECTRICAL C O N N E C T O R

J948C-18
PANEL DIMMER

Fig. 1 Temperature Sensor I f any portion of the circuit fails, i t w i l l self-diag nose as an open or short circuit. The system w i l l dis play SC (short circuit) when the sensor is exposed to temperatures i n excess of 60C (140F) or i f the cir cuit is shorted. I f the temperature is below -40C (-40F) or an open circuit exists, the system w i l l dis play OC (open circuit). To diagnose t h e temperature sensor, perform the following procedures. I f t h e sensor and circuit are OK, then the electronic module is faulty and should be replaced.

COURTESY DOOR SWITCH GROUND

HEADLAMPS ON/OFF INPUT

Fig. 2 Overhead Console Harness

Connector

(5) Remove jumper wire from temperature sensor harness connector. Check continuity between cavities 4 and 5 of overhead console harness connector (Fig. 2) and a good ground. There should be no continuity. I f OK, replace electronic module. I f not O K , repair short circuit as required.

8C - 4

OVERHEAD CONSOLE

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SERVICE PROCEDURES
COMPASS VARIATION ADJUSTMENT Variance is the difference between magnetic north and geographic north. In some areas, the difference between magnetic and geographic north is great enough to cause the compass to give false readings. If this occurs, the variance must be set. To set the variance: (1) Using the map in Fig. 3, find your geographic location and note the zone number.
ity of the compass. DO NOT use magnetic tools when servicing the overhead console.

The compass features a self-calibrating design, which simplifies the calibration procedure. This fea ture automatically updates the compass calibration while the vehicle is being driven. This takes into ac count small changes in residual magnetism the vehi cle may acquire during normal use. Do not attempt to calibrate the compass near large metal objects such as other vehicles, large buildings or bridges. Whenever the compass is calibrated manually, the variation number must also be reset. See Variation Adjustment Procedure, in this group. Calibrate the compass manually as follows: (1) Start the engine. (2) Depress both the US/METRIC and COMP/ TEMP buttons. Hold down until CAL is displayed. This takes about 10 seconds and appears about 5 sec onds after VAR is displayed. (3) Release both buttons. (4) Drive vehicle on a level surface that is away from large metal objects through 3 or more complete circles in not less than 48 seconds. The CAL message will disappear to indicate that the compass is now calibrated. If CAL message remains in display, either there is excessive magnetism near the compass or the unit is faulty. Repeat the demagnetizing and calibration procedures at least one more time. If the wrong direction is still indicated, the area selected may be too close to a strong mag netic field. Repeat the calibration procedure in another location. COMPASS DEMAGNETIZING The tool used to degauss or demagnetize the roof panel is the Miller Tool 6029. Equivalent units must be rated as continuous duty for 110/115 volts and 60Hz. They must also have a field strength of over 350 gauss at 1/4-inch beyond the tip of the probe. The degaussing tool is used to demagnetize the roof panel, as follows: (1) Be sure the ignition switch is in the OFF posi tion before you begin the demagnetizing procedure. (2) Place an 8-1/2 X 11 inch piece of paper, oriented lengthwise from front to rear, on the center line of the roof at the windshield header (Fig. 4). The pur pose of the paper is to protect the roof panel from scratches and define the area to be demagnetized. (3) Plug in the degaussing tool, while keeping the tool at least 2 feet away from the compass unit.

Fig. 3 Variance Settings

(2) Turn ignition switch to the ON position. (3) Depress both the US/METRIC and COMP/ TEMP buttons. Hold down until VAR is displayed. This takes about 5 seconds. (4) Release both buttons. (5) Press the US/METRIC button to step through the numbers until the zone number for your area ap pears in the display. (6) Press the COMP/TEMP button to enter this zone number into compass unit memory. (7) Confirm correct directions are indicated. COiPASS CALIBRATION
CAUTION: D O NOT place any external magnets such as magnetic roof mount antennas, in the vicin

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OVERHEAD CONSOLE

8C - 5

PULL TIP OF D E G A U S S I N G TOOL A W A Y

c c

AT LEAST T W O FEST A N D DISCONNECT

C C C

1/2"

START " W I N D S H I E L D EDGE J948C-5 Fig. 5 Console Mounting Fig. 4 Roof Demagnetizing Pattern Screws

J908E-27

(4) Slowly approach the center line of the roof panel at the windshield header with the degaussing tool plugged in. (5) Contact the roof panel with the tip of the tool. Be sure template is in place to avoid scratching the roof panel. Using a slow, back and forth sweeping motion and allowing 1/2-inch between passes (Fig. 4), move the tool at least 4 inches either side of the roof center line and 11 inches back from the windshield header. (6) With the degaussing tool still energized, slowly back it away from the roof panel until the tip is at least 2 feet from the roof. Then unplug the tool. (7) Calibrate the compass and adjust variance as described in this group. OVERHEAD CONSOLE REMOVE/INSTALL (1) Remove 2 console mounting screws (Fig. 5). (2) Pull front of console down slightly then move it rearward until mounting clips detach from roof panel (Fig. 6). (3) Disconnect wire harness from compass module. (4) Reverse removal procedures to install.
COMPASS/TEMPERATURE CONNECTOR

J948C-11 Fig. 6 Remove/Install Overhead Console

8C-6

OVERHEAD CONSOLE

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COMPASS/THERMOMETER MODULE REMOVE/ INSTALL (1) Remove overhead console and unplug wiring. See Overhead Console Remove/Install. (2) Remove 3 screws holding module to console (Fig. 7).

Fig. 8 Lighting Harness

Connector

(2) Remove bulb by pulling straight down. (3) Install new bulb by pushing firmly into socket. (4) Pivot lens up into position and snap