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(YENI FORMAT)

2013 OYAZAY Tm haklar sakldr. Bu kitabn tamam ya da bir ksm 5846 sayl yasann hkmlerine gre, yazarnn nceden izni olmakszn elektronik, mekanik, fotokopi ya da her hangi bir kayt sistemiyle oaltlamaz, yaymlanamaz, depolanamaz. 2013 Kitapta yer alan tekniklerin tm izmir 1. Noterlii'nden onayl olup, tekniklerin tm ya da bir ksm, zgn mizample ekilleri ile gsterimi hukuki olarak hak sahibinin ve yazarnn izni olmakszn, kaynaka gsterilmeksizin elektronik, mekanik, fotokopi ya da her hangi bir kayt sistemiyle oaltlamaz, yaymlanamaz, depolanamaz ve ticari
amal kullanlamaz.

Birinci
Bask

Bask,

2013

Szkesen Matbaaclk Tic. Ltd. ti.- ANKARA Tel: (312) 395 21 10- 395 59 07 Faks: (312) 395 61 07

Kapak Tasarm Ouz ELiK Dizgi ibrahim YIKILMAZ Uur ELiK Mizanpaj Rasim ENER ISBN

978-605-5529-99-4

GENEL DAGITIM
PELIKAN TIP ve TEKNIK KITAPILIK TIC. LTD.TI
MERKEZ: Ata Sok No 3/A Shhye/ANKARA Tel O 312 434 07 44.45 Faks O 312 434 07 46 UBE: Olgunlar Sok. No: 4/4 Bakanlklar/ANKARA Tel: 312 417 17 27-419 42 41 Fax: O 312 419 79 09 UBE: Sleyman Srr Cad . No: 16/2 Shhye 1ANKARA Tel: O 312 433 03 05- Faks: 433 03 15 UBE: Bayndr Sok. Adilhan Kitaplar ars No: 6/65 Kzlay 1ANKARA Tel: O 312 434 41 21-434 41 33 UBE: Karanfil Sok. Birlik I Merkezi 5/6 Kzlay/ANKARA Tel: O 312 418 6917 UBE: Karanfil Sok. Birlik I Merkezi 5/28 Kzlay/ANKARA Tel: O 312 418 6915 web: www.pelikankltabevl.org 1 e-mail: pellkankltabevl@gmall.com

nisan Hitabevi

UBE: Nisan Kitabevi Doktorlar Cad. No: 69/D ESKIEHIR Tel: O 222 221 07 05- O 222 221 21 90

www.nlsankltabevt.com

iiNDEKiLER
NSZ .................................................................................................................................................. VII YDS iFRESi NCESi ........................................................................................................................ VIII

1. BLM YDS GRAMER KONU ANLATIMI VE TEKNiKLERi


TENSES (ZAMANLAR) ........................................................................................................................... 3 PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION (EDiLGEN YAPI) ....................................................................................15 CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTION (ETTiRGEN YAPI) ............................................................................. 18 CONDITIONALS (KOUL CMLECiKLERi) ........................................................................................19 WISH CLAUSE (iSTEK KiPi) ................................................................................................................ 26 MODALS (KiP BELiRTELERi) ...........................................................................................................27 RELATIVE CLAUSE (SIFAT CMLECiKLERi) .................................................................................... 36 REDUCTION (iNDiRGEME) .................................................................................................................. 39 REDUCED RELATIVE (ADJECTIVE) CLAUSE 1 REDUCED NOUN CLAUSE .............................. 40 NOUN CLAUSE (iSiM CMLECiKLERi) .............................................................................................. 43 -EVER- CLAUSE ................................................................................................................................... 48 PARTICIPLES (REDUCED ADVERBIAL CLAUSES) ..........................................................................50 GERUNDS & INFINITIVES (ULA- EYLEMLiKLER) ........................................................................53 LINKING WORDS (BAGLALAR) ........................................................................................................ 57 A. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES/CONJUNCTIONS (Zarf Cmlecikleri) ................................................ 57 B. SENTENCE CONNECTORS ........................................................................................................ 62 C. SUB-ORDINATORS .....................................................................................................................66 QUANTIFIERS (MiKTAR BELiRTELERi) .......................................................................................... 67 ARTICLES (iLGELER) ........................................................................................................................74 INVERSION (DEVRiK YAPI) .................................................................................................................76

ll. BLM GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi


MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS .................................................................................................................. 81 MULTIPLE CHOICE CEVAP ANAHTARI ............................................................................................. 89 MULTIPLE CHOICE TEKNiKLERi ........................................................................................................ 90 CLOZE TES TS ..................................................................................................................................... 107 CLOZE TESTS CEVAP ANAHTARI ................................................................................................... 115 CLOZE TEST TEKNiKLERi. ................................................................................................................ 116 SENTENCE COMPLETON TESTS ..................................................................................................... 124 SENTENCE COMPLETION CEVAP ANAHTARI ................................................................................ 136 SENTENCE COMPLETION TEKNiKLERi .......................................................................................... 137

lll. BLM YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


ENGLISH- TURKISH TRANSLATION TESTS ..................................................................................163 ENGLISH- TURKISH TRANSLATION CEVAP ANAHTARI .............................................................173 ENGLISH- TURKISH TRANSLATION TEKNiKLERi ........................................................................ 175 TURKISH- ENGLISH TRANSLATION TEST ...................................................................................... 189 TURKISH- ENGLISH TRANSLATION CEVAP ANAHTARI .............................................................. 199 TURKISH- ENGLISH TRANSLATION TEKNiKLERi ........................................................................ 200 RESTATEMENT TEST (ENGLISH- ENGLISH) ................................................................................. 221 RESTATEMENT TEST (ENGLISH- ENGLISH) CEVAP ANAHTARI ...............................................226 RESTATEMENT TEST (ENGLISH- ENGLISH) TEKNiKLERi ..........................................................227 PARAGRAPH COMPLETION TEST ................................................................................................... 236

iv

PARAGRAPH COMPLETION TEST CEVAP ANAHTARI ..................................................................247 PARAGRAFTA BO BIRAKlLAN CMLEYi TAMAMLAMA TEKNiKLERi... ...................................248 PARAGRAPH COMPLETION TEST TEKNiKLERi ............................................................................250 SITUATION TEST ................................................................................................................................274 SITUATION TEST 1CEVAP ANAHTARI .............................................................................................281 SITUATION STRATEJiLERi. ...............................................................................................................282 IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TESTS .....................................................................................................291 IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TEST S CEVAP ANAHT ARI ....................................................................300 IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TEKNiKLERi ...........................................................................................305 DIALOGUE COMPLETION TESTS .....................................................................................................320 DIALOGUE COMPLETION TESTS CEVAP ANAHTARI ...................................................................333 DIALOGUE COMPLETION TESTS STRATEJiLERi ..........................................................................334 READING PASSAGE TESTS ..............................................................................................................356 READING PASSAGE TESTS CEVAP ANAHTARI ............................................................................396 READING PASSAGE TEKNiKLERi ....................................................................................................397

IV. BLM YDS VOCABULARY/KELiME


YDS VOCABULARY TEST ..................................................................................................................519 VOCABULARY TEST- CEVAP ANAHTARI.. ....................................................................................523 YDS KELiME LiSTESi .........................................................................................................................524 PHRASAL VERBS ...............................................................................................................................550

V. BLM 2010 SINAVLARI VE TEKNiKLER iLE ZM


2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010
iLKBAHAR KPDS SINAVI ..........................................................................................................559 KPDS iLKBAHAR SINAVI CEVAP ANAHTARI ........................................................................579 iLKBAHAR KPDS SINAVI TEKNiKLER iLE ZM ............................................................580 SONBAHAR KPDS SINAVI ........................................................................................................613 KPDS SONBAHAR SINAVI CEVAP ANAHTARI ......................................................................632 KPDS SONBAHAR SINAVI TEKNiKLER iLE ZM ..........................................................633

VI. BLM YDS DENEME SINAVLARI


DENEME 1............................................................................................................................................671 DENEME ll ...........................................................................................................................................687 DENEME lll ..........................................................................................................................................704 DENEME IV ..........................................................................................................................................720 2011 KPDS iLKBAHAR SORULARI ...................................................................................................737 DENEME SINAVLARI CEVAP ANAHTARI ........................................................................................751 DICTIONARY OF ADVERBS ...............................................................................................................754

N SZ
ilk olarak 1990 ylnda 100 soru olarak uygulanmaya balam ve 80 soru olarak yalnzca say ve soru dalm asndan deiiklie uramtr. Yabanc Dil Bilgisi Seviye Belirleme Usul ve Esaslar Hakknda Ynetmelik, 4 Ocak 2013 tarihli ve 28518 sayl Resmi Gazetede yaymlanmtr. Bu Ynetmelik gere i ; Merkezimiz tarafndan baz dillerde ylda iki kez olmak zere Yabanc Dil Bilgisi Seviye Belirleme Snav (YDS) uygulamasna geilmitir. Profesyonel alan ingilizce olan ya da olmayan tm snav adaylarn almas zor bir engel olma gerei ile kar karya brakan Kpds Snavna hazrlkta kur sistemi ingilizce bilgisi ve gnzmzde bilinen test teknikleri baary yakalamakla yetersiz kalmaktadr.
deiiklie uramadan

KPDS Snav (Kamu Personeli Dil 2011 ylnda soru formatlarnda

Snav)

Analitik dnmeyi esas alan ingilizce Test snavna hazrlk srecinde etkili olabilecek tek yntem harmanianm gemi sene sorularnn ve kolaylkla anlalabilmesi iin her blm iin zgn ekil ve grafikler zerinde mizanpe edilen KPDS iFRESi teknikleridir. Teknikler birer FORMALiZASYONDUR ve 'iFRE' iFADESi; tekniklerin zgnl ile ingilizcede mevcut konularn ve kabul grm kurallarn test sorular baznda dilbilimsel ervede ilk kez formalize edilerek belirli bir siterne dayandnlmasndan ileri gelmektedir. Snav teknikleri iFRE ad altnda ilk kez bu kitap ile literature gemi ve iFRE ifadesi ile kitapta yalnzca genel hatlar ile ele alnan izmir 1 nci Noterliinden onayl TEKNiKLER ifade edilmektedir. Soru zmlemesinde bir yntemin 'TEKNiK' olarak nitelendirilebilmesi iin yntemin ayn soru tarzndaki tm sorular zerinde geerliliini spatlam olmas gerekmektedir. Teknikler binlerce adet gemi sene KPDS, DS ve YDS ingilizce test sorular zerinde denenmi ve geerliliini spatlamtr.

KPDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi noterden onayl olmas ile tescilli teknikler olarak Trkiye'de bir ilk olmaya imza atmtr. Telif Hakk korumas altnda olan tekniklerin ve kaynak adnn kaynaka gsterilmeden basl ya da elektronik ortamda ticari amala kullanm hukuki izne tabi olup, tekniklerin eitim hakk ya da fotokopi ile oaltlarak eitim amal kullanm yasal olarak hibir dershane ya da kursa verilmemitir.

SYM Snavlarndaki geerliliinin daha net olarak ortaya konulabilmesi amac ile zellikle gemi sene snavlar zerinde gsterilmeye allan teknikler ilk kez KPDS iFRESi kitabn birinci basksnda tanbtmaya allmtr ve ikinci baskda teknikler daha ayrntl ve FORMULLER eklinde sunulmutur. Tescilli tekniklerin kullanm ve KPDS iFRESi kitabnn telif haklar 11/08/2011 tarihinde hak sahibi olan yazarndan Pelikan Yaynevi, Oya ZAY'a devredilmitir. YDS iFRESi kitabnda ana hatlar ile ele alnan teknikler ileriki dnemlerde ayrntl eklilde saygdeer okurlarmza sunulacaktr.

Kitabn basm aamasndan manevi desteklerini esirgemeyen Deerli Hocamz Sayn CESUR ZTRK' e
teekkrlerimizi

bor biliriz.

Sayglarmzla.

PELiKAN YAYINCILIK

vii

VDS iFRESi NCESi


Ayrntl bir biimde irdelenen YDS iFRESi TEKNIKLERI ile 60 saatlik bir zaman dilimini ayrmanz nemle tavsiye ederim. Bu srecin ilk 20 saatini GRAMER KONU ANLATIMI VE TEKNiKLERi BLMNE, dier 20 saatlik dilimini 'MULTIPLE CHOICE', 'SENTENCE COMPLETION, TRANSLATION' ve 'CLOZE TEST TEKNiKLERi' Blmlerine ayrma n z daha etkin olacaktr .. Gramer

Konu Anlatm ve Teknikleri Blmnde her bir konuyu altktan sonra konular CESUR ZTRK 'BUILDING SKILLS' adl kitaptan ya da herhangi bir konu tarama testi kitabndan pratik etmeniz gramer konularn pekitirmenizi kolaylatracaktr. Tm konular YDS iFRESi kitabndan alp konu tarama testlerini baka bir kaynaktan zdkten sonra MULTIPLE CHOICE TEKNiKLERi Blmne hazr bir hale geleceksiniz. Konularn kavranmadan Gramer Tekniklerine geilmesi kitabn gze karmak ve zor grnmesine neden olabilir. "YDS iFRESi" Gramer Test Tekniklerini kavrayabilmek iin soru tekniklerine gemeden nce GRAMER KONU ANLATIMI VE TEKNIKLERI BLMNN disipline bir alma ile zmsenmesi gerekmektedir. Gramer Konu Anlatm ve Teknikleri Blmnn snav srecine kadar dzenli olarak tekrar edilmesi hem gramer tekniklerinde pratiklik salayacak hem de okurlarn gramer konularn unutmaianna engel olacaktr . 'CMLE TAMAMLAMA TEKNIKLERI' 4 adet alt teknikten ibaret olup; okurlar almaya yneltmek amac ile "YDS iFRESi" adl kitapta maddeler halinde verilmemi olup; basm aamasndaki dier kitaplarda formller halinde sunulacaktr. 2 ya da 3 kez tekrar sonrasnda Cmle Tamamlama sorularnn sadece 4 alt teknik erevesinde zmlendii fark edilecektir. GRAMER KONU ANLATIMI VE TEKNIKLERI BLMNN dzenli olarak allmas "MULTI PLE CHOICE", "CLOZE TEST", "CMLE TAMAMLAMA' TEKNIKLERININ pratik uygulanmasna olanak salayacaktr. READING TEKNiKLERI BLM farkl soru trlerine gre 4 ayr alt teknik halinde formulize edilmi olup; her bir soru
tarznn teknikleri birbirlerinden farkllk gstermektedir. 'READING PASSAGE TEKNIKLERI' BLMNDE 4 alt teknik yardm

ile pasajn tmn okuyup hafza tutmak yerine; pasajdan tek bir cmle belirlenip okunmaktadr. 'IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TEKNIKLERI' ve 'PARAGRAFTA BO BIRAKlLAN CMLEYI TAMAMLAMA TEKNIKLERI' de 4 alt teknikten olumaktadr ve teknikler sras ile birebir uygulandnda etkinliini ortaya koymaktadr . Tavsiye edilen 60 saatin son 20 saati READING TEKNiKLERi BLMNE ve sure tutularak gemi sene KPDS, YDS snavlarnn uygulanmasna ayrlmaldr. Kitapta tm gemi sene sorular mevcut olduundan tek bir kaynak ile almanz yeterli olacaktr. ncelikle sorular zerinde gsterilen teknikleri irdelemeniz ve akabinde ayn sorular zerinde teknikleri uygulama almanz; teknikleri daha etkin bir ekilde uygulamanza frsat verecektir. Kitapta yer alan kelimelerden gnde en az 10 adet olsun ezberlemeniz snavda yer alan kelime sorularnda doru cevap saynz artracaktr . YDS iFRESi kitabnda 'TEKNiK' bal altnda verilmeyen DIALOGUE blmnde yer alan sorular verilen stratejiler yardm ile o kumanz gerekmektedir ancak dier blmlerde eviri yerine teknikleri sras ile birebir uygulamaya almalsnz. Soru trlerinde tekniklerin BiREBiR ve VERiLEN SIRALAMADA (rn: eviri sorularnda 'Bala Uyumu Teknii' yerine 3. Teknik olarak verilen 'zne Uyumu Tekniine' gememeniz!) uygulanmasn nemle tavsiye ederim.YDS iFRESi kitabnn ortaya koyduu sadece teknikler deil; tekniklerin belirli bir sralamada sistematize edilmesidir. Sorular YDS iFRESi TEKNIKLERI ile zp sonrasnda ayn sorular sadece anlamna evirerek zdnzde; teknikler yardm ile soru cevaplanmasnda daha fazla net elde ettiinizi gzlemleyebilirsiniz. Sistematize bir alma ve tekrar erevesinde YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi snav esnasnda sizlere en az 40 dakikalk bir sre kazandracaktr ve bu srete okuma paralarnda belirlenen anahtar cmleleri yeniden okuma imkann elde edebilirsiniz. YDS ifresi kitabnda bir blm sunulmaya allan tekniklerin YDS snavna hazrlk srecinde baary optimum dzeyde artrmasim temenni ediyor ve deerli okurlara almalarnda baarlar diliyoruz.

vii i

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

TENSES (Zamanlar)
Time Expressions

A. TIME EXPRESSIONS (zaman belirte~leri)


Tense (zaman) yap1lan Present ve Past olmak i.izere iki ayn ana ba~hk altmda analiz edilmektedir. Her bir tense (zaman) yap1s1 kategorisinde verilen tablolardaki zaman belirte~leri soru ci.imlesinde gori.ildi.igi.inde;zaman belirtecinin i~aret ettigi tense(zaman) yap1s1 se~eneklerde dogru cevap olarak i~aretlenmelidir.

I. PRESENT TENSES (PRESENT FORM OF TENSES)


I.SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Nowadays durumlar 1~10 Present Continuous Tense ile de kullamlabilir!)
{ge~ici

V1

Adverbs of Freauency always

Research indicates that people with insomnia often have difficulty in making rational judgements. Nowadays, Dyslexia i.. a very common disorder among children and sometimes it may extend in later years.

II. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (PROGRESSIVE)


these days currently for the time being at present

am/is/are V-

lNG

Scientists are currently gathering a DNA barcode for every species of plant and animal on the planet.

Look! Ustenl Heeyl Ssshl

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS ~iFRELERi

Ill. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


so far/ till now/ until now/ up till now

has/have

v3
~1klarda Present Perfect Tense olmad1jlnda; Present Perfect

recently /lately
ever/ never since/ for

already/ just/ yet


all (day. morning .... etc)

to date
Since the fall of Saddam Huseyin, diplomatic and economic relations in the area have changed a lot. The government has proposed a series of measures to combat the economic crisis recently. Over the last few years, the economy in the country has enjoyed a significant growth .

IV. WILL (SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE)


Soru bo,lugu sonrasmda verilen bu zaman belirte~leri yer ald1gmda; se~eneklerde 'will' i,aretlenir.
before long It is Soru

will V1
bolugundan sonra yandaki kutuda verilen verildiginde lklarda will iaretlenir. zaman

belirte~leri

possible } probable likely I unlikely

will
X

think assume suppose hope predict investigate imagine

will
X

Japan's new government will make details of a nuclear pact with the U.S. public soon. I hope he will be proved innocent before long.

Bu fiillerden sonra gelen soru boluguna 'will'

se~enegi

gelmelidirl

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

V. BE GOING TO am/is/are going to V1


'be going to' gelecek zaman yap1smm kullamm
bi~imlerini

tablo

i~erisinde

6 kategoride inceleyebiliriz.

1. PLANS (Pianlar)

We are going to marry . I'm going to visit Italy.


i~leri

Not: "Be going to" yap1s1 onceden planlad1g1m1z kullan1l1r. 2. THINGS THAT ARE ON THE WAY (Mevcut kamtlara dayanarak gelecek hakkmda tahminlerde bulunmada)

ifade etmede

Look at the weather! It's going to rain .

(We have the evidence that it's cloudy.)

Angela is going to have a baby next Tuesday .

(We have the evidence that Angela is pregnant.)

3. PERMANENT STATES (Gelecekte sureklilik ifade edecek durumlar) 4. EVENTS OUTSIDE PEOPLE'S CONTROL (Kiilerin elinde olmadan geliecek
oi~Jarm

Look out! You're going to fall .

Out flat is going to get new doors this summer . Janet's house is going to look over the sea .

Things are going to get worse later . It's going to rain soon .

tahmininde)

5.PREDICTION (Tahminde bulunmada)

She's going to be divorced. (My cousin told me.)

Not: Hem "will" hem de "be going to" yap1lan gelecege ait tahmin yOrutmede kullamhrlar. "Be going to" yap1s1yla yakm gelecege ya da ic;:inde bulundugumuz ana yonelik tahminde bulunurken; "will" yap1s1yla gelecek zamana ait olaylarla ilgili tahminde bulunuruz. "Be going to" yap1Sinl kullamrken, gelecekte olmaSinl tahmin ettigimiz olayla ilgili On bilgimiz olmas1 gerekir.

6. AFTER "IF"

If there's going to be a trouble, we won't come to your wedding ceremony.

Not: Genelde "if' ko~ul cOmlesinde tahmin yorotme amac1yla "will" yap1sm kullanamay1z. Bunun yerine niyetimizi ac;:klamak maksad1yla "be going to" yap!Sinl kullan1r1z.

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS ~iFRELERi

VI. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

will be V -ing
It's hard to say what will be happening this time next year.

VII. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


in 2015

will have

v3

by2018
by the year_DH (gelecek zaman dllimi)

By the year 2016, the nuclear power plant will have started to operate. By the time you graduate, your friends will already have found a good job!

Sec;eneklerde Future Perfect Tense

yok ise; Future Perfect CORUIIlt.ICWII

VIII. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


"Future Perfect Tense" i ~in verilen zaman belirte~leri bu tense yap1s1 ile de kullamllr; ancak, cumlede bunlara ek olarak "for, all morning I day etc." gibi sure~ ifadeleri de yer almalld1 r.

------------------

Soru cumlesinde soru bo~lugu oncesi ya sonrasmda birden fazla time da expression (zaman belirteci) verilmi~ ise ; future perfect tense belirteci olan 'by' ile verilen zaman belirteci baz allmr ve ~1klarda 'future perfect tense ' ya da 'future perfect continuous tense ' dogru se~enek olarak i~aretlenir.

By the year 2014 , we will have been working on this project for 5 years . The police will have been looking for the missing girl for 6 days by 5 (o'clock) tomorrow.

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

GELECEK ZAMANI ANLATIMDA KULLANILABILECEK DIGER GRAMER YAPILARININ TABLOSU

All teachers are to assemble in the library at 2.00 p.m. The professors are to meet at Hacettepe University next Friday.

2. AM/IS/ARE ABOUT TO Not: Yakm zamanda anlatmak i~in kullamhr.


ger~ekleecek

eylemleri

The meeting is about to start now.

Jane's flight is due to arrive from Dublin at

5.30.
The concert is not due to start until 11.00.

4. AM/IS/ARE ON THE POINT OF Not: Cok yakm zamanda anlatmada kullamhr.


ger~ekleecek

olaylan

Listen! The speaker is on the point of lecturing!

5. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE(amlis/are VlN G)

My sister is visiting me tomorrow.

Not: ~imdiki zaman yap1s1 ozellikle gelecege ait sosyal olaylan , seyahat planlanm anlatmada kullamhr. Bu zamanm kullan1mmda genellikle zaman tarifesi verilir.

6. SIMPLE PRESENT (V1) Not: Geni zaman gelecekteki sabit, degimeyen ya da takvimsel olaylan ifade etmede kullamhr.

Thanksgiving Day .!!. on Friday next year. My father retires in a year.

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS ~iFRELERi

II. PAST TENSES (PAST FORM OF TENSES)


I. SIMPLE PAST TENSE
last ago yesterday in 1989 during 1983 The Great Russia, .

V2

Dr. Maj. David Simons reached a height of 100.000 ft . by balloon to test human reactions at the edge of earth's atmosphere in 1957. Franklin D. Roosevelt led the United States during both the Great Depression and World War II.

II. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

was/were

V-ing

Education was different in the past. At the time, teachers were talking and students were just listening. Her health was deteriorating day by day, but there was nothing to do.

Ill. PAST PERFECT TENSE


earlier.
X

had

v3

before.
X

by then.
X

by midnight.

She was very nervous as she hadn't had a job interview before. I started to work here last June. By then, I had worked in an international company.

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

IV. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

had been V-ing

She was exhausted as she had been traveling for 8 hours. He fainted because he hadn 't been eating properly since yesterday.

ZAMAN BELIRTE(:LERI SORU BO$LUGUNUN HANGI TARAFINDA ARANIR?

Zaman belirte<;leri soru bo~lugunun sag tarafmda aramr. Ancak; soru bo~lugunun sag tarafmda zaman belirteci bulunamad1gmda; bo~lugun sol tarafmda zaman belirteci bulunup uygun tense yap1s1 se<;eneklerde i~aretlenir.

TEKNi~

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS ~iFRELERi

A. TIME CLAUSES (zaman cumlecikleri)


Sec;eneklerde oncelikle 1. maddelerde verilen tense kurallan aramr; ancak, aranan tense yap1lan sec;eneklerde bulunamad1gmda; 2. maddelerde gosterilen tense yap1lan dogru sec;enek olarak
i~aretlenir.

AFTER

1.

~IK~:A YOKSA

2.

'~[~
S.Past

,S. Present/will ,S.Past

,S.Present/will ,S.Past

WHILE AS JUST AS

Present Cont. Past Cont. Present Cont. Past Cont.

t
1.

~IKLARD~ YSKSA

.._, ,

S.Pesent

S.Past

Past Perfect S.Present

ffliii.U1DJ

~IKLARDA

2. will

-- --

YOKSA

10

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

ZAMAN BAGLACLARI CUMLE ORTASINDA YER ALDIGINDA TENSE KOMBiNASYONLARI


I. WHEN
PRESENT CONTINUOUS WHEN S. PRESENT PRESENT CONTINUOUS ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PRESENT WHEN S. PRESENT PAST CONTINUOUS WHEN S. PAST PAST CONTINUOUS ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PAST WHEN S. PAST

II. WHILE /JUST AS I AS


T0M0N0N TENSE KOMBiNASYONLARI AYNIDIR!
PRESENT CONTINUOUS WHILE PRESENT CONT. PRESENT CONTINUOUS ~IKLARDA YOK ISE; S. PRESENT WHILE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS WHILE PAST CONT. PAST CONTINUOUS ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PAST WHILE PAST CONTINUOUS

Ill. AFTER
S. PRESENT AFTER PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PRESENT AFTER S. PRESENT S. PAST AFTER PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PAST AFTER S. PAST

IV. BEFORE
PRESENT PERFECT BEFORE S. PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PRESENT BEFORE S. PRESENT PAST PERFECT BEFORE S. PAST PAST PERFECT ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; S. PAST BEFORE S. PAST

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11

YDS ~iFRELERi

V. AS SOON AS I THE MOMENT I ONCE I UNTIL


TUMUNUN TENSE KOMBiNASYONLARI AYNIDIR!
WILL-WON'T IS. PRESENT AS SOON AS/THE MOMENT/ONCE/UNTIL PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ~IKLARDA YOK iSE; WILL-WON'T IS. PRESENT AS SOON AS/THE MOMENT/ONCE/UNTIL S. PRESENT
*Until zaman cumlecigi past formatta; Until Simle Past , Past Perfect tense kombinasyonlan ile kullan1labilmektedir.

VI. BY THE TIME


WILL HAVE V3 BY THE TIME S. PRESENT PAST PERFECT BY THE TIME S. PAST

would rather

would rather would sooner would just as soon

V1

would sooner would just as soon would prefer

sb.

V2 (PAST)

I
somebody (kii)

I would rather devise the water project. I would rather YOU devised the water project.

It's time It's high time It's about time

to V1

It's time to study for KPDS. (KPDS It's time WE studied for KPDS.

~ah~ma

zamam geldi.)

12

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

When After Before As soon as The moment Once Until While Just as As Would rather It's time

ya da

when after before as soon as the moment once until while just as as would rather it's time

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

13

YDS ~iFRELERi

.
belirte~leri)

I. TIME EXPRESSIONS(zaman

11. TIME CLAUSES(zaman cumlecikleri)

TEKNiK

Ill. 1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 2. PRESENTPERFECTTENSE 3. WILL

Soru cumlesinde herhangi bir " time expression " ya da " time clause" yok ise; s1ras1 ile 'S.PRESENT TENSE ', 'PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ' ve 'WILL ' tense yap1lan soru cumlesine bagh kalmaks1zm se!(eneklerde dogru cevap olarak i$aretlenir!

B. IKINCI

A~AMADA

SORUNUN ACTIVE YA DA PASSIVE OLUP OLMADIGIIRDELENIR!

iki cumle arasmda "sub-ordinators" and ..................... or .............. . so

rnevcut lse ve soru boflugunda

the company

He~"''ed
X

S.

AST
qoaUficattons fo' management@ him as a productive manager.

a. hires b. has hired c.will hire d. had hired @Hired (S. PAST)

Soru bo~lugu oncesi verilen cumle SIMPLE PAST TENSE ile verilip so baglacmdan sonra gelen cOmlenin bo~lugunda time expression (zaman belirteci) yer . _..... .. ,fn .. i!(in; se!(eneklerde bir onceki cumlenin tense yap1s1 yani S. PAST TENSE i~aretlenir.

,rl,,.

S. Past

~ SO S.PAST (aym tense kurah!)

14

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION

"Passive" yap1lar edilgen yap1lar olup; eylemin baka biri tarafmdan yap1ld1gm vurgulamaktad1r.

The ideas of what a city should be _ _ _ _ by urban designers.


X

a. imposed b. have imposed @have been imposed d. has imposed e. has been imposed

TEKNiK: 'SORU CUMLESINiN "PASSIVE"/ EDILGEN YAPIDA OLDUGU NASIL


ANLA~ILIR?'

1.

Soru bolugundan sonra ya da soru bolugu sonras1 gelen kelimenin sonrasmda herhangi bir

~ (iLGEC) yer ahyor ise; soru ci.imlesi PASSIVE yani edilgen yap1dad1r.

................................ PASSIVE
X

+ PREPOSITION ................................ .
{

TEKNiK

~~ong,

next

} ... etc .

............... PASSIVE +(ADVERB/ ADJECTIVE/ NOUN) + PREPOSITION


X

TEKNiK

She doesn't want to wear these boots as they are made FROM animal skin. She doesn't want to wear these boots as they are made thoroughly FROM animal skin .

----------,
Preposition phrasal verb'e ait ise; bu kural gec;erli degildir !

TEKNi~ :

The company a. looked

for qualified employees for the upcoming position while it was being set up. b. was looked c. had been looked d. has looked e. will have looked

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15

YDS ~iFRELERi

2. Soru bolugundan sonra bir preposition yer alm1yor ise ; soru bolugundan sonra gelen bir isim var m1 diye bak1hr.Soru bolugu sonras1 bir isim (~ yer ahyor ise; soru ci.imlesi ACTIVE yani etken yap1da olup; lklarda uygun tense yap1s1m ic;:eren sec;:enek dogru cevap olarak iaretlenir.
................................. ACTIVE NOUN(iSiM) ................................ .
X

Anyone can produce ACTIVE

+ FIBERGLASS PARTS that will meet their specific needs.


NOUN(isim)

3. Soru bolugu sonras1 bir preposition ya da kelime yer alm1yor ise ; soru ci.imlesi oznesinin canh ya da nesne olup olmad1gma bak1hr. Ozne canh ise soru ci.imlesi ACTIVE , cans1z ise soru ci.imlesi PASSIVE yap1dad1r.
Mr. Bell( can h) ........................ ACTIVE ...................... ..
X

News(cans1z)

........................ PASSIVE .................... .


X

TENSE YAPILARINA GORE PASSIVE (EDiLGEN) FiiL YAPILARI

being

S.PRESENT I S.PAST

PRESENT CONT./ PAST CONT.

PRESENT PERFECT/PAST PERFECT

WILL/BE GOING TO/PRESENT - PAST MODALS

16

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

IMPERSONAL PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION


COrnie i;erisinde soru bo!jlugundan once gelen fiil eger yap1da ise; soru bo!jluguna infinitive "TO V1" gelir.
~

(edilgen)

The committee was declared


- X -

the situation.

PASSIVE VERB(EDiLGEN YAPIDA Fiil)

@)IO

en~

b. enhancing

d. having enhanced

c. being enhanced e. having been enhanced

Ya da soru bolugundan sonra infinitive "to V 1" gelirse; soru bolugunda PASSIVE yap1da lk iaretlenir.

The inflation is expected to fall from 8,64% to 7,7% in December.

I
TOV
1

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17

YDS $iFRELERi

CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTION

Causative (Ettirgen) yap1lar canhlarla ve nesnelerle kullamlmak i.izere iki ayn kategoride incelenmektedir.

(MAKE, HAVE, LET fiilleri sonrasmda CANLILAR ile

V1 ;

GET fiili ile

kullamhrken; HAVE ve GET fiilleri sonrasmda CANSIZLAR ile V3 ; LET fiili kullamhr!)

TO V1 ile BE V3

ACTIVE USE (WITH SOMEBODY)

PASSIVE USE (WITH SOMETHING)

Let your feelings be come out! He will


~

his latest book published soon . have

Whatever you do, don't let others hurt your feelings.

18

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

CONDITIONALS (KOUI cumlecikleri)

IF CONDITIONALS Type Zero Type I Type II/III Type IV (MIXED)

IMPLIED CONDITIONAL but but now or else otherwise

INVERTED CONDITIONAL SHOULD WAS/WERE TO V1 HAD

OTHER ADVERBIAL OF CONDITION CONDITIONALS upposing Without Supposed (that) But for Providing If weren't for * Provided (that) If it hadn't been fot ssuming ssumed (that) lmagi (that) As long as * { So long as

* On condition that *In the event that *Even if *Unless * As if/ As though *In case

1. IF CONDITIONAL
TYPE ZERO IF S.Present , S.Present
genel-ge~er

Type Zero bilimsel,

verilerde ve tabiat olaylanm ifade etmede kullamlmaktad1r.

Water evaporates if you heat it to 100C. (OR) Water evaporates if it is heated to 100C.

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19

YDS ~iFRELERi TYPE! IF {S. Present Present Cont. Present Perfect

will Present Modals

If this drug doesn't reduce his fever, 11! take him to hospital. If you've finished writing the report, you may leave early.

TYPE II IF S. Past , { Past Cont. would Past Moda!s

~UNREAL J

PRESENT

If I were you , I wouldn't accept his proposal. If the employees weren't fulfilling their responsibilities currently, we didn't have to accept their demand to promote .

./ I,HE,SHE,IT ZAMiRLERi iLE 'WAS' YERiNE 'WERE' KULLANIL/R!

TYPE Ill IF Past Perfect, twould have V 3 erfect Infinitives ast Perfect Modals)

The police could have caught the robber if they had arrived a bit earlier. If the country's economic situation hadn't been that bad, citizens wouldn't have migrated to richer countries.

! SORU CUMLESiNDE 'WILL,WOULD,WOULD HAVE V3 ' YA DA MODAL YAPILARI GORULDUGUNDE; SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI OLARAK SE~!=~EKLERDE iLK AKLA GELMESi GEREKEN 'IF' SECENEGIDIR!

20

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi TYPE IV (MIXED) "Tense" yap1lanm birer merdiven basamag olarak du~unursek; Past Perfect .............. ----.., S. Past

..........

MIXED
=>

would

Ko~ul cumleciginin sonunda present time niteleyici zaman belirte!(leri yer ahyor ise; bir onceki cumlenin "tense" yap1Sinl bir basamak du~ururuz.

IF

Past Perfect, would

today tonight now at the moment ... etc.

If he hadn't been so adventurous, he would be alive now.

Bu yap1 "If' sonras1 gelen cumlede present state bulundugunda kullamhr. If he weren't a rude man, he wouldn't have shouted at us in public like that.

2. IMPLIED CONDITIONAL (Gizli


::::>

Ko~ul

Cumlesi)

Gizli Ko~ul Cumlesinde "If' yap1s1 bulunmamaktad1r. iki cumle arasmda a~ag1da verilen bagla!(lar yer ald1gmda; cumle gizli ko~ul cumlesidir ve soru bo~lugunda "WOULD HAVE V 3 , PERFECT INFINITIVES" ya da "WOULD" i~aretlenir. but but now ---------------- x

----------------

1. would have V 3

c::::::::::::>

2. would sec;eneklerde i~aretlenir.

Perfect infinitives (Modals)

----------------

;or else, ;otherwise,

---------------- . x

1. would have V 3
Perfect infinitives (Modals)

c::::::::::::>

2. would sec;eneklerde

i~aretlenir.

The police made everyone evacuate the building ;otherwise, they would have been wounded. x

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21

YDS ~iFRELERi

3. INVERTED CONDITIONALS (Devrik

Ko~ul

Cumleleri)

SHOULD (Type I)
IF

WERE TO (Type II)


IF Wenfthe exercise to be performed at an intensity, the heart rate would increase. IF

HAD (Type Ill)

S!letrnf exercise
be performed at an an intensity, the heart rate will increase.

~:faa the exercise been

performed at an intensity, the heart rate would have increased.

If the exercise is performed at an intensity, the heart rate will increase. (SHOULD) If the exercise were performed at an intensity, the heart rate would increase. (WERE If the exercise had been at an intensity, the heart rate would have increased.

TO)

(HAD)

QUESTION: TYPE I INVERTED

Should
~

the new design of the product that attaches the producer's

name bear little relationship to the original concept, he_ _ abla


~:: 14~- ~~~

-"-

\1

i '-- '"*~~""~

~\~A_,

tf~

'

~-.

'""

"~

"-

c,
4. OTHER CONDITIONALS (Diger
Providing Provided (that) Supposing Supposed(that) Assuming Assumed(that) Imagine (that)
IF

Ko~ul

--

-- ..

Cumlecikleri)

the blood flow increases, the heart will beat faster.

BU KA TEGORIDEKI TUM KO$UL YAPILARIILE KULLANILABILMEKTEDIRLER!


IF

As long as So long as On condition that

the blood flow increases, the heart will beat faster.


IF

the blood flow increases, the heart will beat faster.


IF

In the event that

the blood flow increases, the heart will beat faster.

22

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

TEKNit<ID
Alternatif diger ko~ul ci.imleleri "IF" yerine ve ti.im ko~ul tiplerinde kullamlmaktad1r. Bir soru ci.imlesindeki kullamlmas1 gereken yap1 IF olup; yap1 ~1klarda bulunmuyor ise; verilen secteneklerde oncelikle;

1. providing/ provided (that), supposing/ assuming/ assumed (that) iljaretlenir. Sec;eneklerde bu koljul yap1lan verilmemilj ise;

supposed

(that),

2. as long as/ so long as diger koljul yap1lan arasmda dogru sec;enek olarak tercih edilir.

UNLESS Unless

"Unless" ci.imlesinde yap1sal olarak OLUMLU fiil; diger cumlesinde ise '1klarda ilk tercih olarak yapasa ya da anlam

bakuntndan

olumsuz

olan

ftH

(SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE iLE KULLANILIR)

Unless you take the financial responsibility, I will with,aw the financial support from you . (geri
~ekmek;

negatif anlamh bir fiil)

EVEN IF ko~ul cUmlesinde cOmlelerden birinin olumlu , bir digerinin ise yap1 ya da anlam bak1mmdan olumsuz olmas1 gereklidir. ____. Even if the world.l. thoroughly complicated, we have to do our best to survive in it.
(karma,lk; negatif anlamh bir s1fat)

pozitif

+
Un\eSS

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

23

YDS iFRELERi

"IN CASE" YAPISININ KULLANIM KURALLARI


1.~ ............ ........... , ................. ..... .
2........................ in

U EKILDE

LISTELENEBILIR:

In case c le bal!.__~~ :!! h ~!.!. l!! m ~ ez ~ . --.,..........,,...--~--~--,----~--------'


case~ (ardndan yapsal

olarak olumsuz cmle gelmez!)

3. PAST FORM in case S. PAST 1 SHOULD 1 MIGHT PRESENT FORM 1 FUTURE FORM in case S. PRESENT 1 SHOULD 1 MAV

"In case" ncesi gelen cmledeki flil herhangi bir present ya da future

yapda

ise; "in case"

sonras elen cmleY!. S. Present Tense ~Jsc.:.h::O::u~ld~ya, ~d !:l a ~:m=a...._.~ el~ ir~ . -----~----.....

"In case" ncesi flll "past tense" yaplarndan biri ile kullanlm ise; "in case" cmlesine Simple Past Tense , should y mi ht elir.
You

lifl't!lifUM strive to study ... ........ .. ...... ..... ..... .. in case you fail/ you should fail 1 you
may fail. In case you failed/ you should fail 1 you might fail. "

You ll!!lr!lstrive to study ..... ......... ...... ... ...... ...... ..

4. IMPERATIVE (EMiR CMLESi)

in case

____.,. Note down the exam date in case you forgetiyou should forget 1 you may forget.

5. ADVERBIAL OF CONDITION
BUT FOR + NOUN(iSiM), WOULD /A SENTENCE WITH PAST MODALS/ PERFECT MODALS WITHOUT AFRAIDTHAT {Butfor} Without his contributions. we couldn't have ralsed so much money. (TYPE lll) noun/isim

{Butfor} Without

YQ!!, 1 would feel lonely. {TYPE/1) no un

IF IT WEREN'T FOR

+ NOUN, WOULD/A SENTENCE WITH PAST MODALS CCOULD/MIGHT/WOULD)

!! it weren't for you, 1would feel

lonely. (TYPE ll)

IF IT HADN'T BEEN FOR + NOUN, WOULD HAVE V 3 1A SENTENCE WITH PERFECT MODALS CCOULD HAVE V3) !! it hadn't been for your help, we couldn't have won the prize. (TYPE lll)

24

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

INVERTED

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

25

YDS ~iFRELERi

WISH CLAUSE

I. istek kipi oncesinde once cumle yap1s1 gelir ise; istek kipi oncesi gelen cumlenin fiilinin zamanma bak1hp; cumle Present yap1da ise istek kipi cumlesine Past Tense ya da cumle Past yap1da ise istek kipi cumlesine Past Perfect Tense gelir.

+
___.,. ,. Present.! wish PAST

_ _. .,. ., Past.l wish PAST PERFECT

Zaman Merd1ven1

Past Perfect

Past~
Present
The empirical research analyst moves to Zimbabwe. I wish he didn't. The empirical research analyst moved to Zimbabwe . I wish he hadn't.

lstek kipi oncesi gelen cumlede "V-ing" yap1da fiil var ise ya da ~l?.l!._.flurur::D_ ~~-r~l!!!)~ ise;"wish clause" (istek kipi) ci.imlesinde would'' ya da "could" kullamm1 tercih edilmehd1r. V-ing .I wish _ _ __ Now. I wish _ _ _ __ lwish now. Turkey does not have economic welfare . I wish it would .

II. -wish clause (istek kipi) oncesi cumle verilmemi ise; istek kipi cumlesinde yer alan time expressions (zaman belirte!(leri) belirlenir. Zaman belirte!(leri imdiki zamam niteliyor ise S.PAST TENSE, ge!(mi zamam niteliyor ise PAST PERFECT TENSE istek kipi cumlesinde kullamlmahd1r.

I wish S. PAST ~at the moment, tomorrow, ... etc. PRESENT I wish PAST PERFECT !last ... , ago, yersterday

TEKNiK'"'

~PAST

26

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Modal Yap1lan PRESENT MODALS PAST MODALS PERFECT INFINITIVES (PERFECT MODALS)
u~ ba~hk

olmak uzere

altmda incelenmektedir.

I. PRESENT MODALS
BILITY (Yetenek) am,is,are able to POSSIBILITY (ihtimal) IMPOSSIBILITY (imkans1zhk) CERTAINTY (Kesinlik)

REQUESTS (Rica) Will you ........... ? Could you ........ ? Would you ... .. .. ? Can you ........... ? OFFERS (Teklif) Shall I .............. ? May I ............... ? Could I ............. ? Can 1 .... ?

SUGGESTION/ADVICE (Oneri/Tavsiye) should had better Let's .............. v1' Why don't .......v1? What about ..... V-ing ........ ? How about .....V-ing ...... ? NECESSITY (Gereklilik) ought to

would rather would sooner would just as soon

}v,
} toV,
V-ing

would like would love would prefer prefer

be supposed to

had better

should

need to

! ! ! !

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

27

YDS ~iFRELERi

PRESENT MODALS
I. ABILITY (YETENEK)
Hummingbirds can hover for as long as 50 minutes at a time. are able to

CLOZE TEST SORULARINDA BiLiMSEL VERiLERE YER VERiLMESi NEDENi iLE; PRESENT YAPIDAKi MODAL SECENEKLERiNDEN 'CAN ' TERCiH EDiLMELiDiRI

II. POSSIBILITY (IHTIMAL)


You had better go to the interview with a positive state of mind, then you impression.

Ill. REQUEST (RICA)


Will } Can Could Would

you lend me your d1ct1onary for tomorrow?

{ =>

"Would you mind ... ?" ricada bulunurken kullamlabilen bir diger yap1d1r. Ardmdan fiil gelmesi durumunda, fiil "-ing" eki ahr. Eger ardmdan "if' yap1s1 kullamm1 var ise; V2 kullamhr. Would you mind turning on the heater? Would you mind jf I turned on the heater?

IV. OFFER (TEKLiF)


Shall} May I carry these boxes for you? { Could

V. CERTAINITY (KESiNLiK)
Why don 't you go to bed? You must be tired after that long journey! (Kesinlikle yorgunsundurl)

VI. IMPOSSIBILITY (iMKANSIZLIK)


He can't be in school. I haven 't seen him today. (Okulda olmas1 imkans1z! Bugun onu gormedim.)

28

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

VII. SUGGESTION & ADVICE (ONERi , TAVSiYE)


SUGGESTION Let's organize a welcome home party for him. Why don't we organize .......... ...... .. .. .? What about organizing ........ .. ....... ...... ? How about organizing ... ...... ..............? Shall we organize .... .. .. ... ...... .... .. ... .? You had better learn how to behave in such situations. should (Boyle durumlarda nas1l davranacagm1 ogrensen iyi olur.)

ADVICE

VIII. NECESSITY (GEREKLiLiK)

You

are supposed to should ought to need to had better

pick the guests up at the airport.

IX. OBLIGATION (ZORUNLULUK)


We{ have to } must bankrupt. find a way to improve the company's financial situation; otherwise, we will go

Have to modal yap1s1 kanunlar ve kurallar ile belirlenmi zorunluluk durumunu ifade ederken, must modal yap1s1 kiinin kendini zorunlu hissettigi durumlan ifade eder. I have to get 65 from the ODS exam for my PhD. (Doktora yeterlilik puam 65 oldugu i~in; verilen durumda must yerine have to kullamm1 gerekir.) I must get 95 from the ODS Exam. (Doktora yeterlilik puam 65 gerekli olmasma karm smavdan 95 almak istemem; kendi h1rs1m ile ilgili ve kendimi zorunlu hissettigim bir durumdur.)

X. HABITS (ALI$KANLIKLAR)
I am { used to }working under pressure. (Bask altmda ~all maya ah1g1m.) accustomed to

XI. PREFERENCE (TERCiH)


I {would rather would sooner would just as soon
I

would love would prefer would like

} }

stay at home.

tuld <athe<

to stay at home

would sooner would just as soon would prefer

}
smb.

v2

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

29

YDS ~iFRELERi

"Can" modal yap1s1 ile c;ogu kiinin sahip oldugu yetenekler ifade edilirken, "am,is,are able to" ile spesifik yetenekler ifade edilmektedir. Ms.Bell can teach English . Miss. Beogul is able to teach 250 hours a month .

TEKNiK
Soru bolugundan sonra gelen cumlede as well/ as well as kullamm1 var ise; lklarda "may" ya da "might" dogru cevap olarak iaretlenir.

_______.
a) may/might

. . . . . . . . . . . . ::---- as well .......... .


X

PRESENT NECESSITY OBLIGATION needn't= don't have to gerekli degil

+
need to must have to

needn't mustn't

You needn't come with me. I can go alone. (Benimle gelmene gerek yok.) don't have to

You mustn't come with me. That place isn't suitable for children. (Benimle gelmemelisin.)

SHALL KULLANIMI
"Shall" modal yap1s1, sadece "I" ve " we" zamirleri ile kullamlmaktad1r. Shall I help you? Shall we go to the lecture?

MAY KULLANIMI
"May" modal yap1s1; ricada bulunurken (soru yap1smda) sadece " I" zamiri ile kullamlmaktadlr. May I get in touch with you by Friday?

30

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

II. PAST MODALS -------------------

MANAGED TO (Zorbir ~eyi ba~armak) was/were able to

~
might could

POSSIBILITY

OBLIGATION (Zorunluluk) had to

NECESSITY PAST HABIT (Gereklilik) (Eski all~kanllk) was/were supposed to used to didn't need to would

Though designing a green city depended on economy, some countries were able to achieve it. (Ba~ard1; zor bir ~eyin Ostesinden geldi.) The company had to promote workers so as to prevent them from going on strike. Doctors were supposed to contract the patient's muscles hard to enable his heart beat faster, but they didn 't. To prevent economic crisis, we might try to curb inflation .

./

./

(Gen~ken ~ok

He used to cry a lot when he was a teenager. aglard1; fakat, artlk aglam1yor.)

He would cry a lot when he was a teenager. (Gen~ken ~ok aglard1;fakat artlk aglam1yor.)

USED TO
'{; i%,

YANLIS KULLANIMLARII
t 1;"'
I~

~J~

"""""'4;,\F";'\

"

"

;f'xJ

ll"

~ ~ ~ -~-

He would get up early. (Eskiden periyodik olarak erken kalka

Eylem bildirmede kullaml1r.

Eylem bildirmede kullaml1r.

Durum ve miza<;: ifade etmede kullaml1r.

Durum ve miza<;: ifade etmede kullamlmaz.

Tekrar eden eylemleri ifade etmede kullaml1r.

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

31

YDS $iFRELERi

PAST OPPORTUNIT
(Ge~mil?te ka~rrrlmrl?

frrsatlar)

could have VJ

(tl;lfi11~iii (Kesinlik) must have VJ

.....__..,.

1---+i:Z~-MI:JI ...ti (lhtimal) may have V3 might have VJ could have VJ l~l#(ij=t.-t.1ii1 (Gereklilik) didn't need to needn't have V 3

IMPOSSIBILIT (lmkansrzhk) can't have VJ couldn't have VJ COMPLAINT/REGRET ($ikayet/Pil?manhk) should have VJ shouldn't have VJ

I. PAST OPPORTUNITY
Ge~mil?te ka~rrrlmrl?

(KACIRILMI~ FIRSATLAR) frrsatlarr ve yerine getirilmemil? zorunluluklarr ifade etmede kullanrhr.

v'

A: I am bankrupt! 8 : Oh, really! Why didn 't you get help from me? You could have borrowed from me! (Benden bor~ para alma imkanrn vardr ama yapmadrn.)

II. POSSIBILITY (iHTiMAL)


Ge~mil?te

ihtimal dahilinde olan olaylarr ifade etmede kullanrhr.

v'

A: I couldn't see Oya at the conference! 8: I don't know but she may have been sick. (Bilmiyorum; ancak, hasta olmul? olabilir.) might have been could have been

Ill. NECESSITY (GEREKLiLiK)


bir eylemin yaprlmasrnrn gerekli ya da gereksiz oldugunu ifade etmede kullanrhr. (Soruda yer alan miktar belirte~leri 'enough', 'plenty' bu modal yaprlarrna ipucu verir!
Ge~mil?te

Since our aim to set up a company was called off, I didn't need to loan from the bank. ($irket kurma planrmrz iptal oldugu i~in, kredi almama gerek yoktu ve de almadrm.)

A: Why did you loan from the bank? We called


off our plan to set up a company. 8: Gosh! I needn't have loaned then . (Kredi almama gerek yoktu ama maalesef aldrm.)

IV. CERTAINTY (KESiNLiK)


Ge~mil?te

bir eylemin kesinlikle yaprlmrl? oldugu vurgulamada kullanrhr.

v'

Arial has got the highest grade in the biology exam . She must have studied hard. (Kesinlikle ~ok ~ahl?mll?.)

32

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

V. IMPOSSIBILITY (IMKANSIZLIK)
Ge!(mite bir eylemin yap1lm1 olmasmm imkans1z oldugunu belirtmede kullamhr.

../

I regret divorcing. I shouldn't have ignored my wife! (Boanml olmaktan pimamm. Eimi ihmal etmemeliydim.) Terrorism has been on peak recently. We should have given much more effort to cease it in advance. (Terorizmi durdurmak i~in daha ~ok ~aba sarfetmeliydik.)

../

PERFECT MODALS

Soru Cumlesindeki Eylem Ger~eklemi mi?

TEKNiK

must have V3 needn't have

+ + +

v3 v3

shouldn't have

can 't/cou ldn 't have V3

didn't need to

should have

v3

could have V3

"PERFECT INFINITIVES" MODAL YAPILARI PAST PERFECT TENSE YAPISINDA OLUP, EYLEMLERIN GE<;MI~TE YAPILIP YAPILMADIGINI VURGULAMADA YARDIMCI OLURLAR. SORU <;OZUMLEMELERINDE ONCELIKLE ; SORU CUMLESINiN ANLAM YA DA YAPI BAZINDA OLUMSUZ OLUP OLMADIGI IRDELENMELi VE CUMLEDE OLUMSUZLUK VAR iSE; TABLODA YER ALAN EYLEMIN GER<;EKLE~IP GER<;EKLE~MEDIGI VE BU DOGRUL TUDA HANGI MODAL SE<;ENEGININ DOGRU CEVAP OLDUGU DAHA KOLAY BELIRLENEBILIR!

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

33

YDS ~iFRELERi

I.
iki cumle birbirlerine baglac; olmadan sadece virglil ile baglanamaz. Bu nedenle; virgul ile yanm b1rak1lan cumle sonras1 gelen soru boluguna cumle ic;eren sec;enek gelemez.

./

' --- . --- in Major Asian 'cities is still less common than in most European cities. ..... , street crime
$~~.I~~~ ~~!~:r.~~~-~
a. The governments are concerned Cii)Though it is rising sharply c. One should admit d. Severe majors had been taken e. That reliable statistical date can be obtained (Sentence) (Sentence with though) (Sentence) (Sentence) (Sentence)

TEKNiK

II.
Virgul sonras1 gelen soru boluguna fiil ic;eren sec;enek gelemez; ancak reduced(indirgenmi) yap1da fiil gelir.

.............. ' v_Effs


Sentence
./

Abraham, _ _ _ bad stories in childhood suffer from agony in adulthood .


X

a. experienced (verb)

TEKNiKCR

experiencing (Reduction)
c. experience (verb) d. experience (verb) e. have experienced (verb)

34

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Ill.
Virglil sonras1, "that" s1fat zamiri gelmez. Bu nedenle; virgul sonras1 gelen soru boluguna "that" sec;enegi iaretlenemez.
'

.............. ' ,..rtT ............. .


Sentence
../

The thesis , _ _ _ _ is on Antropological Foundations of Linguistics , eng lightens many fields .

(!;)Which

b. whose

c. whom

d. what

~ (virgul sonras1 that gelmez!)

IV.
Bir cumlede birden fazla fiil yer alamaz. Soru cumlesinde fiil mevcut ise; cumlede yer alabilecek diger fiilin relative clause , noun clause , reduction ya da artici le yap1lannda yer almas1 gereklidir.
. ........... Verb .... ....... ~ .... .... ...... .
X

Relative clause ___. Noun clause ___. Participle

___. Reduction
../

Scientists the health status of native people in the South Pasific noted the explosion of dietrelated disease in the area. d. will study e. to study a. studied @ st1dying c. have studied

REDUCED (K1saltma/indirgeme)

TEKNiK

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

35

YDS ~iFRELERi

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Srfat cOmleciklerinde who, which, that, whom, whose ve where ilgi zamirleri yer allrlar.

I. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (ilgi Zamirleri)

who/whom

Cumlede "who" ile "whom" ilgi zamirleri kendllerinden 6nce canlllar lie, "which" ilgl

which

that/whose

II. RELATIVE KULLANIMI

PRONOUNS

(ilgi

Zamirleri)

ONCESi

PREPOSITION

(ilge~)

ilgi zamirleri oncesi preposition (ilge~) kullamm1 yer ahyor ise; preposition sonras1 "whom", "which", "whose" ilgi zamirleri kullamp; "who" ve "that" zamirleri kullamlamaz.

. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. .

PREPOSITION
along

WHOM/WHOSE/WHICH .. .. .............. ..
X

at
{

as
from, ... etc.

The exam results the grading OF which is subjective gave rise to the failure of students.

OF WHICH=

WHOSE!

36

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Ill. iLGi ZAMiRLERI ONCESI ISiM KULLANIMI


ilgi zamirleri oncesi gelen isimler "of' ilgeci ile birlikte kullamhrlar.

...

1.---N-O_U_N_+_O~~---,~ ~HICH
WHOM/

.. .............. . .

The exam results , THE GRADING OF which is subjective gave rise to the failure of students.

IV. ILGi ZAMiRLERI ONCESi QUANTIFIERS (Miktar Belirtec;leri) KULLANIMI


Miktar belirtecleri ilgi zamirleri oncesi "of' ilgeci ile birlikte kullamhrlar.

....................l

QUANTIFIERS + OF some either any ... etc.

IWHOM~HOSEIWHICH

.... ..... ... ..... .

}
1
NON DEFINING ( , )
My sister, who is introverted, is not a good manager. (I have ONLY one sister.)

V. DEFINING- NON DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

1
DEFINING
My sister who is introverted is not a good manager. (I have MORE THAN a sister.)

Defining Relative Clause yap1s1 ile verilen cumle 'benim birden fazla k1z kardesim var ve onlardan biri .. .' anlamma gelmektedir. Non-Defining Relative Clause yap1s1 ile verilen cumle ise 'benim tek bir k1z kardesim var ve o .. .' anlamma gelmektedir. NON- DEFINING yap1s1 a~1klama bilgisi olup, virgUI kullamm1 tammlananm tek oldugunu ifade etmektedir. Tammlanamn tek oldugunu ifade etmesi nedeni ile
' ' t

t
w

.
;<'(

""'

;4

'
"'

~ .,":?:

,..

1>:

,:t:;

""""

"~

"'

~-

~ ~

.-

,;:~

""'"'

0~~

'

J:._,

'0'

c.
t_POINT
i~aretlenir.

---

~----~~

---

--

~~

Bo~luk onces(A STAGE] - - - - kelimeleri var ise; se~eneklerde "where" ya da "when"


X

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

37

YDS ~iFRELERi

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Stfat Zamirleri) KULLANIMI

1
ARDINDAN CUMLE GELENLER who which that whom wRese-

I
ARDINDAN FiiL GELENLER who which that whom whose

1
ARDINDAN iSiM GELENLER

+ SENTENCE/CUMLE

+ VERB/FiiL (IS)

whose + NOUN/iSiM

Soru bo~lugu sonras1 cumle geldiginde who. whom, which, that s1fat zamirleri, soru bo~lugu sonras1 fiil geldiginde who, which, that ilgi zamirleri,soru bo~lugu sonras1 isim geldiginde whose ilgi zamiri se!(eneklerde dogru cevap olarak i~aretlenmelidir.

My book,

-----edition has
X -

been finished is to be published soon.

NOUN (isim)

a. which

b. that

c.

whose

d. whom

Soru bolugu sonrast isim (editing) ge/mesi nedeni ile ser;eneklerde whose ilgi zamiri iaretlenmelidir.

2.

The editing of my book ,


X

has been finished,


VERB (fiil)

will be revised.

a.

which

b.that

c.whose

d.whom

Soru bolugu sonrast fiil ge/mesi nedeni ile ser;eneklerde which ve that stfat zamirleri e/e almtp, virgO/ sonrast that i/gi zamiri ge/medigi ir;in ser;eneklerde that e/enip dogru cevap olarak which i/gi zamiri iaretlenir.

Soru bolugu sonrast ci.imle ge/mesi nedeni ile ardmdan ci.imfe kullantmt a/mayan ilgi zamiri whose , canstz varltklarla kullantml a/mayan ilgi zamiri whom ve virgO/ sonras1 yer a/mayan ilgi zamiri that ser;eneklerde e/enmektedir. Elde kalan ilgi zamiri which ardmdan ci.imle ile kul/amlabilmekte oldugu ir;in sorunun dogru cevabt o/arak iaretlenmektedir.

WHICH VE WHERE AYIRIMI?


Ankara, which is rather cold, is my hometown . Ankara where I was born is rather cold.
1 '
1

"'~ e

'~ t

~ i

r'

'."

,'

,~

~~

c,
-~=~-~~

u~-

w-

-----------~-~~~~

--~-----

---

38

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

REDUCTION (indirgeme/Kasaltma)

Reduction (K1saltma/indirgeme) Relative Clause (S1fat Ci.imlecigi) ve Noun Clause (isim Ci.imlecigi) yap1larmda kullamhr.

REDUCTION

!
I. REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSE (S1fat Ci.imlecigi indirgemesi)

1
II. REDUCED NOUN CLAUSE (isim Ci.imlecigi indirgemesi)

CTIVE (Etken yap1larda) PASSIVE (Edilgen Yap1larda) V-ing

li~iii~lutm

Modals

Ordinal Numbers

The Only The Next The Last

Superlative

Soru ci.imlesinde relative pronouns (ilgi zamirleri) mevcut ise; indirgenmi (reduced) fill kullanllmazl

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

39

YDS iFRELERi

REDUCED RELATIVE (ADJECTIVE) CLAUSE (Sfat Cmlecii indirgemesi/Ksaltllmas) TEKNiK


A. 1. ACTIVE (Etken Yapda indirgeme)
Ksaltma yaplabilmesi

iin ilgi

zamirierinin (relative pronouns) soru cmlesinde

bulunmamas gereklilii

gz

nnde

bulundurulmaldr .

Soru cmlesi active (etken) yapda ise klarda V-ing ; soru cmlesi passive (edilgen) v3 sfat cmlecii indirgernesi olarak iaretlenir.

yapda

ise

klarda

Soru cmlesi active (etken)

yapda

ise
klarda iaretlenir.

Soru cmlesi passive (edilgen) ise

yapda

The staff _ _ _ _ _ the project should be applauded . (ACTIVE FORM)

a. devise

b. to devise

C9devising
boluu sonras ,

d. devised "the project" ismi

e. having devised
kullanm

Cmle yaps active (etken) yapda olduu iin (soru skk "devising" (V-ing) sorunun doru cevaptr.

nedeni ile), f

A. ll. PASSIVE (Edilgen

Yapda lndirgeme) Relative Pronoun (Ilgi Zamiri) iermeyen bir soru cmlesi passive (edilgen) hali) V3 soruda doru seenek olarak iaretlenmelidir.

yapda

ise; (fiilin Participle

The project _ _ ___ by the staff necessiates appreciation . (PASSIVE FORM) a. devise b. to devise c. devising

devised

e. having devised

seenei

Soru cmlesinin edilgen yapda olmas nedeni ile (cmle znesinin nesne "devised" doru cevap olarak iaretlenmelid i r .

olmasndan dolay) klarda

yapda ise 'To V1 ; passive yapda ise 'TO BE V3' gelir! Ordinal numbers (sra saylar) the first, the second, the third .. ; the only, the next, the last, ve superlative yaplar cmlede "relative clauses" yaplar ndan nce geldiklerinde, "relative pronoun" (who, which, that) ilgi zamirieri ile cmle fiili yerine " to" infinitive kullanlr .
ordina ls the only :::.s=u-==er,__,l=at::.:.iv..:...e=-------------f who/ which/ that

B. INFINITIVE Cmle avtive

He was the best leader who curbed inflation . He was the best leader TO CURB inflation .

40

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKI!.ERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Ci.imlenin iki tarafmda PRESENT ya da PAST yap1da tense yer ahyor ise;

ordinals the only superlative

_____....~mm~~L---- tt4ihl4#1
PRESENT

PRESENT
He is the first man to deserve my love.

ordinals the only superlative

-----Mmm~~IL------- tt&llrt4#1

PAST
He was the first man to deserve my love.

PAST

ordinals the only superlative

~----- tbWILtJ#]

PRESENT PAST
He is the first man to have deserved my love.

PAST PRESENT

PRESENT/PAST

PERFECT FORM

He was the first man to have deserved my love.

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

41

YDS ~iFRELERi

Passive (Edilgen) yap1daki relative clause cumlelerinde "to be V{ ya da "to have been V-J"' gelmektedir.

ordinals the only superlative

-----~"~""'l!,;i:J!;;;:C~'~Il-..____

ti:Ui#JWl

PRESENT/ PAST

PRESENT/ PAST

He is the first man to be loved.

PRESENT/PAST

PERFECT FORM

He was the first man to have been loved .

42

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

NOUN CLAUSE (isim COmlecikleri)

"Noun Clause" yap1s1 "Relative Clause" yap1smdan yap1sal farkhhk gostermektedir; ancak, iki yapmm da ortak ozelligi; cOmlenin ana fiili diHnda kendilerine ait ayn fiillerinin olmas1d1r. Bu nedenle; bu iki yap1y1 i~eren c0mlelerde1 yerine toplam 2 fiil yer almaktad1r. RELATIVE CLAUSE ................ +Verb Relative Clause ............ +Verb Noun Clause

... ......... VERB .. ........... .

!
1 2

NOUN CLAUSE

ERB ...... ............... ......... .................. ..... .

~ ... .. ... ................... VERB----:----....... .... ...... . what when where why whether ... or how that the fact that

Noun Clause yap1s1 sonrasmda ya soru da oncesinde gelen fill i9eren ~

../

NOUN CLAUSE YAPILARI CUMLE BA~INDA YA DA SONUNDA; RELATIVE CLAUSE YAPILARI iSE C0MLE ORT ASINDA YER ALIRLAR!

../

NOUN CLAUSE YAPILARININ HEMEN AKABiNDE FiiL BULUNUR!

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

43

YDS ~iFRELERi

rdmdan cumle gelenle what when where why whether how tha the fact that

rdmdan fiil gelen {what

rdmdan isim , s1fat, zarf gelen {how

TEKNiK
Se~eneklerde

THAT I THE FACT THAT ve WHAT arasmda ~eli~kiye dli~Uidliglinde; soru bo~lugundan sonra climle gelmi~ ise; THAT= THE FACT THAT; soru bo~lugundan sonra fiil gelmi~ ise; WHAT dogru cevap olarak i~aretlenir.
se~eneklerde

44

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

SAY what
X

what MEAN
X

NOUN CLAUSE ViRGOL iLE AYRILMAYAN KESiNTiSiZ TEK BiR CUMLE YAPISINDAN OLU~MAKTADIR! -

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

45

YDS ~iFRELERi

REDUCED NOUN CLAUSE (isim Cumlecigi indirgemesi)


Noun Clause yap1smm modal yap1s1 (kip belirteci) ile kullammmda ; modal ve noun Clause cumle yap1lannm ozneleri yerine indirgenmi~ isim cumleciklerinde active yap1da "To V1", passive yap1da "to be V 3 " gelebilir.
./ Our boss does not foresee what he has to do with tremendous amount of problems.

Our boss does not foresee what to do with tremendous amount of problems.

to V1 (ACTIVE/ETKEN)
./ ./ You had to decide what might be said in such an interview . You had to decide what to be said in such an interview.

"THAT" ve "THE FACT THAT" noun clause vauln reduced

to be V3 (PASSIVE/EDiLGEN)

TEKNiK NOUN CLAUSE YAPISI "THAT" iLE RELATIVE PRONOUN YAPISI "THAT" AYIRIMI

Soruda soru bolugu oncesi isim gelir ise; lklarda relative ronoun "that", soru bolugu oncesi ya da sonras1 fiil veya preposition+ fiil kullamm1 gelir ise; lklarda noun clause a 1s1 "that" dogru se~enek olarak iaretlenmelidir.

Soru bolugundan once isim gelirse; ardmdan fiil gelen 'that' (relativeclause) Soru bolugundan once fiil gelirse; ardmdan cOmle gelen 'that' (noun clause) Se~eneklerde dogru cevap olarak iaretlenmelidir!

Some

NATIONS
NOUN(ISIM)

that are so great do not have internal pronouns. (RELATIVE CLAUSE) that they influence on the wider world . (NOUN CLAUSE)

Some nations

DEPICT
VERB(FIIL)

46

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKtERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

"The Subjunctive Form" yani fiillerin yalm halleri (gereklilik, zorunluluk, tavsiye bildiren) belirli s1fat, fiil ve isimlerden sonra kullamhr. Bu konu KPDS-005 Smavlarmda sorulmamaktad1r! Subjunctive yap1 fiil oncesi gelmesi gereken "should" modal yap1smm
It is mandatory that students SHOULD be in the exam venue on time .
kald~nlmas1d1r.

It is mandatory that students BE in the exam venue on time.

I. SUBJUNCTIVE YAPIDA KULLANILAN SIFATLAR


crucial imperative vital essential obligatory urgent important necessary significant mandatory recommendable requestable

It is curial that she come here before 8 .

II. SUBJUNCTIVE YAPIDA KULLANILAN iSiMLER


advice order insistence suggestion necessity obligation recommendation

It Is an obligation that people speak English as a second or foreign language .

Ill. SUBJUNCTIVE YAPIDA KULLANILAN FiiLLER


advise recommend demand insist propose request suggest order

He insists that we leave earlier than usual .

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

47

YDS ~iFRELERi

WHOEVER, WHOMEVER, WHATEVER, WHENEVER, WHICHEVER, WHEREVER VE HOWEVER


"-Ever- Clause" cOmlecikleri yap1sal olarak "noun clause" ile ayn1 kullan1mdad1r.

~
........................... VERB(fiil)

...... Verb

OUN CLAUSE

what when where why whether how that the fact tha

........................ VERB(fiil)

... Verb whatever whenever wherever however whoever whomever whichever

-EVER- CLAUSE

! NOUN CLAUSE VE- EVER CLAUSE ONCESiNDE FiiL GELiR!

aym anlama gelmektedirler; sec;eneklerde birlikte yer elenmektedirler!

48

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

(Ardmdan ci.imle kullamm1)

Ardmdan fiil kullamm1)

whatever whenever wherever

whatever

whichever

however

TEKNiK

Soru bo~lugu ci.imle ba~mda ise; ~1klarda noun clause yerine ever clause dogru cevap olarak i~aretlenmelidir!

se~enegi

a.what

_ _ _ _ you go DOES NOT MAKE any difference in my private life .


X

b. where

c. when

~wherever

e.whether

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

49

YDS ~iFRELERi

PARTICIPLES

'Participles' yap1lan Zarf Cumleciklerinin k1saltmas1 olup; Time Clause ad1 verilen Zaman bagla~lan ile kurulan cumleciklerin k1saltlm1 bi~imidir ve TEKNiKLER 3 ayn kategoride irdelenmelidir.

TEKNiK 1
lndirgenmemi yap1daki yanm b1rak1lan cumlenin fiili belirlenip; cumledeki eylemi gerc;ekletiren ozne sec;eneklerde cumle bamda aramr ve bulunan lk dogru dogru cevap olarak kabul edilir.

Having been given an award, ______


b. the painting proved successful c. his success increased a lot d. the popularity came out

Gi)the artist was praised truly

TEKNiK 2
Soru bolugu cumle ortasmda yer ald1gmda; soru cumlesinde fiil olup olmad1gma bak1hr ve fiil var ise; yap1da cumle active (etken) iken ~. Passive(edilgen) yap1 da iken ~ 3_sec;eneklerde dogru cevap olarak iaretlenir.

The strike, _ _ _ _

a serious incident in the factory was held .


Noun (isim)/active

a. caused

(;)causing(active} c. to cause

d. that caused

*c set;ene(Ji; virgil/ sonras1"to Vt" kullamm1 milmkiJn olmaa1{/1 it;in iJaretlenemez. *d set;ene(Ji; virgil/ sonras1 non-defining relative pronoun "that" kullamm1 milmkiln olmad1{11 lt;ln j aretlenemez.

50

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

TEKNiK 3 (!<)
SORU CUMLESINDE Fill KULLANIMI OLUP CUMLE BA$1NDA YER ALAN SORU BO$LUGU SONRASI ~ VE ISMIN ARDINDAN CUMLE GELIYOR ISE;

ve Present formatta iken V-ING, cumle yap1da ve cumle fiili Past formatta iken HAVING V3 lklarda dogru sectenek olarak iaretlenir. Cumle ~ yaplda iken lklarda v3 lklarda dogru Se(fenek olarak iaretlenir.

Cumle

~yap1da

Cumle yap1smm active (etken) ya da passive (edilgen) oldugunu belirlemede virglil sonras1 yer alan cumledeki oznenin canh ya da cans1z olmas1 durumu onemlidir!

_ _ _ _ _the

~xam, IHjl took out his coat and went for the cafe .
Ozne canh!lactive

a. To fi nish

b.Being finished

QHaving finished d. Finished

The police succeeded in arresting the man _ _ _ _ tfHE

LITTLE GIRQ to kidnap .

I
0chasing(active) b. chased
noun(isim)/active c. having been chased d. being chased

_ _ _ _ _ exercise, the body contracts the skeletal muscles and squeezes the veins.

0Doing

b. Did

c. Having done

d. To do

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

51

YDS ~iFRELER i

INDIRGEME

ucTION RED ._eouceo RELATIVE CLAua~


t')!DUCED NOUN CLAUs~

pAJTICIPLES

I - .PASSIVE YAPIDA OLUP SECENEKLERDE V3 YOK ISE; . e SORU CUMLESI


SECENEKLERDE V-ing i$ARETLENEBiLiR!

YADA
SORU CUMLESi ACTIVE YAPIDA OLMASINA RAGMEN SECENEKLERDE AVTIVE KISALTMA YER ALMADIGINDA; DOGRU CEVAP OLARAK PASSIVE KULLANIMDA OLAN V3 i$ARETLENEBiLiR!

~ONKO
BiR CUMLEDE BiRDEN FAZLA FiiLiN YER ALAMAMASI KURAL/; CUMLEYE GELECEK DiGER FiiLLERiN KISALTILMI$(REDUCED) YAPIDA OLMASINI GEREKTiRiR!

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

GERUNDS

&

GERUNDS
I. LIST OF GERUNDS
admit anticipate appreciate avoid complete consider can't help can't stand confess

detest

deny
defer

=uss
escape
8X(:U88

di$11ke dread

fancy feel like finish forvige imagine involve keep loathe

mention mind miss postpone practise prevent propose put off

recall recollect resist risk save suggest tolerate understand

II. Gerund after prepositions


Preposition (in , at, without,.. .) sonras1 fiil gelmesi durumunda fiil "gerund I (V-ing)" yap1da kullamllr. Don 't take everything he says serious . He is good at exaggerating things .

Ill. Gerund after possesive adjectives/possesive "-s"


Possesive adjectives (my/her/h is/their. .. ) ve possesive "-s" sonras1 gelen fiil "gerund/(V-ing)" yap1da olmal1d1r.

His bossing around all the time drives me crazy.

IV. Gerund as the subject


Bir fiil cumlenin oznesi ise "gerund/(V-ing)" yap1da olmalld1 r.

Listening to classical music is my favourite pass time.

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53

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INFINITIVES
I. LIST OF INFINITIVES
afford agree aim appear arrange attempt ask beg bother care choose claim condescend consent decide demand determine deserve endeavour expect fall guarentee happen hesitate hope learn long manage need neglect offer plan prepare pretend proceed promise prove refuse resolve seem struggle swear tend threaten trouble undertake volunteer wait want wish

II. Infinitive after adjectives


S1fatlardan sonra ("busy"
hari~)

fiil gelmesi durumunda "infinitive" yap kullamhr.

He is really difficult to persuade.

Ill. Infinitive after noun


Cogul isimden sonra fiil geldiginde "infinitive yap1" kullamhr. You won't have another chance to apologize to him.

IV. Infinitive after "too" & " enough "


"Too" ve "enough" yap1larmm ardmdan gelen fiiller "infinitive" yap1da kullamhr. My uncle is too old to live alone. There wasn 't enough to eat, so we had to go to the market.

IV. Infinitive after "passive"


"Passive (edilgen)" bir yapmm ardmdan fiil geliyor ise; fiil " infinitive" yap1da kullamhr. The population of the city is expected to reach 10 million by the end of the year.

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

GERUND OR INFINITIVE ?
Bazt fiillerin ardmdan hem "gerund" hem de "infinitive" yaptda fiil gelebilir. Ancak iki kullantm arastnda anlam farkliltgt bulunmaktadtr.

I. FORGET
"Forget" fiili "yap1lmas1 gereken bir ~eyi unutmak" anlammda kullamliyor ise; infinitive yap1 ile, olan bir~eyi unutmak anlammda kullamhyor ise; gerund yap1 ile kullamhr. I forgot meeting her before and asked her name again. (Daha once tamtiQtmtzt unutup ad tnt tekrar sordum.) I forgot to buy bread. Mum will get furious! (Ekmek almayt unuttum . Annnem c;:ok sinirlenecek.)
"yap1lm1~

II.REMEMBER
"Remember" fiili "yap1lmas1 gereken bir~eyi hat1rlamak" anlammda kullamhyor ise; infinitive yap1 ile, "bir~eyin onceden yap1lm1~ oldugunu hat1rlamak "anlammda kullamhyor ise; gerund yap ile kullamhr. I remember seeing you before. Have you ever been here before? (Seni daha once gordOQOmO hattrltyorum.) To my surprise , my husband remembered to buy me a birthday present. (Kocam bana dogum gOnO hediyesi almayt hattrladt.)

Ill. PROPOSE
"Propose" fiili tavsiye etmek, onermek anlammda kullamhyor ise; gerund, "planlamak" anlammda kullamhyor ise; infinitive yap1 ile kullamhr. The jury proposed putting off the interview. (JOri mOiakatt ertelemeyi onerdi.) The jury proposed to put off the interview. (JOri mOiakatt ertelemeyi planlamtstt.)

IV. REGRET
"Regret" fiili kullamhr.
"pi~man

olmak" anlammda gerund, "OzOntu duymak" anlammda ise; infinitive yap1 ile

I regret shouting at you that night. (0 gece sana baqtrdtqtm ic;:in pimantm .) We regret to inform you that you aren't accepted for the job. {ie almmadtgtmzt bildirmekten OzOntO duyuyoruz.)

"Stop, forgot, remember, regret" fiillerinden sonra gelen

gerund vapadaki fill ge~mitte olan bir eylemi lfade

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55

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V. STOP
"Stop" fiili yap1lmakta olan bir eylemi "b1rakmak, kesmek" anlammda kullamhyor ise; gerund yap1 ile, " bir~ey yapmak ic;in durmak" anlammda ise; infinitive yap1 ile kullamhr.
The assistants stopped having a rest.

(Dinlenmeye son verdiler.) After a 4 hour journey, we stopped to have a rest. (Dort saatlik yolculugun ardmdan dinlenmek icin durduk.)

VI. TRY
"Try" fiili "denemek" anlammda kullamhyor ise; gerund, kullamhyor ise; infinitive yap1 ile kullamhr.
"c;ah~mak,

c;abalamak,

ugra~mak"

anlammda

- - + I tired opening the door with another key but it didn't work. (Kap1y1 baska bir anahtarla acmay1 denedim ama i~e yaramad 1. ) --+I've tired to dissuade him but he insists on getting divorced. (Onu cayd1rmaya callst1m ancak bo~anmakta 1srarll.) Why don't you try sleeping for your headache? Why don't you try to sleep for your headache? (Daha once ba~ka bir yontem (Denenen ilk yontem)
denenmi~)

VII. MEAN
"Mean" fiili "anlamma gelmek" anlammda ise; gerund yap1 ile, "kastetmek - niyet etmek" anlammda ise; infinitive yap1 ile kullamhr. Moving to a new flat now means spending over 2.000 Liras. (Yeni bir eve ta~mmak 2.000 liramn Ozerinde para harcamak demek.) I didn't mean to say it was your fault. You misunderstood me. (Senin hatan oldugunu soylemek istemedim. Ben i yanll~ anladm.) mean V-ing mean to V1

=anlamma gelmek =niyet etmek; kastetmek

ADVISE, SUGGEST, RECOMMEND (ONERMEK, TAVSIYE ETMEK)


advise suggest recommend

:J
>
>

V-ing

Economists suggest curbing the inflation.

advise~ suggest ...... .-~ / recommend

~toV1

Economists suggest the government to curb the inflation.

ALLOW I PERMIT (iZiN VERMEK)


allow permit allow permit V-ing The guards didn't allow entering the club without a ticket.

8 t o V1

The guards didn 't allow us to enter the club without a ticket.

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

LINKING WORDS

A. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES/CONJUNCTIONS (Zarf Cumlecikleri)


co
Although Though Even though Whereas Even if While

5
+Sentence (COrnie) in spite of irrespective of regardless of notwithstanding despite + Noun I V-ing

"Although, though, even though, whereas, even if," while zarf cumleciklerinden sonra cumle yap1s1, "in spite of, irrespective of, notwithstanding, despite" sonras1 ise noun (isim) ya da V-ing (isim fiil) gelmektedir.

Aym Ozne/konu
Although Though Even though
X

OZNE UYUMU TEKNiGi !


Cumle
se~eneklerde

tamamlama sorulannda tense u umuna bakllmadan once;

"although, though, even though" cumlelerinde oncelikle iki tarafta aym ozne kullamm1 aramr yoksa bu bag~lalann yer aldiQI sorularda tense uyumu aranmahd1r. Bu bagla~lar her zaman aym ozneler ile kullamlmaz ancak oncelikle ozne uyumuna bakllmasJ tercih edilmelidir. Though I work hard, I don't earn much. Notwithstanding hard work, I don't earn much. working hard (Cok cahsmama ragmen ~ok kazanm1yorum.) (Cok cahsmaya ragmen ~ok kazanm1yorum.)

While people employed in the public sector are paid high wages , and provided with insurance, the private sector usually exploits workers. (Ozel sektorde i verilenler yuksek ucret odenseler ve sigorta tern in edilseler de ozel sektor genellikle i~ilerini kullanmaktad1r.)

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57

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2.REASON NEDEN
Inasmuch as Seeing that On the grounds that In view of the fact that Because of the fact that As Since Now that due to thanks to owing to in view of on account of because of

+ Noun/ V-ing

+Sentence (Cumle)

"Inasmuch as, seeing that, as ... " gibi sebep bildiren zarf cumlecikleri sonrasmda sentence(cumle); "due to, thanks to, because of, in view of, owing to, on account of" cumlecikleri sonrasmda ise; noun (isim) ya da V-ing (isim fiil) kullamm1 gelmektedir.
R

OZNE UYUMU TEKNiGi

As
Because Since _ _ x_ _ , __ x_ __

CUMLE TAMAMLAMA SORULARINDA SE<;ENEKLERDE TENSE UYUMU ARANMADAN ONCE AS BECAUSE SINCE CUMLELERiNiN iKi TARAFINDA AYNI OZNELER YA DA ORTAK KONU ARANMALIDIR; ANCAK YOK iSE TENSE UYUMU ARANMALIDIR!

I earn much in view of the fact that I work hard . I earn much in view of working hard/ hard work . The price of crude oil has surged by 40% this year

owing to due to { because of in view of

the risk of disruption .

Play and exploration in child development are similar motivated behaviors.

seeing that { since

~ they are both instrinsically

AS IF I AS THOUGH
He looked as if he had seen a ghost. They treat me as though I were a child . seem behave act look taste treat sound feel

1.asif/asthough

2. seyeneklerde AS i!i>aretlenebilir.

" behave, act, look, taste, treat, sound, feel" fiilleri sonrasmda gelen soru bagla!flan gelir.

bo~luguna

'AS IF/AS THOUGH'

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

4. PURPOSE AMA
jso that Ln order that

+ can/may/will (PRESENT)
could/might/would (PAST)

Lfor fear that

~lest

+ should (PRESENT/PAST) wiii(PRESENT) would (PAST)

I study so that I in order that I MAY pass . (Srmfr ge~ebilmek i~in ~ah~ryorum.)
,_

In order to" ve "so as to" ama~ bildirrnede kullamllp ardmdan fill gelir.
" 4
'~ ~~,Jr-

I study lest I SHOULD fail. I study for fear that I WILL fail. ~ (Srmfta kahrrm korkusu ile ~ah~ryorum.)

C,.

- --

SO____________ THAT 1. adecf e (srfat) The book is so good that I recommend it. (Oylesine iyi bir kitap ki tavsiye ederim.) 2. adverb (zarf) She speaks so slowly that I don't hear.
3.~

SUCH------------ THAT 1. a/an + noun (tekil isim) It is such a book that I recommend it. (Oylesine bir kitap ki tavsiye ederim.) . noun ((fogul isim) They are such friends that I trust them . 3. a/an/ ad"ective+noun It is such a good book that I recommend it.

It is so good a book that I recommend it.

~-wh61.1Hi!t17MfififMi&wil@WIHiltj There are such a lot of students that have a class problem .

Her lo~altWs such that 1trust her.

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more
ADJ./ADV.

than+ isim

less

than+ isim ADJ./ADV. as (EQUALITY) E$1TLiK BILDIRiR! so _ _ _ as (EQUALITY) /olumsuz cumleler ilel ADJ./ADV. ADJ ./ADV.

as

three times .... etc.

:i~~

as much as

He earns twice as much as I do.

x
AS MUCH AS SEt;ENEKLERDE BULUNAMADIGINDA; WHAT i$ARETLENiR!

My thesis is much more complicated than yours. My wife's life style is as ordinary as my grandfather's.

7. TIME (ZAMAN) Time Clauses


when
after

before by the time as soon as once the moment until just as as while

ZAMAN BAGLACLARI ONCESiNDE ViRGOL GELMEZ!

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi


8. CONDITION
(KO~UL

l
Type Zero Type I Type II Type Ill Type IV (mixed) but but now or else otherwise

l
should was/were to (II) had {Ill)

Unless without (11/111) In case but for (11/111) Even if if it weren't for (II) if if hadn't been for (Ill) Imagine that As if/as though In the event that On condition that As long as/so long as Assuming/assumed (that) Supposing/supposed that) Providing/provided (that)

Koul ciimleleri konusu daha once anlattfdt{Jindan bu boliimde tekrar ayrmttft verilmemektedir.

a~tkfamasma

yer

~-~ fl ;tiJ

:tei: tiiM: Mi: tiirij: I #itl #I~ Mi: tiirij: 11


ii83~U:t

(Zengin olmasma ragmen mal varhgm1 paylamlyor.)

ALTHOUGH,THOUGH,EVEN,THOUGH

AS

Cumlelerde anlam ya da yap1 olarak z1thk bildiren zarf cumlecikleri ~ !..!:!..Q.!!gh yukanda gosterilen ekilde as baglac1 kullamm1 ile cumlede aym anlam1 vermektedirler.

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B. SENTENCE CONNECTORS
,all the same, ,conversely, ,yet, ,even so, ,still, ,however, ,on the other hand, ,in contrast, ,on the contrary, ,nevertheless, ,nonetheless, I don't like him

+ Sentence (Cumle)

, ~. , even so, , still, , however, , nonetheless, , nevertheless, , all the same,

I find some of his ideas reasonable.

(Onu sevmem ancak baz1 fikirlerini mant1kh buluyorum.) I don't C!V fish . On the contrary, I like it.
'

(Bahktan nefret etmem, aksine: severim.)

'

In contrast to the common belief that dishwashers spend a lot of water and energy, they are actually economical. (Cok su ve enerji tukettikleri yonundeki genel kanmm aksine, bula~uk makineleri oldukc;a ekonomiktir.)

SORUDA 'STILL' BAGLACI YER ALDIGINDA; SECENEKLERDE DOGRU CEVAP OLARAK ZITLIK BiLDiREN BAGLAC i$ARETLENiR! TEKNiK

,accordingly, ,thus, ,hence, ,therefore, ,consequently, ,as a result, ,as a consequence,

+Sentence (Cumle)

(Sonuc; olarak; boylelikle)

Living in a big city means better job oppurtunities. Thus , most people prefer to move to big cities. Therefore. Hence. Consequently, As a result. As a consuquence.

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

As a result of the heavy snow, many flights have been delayed. As a consuence of (Yogun kar yag nedeniyle
bir~ok u~u

gecikti.)

,by the same token} ,in the same way, ,correspondingly, ,similary, ,likewise,

+ Sentence (Cumle)

The US wasn't clearly weaker than Britain. Likewise, The Soviet Union was stronger than British Power by the middle of the 201h century. Similarly,

,besides, ,furthermore, ,moreover, ,additionally, ,in addition,

+Sentence (Cumle)

He will be a great asset to the company as he is really hardworking.Moreover, he has a good eye for business. Besides, Additionally, Furthermore, In addition,

Beside(s) In addition to

being hardworking, he has a good eye for business.

,in the mean time-;l_ ,meanwhile, S ,subsequently, ,afterwards, }-

(bu esnada) + Sentence (Cumle) (sonrasmda)

I need to do some shopping. Meanwhile, you can wait here. In the mean time,

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YDS ~iFRELERi

G
,or else, ,otherwise,

CO

'-y----1
(aksi taktirde)

would have V 3 /will/would/


X

The thief didn't go through the window. Otherwise, he would have been caught.

7. EMPHASIS ASLINDA
,intact, },indeed, + Sentence (COrnie) ,actually, ,as a matter of fact, She's been considered to be the utmost success of her field. Indeed, she has published the leading In fact. books on semiotics. Actually, As a matter of fact.

..
,in particular,} ,exclusively, ,particulary, ,especially,

+ Sentence (COrnie)

9. EXEMPLIFICATION ORNEGIN
,for instance, } ,for example, ,to illustrate, ,to give an example, +Sentence (COrnie)

Mathematics has eminent contribution to social life . To illustrate, it sheds light on how to handle social For instance. problems through an analytic sphere. For example. To give an example.

0
,tosumup, } ,all things considered, ,all in all, ,briefly/ in brief, ,shortly/ in short,

K)

+Sentence (COrnie)

The film was far beyond the expectations. In short, it was a flop. Briefly. All in all.

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

,to put differently, ,to put in a different way, ,in other words, ,that is, ,namely, ,that's to say,

+sentence (Cumle)

There is a shortage of skilled labor in the area. That is, workers there will not be as qualified as we need. That's to say,

"Instead"

cumle

batmda,

iki

virgUI

arasmda,

Tax cut is not a good way to improve economic situation as people may prefer to save money instead of spending it shopping. Tax cut is not a good way to improve economic situation as people may not spend their money shopping. Instead, they prefer saving it.

intermsof } with regard to with respect to regarding

+noun (isim) I( .... bak1mmdan I

a~1smdan)

Cloning isn't ethical with regard to human creation.

X X

is similar with/ to is different from

y Y

+ in that + sentence

His writing style is similar to mine in that we both use stereotypes in our stories.

BENZERLiK VE FARKLILIKLARIN NEDENSELLiGiNi iFADE ETMEDE 'CUNKU' GOREViNDE 'IN THAT' BAGLACI KULLANILIR!

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BiRDEN FAZLA KULLANIMI CLAN YAPILAR

C. SUB-ORDINATORS

yet

so

or

and

but

because

BAGLACLAR KATEGORILERINE GORE FARKLI NOKTALAMA I$ARETLERIILE KULLANILIRLAR VE BU NOKTALAMA I$ARETLERI SORU COZUMUNDE ONEMLI IPUCLARIDIR! (and,or,so,but,because baglat;lari akademik ingilizcede ciimle ba$mda kullamlmazlar; bunun yerine ciimle ortasinda; onlerinde tek virgil/ ile ya da virgiilsiiz kullanilirlar!) BAGLACLARIN NOKTALAMA i$ARETLERi ACISINDAN KULLANIM FARKLARI

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Miktar belirtegleri say1labilen ve say1lamayan isimler ile kullammlanna gore tablodaki

~ekilde

ozetlenebilir.

a good many a great many a number of a huge number of a great number of friends a large number of most > most of (sayllabilen isim) a couple of afew>few (HEM SAYILAB LEN HEM DE SAYILAMAYAN BELi LE

sayllabllenlslmlerlemlktar bel1rteylenn1n ard1ndan sayllabllen yogul 1s1m geld1gmde ~

olur!

A good manv instructors at university severely complain about salaries .

'' "" VERB: COn)~ta!nS ," '


Sayllamayan ISimler lie kullanllan l"ttl l"ttl h I t f
I

PLURAL(COGUL KULLANIM)

d d t

f f

t d I f I t f t ann of a m1ktar bel1rteylenn1n ardmdan sayllamayan 1s1m geld1g1nde

..

. fT SINGULAR an t k"l k llan mda olurl

A vast quantity of my self-confidence

!..!! inherited from my belowed uncle . I

VERB : aEe -, '

'

SINGULAR(TEKiL KULLANIM)

.-"

"

'

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Miktar belirtet;:leri some, any, many ve much olumlu , olumsuz ve soru cumlelerinde kullammlarma gore farkllllk gostermektedirler. Bu farklllig1 ozetlemek gerekir ise;

+
ANY MANY MUCH

+ + + +
HOW MANY? HOW MUCH?

+ + +

1. Some soru cumlelennde. Would you .... ? Could you ... ? Can you ... ? modal yap1lan 1le tekl1f onermede kullan11maktad1r Could you put some more salt in the soup? (Corbana tuz ister misin?)

2. An m1ktar beilrtec1 olumlu cumlelerde HERHANGI BIR anlammda. ardmdan TEKIL ISIM ve TEKIL FilL 1le kullanlimaktad1r Any book is useful to improve yourself. (Kendini
geli~tirmen i~in

herhangi bir kitap faydah olur.)

3. MANY ve MUCH m1ktar bellrtet;:len soru cumlelennde HOW MANY ... ? ve HOW MUCH ... ? yap1lan 1le kullan 1iab1lmektedlr How many editions does your book have? How much news did you gather ?

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A FEW, FEW, A LITTLE, LITTLE KULLANIMI


WITH

a few few

friends

a little little

money

A FEW (BiRKAC)

>

FEW (HEMEN HEMEN HiC)

A few miktar belirteci few belirtecinden DAHA FAZLA miktar ifade etmektedir.
Since there were eight students in class , the instructor didn't need to cancel the exam. (There were a few students.) Since there were two students in class , the instructor cancelled the exam. (There few students.)

A LITTLE (BiRAZ)

>

LITTLE (HEMEN HEMEN HiC)

A little miktar belirteci little belirtecinden DAHA FAZLA miktar ifade etmektedir.
I can get the bus to school though I have only five million on me. (I have a little money but it is enough for the bus.) The ticket cost for the bus is five million but I cannot get on the bus as I have only two million and half on me. (I have little money.)

II
THE WHOLE

THE WHOLE, ALL, ALL THE KULLANIMI

II

SINGULAR NOUNITEKiL iSiM

SINGULAR VERB

The whole class suffers from the difficulty of the final exam . (All the class= The whole class)

ALL

PLURAL NOUN/COGUL iSiM

SINGULAR VERB

All classes suffer from the difficulty of the final exam.

THE WHOLE CLASS= ALL THE CLASS kullamm1 ile veri len ornek cum Ieier anlam bak1mmdan ayn1d1r.

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II
==:>

ONE, ANOTHER, THE OTHER KULLANIMI

II

ikiden fazla kii ya da nesne hakkmda bilgi verirken another kullamm1 mumkun olup; 2 kisi ya da 2 nesne hakkmda bilgi verirken bir diger anlamm1 vermek i~in another miktar belirteci kullamml mumkun degildir.
The security guard has a good many friends. One is the dean of the faculty, _ _ _ is head of the X department. a. the other CQ;)tnother

Birden fazla arkadas1 o/duqu icin. bir di{Jeri ifadesi vermede the other yerine another miktar belirteci kullamllr.
The security guard has only two close friends . One is the postman of the university, _ _ _ is the dustman . X @the other b. another

iki vakm arkadasm birinden bahsedildikten sonra bir di{Jer arkadatan bahsederken another yerine the other miktar belirteci kullamlmafldlr.

II

SOME, OTHERS KULLANIMI

II

Some ve Many ile balayan cumleyi takip eden cumle others miktar belirteci ile devam etmelidir.
While some people have low self- esteem towards marriage, others have high .

Cumle tamamlama sorularmda "others" cumlesinin onundeki cumlenin some ile; ya da "some" cumlesinden sonra gelen cumlenin "others" ile devam etmesi gerekliligi g6z onunde bulundurulmalldr.

TEKNiK

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KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

II

EACH, EVERY KULLANIMI TEKNiK

II

'_f _ __ x _ _ IQfl the students in class is studious.


CEVAP:EACH EVERYONE EVERY OF" kullan1m1 yoktur!

PREPOSITION " OF" iLGECi KULLANIMIONCESI EACH YA DA EVERY ONE GELiR.

Since the students in class are studious, I appreciate _ _x __

CEVAP:EACH EVR

CUMLE SONUNDA GELEN SORU BO$LUGUNA EVER VERiNE EACH GELiR.

-NOT / NEARLY CEVAP: EVERY --AGM

_ _ _ _ person lives in poverty.


X

CVMLE NOT VE NEARLY ILE BA$LADIGINDA ; ARDINDAN GELEN SORU BO$LUGUNA EACH VERiNE EVERY GELiR.

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YDS $iFRELERi

Neither the students nor the teachers are the teacher is

I
Either the students or the teachers are the teacher is

Not only the students but {also) the teachers are the teacher is

Neither ...................... nor, Either ......................... or, Not only ...................... but ya da but also cumlelerinin ikinci tarafmda yer alan fiilin tekil ya da ~ogul oldugunu belirlemede;
ilk cOmlede yer alan i:iznenin tekil ya da r;:ogul olup olmad1gma degil; ikinci cOmlenin i:iznesinin tekil ya da r;:ogulluguna bak1lmalid1r. lkinci cOmlede yer alan ozne tekil ise ardmdan tekil fiil ; ozne !(ogul ise ardmdan cogul fiil gelmelidir.

BOTH the students and the teacher are

Both ..................... and yap1smda ikinci cumlenin oznesi ister tekil ister ~ogul olsun; cumlede cogul yap1da fiil gelmelidir.

72

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKL.:ERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Either Neither Both

of of of

the the the

students

Is (SING\ILAR)
students students
------

.,..URAL)

li (IINGULAR)
None of
the students
,--~ :c.>

Either of Neither of Both of None of

ikisinden herhangi biri } - - - - . ikisinden hi~biri =====:Her ikisi de - - - - . Hi~biri

anlammda kullamhrfar!

RAKAMSAL OLARAK 2 NESNE/ Ki~i iCiN

..

EITHER OF. NEITHER OF. BOTH OF

2' DEN FAZLA NESNE/ Ki~i iCiN

..

NONE OF KULLANILMAKTADIR.

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

73

YDS ~iFRELERi

ARTICLES
(ilge~ler)

!.INDEFINITE ARTICLES 'AlAN'


JOBS (meslekler)

I saw! girl.

a number of a dozen of a quarter of,etc a deal I quantity of

The

University

of

74

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

Ill. NO AR:....:..T.:....:I-=-C=LE=------------,
Turkey/ izmir

Lake Van

English I Spanish ...

Eastern Turkey

Mount Everest

Bermuda

Asia, Africa

Wall Street

History, Physics ...

School, hospital, prison ...

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

75

YDS iFRELERi

INVERSION

Aadaki

tabloda bulunan

yaplar

cmle

basnda

yer

aldklarnda

devrik cmle

kullanm

gerektirir.
ONLYWHEN

ONLY AFTER

NOT ONLY

ONLY IF

NEVER

NOTUNTIL

U NDER NO CIRCUMST AN CES

PREPOSITION OF PLACE (YER NiTELEYEN iLGE) CMLE BAlNDA KULLANILDIGINDA

NEITHER

ONLY BY+

VNG

NOWHERE

RARELY

SO/SUCH/AS

'

SELDOM

ON NO ACCOUNT

76

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

KONU ANLATIMI ve TEKNiKLERi

ONLY WHEN YOU SEE HER ,YOU.wtt( UNDERSTAND HOW WORRIED SHE IS.

..

WILL YOU

NO SOONER had I reached the stop than the bus came .

~
HARDLY had I reached the stop when the bus came.

SC~RCELY

ON NO ACCOUNT

should you leave the house without locking the door.

t
ONLY BY WORKING over time can you save that amount of money.

t
NOT ONLY did the thief steal her purse, but he also stabbed the old woman.

t
BEHIND the doors was she upset.

Hardly Scarcely

+ PAST PERFECT +

when + S.PAST .

1. COrnie fiil ile balarsa soru boluguna devrik yap1

bagla~lan

gelmelidir!

2. Soruda fiil online vurgu vermek amac1 ile yard1mc1 fiil geldiginde ("I do study, he does comprehend") devrik yap1 gerektirir ve z1tllk bildiren bagla~lar soru boluguna dogru se~enek olarak gelmelidir!

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

77

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS


TEST 1
1.
Recent excavations in Algeria ---- that Homo erectus ---- there between 500,000 and 750,000 years ago.
A) B) C) D) E)

6.

During the wars ---- followed the French Revolution, Belgium was occupied by France

and later annexed.


A) B) C) D) E)

have indicated I resided had indicated I has resided indicated I would reside could have indicated I had been residing indicate I had resided

whether who when that as

7.

2.

German Chancellor Merkel is under pressure from power companies, which --- to invest in new power generation projects unless they --exempt from tough emission requirements.
A) B) C) D) E)

The private sector in the Gulf states employs mostly expatriate workers, ---- the majority of nationals are employed in the public sector with higher wages and job protection.
A) so that B) just as C) while D) unless E) in case

refused I have been refuse I are have refused I had been had refused I will be were refusing I are to be

8.

3.

Although she ---- properly yet, the recipient of the world's first face transplant --- well, according to the first scientific report of the operation.
A) B) C) D)

A series of gas discoveries in recent years in the Western Desert of Egypt means that a range of new export projects must be developed ---- the country is to make full use of its new reserves.
A) B) C) D) E)

hadn't smiled I would have done didn't smile I will do doesn't smile I may have done couldn't have smiled I does E) can't smile I is doing

lest although after as if if

9.

4.

To protect whales and dolphins ----the coast of Hawaii, a court in California has temporarily banned the US navy from using powerful sonar equipment ---- a military exercise in the area.

Hundreds of deep fjords that cut into the coastline give Norway an overall oceanfront of---- 12,000 miles.
A) B) C) D) E)

A) at I over B) in I on C) before I through D) off I during E) within I with


5. As it had in World War I, Argentina proclaimed neutrality ---- the outbreak of World War II, but in the closing phase it declared war---- the Axis powers.
A) B) C) D) E)

more than just as the same as so far as as well as

10. Made out of metal so that it conducts the


charge, the lightning rod is usually located ---high ---- possible because of lightning's tendency to strike the nearest object to it.
A) B) C) D) E)

over I after for I with at! on about I through from I above

so I as as I as more I than both I and not only I but also

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

81

YDS ~iFRELERi
11. There ---- various indications that the current
financial crisis ---- a damaging effect on technology companies.
A) are I is having B) were I will have C) had been I has had D) have been I would have had E) would have been I had had

17. The Caucasus is a strategically vital region --could play a critical role in the European Union's future energy security.
A) B) C) D) E)

whereas who as whereby that

12. Russia ---- earlier this week that it ---- all its
troops out of Georgia.
A) B) C) D) E) had announced I pulled announces I would have pulled announced I had pulled is announcing I has pulled has announced I was pulling

18. ----inflation and unemployment rise sharply in


Europe, the solidarity of the European Union could break down in some damaging ways. A) B) C) D) E) If As if Unless Until Even though

13. With its superior firepower, NATO ---- any


battle, but it ----the war in Afghanistan.
A) B) C) D) E) had won /loses can win I is losing has won /lost would have won I had lost is winning I was losing

19. In the current financial cns1s, Italy is alone


among the big European countries in having --- a bank rescue fund ---- a stated figure for the sum it is ready to make available.
A) B) C) D) E) more I than neither I nor such I as so I that just I as

14. About 20 to 40 per cent of pancreatic cancer


cases are cured ----chemotherapy followed ---radiation therapy or surgery.
A) B) C) D) E) about I over from I to with I by of I into at I through

20. Deep-sea diving can cause medical problems


air embolism and decompression sickness, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.
A) B) C) D) E) as regards as far as also such as just as

15. The objective ---- a proper diet is to achieve


and maintain a desirable body composition and a large capacity ---- physical and mental work.
A) B) C) D) through I through on I within at I across of I for E) after I between

16. Gang violence is deplorable and cannot be


tolerated, ---- simply "cracking down" on it is not the solution.
A) B) C) D) E) so that whereby but when so long as

82

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST2
1. The price of crude oil ---- by 40% this year due to the continuing risk of disruption in the Middle East, which ---- for one-third of global production.
A) B) C) D) E) surges I accounted had surged I has accounted has surged I accounts surged I had accounted will surge I could have accounted

6.

The island groups in the Pacific are often called "Oceania," ---- this name does not imply that they are the remains of a continent.
A) B) C) D) E) whether but just as whereby so that

7.

---- most people who commit suicide are depressed, having depression correctly diagnosed and treated is the most important step towards preventing suicide.
A) As long as B) Although C) Because D) Even if E) Unless

2.

At the end of 1998, Estonia ---- the strict citizenship requirements that the country's Russian minority from gaining citizenship.
A) B) C) D) E) relaxes I kept had relaxed I have kept has relaxed I were keeping relaxed I had kept will relax I are keeping

8.

Algeria is particularly keen to increase its gas exports ---- OPEC production quotas restrict its oil exports.
A) B) C) D) E) since so that as if that whereas

3.

An ideal anticancer drug cancer cells without harming normal cells, but no such drug----.
A) B) C) D) E) would destroy I exists destroyed I existed may have destroyed I has existed has destroyed I had existed had destroyed I would exist

9.

In the early twentieth century, the motor car was one of the first major consumer products to be ---- mass produced ---- mass marketed.
A) B) C) D) E) such I as more I than so I as as I as both I and

4.

Despite the official ban --- demonstrations, 2008 has seen Egyptians take to the streets --- massive numbers on several occasions.
A) B) C) D) E) about I by for I with over I at of I through on I in

10. The body's immune system attacks and eliminates ---- bacteria and other foreign substances ---- cancer cells.
A) B) C) D) not only I but also rather I than such I that as well as I and E) just as I as

5.

According to the generally accepted platetectonics theory, scientists believe that Earth's surface is broken ---- a number of shifting plates, which average ---- 50 miles in thickness.
A) B) C) D) E) up I above at I for down I beyond into I about of I below

11. The ruins of ancient Troy ---- as breath-taking as those of Ephesus or Aphrodisias, but, for anyone who has ever read Homer's Iliad or Odyssey, they have a romance few places on Earth ----.
A) B) C) D) E) have not been I hoped to have matched had not been I would hope to match may not be I can hope to match are not I hoped to match could not have been I hope to match

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

83

YDS ~iFRELERi
12. Nineteenth-century military helmets ---- than they now appear, but even at their best they - the way to the future of head protection.
A) B) C) D) E) have been better designed I do not point could be better designed I would not point are better designed I will not point may have been better designed I did not point can be better designed I had not pointed

17. The Danish poet and novelist Jeppe Aakjaer grew up in the Jutland farming area and ---was well aware of the harsh conditions endured by farm labourers in his country.
A) B) C) D) E)
on the contrary even so so still nevertheless

13. Cabbage ---- as early as 2000 B.C., and the commercial varieties now Brussels sprouts, common cabbage, sprouting broccoli, and kohlrabi.
A) B) C) D) E) might have been cultivated I have included had been cultivated I included would be cultivated I used to include would have been cultivated I can include was cultivated I include

18. ---- the US and Brazil both occupy the American continent, the northern location of the former and the southern location of the latter plainly mark a real distinction and bring important policy consequences.
A) B) C) D) E) As long as Now that Only if After Although

14. Foreign policy is composed of the goals sought, values set, decisions made and actions taken ---- states and the national governments acting their behalf.
A) B) C) D) E)
by I on about I for at I from over I between in I among

19. ----Windsor Castle, occupying ----area of 287 hectares, is among the most beautiful royal residences in Europe.
A) B) C) D) E) The I an This I such an An I the The most I such That I Some

15. A priori knowledge Western philosophy is knowledge that is independent ---- all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori knowledge, which derives from experience alone.
A) B) C) D) E) at I for in I of through I by beside I towards with I from

20. Geometry is usually divided into pure geometry, which roughly embraces the plane and solid geometry dealt with by Euclid, and analytical or coordinate geometry, problems are solved using algebraic methods.
A) B) C) D) E) in that in which bywhom which whichever

16. ---- not all negative thoughts and feelings are bad for health, specific emotional states, especially stress and depression, have now been linked to heart trouble of all kinds.
A) B) C) D) E) When Suppose that As if Whenever Though

84

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST3
1. Investigations by modern doctors ---- that Catherine the Great of Russia ---- from syphilis.
A) B) C) D) E) have suggested I has suffered suggest/suffered had suggested I was suffering may have suggested I would have suffered suggested I suffers

7.

One of the world's worst space flight disasters occurred on 28 January 1986, ---the shuttle Challenger exploded soon after take-off, killing the crew of seven.

A) if
B) so that

C) even if
D) when E) just as

2.

This morning it ---- in the news that the great Italian tenor Pavarotti ---- of pancreatic cancer soon after midnight.
A) B) C) D) E) had been reported I died is reported I would die is being reported I dies was reported I had died has been reported I could have died

8.

Slow-motion photography can reveal things that happen -- fast for the human eye to see.

A) B) C) D) E)

more as than too such

3.

The United States ---- expensive high-tech solutions to the problem of land-mine clearance, but simpler methods ---- more preferable.
A) B) C) D) E)
should pursue I were pursues I had been pursued I will have been would pursue I would have been has pursued I may be

9.

Contrary to perceptions outside Canada, the majority of Canadians are descended from the English, the Scots, and the Irish ---- from the French.
A) rather than B) more than C) such as D) and so E) also

4.

People who travel ----airlines all have stories --- how bad the experience is when things go wrong.
A) B) C) D) E) with I for in I of on I about at I over through I to

10. Because of the wide variety of ethnicity in the United States, people speak English as ---their native ----their adopted tongue.
A) B) C) D) E) rather I than either I or more I than so much I as well I as

5.

Scientists have studied the health status of native people in the South Pacific ---decades, and have noted the explosion of diet-related disease ---- the area.

11. The British government ---- details of the next stage of its genetically modified cropfield trials, thus ---- off a now familiar cycle of debate and demonstration.
A) has released I setting B )will release I to set C) would have released I having set D) is releasing I to have set E) released I to be set

A) for I in
B) C) D) E) throughout I over through I about by I off of/ at

6.

The Worldwatch Institute reported last year --- approximately four of the five McDonald's restaurants that opened every day in 2005 were outside the United States.
A) B) C) D) E) if as while when that

12. Training schemes in the United Kingdom ---by the government as unemployment ----.

A) were encouraged I will have worsened B) would be encouraged I had been worsened C) have been encouraged I has worsened D) had been encouraged I may worsen E) are encouraged I would have worsened

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

85

YDS ~iFRELERi
13. After the Germanic invasions, Celtic cultures, which in pre-Roman times ---- most of Western Europe, almost entirely to the British Isles.
A) B) C) D) E) had covered I were confined have been covering I have been confined had been covering I would be confined have covered I could have been confined were covering I had been confined

18. Several species of birds in Vietnam vanished during the war, ---- they began to reappear in the 1980s and their gradual return has been encouraged by Vietnamese villagers.
A) B) C) D) E)
but since unless when

if

14. An Indian drug company has offered to supply an anti-AIDS drug ----sufferers in developing countries less than onetwentieth of the standard cost in the West.
A) B) C) D) E) in I to at I over with I for to I at on I with

19. Countries are interested in their absolute economic welfare, ---- in how well they are performing compared to other countries.
A) B) C) D) E) both I as well as as I as so much I as more I but not only I but also

15. The main attention at the World Economic Forum, when it was not focused China, centred on Africa's remarkable economic growth ----the past couple of years.
A) B) C) D) E)
in I with on I over of I towards by I at from I through

20. Basicallay a country has two objectives in imposing tariffs; one is to raise revenue for government, ---- is to protect home industries by raising the price of competing goods from abroad.
A) B) C) D) E) other both another the other each

16. In child development, play and exploration are similar they are both intrinsically motivated behaviours and not directed by external goals.

A) on the other hand


B) C) D) E)
whereas otherwise after since

17. At present, the European Union imports about


one quarter of its gas and one third of its oil from Russia, ---- countries such as Slovakia, Finland, Poland, Hungary, the Baltic states and the Ukraine are totally or very heavily dependent on Russian energy.
A) B) C) D) E) even though since whether while in case

86

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST4
1. Many parts of rural America ---- to reflect the values and traditions of the European immigrants who ---- in the country during the nineteenth century.
A) B) C) D) E) continued I have arrived have continued I would have arrived continue I arrived would have continued I were arriving will continue I would arrive

7.

the growth in e-mail and fax transmissions, many communications are still best handled by face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact.
A) B) C) D) E) Contrary to In spite of By means of Since As regards

8.

2.

With few exceptions, most totalitarian governments---- more liberal since 1989 when the Berlin Wall ----.
A) B) C) D) E) became I falls are becoming I would fall were becoming I has fallen had become I was falling have become I fell

---- by making an internal analysis can a company set the overall rationale for its international activities.
A) B) C) D) E) Still While Only Until Just as

9.

3.

Of all the arts it ---- to classical music that Germany ----the greatest contribution.
A) B) C) D) E) had been I made is I has made has been I had made was I will have made might be I would have made

---- an organization depends on collaborative arrangements, ---- likely it is to lose control over decisions.
A) B) C) D) E) Not only I but also Neither I nor Either I or When I then The more I the more

4.

Severity of autism ranges ---- those who are mute and have no functional behaviour individuals with high IQ scores.
A) B) C) D) E) into I among in I about between I of through I for from I to

10. A corporation's formulation of its international strategy will greatly determine --- it will benefit more from protectionism or from some other means for countering international competition.
A) B) C) D) E) so as unless whether whereby

5.

Most companies would prefer to concentrate --- domestic rather than foreign markets because of their greater familiarity ---- their own environments.
A) B) C) D) E) in I of on I with over I by at I from for I to

11. Having read so many contemporary American writers, I ---- to feel impatient with the kind of fiction that ---- in England.
A) B) C) D) E) was beginning I will have been written had begun I has been written have begun I would have been written would begin I is being written began I was being written

6.

Management must learn to determine market conditions in the countries ---- it is doing business.
A) B) C) D) E) where what as for ofwhich so that

12. Cross-border shopping is a fundamental right under EU law and ---- as a form of tax evasion.
A) B) C) D) E) must not have been regarded had not been regarded should not be regarded would not have been regarded was not being regarded

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

87

YDS ~iFRELERi
13. He certainly ---- party members last weekend when he announced that he ---- to regain his party chairmanship.
A) B) C) D) E) has shocked I had not sought would have shocked I will not seek had shocked I would not have sought was to shock I is not seeking shocked I would not seek

19. His latest novel is about people who take their work seriously, ---- that's being a mother, a nurse or a soldier.
A) even so B) as if C) unless D) besides E) whether

14. The 1980s ---- a surge of new interest ----the definition of intelligence.
A) B) C) D) E) have brought I to be expanding had brought I having expanded were bringing I to have expanded brought I in expanding would have brought I to expand

20. Heviz is Europe's largest warm-water lake and visitors can swim there even in winter, - helps extend the tourist season.
A) B) C) D) E) thus which nor too so

15. For decades presidents have been coming ---plans to deal with the fact that one day the world will run ---- its key source of energy: oil.
A) B) C) D) E) up with I out of out of I up against down to I away from up for I through over to I into

16. Philosophers have debated the relation thought and emotions --- at least two millennia.
A) from I over B) over I in C) between I for D) in I by E) through I to

17. ---- little respect the British people may feel for the monarchy, they are still not likely to change to a republic.
A) B) C) D) E) As far as Whatever Such a However Just as

18. All of the world's major national parks are included on the map, - are most of the important reserves of lesser status.
A) B) C) D) E) as as well such which that

88

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YOS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

MULTIPLE CHOICE CEVAP ANAHTARI


TEST 1 1. A 3. E 5. c 7. c 9. A 11. A 13. 8 15. 0 17. E 19. 8 2.8 4.0 6. 0 8.E 10.8 12.C 14.C 16.C 18. A 20.0 TEST 2 1. c 3.A 5.0 7.C 9.E 11. c 13.E 15.8 17. c 18. A 2.0 4.E 6. 8 8.A 10. A 12.0 14.A 16.E 18.E 20.8 TEST 3 1. 8 3.E 5.A 7.0 9.A 11. A 13. A 15.8 17.0 19.E 2. 0 4.C 6.E 8.0 10.8 12.C 14.0 16.E 18. A 20.0 1. c 3.8 5. 8 7. 8 9.E 11. E 13.E 15. A 17.0 19.E TEST 4 2.E 4.E 6.A 8.c 10.0 12.C 14.0 16.C 18. A 20.8

'YDS ~iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

89

YDS ~iFRELERi

MULTIPLE CHOICE TEKNiKLERi


TEST 1
1.

Recent excavations in Algeria ----that Homo erectus ----there between 500 ,000 and present perfect tense
A) B) C) D) E)

""""'-

170

years

ago.

simple past tense

have indicated I resided


had indicated I has resided indicated I would reside could have indicated I had been residing indicate I had resided

2.

German Chancellor Merkel is under pressure from power companies, which ---- to invest in new power generation projects

unless they---- exempt from tough emission requirements .

Unless (s. present tense ile kullamhr!)


A) refused I have been

B)

refuse I are

C) have refused I had been D) had refused I will be E) were refusing I are to be 3. properly yet, the recipient of the world's first face transplant ---- well , according to the first Although she scientific report If the operation.

-T

TEKNiK! ci.imlede zaman belirteci olmad1gmda iki tarafta present tense kullamm1!
A) B) C) D) E) 4. hadn't smiled I would have done didn't smile I will do doesn't smile I may have done couldn't have smiled I does can't smile 1 is doing
Se~eneklerde

yet zaman belirteci Present

Tense yok; bu nedenle soruda Tense --..

To protect whales and dolphins ----

US na"ll from using powertul sona< equltenl-- a

the coast of Hawaii, a court in California has temporarily banned the military exercise In lhe area.

off I on the coast


A) at I over 5. B) in I on C) before I through D)

I
during + noun (isim) off I during
E) within I with

As it had in World War I, Argentina proclaimed neutrality---- the outbreak of World War II, but in the closing phase it

declared war---- the Axis powers.

~ declare war on something/somewhere


A) over I after B) for I with

C)

at I on

D) about I through

E) from I above

90

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

A) B) C) D) E)

whether who when

that _ ___:_ noun/isim (ardmdan relative clause kullamm1!)


as

7.

The private sector in the Gulf states employs mostly expatriate workers , ---- the majority of nationals are employed in the public sector with higher wages and job protection.
/-----------------------------~

A) so that B) just as C) while D) unless E) in case

8.

A series of gas discoveries in recent years in the Western Desert of Egypt means that a range of new export projects must be developed---- the country is to make full use of its new reserves.
A) lest B) although C) after D) as if E)

if clause type I (with modal)


Modal kullamm1 ile sec;eneklerde ilk du~unOimesi gereken "if" yap1s1d1r! TEKNiK!

A. ardmdan should gelmeliydi! B. soru cumlesi ile z1thk bildirmiyorl C. after kullamml

if

9.

Hundreds of deep fjords that cut into the coastline give Norway an overall oceanfront

of ----12, 000 miles. noun(isim)

prep.
A) B) C) D) E)

more than
just as the same as so far as as well as

ardmdan noun (isim) gelir! B. ardmdan continuous tense

'YDS $iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

91

YDS ~iFRELERi
10. Made out of metal so that it conducts the charge, the lightning rod is usually located ---- high --""'"""'"..;;..;;;;..;.;;ib~l=e because of lightning's tendency to strike the nearest object to it. A) so I as

B)

as I as

C) more I than D) both I and E) not only I but also 11. There ---- various indications that the companies. A) B) C) D) E)

current

financial crisis ---- a damaging effect on technology

are 1 is having were I will have had been I has had have been I would have had would have been I had had

present continuous tense

12. Russia---A) B) C) D) E)

earlier this week that it ---- all its troops out of Georgia.

had announced 1 pulled------------.. simple past tense (earlier) announces I would have pulled 'S.Past Tense sonras1 Past Perfect Tense' announced 1 had pulled kombinasyonu gelemelidir; bu nedenle A se~ is announcing I has pulled se~enegi yerine C se~enegi tercih edilmi~tir! has announced I was pulling

13. With its superior firepower, NATO---- any battle, but it---- the war in Afghanistan .

TEKNIK! cumlede zaman belirteci olmad1gmda s. present tense kullamm1!


A) had won I loses B) can win 1 is losing(tense uyumu!) C) has won I lost D) would have won I had lost E) is winning I was losing 14. About 20 to 40 per cent of pancreatic cancer cases

radiat_i~n therapy or surgery.


ISim

are cured ---- chemotherapy followed ---isim

be cured with
A) about I over B) from I to C)

be followed by
E) at I through

with I by
ilge~leri

D) of I into

"with" ve "by"
15. The

sonras1 isim kullamm1!

objective ---- a proper diet is to achieve capacity -~ental work.

and maintain a desirable body composition and a large

A)

objective of something capacity for something through I through B) on I within C) at I across D) of I for The + isim + of tamlamas1!

E) after I between

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16. Gang violence is deplorable and cannot be tolerated,---- simply "cracking down" on it is not the solution.
A) so that B) whereby

C) but
D) when E) so long as

17. The Caucasus is a strategically vital


energy security.

repion ----

could play a critical role in the European Union's future A. ardmdan modal yap1s1 yerine cumle gelmeliydil B. boluktan oncekl isim

noun(isim)
A) B) C) D)

whereas who as whereby

./ /

E) that= which (isim ardmdan relative clause kullamm

18. ---- inflation and unemployment

rise break down in some damaging

sharply in Europe, the solidarity of the European Union

COUld

A) B) C) D) E)

If
As if Unless Until Eventhough

if clause type I (with present modal)

Soruda modal yap1s1 yer ald1gmda; l~aretlenmesi akla gelen ilk se~enek 'IF' olmahdtr!
19. In the current financial crisis, Italy is alone among the big European countries in having ----

a bank

rescue fund ----a stated figure for the sum it is ready to make available.

I
noun(isim)

noun(isim)
A) more I than

B) neither C) such I as D) so I that E) just as

I nor

A. more ile than arasma adjective (s1fat) gelmeliydll

20. Deep-sea diving can cause medical problems ----

air embolism noun(isim)

and

decompression

sickness, which can be fatal if not treated promptly. noun(isim)


A) B) C) D) E) as regards as far as also A. ardmdan tek bir isim (noun) gelmeliydi! B. ardmdan lsim obekleri yerine cumle gelmeliydil

such as
just as

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TEST2
1.

The price of crude oil ----by 40% this year due to the continuing risk of disruption in the Middle East, which---- for one-third of global produ~n.

present perfect tense


A) B) C) D) E) surges I accounted had surged I has accounted has surged 1accounts surged I had accounted will surge I could have accounted

2.

At the end of 1998,


A) B) C) D) E)

Estonia ---- the strict citizenship requirements that ---- the country's Russian minority from gaining c~ relaxes 1 kept simple had relaxed I have kept has relaxed I were keeping relaxed 1 had kept will relax I are keeping

past tense

3.

An ideal anticancer drug ---- cancer cells without harming normal cells,
A)

but no such drug ---.

would destroy 1exists

B) destroyed I existed C) may have destroyed I has existed D) has destroyed I had existed E) had destroyed I would exist

implied conditional (would I could I might+but + s. present)

4.

Despite the official ban ---- demonstrations, 2008 has seen Egyptians take to the streets ---- massive numbers on several oc,asions.

ban on something
A) about I by B) for I with C) over I at D) of I through

E)

on I in broken

5.

According to the generally accepted plate tectonics theory, scientists believe that Earth's surface is --- a number of shifting plates, which average --- 50 miles in thickness.

break into :
A) up I above B) at I for C) down I beyond
D)

par~alara

ay1rmak

into 1 about

E) of I below

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6. The island groups in the Pacific are often called "Oceania" ,---- this name does not imply that they are the remains of a continent. A) whether B) but C) just as D) whereby E) so that ( +)

(-)
A. ve C. lklarmdaki yaprlardan once virgul gelmezl D. ardsndan gerund (V-Ing) yap1da fill

(+)
7. ---- most people who commit suicide are depressed , having depression correctly diagnosed and treated is the most important step towards preventing suicide.

(+)
A) B) C) D) E) As long as Although Because Even if Unless

----------------------~ A. s.present, will/ present modals kurah

yokl B. ozneler farkh ve soru ci.imlesi ile zrthk bildirmlyorl C. 6znelerl farkh; ancak Icy cilmle olumlu

8.

Algeria is particularly keen to increase its gas exports ---- OPEC production quotas restrict its oil exports.

I
ayn1konu!
B. ardmdan can/may/will/ modal yaprlan gelmeliydil C. oncesinde look/seem/taste/behave, ...fiilleri

ayn 1 konu!
A) since_} B) so that C) as if
D) that E) whereas

Konu uyumu teknigi! (as, because, since)

9.

In the early twentieth century, the motor car was one of the first major consumer products to be ---- mass produced ---- mass marketed. adjehtive(slfat) adjective(s1fat) A) such I as B) more I than C) so I as D) as I as E) both I and

A. ardrndan birden fazla isim(noun) gelmeliydi! B. more + adjective/noun + than + noun kullammll

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10. The body's immune system attacks and eliminates----

bacteria and other foreign substances

---- cancer cells. noun(isim)


A) B) C) D) E)

noun(isim) not only I but also


rather I than such I that as well as I and just as I as A. bu soruda oldugu gibi 2 s1fat I 2 isim I 2 fiili baglayabilirl
H ...

fhar

than"

hll'laa.,IJ.

11. The ruins of ancient Troy


ever read Homer's Iliad or

_t ___ as breath-taking as those of Ephesus or Aphrodisias, but, for anyone who has
dyssey, they have a romance few places on Earth ----.

TEKNiK! cumlede zaman belirteci olmad1gmda iki tarafta present tense kullammJ!
A) have not been I hoped to have matched B) had not been I would hope to match

C)

may not be I can hope to match

D) are not I hoped to match E) could not have been I hope to match

12.

Nineteenth-centu
the way to the future of hea A) B) C) D) E)

military helmets---otection.

than they now appear,


~

but even at their best they----

past tense
have been better designed I do not point could be better designed I would not point are better designed I will not point

Comparison(k1yaslama)

may have been better designed I did not point


can be better designed I had not pointed

13. Cabbage--- as early as

2000 B.C., and the commercial varieties cabbage, sprouting broccoli, an kohlrabi. simple past tense

now----

Brussels sprouts, common

present tense

A) might have been cultivated I have included B) had been cultivated I included C) would be cultivated I used to include D) would have been cultivated I can include E) was cultivated I include

14. Foreign policy is composed of the goals sought, values set, decisions made and actions taken---- states and
the national governments acting ----their

behalf.

on somebody's behalf
A) by 1 on B) about I for C) at I from D) over I between E) in I among

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15. A priori knowledge ---- Western philosophy is knowledge that is independent experiences, as opposed to a posteriori knowledge, which derives from experienc1 alone.

----

all particular

independent of somebody I something


A) at I for B) in 1 of

C) through I by

D) beside I towards

E) with I from

16. ---

not

---------:-::~ (+)
all negative thoughts and feelings are

and depression, have now been A) B) C) D) E) When Suppose that As if Whenever

bad for health , specific emotional linked to heart trouble of all kinds.

states, especially stress

(-)
A. when 5. present, S. present/will eklinde kullamlmahydl B. suppose that s. present, will eklinde

Though

17. The Danish poet and novelist Jeppe Aakjc:er grew up in the Jutland farming area and---- was well aware of the harsh conditions endured by farm labourers in his country. inversion _;:;::::A) on the contrary B) even so C) so - - inversion D) still E) nevertheless

A. B. ve E. lklarmdaki yap1lann ardmdan cumle gelmeliydil D. *still ise) ardmdan cumle

Soru bo~lugu sonrasmda direk fiil geldiginde devrik yap1 kullamm1!


18.

----the US and Brazil both occupy the American continent, the northern location of the former and the southern location of the latter plainly mark a real distinction and bring
important policy consequences. A) B) C) D) E) As long as Now that Only if After

A. as long as s. present, present modal/ will eklinde kullamlmahyd1l B. ardmdan present perfect tense

Although

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19.

---Windsor Castle,
in Europe.

occupying---- area of 287 hectares, is among the most beautiful royal residences

Tek olan ve herkesce bilinen yap1larm onunde "the"kullamm1!


A)

The 1an

B) This I such an

C) An I the

D) The most I such

E) That I Some

20. Geometry is usually divided into pure geometry, which roughly embraces the plane and solid geometry dealt with by Euclid, and analytical or coordinate geometry, --- problems are solved using algebraic methods. A) B) C) D) E) in that

in which
bywhom which whichever

Bilim dallan (geometry, physics, maths ... ) "which" yerine "in which" s1fat zamiri ile tammlamr!

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TEST3
1.

Investigations by modern doctors---- that Catherine THE GREAT of Russia---from syphilis.

TEKNiK! zaman belirteci olmad1gmda s. present tense kullamm1! past tense


A) have suggested I has suffered

B) suggest I suffered C) had suggested I was suffering D) may have suggested I would have suffered E) suggested I suffers

2.

This morning it --- in the news that the great Italian tenor Pavarotti --- of pancreatic cancer

SOOn after

midn!ght. A) had been reported I died B) is reported I would die C) is being reported I dies

past perfect tense (midnight)

D) was reported I had died E) has been reported I could have died

3.

The United States ---- expensive high-tech solutions to the problem of land-mine clearance, but simpler more preferable. methods

-r

TEKNiK! cumlede zaman belirteci olmad1gmda iki tarafta present tense kullamm1!
A) B) C) D)

should pursue I were pursues I had been pursued I will have been would pursue I would have been

E)

has pursued I may be airlines all have stories---- how bad the experience is when things go wrong.

4.

People who travel----

travel on plane I airlines story about something(bir konu hakkmda hikaye)


A) with I for B) in I of C)

on I about

D) at I over

E) through I to

5.

Scientists have studied the health status of native people in the South Pacific ---noted the explosion of diet-related disease ---- the area.

decades, and have j for + a period of time ( for years, ages, ... )
D) by I off

A)

for I in

B) throughout I over

C) through I about

E) of/ at

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6.
The Worldwatch Institute re Orted last year---- approximately four of the five McDonald's restaurants that opened every day in 2005 were outside the United States.
A) B) C) D) E)

if as while when

verb/fiil (ardmdan noun clause kullamm1!)


Zaman belirte9leri (ago, last, yesterday, now, ... etc) "when" ile tantmlanmazlar!

that (noun clause) 28 January 1986, ---the shuttle

7.

One of the world 's worst space flight disasters occurred on Challenger exploded soon after take-off, killing the crew of seven .
A) if B) so that C) even if

time/zaman (ardmdan when kullamm1!)

D) when E) just as

8.

Slow-motion photography can reveal things that happen- fast for the human eye

to see. to

adverb
A) more B) as C) than D) too E) such

v1

too ...... to V1 kullamm1!

A. more + adj./adv. + than ~eklinde kullamlmahyd1! B. as + adj/adv. + as eklinde kullamlmahydll

9.

Contrary to perceptions outside Canada, the majority of Canadians are descended from the English, the Scots, and the Irish---- from the French .
A) B) C) D) E)

rather than
more than such as and so also

B. ardmdan isim (noun) gelmeliydil

C. ardmdan isim

10. Because of the wide variety of ethnicity in the United States, people speak English as ----their native ---- their adopted tongue.

A) B) C) D) E)

rather I than

either I or
more I than so much I as as well I as

A. birle~ik yap1da kullamhr! C. more +adj/noun + than + noun ~eklinde kullamlmahydll D. so uch ardmdan say.lamayan

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11. The British government ---- details of the next stage of its genetically now familiar cycle of debate and demonstration.
modifed cropfeld

trials, thus ---- off a

A) B) C) D) E)

has released 1 setting will release 1 to set would have released 1 having set is releasing 1 to have set released 1 to be set

12. Training schemes in the United Kingdom ----by the government as unemployment ----. A) were encouraged 1 will have worsened B) would be encouraged 1 had been worsened C) have been encouraged 1 has D) had been encouraged 1 may worsen E) are encouraged 1 would have worsened Cmlede zaman belirteci
klarda
olmadnda

worsened

ncelikle iki tarafta s. present

13. Afterthe Germanic invasions, Geltic cultures, which in~Europe, ---- almost enlirely to the British lsles. A) B) C) D) E)

.1

Roman times--- most ofWestern

--------~ past perfect tense with 'pre'

had covered 1 were confned have been covering 1 have been confined had been covering 1 would be confned have covered 1 could have been confned were covering 1 had been confned

14. An lndian drug company has offered to

supply an anti-AIDS drug ---- sufferers in developing countries --less than one-twentieth of the standard cost i n the West. supply something to somebody

A) in 1 to

B) at 1 over

C) with 1 for

D)

to 1 at

E)

on 1 with

15. The main attention at the World Economic Forum , when it was not Africa's remarkable economic growth ---- the past couple of years.

focused ---1

China, centered on

focus on something
A) in 1 with B)

on

1 over

C) of 1 towards

D) by 1 at

E) from 1 through

16.

A) B) C) D) E)

on the other hand whereas otherwise after

ZNE UYUMU TEKNiGi!(since ile iki tarafta ayn zne)


A. ve C. klarndaki yaplardan nce noktal virgule ve ardndan virgl kullanlmalydl

since

B. ncesinde virgl gelmeliydi ve zatlk

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17. At present,

the Euro ean Union imports about one quarter of its gas and one third of its oil from Russia , ---- COUntries such s Slovakia, Finland, Poland, Hungary, the Baltic States and the Ukraine are
nden on Russian energy.

totally or very heavily d


A) even though

B) since C) whether
D) while E) in case

farkl

zne

kullanm !

18. Several species of birds in Vietnam vanished during the war, ----they began to reappear in the 1980s and

their gradual return has been encouraged by Vietnamese villagers.

A)
B) C) D) E)

but
since unless when if

19. Countries are interested ---- in their absolute economic welfare, --- in how well they are performing

compared to other countries. A) B) C) D)


E)

both 1as well as as 1 as so much 1 as more 1 but

A. both ... and ....

eklinde kullanlmalydl

ve

not only 1 but also

20. Basically a country has two objectives in imposing tariffs ; one is to ra ise revenue for government, ... .. ..... . is to protect home industries ising the price of g goods from abroad.
A) other B) both C) another
D)

one ...

ardndan

the other ...

kullanm!
oul
~
"
' 1

the other

A. ardndan gelmeliydil
:

isim (plural noun)


'
1

E) each

~
-

'

t'

~
'"
0: "

&

~"

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YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST4
1.

eci yoksa present tense kullan


m!
A) continued 1 have arrived B) have continued 1 would ha e arrived C) contin e 1 arrived D) would have continued 1 were arriving E) will continue 1 would arrive

simple past tense (the nineteenth century)

2.

With few exceptions , most totalitarian governments ---- more liberal A) became 1 fa lls B) are becoming 1 would fall C) were becoming 1 has fallen D) had become 1 was taliing E)

since 1989 when the Berlin Wall---.

present perfect s ince s. past tensel

have become 1 fell

3.

Of all the arts it

-T

to classical music that Germany ----the greatest contribution.

TEKNiK! cmlede zaman belirteci olmadnda s. present tense kullanm!


A) had been 1 made B) is 1 has made C) has been 1 had made D) was 1will have made E) might be 1 would have made

4.

Severity of autism high IQ scores.

ranges --- those


1

who are mute and have no functional behaviour --- individuals with

range from something to something


A) into 1 among
B) in 1about C) between 1 of D) through 1for E)

from 1 to

5.

Most companies would prefer to greater familiarity

concentra e ---- domestic rather than

foreign markets because of their

---- their own environments. ""' concentrate on familiarity with


B)

A) in 1 of

on 1 with

C) over 1 by

D) at 1from

E) for 1 to

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6. Management must learn to determine market conditions

IN the countries ----it is doing business. where


kullanm!)

place/yer(ardndan
A) B) C) D) E)

where
what as for ofwhich so that

B. 'what' ncesinde fiil gelmeliydil C. as for yaps ardndan isim (noun)

7.

----the growth in e-mail and fax transmissions, many communications are or voice-to-voice contact. A) Beside

stili

best handled by face-to-face

ztlk

bildirir!

B)

In spite of (ztlk)

TEKNiK! 'stili' yer aldnda ztlk bildiren bala


kullanm!

C) By means of D) Since E) As regards

8.

---- by making an internal analysis activities.


A) B) C) D) E) Stili While

can a company set

the overall rationale for its international

inversion (devrik Only


Until Just as

yap)

9.

---- an organization depends on collaborative arrangements, ---decisions. 1

likely
'\..

it is to lose control over

noun(isim)
A) B) C) D)

"-adjective (sfat)
2
sfat 1 2

Not only 1 but also Neither 1 nor Either 1or When 1 then

A. B. ve C.

klarndaki yaplar

isim 1

2 fiili

balayabilirl

E)

The more 1 the more----'

10. A corporation 's formulation of its international strategy will greatly determine ----it will beneft more from protectionism or from some other means for countering international compttition .
A) so B) as C) unless

verb/fiil ciause

(ardndan

noun ciause

kullanm!)

D) whether-noun E) whereby

Fiilden sonra nesne gelmemi; bu nedenle cmlede eksik yap olduundan cmle
bala

ile bir dier cmleye

balanamaz

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11. Having read so many contemporary American writers, 1---- to feel impatient with the ki nd of tiction that ---- in

England. A) B) C) D)
E)

was beginning 1 will have been written had begun 1 has been written have begun 1would have been written would begin 1 is being written

began 1 was being written is a fundamental


"""l__PRESJT
PRESENT

12. Cross-border shopping

right under EU law and ---asa form of tax evasion.

A) must not have been regarded B) had not been regarded

--

TEKNIK!

"And" ile balanan cmlelerde

C) should not be regarded


D) would not have been regarded E) was not being regarded

13. He certainly ---- party members

last weekend

chairmanship. A) B) C) D)
E)

announced j simple past tense _ _____,


when he

that he--- to regain his party

has shocked 1 had not sought would have shocked 1 will not seek had shocked 1 would not have sought was to shock 1 is not seeking

shocked 1 would not seek

14.

The 1980s ---- a surge of new interest---the definition of intelligence. simple past tense (bought)
A) have brought 1to be expanding B) had brought 1 having expanded C) were bringing 1 to have expanded D) brought 1 in expanding E) would have brought 1 to expand

15. For decades presidents have been

T ---A) B) C) D) E)

COming ---

plans to deal with the fact that one day the world will

its key source of energy: oil.

run out of: tketmek up with 1 out of


out of 1 up against down to 1 away from up for 1 through over to 1 into

come up with: ortaya atmakl retmek

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16.

Philosophers have debated the

relation ---- thought and emotions ----at least two millennia.

relation between x and y


A) from 1 over B) over 1 in

C) between 1 for

D) in 1 by

E) through 1 to

17. ----

repu~
As far as Whatever Such a

little

respect the British people may feel for the monarchy, they are stili not likely to change to a

adjective/sfat (ncesinde .:...:h..:o..:..:w::;e::::v=e::::.r..::k:.:u:.:.::ll=a.:.:n.::m.::.::l !!....)- - - - - - - - . . . . .


A) B) C) D) E)

A.

gelmeliydll

B. Whatever ardndan fil ya da cmle

as far as ardndan cmle gelmeliydil

However
Just as

18. All of the world's major national parks are included on the map, --lesser status.

-~-

are

most of the important reserves of


kullanm!)

lnversion(Cmle banda fiil


A) as - - - inversion (Cmle banda B) as well "as" kullanm
C) such D) which E) that

devrik yap
gerektirir!)

B. cmle sonunda kullanlr! C. ardndan Isim gelmeliydil D. ve E. taklanndaki yapalar,

19. His latest novel is about people who take the ir work seriously, ----that' s be ing a mother, a nurse or a soldier.

whether .... or .. noun ciause yaps!~

A) B) C) D)

even so as if unless besides

E) whether
20. Heviz is Europe's largest warm-water lake and visitors can swim there even in winter, --- helps extend the
tourist season . A) thus

B) which
C) nor D) too E) so

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CLOZE TESTS
TEST1
Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britain's World War cabinet, (1)---- that the Allies "had floated to victory on a sea of oil," major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (2)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Hussein's (3)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear America's own oil-security policy (4)---- he deseribed what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: "Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (5)---- interests of the United States of America."

TEST2
Saturn and its 47 diverse moons have been (1 )---the close watch of the Cassini probe since 2004. The probe's main (2)---- in its planned 74 orbits is to gather detailed images of the second largest planet in our solar system, its icy moons and spectacular rings, (3)---- span (4)---- 272,000 kilometers. So far, the probe (5)---- some of the best images we have of Saturn, and provided astronomers with a wealth of new data.

1.
A) under C) with E) over B) in D) through

2.
A) stage C) assumption E) aim B) objection D) ontroversy

1.
A) B) C) D) E) declares declared has declared would have declared would declare

3.
A) whatever C) who E) whereas B) within D) below B) where D) which

2.
A) in C) on E) of

4.
A) completely C) largely E) slightly B) almost D) adversely

3.
A) purchase C) invasion E) illusion B) exclusion D) negotiation

5.
A) B) C) D) E) is capturing captures has captured had captured will capture

4.
A) in case C) even if E) so far as B) although D) when

5.
A) tedious C) redundant E) vital B) irrelevant D) vague

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TEST3
Eritrea was part of the first Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum (1) ---- its decline in the 8th century. lt came under the control of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, and (2) ---- of the Egyptians. The ltalians (3) ---- the coastal areas in 1885, and the Treaty of Uccialli, signed on 2nd May 1889, gave ltaly (4) ---- over part of Eritrea. The ltalians ruled the colony until World War ll. lt was made an Ethiopian province in 1962, but a civil war (5) ---against the Ethiopian government led by rebel groups who opposed the union and wanted independence for Eritrea.

TEST4
The portrait, as it is known today, was born in the Renaissance. In fact, portraits (1)---- before the Renaissance, of course: (2) ---- think of the Pharaohs with their colossal statues, or the busts of the Roman emperors, (3) --- those figures seemed very (4) -. Renaissance artists, by contrast, sought to create not just a likeness of their subjects, but also (5) - of their spirit.

1.
A) B) C) D) E) exist would exist have existed would have existed had existed

1.
A) through C) until E) in B) over D) with

2.
B) widely D) earnestly A) Just C) Always E) Previously B) Already D) Usually

2.
A) subsequently C) unanimously E) extensively

3.
A) whenever C) but E) so far as B) when D) while

3.
A) B) C) D) E) capture will capture have captured captured are capturing

4.
A) principal C) enthusiastic E) remote B) sovereignty D) opposition B) prospective D) recent

4.
A) institution C) treatment E) prominence

5.
A) many C) something E) few B) anything D) any

5.
A) broke out C) set out E) went forward B) took off D) kept on

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TEST S
Nearly fifteen years after South Africa's demecratic overthrow of apartheid, the country is fa c ing growing (1) ---- over the rise of "economic apartheid" and the way it (2) ---- millions of South Africans in the same, if not a worsening economic position than they endured prior to 1994. (3) ---South African government statistics, the average black household has become 15% poorer over the last fourteen years, while an average white household has seen its wealth grow (4) ---- some 19%. There has been a 20% decrease in the ineome of the poorest 50% of South Africans, and black South Africans have lost (5) ---- two million jobs over the same period.

TEST6
The gondola has been a part of Venice since the 11th century. (1) ---- its si im shape and fiat underside, the boat is perfectly adapted to maneuvering in Venice's narrow, shallow canals. The front of the boat has a (2) ---- leftward curve to prevent it from going around in circles, as the gondolier, or operator of the boat, uses the oar only on the right side. In 1562, it (3) ---- that all gondolas should be black to stop people from making an (4) ---- show of their wealth. Today, gondola rides are expensive, and are (5) ---- taken only by tourists.

1.
A) About C) Through E) Along B) With D) From

1.
A) interest C) encouragement E) threat B) demand D) criticism

2.
B) had left D) left A) slight C) relevant E) favourable B) habitual D) cheerful

2.
A) is leaving C) would have left E) was leaving

3.
B) According to D) In addition to A) B) C) D) E) has been decided decided was decided would have decided had decided

3.
A) Because of C) lnstead of E) Contrary to

4.
A) through C) in E) by B) for D) with

4.
A) ostentatious C) adjacent E) inescapable B) affluent D) omnipresent

5.
A) yet C) hardly E) alsa B) mostly D) nearly

5.
A) possibly C) seldam E) defnitely B) obviously D) usually

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TEST7
However hazy their grasp of astronomy may be, most adults hold several beliefs with some certainty. They believe, for example, that the Earth is round and that it revolves around another, larger round body (the Sun), (1) ---- a smaller round body (the Moon) revolves around it. They also believe (2) ---- certain familiar phenomena, such as the day-night cycle and the seasons, depend on the movements and relative positions of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. But how do adults come to form such beliefs? The facts of astronomy are hardly evident in everyday experience; if anything, the reverse (3) ---- to be true. Children experience an apparently fiat earth from which they see the Sun move (4) ---- the sky, and they learn things that seem incompatible with the notion that people could somehow live on the surface of a large bali. ls the development of adult-levet understanding, therefore, simply a matter of suppressing childish beliefs and gradually (5) ---- the views of modern adult society?

TEST S
To determine a person's diet history, the doctor asks what foods (1) ---- in the previous 24 hours and what types of food are usually eaten. The person may ba asked to keep a food diary, in which he lists everything he eats for three days. (2) ---- the physical examination, the doctor observes the person's general appearance and behaviour (3) ---- the distribution of body fat and the functioning of body organs. (4) ---- the doctor suspects severe malnutrition, he orders a complete blood cell count and blood and urine tests to measure levels of vitamins, minerals, and waste products such as urea. Skin tests may also be ordered to (5) ---- certain types of immunity.

1.
A) B) C) D) E) were being eaten had been eaten will have been eaten were eaten are eaten

2. 1.
A) after C) where
E) if

B) as if D) while

A) Out of C) By E) During

B) At D) Over

3.

2.
A) in that
C) those E) that
B) as D) since

A) as well as C) so as E) so that

B) but also D) just as

4.

3.
A) B) C) D) E) must have been argued could be argued will be argued might have been argued would have been argued

A) While C) If E) Even if

B) Even though D) Whether

5.
A) curtail C) emphasize E) assume

B) realize D) assess

4.
A) along C) among E) aboard B) about D) across

5.
A) accepting C) recovering E) overloading B) eliminating D) maintaining

110

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TEST9
The Pergamum of Eumenes ll is remembered (1) -- for its library. Said to have held more than 200,000 volumes, the library was a symbol of

TEST10
Bill Clinton's main legacy for race relations in the United States is that he helped to sustain and accelerate the desegregation of the higher circles

Pergamum's social and cultural status. Eumenes


was a passionate book collector, and his library came to challenge the world's greatest one in Alexandria (700,000 books). Afraid that the Pergamum library (2) ---- famous scholars away from Alexandria, the Egyptians cut off the supply of papyrus from the Nile Never one to retuse a challenge, Eumenes set his scientists to work and they (3) ---- pergamen (Latin for parchment), a writing surface made from animal hides rather than pressed papyrus reeds. (4) ---- the end, however, it was the Egyptians who had the last laugh. (5) ---- the library at Alexandria was damaged by fire, Mark Antony pillaged the one at Pergamum for books to give to his beloved Cleopatra.

of American life. On the psychological plane, he


gently pushed the white American public to accept something that (1) --- many whites today is (2) ---- more in question than one would like to believe: that blacks really can be equal or (3) ---superior to whites in performing the most crucial and difficult tasks demanded by our society. George W. Bush contributed to this process when he (4) ---- Colin Powell as Secretary of State. Through his appointment of blacks and genuine friendships with them, Clinton has deepened this (5) ---- in American life.

1.
A) under C) with E) for B) on D) besides

1.
A) with a view C) most of all E) just in case
B) as well as D) enough

2.
A) decently C) even so E) excessively B) stili D) doubtfully

2.
A) attracted B) would attract C) might have attracted D) will attract E) may attract

3.
A) also C) even E) as
B) more D) only

4.
3.
A) came up with C) stood against E) carried on with B) stepped over D) ran over A) appoints C) has appointed E) would appoint B) had appointed D) appointed

5.

4.
A) Off C) By E) To B) In D) Through

A) tendeney C) exclusion E) intuition

B) allocation D) admission

5.
A) Even though C) In case E) When
B) Until D) Even if

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TEST 11
Music educators give us many good reasons for playing. lt is said to feed our intelligence and (1) --- our self-esteem. lt removes us from the anxieties of daily life, placing us in the curious world of self-expression, (2) ---- the linear passage of time seems to vanish. Of course, the roots of British musicianship go far deeper than a list of healthy lifestyle tips. Britain's history has shaped a great diversity of musical traditions, many of which (3) ---- flourish. The patchwork of AngloSaxon and Celtic nations, the myths of a rural idyll created (4) ---- rapid urbanization, the close relationship with America and the immigration from the West lndies, south Asia and Africa - all (5) ---- to the wealth of music literature and recordings.

TEST12
Education is both a consumption and an investment good. The (1) ---- of knowledge by reading a book can give pleasure and benefits to an individual equivalent to consuming an iceerearn or seeing a film at the cinema. But education can also help advance in a chosen career (2) ---- success is achieved in specifc examinations. If a financial gain is thereby achieved, then the time spent in the educational process (3) ---- seen as an investment. By investing in yourself you hope that your enhanced skills add to your potential earning power in the labour market; your qualifcations should help you to compete that much better against those (4) ---- qualifed for a particular job. As far as an employer is concerned, your educational qualification is a means (5) ---- fltering where there is keen competition for a post.

1.
A) raise C) afflict E) provoke B) appreciate D) represent

1.
A) contribution C) obscurity E) continuation B) exclusion D) acquisition

2.
A) wherever C) where E) whom B) which D) how

2.
A) even so C) if E) unless B) since D) as if

3.
A) then C) thus E) too B) stili D) almost

3.
A) might have been C) was E) can be B) would be D) had been

4.
A) of C) at E) by B) in D) with

4.
A) as much C) least E) fewer B) less D) the same

5.
A) B) C) D) E)

have contributed would contribute had contributed will contribute to have contributed

5.
A) of C) over E) through B) by D) with

112

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TEST13
All hay fever sufferers will be aware of the polen "rain" that {1) ---- them in the sp ring and summer. Pollen grains - the tiny male reproductive bodies of flowering plants - have an almost {2) ---- outer shell {exine) that can survive in certain sediments for tens of thousands of years. In pollen analysis the exines are extracted from the soil, studied under a microscope, and identified {3) ---- the distinctive exine shape and surface ornamentation of different families and genera of plants. {4) --- quantified, these identifications are then plotted as curves on a pollen diagram. Fluctuations in the curve {5) ---- each plant category may then be studied for signs of climatic fluctuation, or forest elearance and crop planting by humans.

TEST14
Underwater archaeology is beginning to yield a detailed picture of whaling undertaken by Basque fishermen at Red Bay, Labrador, in the 16th century. The Basques were at this time the largest suppliers to Europe of whale o il - an im portant {1) ---- used for lighting and in products such as soap. In 1977, prompted by the discovery in Spanish archives that Red Bay {2) ---- a prominent whaling centre, Canadian archaeologist James A. Tuck began an exeavation on the isiand at the mouth of Red Bay Harbour. Here he found remains of structures for turning blubber {3) ---whale oil. {4) ----, in 1978, the nautical archaeologist Robert Grenier led a Parks Canada team in search of the Basque galleon San Juan, {5) ---- the archives said had sunk in the harbour in 1565.

1.
A) should afflict C) had afflicted E) afflicted B) can afflict D) would afflict

1.
A) commodity C) artifact E) settlement B) refnement D) hardship

2.
A) intense C) indestructible E) unsteady B) approachable D) abundant

2.
A) would have been C) was going to be E) will be B) is D) had been

3.
A) according to C) with a view to E) in place of B) ahead of D) on behalf of

3.
A) by C) next to E) into B) about D) upon

4.
A) Before C) While E) Once B) Whenever D) Until

4.
A) On the contrary C) Otherwise E) Conclusively B) Frequently D) Subsequently

5.
A) across C) for E) at B) on D) about

5.
A) whose C) whom E) which B) when D) who

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TEST15
The term "emotional intelligence" was probably frst used in an unpublished dissertation in 1986. In 1990 it (1) into the field of scientific psychology, defined as "the ability to monitor (2) --- and others' feelings, to (3) - among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and action." The concept developed (4) ---- a growing emphasis on research into the (5) ---- of emotion and thought.

TEST16
Should a vote in Los Angeles count more than a vote in Montana? That's one question raised (1) - an analysis of Census Bureau data conducted by researchers at the Centre for lmmigration Studies (2) found that nine congressional seats (3) to different states in 2000, if noncitizens, (4) - illegal aliens, had been excluded from the counts Congress uses to (5) --- seats.

1.
1.
A) was being introduced

B) C) D) E)

had been introduced would be introduced has been introduced was introduced

A) by C) at E) off

B) to D) onte

2.
A) whose C) what E) whether B) which D) thus

2.
A) B) C) D) E) one's own one another's oneself the self each other's

3.
A) B) C) D) E) would be allotted have been allotted will have been allotted would have been allotted were being allotted

3.
A) B) C) D) E) identify distribute justify discredit discriminate

4.
A) regardless of C) pertaining to E) including B) concerning D) exeeliing

4.
A) off

5.
B) C) D) E) against without out of under A) select C) allocate E) classify B) exchange D) circulate

5.
A) B) C) D) E) alternation participation interaction obstruction complication

114

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CLOZE TESTS CEVAP ANAHTARI

TEST1 1. B 2.A 3.C 4. D 5. E

TEST S 1. D 2. E 3. A 4.C 5.D

TEST15 1. E

2. A

3. E 4.D
5. c

TEST2 1. A 2.E 3.D 4.B 5.C

TEST9 1. c 2. B 3.A 4.B 5.E

TEST16 1. A 2. B

3. D 4. E
5.

TEST3 1. c 2. A 3. D 4.B 5.A

TEST10 1. E 2.B 3. c 4.D 5.A

TEST4 1. E 2.A 3. C 4.E 5.C

TEST 11 1. A 2.C 3.B 4.E 5. A

TEST5 1. D 2.A 3.B 4.E 5.D

TEST12 1. D 2.C 3.E 4.B 5.A

TEST6 1. B 2.A 3. C 4.A 5. D

TEST13 1. B 2.C 3.A 4.E 5.C

TEST7 1. D 2.E 3.B 4.D 5.A

TEST14 1. A 2. D 3. E 4.D 5.E

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CLOZE TEST TEKNiKLERi


TEST 1
Ever since. Lord Curzon , a member of Britain 's World War cabinet, (1) ----that the Allies "had floated to victory on a sea of oil ," major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia esulted (2) ---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan , and led to Saddam Hussein's (3) ---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech , US President Jimmy Carter ade clear America's own oil-security policy (4) ---- he eteseribed what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: "Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (5) ---- interests of the United States of America .
1.

ver since s.
A) B) C) D) E) declares dec/ared has declared would have declared would declare

3.

2.

4.

hen s. past.
A) B) C) D) E)

s. pas

in case : TEDBIR SZ KONUSU DE GIL although : ZlTLlK GEREKLI(+ ,- 1-, +) even if : ZlTLlK GEREKLi+,- 1-, + when SO far as : KlYASLAMA YOK

5.

ital:_,ok nemli hal!,af


A) B) C) D) E) tedious : CAN SlK lCI irrelevant: ALAKAS lZ redundant isiz vague : BELIRSIZ vital

TEST2
Saturn and its 47 diverse moons have been (1) ----the close Watch of the Cassini probe since 2004. The probe's main (2) ----in its planned 74 orbits is to gather detailed images of the second largest lanet in our solar system, its icy moons and spectacular . ngst (3) ---- span (4) ---- 272, 000 kilometres . So far, the probe (5) --- some of the best images we have of Saturn, and provided astronomers with a wealth of new data.

1.

under the watch of samethin gzetim altmda olmak


A) B) C) D) E)

3.

under in with through over

2.

a a
A) B) C) D) stage: AAMA objection: iTIRAZ assumption : VARSAYlM coritroversy: IHTILAF E) aim

4.

5.

A) B) C) D) E)

o far: a.., re !<!' s ~ en = t"""'....-:.:=-=:=""'


is capturing captures has captured had captured will capture

116

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TEST3
Eritrea was part of the first Ethiopian kingdom of Aksu m (1) ---- its decline in the 8th centuN. lt ca me u nder 1 the control of the Ottoman Empire in the 16 hcentury, and (2) ---- of the Egyptians. The ltalians (3) ---- the coastal areas n 1885, and the Treaty of Uccialli , signed on 2nd May 1889, gave ltaly (4) ---- veli art of Eritrea. The ltalians ruled the colony until World War ll. lt was made an Ethiopian province in 1962, but civil wali (5) ---against the Ethiopian government led by rebel groups who opposed the union and wanted independence for Eritrea.

1.

3.

2.

4.
A) B) C) D) E)

nil

(sovereignty over something)


institution: KURUM sovereignty treatment: TEDAVI opposition: ITIRAZ 1MUHALEFET prominence: BELIRGINLIK 1NEM

5.

reak out: ortax.a _kmak(~ sa ~v: ~ a~'L-U;==:!LJ


A) B) C) D) E) broke out took off: HAVALANMAK set out: YOLA lKMAK kept on: DEVAM ETMEK went forward : ILERLEME

TEST4

1.

3.

ne sinde virl geleb"l" aym ya da farkli zneleri ba/ayabiliri


A) B) C) D) whenever: VIRGL GELMEZ when : VIRGL GELMEZ but While : VIRGL GELIR ANCAK
FARKLI ZNEYIBAGLAR SO far as: KlYASLAMA YOK

ZlTLlK BILDIRIRKEN IKI

2.

just + imperative (emir cmlesi ncesi !iust zamiri elir/


A) B) C) D) E) Just Already Always Usually Previously

E)

4.
A) B) C) D) E) principal : ESAS 1 BALlCA prospective: MUHTEMEL 1MSTAKBEL enthusiastic: HEVESLI 1EVKLI recent: SON ZAMANLARDA remote

5.

omething: olumlu cmlelerde kul/am/r~


A) B) C) D) E) many: OGUL ISIMLERLE KULLANILIR anything: OLUMSUZ CMLEDE KULLANILIR something any: OLUMSUZ CMLEDE KULLANILIR few: OGUL ISIMLERLE KULLANillR.

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TEST S
Nearly ffteen yearsafter South Africa's demecratic overthrow of apartheid , the country is growing (1) ---over the rise of "economic apartheid" he way it {2) ---- millions of South Africans in the same, if not a worsening economic position than they endured prior to 1994. (3) ---- South African government statistics, the average black household has become 15% oorer over the last fourteen years , while an average white household has seen its wealth grow {4) ---- There has been a 20% decrease in the ineome of the poorest 50% of South Africans , and black South Africans have lost (5) ---Illi n over the same period .

1.
A) B) C) D) E) interest: ILGI demand: TALEP encouragement: CESARET

3.
A) Because of: ... DEN DOLAYI B) According to: .. .E GRE C) lnstead of: .... YERINE/+V-ING D) In addition to: ... EK OLARAK E) Contrary to: ... AKSINE

criticism
threat: TEHDIT

2.
A) is /eaving
B) C) D) E) had left would have left left was leaving

!4.

lllfi

ya da aztlma yzde lle lfachi edilirken 'br. kullamm


through for in with

A) B) C) D) E)

by

5.

kamHI

TEST6
The gondola has been a part of Venice since the 11th century. (1) ---- its slim shape and fiat underside, the boat is perfectly adapted to manoeuvring in Venice's narrow, shallow canals. The front of the boat has a {2) --leftward curve to prevent it from oing around in circles, as the gondolier, or operater of the boat, uses the oar only on the right side. {3) ----that all gondolas should be black to stop people from making an {4) ---show of their wealth. Today, gondola rides expensive, and are {5) ---- taken only by tourists. 1. A) About

B) With
C) Through D) From E) Along

3.
A) has been decided B) decided

2.
A) B) C) D) E)

C) was decided D) would have decided E) had decided 4.


B) C) D) E)

s/ight
habitual: ALlilAGELMl relevant: ALAKALI cheerful: NEELI favourable: AVANTAJLI/UYGUN

tentatlous:
A) ostentatious
affluent: VARLlKLI adjacent: BITIIK omnipresent: NAZIR escapable: NLENEMEZ

5.
A) possibly: MUHTEMELEN B) obviously: AIK/NET OLARAK C) seldom: NADIREN

D) usually
E)
defnitely:

KESINLIKLE

118

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YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST7
However hazy their grasp of astronomy may be, most adults hold several beliefs with some certainty. They believe, for exam le that the Earth is round and that it revolves around another, (1) a round body (the Moon) revolves around it. They also V . (2) certain familiar

phenomena, such as the day-night cycle and the seasons, depend on the movements and relative ositions of the
Earth, Sun, and Moon. But how do adults come to form such beliefs? The facts of astronomy . hardly evident in everyday experience; ::.:_.anything, the reverse (3) to be true. Children experience an apparently fiat earth from which they see the Sun move (4) the sky, and they learn things that seem incompatible with the notion that people could somehow live on the surface of a large bali. ls the development of adult-level understanding, therefore, simply a matter of suppressing childish beliefs and gradually (5) ----the views of modern adult society?

1.
A) B) C) D) E)

lle: laCIIl smaller

Wrek

3.

ciause
A) B) C) D) E)

wlth

moda# cou

after: NCESINDE VIRGL KULLANlLMAZ as if: NCESINDE VIRGL KULLANlLMAZ where: NCESINDE PLACE(YER) YOK while if: NCESINDE VIRGL KULLANlLMAZ

must have been argued: PAST PERFECT could be argued will be argued: "IF" CMLESINE WILL GELMEZ mig ht have been argued: PAST PERFECT would have been argued: PAST PERFECT along about among across the sky aboard

2.

4.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

5.

t: kabul etme
accepting eliminating: ORTADAN KALDlRMAKJELEMEK recovering: ATLATMAKfiYILEMEK maintaining: SRDRMEK /IDDIA ETMEK overloading: AIRI YKLEMEK

TEST S
To determine a person's diet history, the doctor asks what foods (1) ---the 24 hours and what types of food are usually eaten. The erson ma b ed to keep a food diary, in which he lists everything he eats for three days. (2) pbyslcal the doctor observes the person's general appearance i: an~db~ehitaiviour (3) of body fat and the functioning of body organs. (4) ---- the doctor .. severe malnutrition, he a complete blood cell count and blood and urine tests to measure levels o vitamins, minerals, and waste products such as urea. Skin tests may also be ordered to (5) ---- certain types of immunity.

1.
A) B) C) D) E) were being eaten had been eaten will have been eaten were eaten are eaten

3.
A) B) C) D) E)

+
as well as but also : + FIILicMLE so as: +TOV, just as : + SENTENCE/V-ING SO that:+ MAY/WILLfCAN

2.
B) C) D) E)

+
A) Out of
At By Over During

4.
A) B) C) D) E)

u
While: ZlTLlK GEREKLi Even though: ZlTLlK GEREKLI If Whether: CMLEDEVIRGL OLMAZ Eve n if : ZlTLlK GEREKLI ( +, -/-, +) curtail: AZALTMAK realize: FARK ETMEK/ GEREKLETIRMEK emphasize: VURGULAMAK assess assume: FARZETMEK

5.
A) B) C) D) E)

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TEST9
The Pergamum of Eumenes ll is remembered (1) for its library. Said to have held mo re than 200,000 volumes, the library was a symbol of Pergamum's social and cultural status. Eumenes was a passionate book collector, and his library came to challenge the world's greatest one in Alexandria (700,000 books). Id tha the Pergamum library (2) famous scholars away from Alexandria , the Egyptians cut off the supply of papyrus from the Nile Never one to refuse a challenge, Eumenes set his scientists to work and they (3) pergamen Latin for parchment), a writing surface made from animal hides rather than pressed papyrus reeds. 4 and however, it was the E yptians who had the last laugh. (5) --- the library at Alexandria was damaaec( by fire, MarkAntony lll the one at Pergamum for books to give to his beloved Cleopatra.

1.

ost of all: billul


A) B) C) D) E) with a view + OF as well as: + ISIM most of all enough: NCESINDE SIFAT KULLANIMI just in case: +cMLE

3.

2.
A) B) C) D) E) attracted would attract might have attracted will attract may attract

4.

5.

TEST10
Bill Clinton's main legacy for race relations in the United States is that he helped to sustain and accelerate the desegregation of the higher circles of American life. On plane, he gently pushed the white American public to accept something that (1) ------- mo re in question than one would in performin the most crucial and like to believe: that blacks really can be equal or difficult tasks demanded by our society. George W. Bush this process Whe he (4) Colin Powell as Secretary of State. Through his appointment of genuine friendships with them, Clinton has deepened this (5) ----..i!l.American life.
1.

A) B) C) D) E)

under on with besides for

3.

2.
4.

5.

120

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YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST 11
Music educators give us many good reasons for playing. lt is said to feed our intelligence and 1 ---- our selfIN world of lf-ex esteem. lt removes us from the anxieties of daily life, placing us . (2) ----the linear passage of time seems to vanish. Of course, the roots of British musicianship go far deeper than a list of healthy lifestyle tips. Britain's history has shaped a great diversity of musical traditions, many of which (3) ---- llouris . The patchwork of Anglo-Saxon and Geltic nations, the myths of a rural idyll reated (4) ---- rapid urbanization, the close relationship with America and the immigration from the West lndies, south Asia and Africa - all (5) ----to the wealth of music literature and recordings.

1.

rralse: artmnaN
A) B) C) D) E) raise appreciate: ONAYLAMAK afflict: SARSMAK 1ACI VERMEK represent: TEMSIL ETMEK provoke : KIKIRTMAK 1TEVIK ETMEK

3.
E) too

4. 2.
A) B) C) D) E) wherever: NCESINDE VIRGL GELMEZ which where how whom

(J
A) of C) at
B) in D) with

E) by

5.

Omlede zaman belirteel ok (s. presentl present perfect 1 wi/1)


A) B) C) D) E) have contributed would contribute had contributed will contribute to have contribute

TEST12
Education is both a consumption and an investment good. The (1) ---- f knowledge by reading a book can give pleasure and benefts to an individual equivalent to consuming an ice-erearn or seeing a film at the cinema . But education ~ also help advance in a chosen career (2) ---- success L achieved in specifc examinations. ll a fnancial gain thereby achieved, then the time spent in the educational process (3) ---- seen as an investment. By investing in yourself you hope that your enhanced skills add to your potential earnin ower in the labour market; your qualifcations should help you to compete that much better against those (4 ---- u for a particular job. As far as an employer is concerned, your educational qualification is means (5) ---- tiltering where there is keen competition for a post.

1.
A) B) C) D) E) contribution : KATKI exclusion : HARICI obscurity: BELIRSIZLIK acquisition continuation : DEVAMULIK

3.

IJ.t,s. presentOs), s. presentlltvpen


A) might have been C) was E) can be B) would be D) had been

4.

2.

. presentlcan) If s. present(l
A) even so: NNDE ViRGL YA DA NOKTALI VIRGL GELiR B) since: SEBEP-SONU ILIKISI YOK C) if D) as if:LOOKISEEMITASTEIFEEL .... +AS IF E) unless : (+, -)

5.

E) through

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TEST13
All hay fever sufferers lll be aware of the polen "rain" that (1) them in the spring and summer. Pollen grains - the tiny m ale reproductive bodies of towering plants - have an al most (2) --- o uter shell (exine) that can survive in certain sediments for tens of thousands of years. In pollen analysis the exines are extracted from the soil , studied under a microscope, and identified (3) ---- the distinctive exine shape and surface ornamentation of different families and genera of plants. (4) ---- quantifed, these identifcations are plotted as curves on a pollen diagram. Fluctuations in the curve (5) ---- eacli. plant category may then be studied for signs of climatic tuctuation , or forest elearance and cropplanting by humans.
1.

3.
A) B) C) D) E) according to ahead of: ...IN ILERISINDE with a view to: ... AMACIYLAIUMUDUYLA on behalf of: ... ADlNA in place of: ... YERINE

2.

'ndestructible: d
A) intense: YO~UN B) approachable: YAKLAILABILIR C) indestructible D) abundant: BOL E) unsteady: DE~IKEN/DZENSIZ A) Before C) While E) Once B) Whenever D) Until

5.

r+ each kullanim
A) across C) for E) at B) on D) about

TEST14
Underwater archaeology is beginning to yield a detailed picture of whaling undertaken by Basque fshermen at Red Bay, Labrador, in the 16th century. The Basques were at this time the lar est suppliers to Euro e of whale oil , prompted by in - an im portant (1) ---- used for lighting and in products such as soap. n 1 Spanish archives that Red Bay (2) ---- a prominent whaling centre, Canadian archaeologist James A. Tuck began an exeavation on the isiand at the mouth of Red Bay Harbour. Here he found remains of structures for III!!DIDI blubber (3) whale oil. 4 ----, n 197 , the nautical archaeologist Robert Grainer led a Parks Canada team in search of the Basque galleo San Juan, (5) ----the archives said had sun k in the harbour in 1565.

1.

4.

:
Parada nce 1977; sonrasmda 1978'den bahsediliyor!
A) On the contrary: AKSINE/ (ZlTLlK GEREKIR) B) Frequently: SlKLlKLA C) Otherwise: WOULD/COULD/MIGHT YA DA WOULD

2.

HAVE V JICOULD HAVE V 3, MIGHT HAVE V 3

D) Subsequently E) Conclusively: KESIN OLARAK

5.
A) B) C) D) E)

n:
whose: + ISIM when : BOLUKTAN NCE TIME (ZAMAN) YOK whom : NCESINDE KII YOK who: NCESINDE KII YOK which

3.

urn into: ch
A) B) C) D) E)
by about next to upon into

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TEST15
The term "emotional intelligence" was probably f rst used in an unpublished dissertation in 1986. it (1) ---i:' i n~ to ~t ~ h~ e~ feld of scientific psychology, defned as "the ability to monitor (2) ---- and others' lfeelings, to (3) ---1! hem and to use this information to guide one's thinking and action ." The concept t!veloped ,(4) ---- a growing emphasis on research into the (5) ---- ot emotion __ thought.

1.
A) B) C) D) E) was being introduced had been introduced would be introduced has been introduced was introduced

3.
A) B) C) D) E)

minate amon
arasmdaki farki grmek
identify: BELIRLEMEK/TESPIT ETMEK distribute: DAGITMAK j ustify: DOGRULAMAK discredit: GVEN DUYMAMAK discriminate

2.

thets' lle devam eden cOm some ya da one's ile balar!


A) B) C) D) E) one'sown one another's = EACH OTHER'S oneself the self each other' s =ONE ANOTHER'S

4.

outof
-den ortaya ikmak
A ) off C) without E) under B) against D) outof

5.

nteractlon between x and iki ey arasmdaki iliki


A) B) C) D) E) alternation: DEGIIM participation : KATILIM interaction obstruction: ENGELLEME complication : PRz/ KOMPLIKASYON

TEST16
Should a vote in Los Angeles count more than a vote in Montana? That's one question ral of Gensus Bureau data conducted by researchers at the Gentre for lmmigration di congressional seats (3) ----to different states in 2000 noncitizens, (4) ---- illegal aliens, Wi!li!..!!!!!li!!!..!U!~I!!!!!!! from the counts Congress uses to (5) ----

1.
A) by C) at
E) off B) to D) onto

3.
A) B) C) D) E) would be allotted have been allotted will have been allotted would have been allotted were being allotted

2.
A) B) C) 0) E)

ellt
whose : + ISIM which what: FIIL + WH AT YA DA W HAT+ CMLE+ FIIL thus: ARDlNDAN CMLE YADA VING GELiR whether: NCESIN DE VE RB (FIIL) GELIR

4.
A) B) C) D) E) regardless of concerning pertaining to exeeliing inc/uding

5.
A) B) C) D) E) select: SEMEK exchange: DEGI TOKU ETMEK allocate circulate : YAYMAK/ YAYlLMAK classify: SlNlFLANDlRMAK

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SENTENCE COMPLETON TESTS


TEST 1
1. If the cost of health benefits for working people in a country rises, ----. A) soaring health costs are one of the big factors that have crippled the economy B) usually employers cut wages or pass on the costs as higher prices to customers C) frms should , in fact, be indifferent to whether they pay employees cash wages or benefts D) those costs have nearly doubled this decade alone in many industrialized countries E) the current economic difficulties have forced politicians to focus on health reform 4. ----, but it failed to halt the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi war machine. A) During World War ll , France was split into a German-occupied north and an unoccupied south B) Fallawing World War ll, France turned its attention to its African colonies, where there was a growing demand from the natives for independence C) After a series of extremely savage battles, Allied armies liberated France in August 1944 from the German occupation D) In May 1940, the Germans marched into an undefended Paris, and in the fallawing month the French government signed an armistice E) Beginning in 1919, French foreign policy aimed at keeping Germany weak through a system of alliances

2.

---- that bats use ultrasonic beams to follow insects through the dark. A) A group of students are experimenting B) Scientists had wondered C) A great deal of evidence needs to be gathered D) lt's long been known E) Over the years, no scientist has questioned 5.

Although there were plenty of sceptics when Mauritius tried a decade ago to become an offshore financial centre, ----. A) it has partly attained its goal, since it now hosts 19 national and international banks B) it has built a textile industry that has made the country relatively prosperous C) last month it brought in a new labour law, making it easier to hire and fire D) it imports most of its food and energy as rising world prices are pushing up inftatian E) much of the economy remains concentrated in the hands of a few local magnates

3.

----, while just 1. 7 tonnes of corn yields the same result. A) A team of scientists has claimed that the traditional methods of production in plastics are extremely costly and have an adverse impact on the environment B) lt has been announced that a company in China, sponsored by the government, is planning to harvest plastics from crops of corn C) Eight tonnes of crude oil are currently needed to create one tonne of polyol , which is an alcoholic substance used in a number of plastics D) Scientists are now using a new type of microscope that lets them view internal structures of materials in greater detail than ever before E) The device the company's scientists use utilizes X-ray analysis technology and reveals chemical compositions of objects being studied

6.

In his opinion, poetry is essentially an effort to elude facts, ----. A) since he had been regarded as a promising young poet B) whereas prose is essentially a means of unearthing and exhibiting them C) but his poems have been published in respectable literary journals D) because many critics share the view that poets should be concerned with politics E) if many prose writers enjoy writing about social and cultural issue

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7. Missions to the Moon's previously unvisited mountains and polar regions will aid the search for water, ----.
A) since the frst erewed mission will be planned for the far s ide of the Moon B) whereby test landings are scheduled to begin in 2010 C) which is vital to any future lunar base to be set up by NASA D) even if the mission aims to land astronauts on the surface of the Moon by 2015 E) even though dense clouds of interstellar dust conceal the heart of our galaxy

10. In the early years of the global warming debate, there was great controversy over ----.
A) while Ch ina has been blamed for the climate erisis today B) although scientists have concluded that this warming is dangerous C) since the details of future forecasts about warming remain unclear D) that warming would be a signifcant problem in the decades ahead E) whether the planet was indeed warming

8.

----.

New radiocarbon dating of fossils suggests

11. ---- that the basic principle of collective ownership of rural land will remain unchanged.
A) In the past, many people in China teared B) The Chinese government had already decided C) Some politicians in China took part in a debate D) The Chinese PrimeMinister has stated E) Chinese peasants held a protest meeting last Sunday

A) that mass extinctions of mammoths and wild horses 10,000 years ago were caused by natural climate shifts B) whether humans were to blame for extensive destruction in the natural world and also for the pollution of the oceans C) how scientists began to understand clearly what dinosaurs ate and why they disappeared from the face of the Earth D) if an olive branch buried for thousands of years in volcanic ash could have revealed the fate of the great Minoan civilization on the Greek isiand of Thera E) when it was scientifically established that dinosaurs belonged to a large group of reptiles called archosauria

12. ----, but it no longer sponsors terrorism.


A) North Korea had long wanted to reach an agreement with the US B) North Korea had, until recently, no intention of giving up nuclear weapons C) The North Koreans and the Japanese have had talks on a variety of issues D) Two decades ago, two North Korean agents blew up a South Korean airliner E) North Korea's regime may be brutal in all sorts of ways

9.

----, it would be regarded as a disaster at home and abroad.


A) Since power generatian in China fell by 7% last year B) As lndia had enjoyed a big economic advantage over China C) Because unrest and even insurgency are widespread in many countries D) If China's growth rate were to fall to 5% or less E) While lndia is considered to be a major economic power

13. Because Brazil's exports include a wide variety of valuable raw materials, ----.
A) the unpredictable exchange rates had damaged the country's economy a lot B) the government introduced a number of austerity measures to reduce inflation C) the country has had huge earnings in foreign currency over the past few years D) the country's economy cannot satisfy domestic demand without higher inflation E) most economists agree that a weaker currency will mean higher inflation

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14. ----where bones that span six million years of human evolution have been dug up over the last 25 years.
A) New archaeological evidence helps us to understand the evolution of primitive humans B) Various fossils have recently been found in an Ethiopian valley C) The history of human evolution can best be traced through the study of fossils D) The new discoveries in Ethiopia signifcantly expand our knowledge of primitive humans E) In Ethiopia, a wide range of fossils, including teeth , skull, jaw and hand bones, have been discovered

18. Suriname, now a Latin American country, was originally explored by Spain in 1593, ----.
A) because the English transferred sovereignty to the Dutch in 1667 B) but by 1602 the Dutch began to setlle the land, followed by the English C) since colonization was confned to a narrow coastal strip D) although African slaves made up the workforce for coffee and sugarcane plantations E) while after 1870 plantation workers were mostly imported from British lndia

15. When Franois Mitterrand France's banksin 1981, ----.

nationalized

19. Some types of breast cancer grow very slowly and spread to other parts of the body ----.
A) as an infected breast usually appears red and swollen B) so long as they can be detected C) only after they become very large D) so that the diseased breast may be removed E) because recently two separate genes for breast cancer have been identifed

A) he opposed the view that economic liberty had been under attack B) he had already decided to minimize these risks in a sh ort te rm C) he had tried to avoid populist gestures D) his ultimate aim has been to regulate France's fnancial system E) he did so because he thought the state would run them beter

16. In the 1970s and 1980s, Colombia became one of the international centres for illegal drug production and trafficking ----.
A) because the drug cartels virtually controlled the country B) even though 2 million Colombians have left the country in the past several years C) that the government unsuccessfully attempted to stern the guerrilla violence D) just as the leading drug dealers were offered lenient punishment in exchange for their surrender E) since the country has turned into a battleground with bombs, killings and kidnappings

20. The prevalence of schizophrenia worldwide appears to be slightly less than 1 per cent ----.
A) if schizophrenia is a relatively serious mental disorder B) since it is regarded as a major public health problem throughout the world C) because schizophrenia and other delusional disorders share certain features D) although areas of higher or lower prevalence have been identifed E) unless people with schizophrenia occupy one

17. New Zealand consists of two main islands and a number of smaller, outlying islands, which are so scattered ---.
A) while the country has been in the forefront in instituting social welfare legislation B) as other inhabited islands include the Chatham lslands and Great Barrier Isiand C) even if the North Isiand and the South Isiand are separated by the Cook Strait O) since the Maoris, who consisted of several tribes, were the frst inhabitants of the country E) that they range from the tropical to the antaretic

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TEST2
1. If Iran were to go nuclear, ---. A) Russia and China did their best to stop it

5.

---- that they influenced cultures across the Mediterranean. A) Phoenician textiles commanded a high price everywhere their merchants went B) The Phoenicians may have played an important role in introducing urban life into the Greek world C) Phoenician cities oriented themselves towards the sea D) The Phoenicians became famous as merchants and seafarers E) The widespread colonial and mercantile efforts of the Phoenicians meant

B) the United States may have taken preventive


action C) other countries in the region would follow su it D) the UN Security Council sanctions need to be enacted without delay E) it can fire hundreds of missiles at lsrael

2.

---- after strong winds and a heatwave started dozens of forest fres.
A) Many villages in the area will be evacuated B) No precautions had been taken C) The government would have set up a special team of fire fighters D) Many fire fighting teams will have been called in E) Last summer, Athens was engulfed in thick Smoke

6.

Economic as well as social problems plagued Europe during the 1970s and 1980s ----. A) but these problems had actually begun much earlier B) because new industries continued to prosper C) in case the West German growth rate would slowdown D) whereas seven hundred thousand French workers had been laid off E) unless demand for manufactured goods fell sharply

3.

During the Cold War, even as they prepared to destroy one another, ----. A) the West has always sought opportunities to make peace with the Soviet Union B) the United States and the Soviet Union had been involved in a constructive dialogue C) Britain has imported enormous quantities of timber from the Soviet Union D) the West and the Soviet Union struck deals and traded in energy E) the Soviet Union contributes a great deal to China's economic development 7.

----, it does not necessarily produce peace, equality, or homogeneity. A) If a key feature of globalization has been the transformatian of the world economy B) Just as globalization has radically altered patterns of trade araund the world C) Whenever globalization has forced the reorganization of economic enterprises D) Since globalization suggests a uniform process, one that operates similarly everywhere E) Although globalization means worldwide economic integration

4.

---- because they were continually forced to defend their own conquests against other invaders.
A) The Romans did not usually impose heavy tax burdens on the cities they conquered B) The geography of the ltalian peninsula had a decisive influence on Rome's development C) The Romans were descended from various lndo- European peoples that had crossed the Alps into ltaly during the second millennium B.C. D) The Romans were a sternly military society almost from the moment they settled on ltalian soil E) The Romans looked to their gods to bestow upon their households and their city the blessings of prosperity, victory, and fertility 8.

Everyone knows ----. A) that the politics of oil is crucial to life in the Middle East B) whether to the Arabs oil means the vast petroleum reserves lying under the desert san ds C) if in the Middle East oil is a precious source of wealth and all too often a ca use for war D) since non-OPEC oil producers currently account for 58% of total production E) as lraqi crude oil exports in 2007 were more than 5% lower than in 2006

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9. According to a report released by the US Seeret Service, the Middle East is one of the world's hotspots ----.
A) as there are other conspiracy theories emanating from the region B) whether Iran and Syria are actively engaged in economic warfare against the US C) when it comes to counterfeit US currency D) while the Iranian government dismisses charges of collaboration with counterfeiters E) although there is a conspiracy to undermine the US economy through counterfeit currency

12. Half of the increase in EU Aid for Trade is specifcally targeted toward the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP), ----.
A) unless the European Commission set up this programme to promote investment and technology flow in these countries B) although the EU has used trade to advance its development eecperation objectives in the ACP nations for decades C) with which the EU is negotiating regional Economic Partnership Agreements designed to remove all tariff and quota barriers to the EU market D) which could have enabled the leastdeveloped countries to use trade more effectively to achieve their development goals E) because the European Commission allocated billions of dollars for eecperation with nonACP countries

10. Few figures in Western history have held the attention of the world ----.
A) so long as Napoleon pursued serious interests in history, law, and mathematics B) as Napoleon did during the ffteen years of his rule in France C) because Napoleon's character seemed suited to the age in which he lived D) since Napoleon's particular strength as a leader lay in his capacity for inspiring others E) just as Napoleon believed that he was destined to be the saviour of France

13. ----, but just over 1 per cent of them spend the night in Umbria, in the south of Tuscany.
A) Visitors to Lake Trasimeno will see few other tourists B) Perugia is home to a world-famous jazz festival in the summer and a chocolate festival in the fall C) In the town of Deruta, handmade gift-items fll many shop windows D) Tuscany attracts more than 12 per cent of all visitors to ltaly E) Scenic stone hilltowns such as Assisi and Gubbio are among the main attractions

11. Although the British Royal Navy claims that it was not operating any warships in the area at the time, ----.
A) underwater noise hasn't been fully recognized as a form of pollution B) it must have been military sonarthat killed the whales and dolphins C) there are no hard and fast guidelines for seismic surveys D) the UK would have had 25 warships which carried active sonar E) a number of marine mammals beached themselves during this American military operation

14. If labour could be measured adequately in simple homogeneous units of time, such as labourhours, ----.
A) it covers many other kinds of areas as well , such as social security and worker satisfaction B) a change in the organization of the community's labour would be likely to increase the annual production of wealth C) earlier economists failed to fnd a simple relation between the value of a product and the quantity of labour that it embodied D) different uses of the available supply of labour need to be considered E) the problems of economics would be considerably simplifed

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15. ----, where they are often seen floating in the water like logs, with only their nostrils, eyes, and ears above the surface.
A) The Mississippi alligator, the American crocodile, and the Chinese alligator are the only other species B) Crocodiles are found near swamps, lakes, and rivers in Asia, Africa, Australia, and Central America C) As recently as several decades ago, crocodiles were plentiful in much of the tropics and subtropics D) This would have helped crocodiles to adapt to different environments E) Crocodiles can grow up to 7 metres in length, and have long, powerful tails that propel them when swimming

18. All the major cities and islands of Spain have airports, ----.
A) but buses will be a faster and more frequently used aptian between smaller towns B) until Spain has an increasingly effcient transportation system C) even if both the road and rail networks were greatly improved during the 1980s and in the run-up to the Bareelona Olympics in 1992 D) so in much of rural Spain, public transportation is limited and a car is the most practical solution for getting around E) though only a few of them cater to international flights

16. While some argue that the Elgin Marbles, ----, are more carefully preserved there, the Grek government does not accept the legality of the sale that took place in 1816 and believes they belong in Athens.
A) after they were acquired from the Ottoman authorities of the time B) since they are alsa called the Parthenon Marbles C) so they are very famous indeed D) which are kept in the British Museum in London E) as if they were sold to the British nation

19. In the US in 1882, Peter J. McGuire, who is generally given credit for the idea of Labor Day, suggested to the Central Labor Union of New York ----.
A) if there was any particular signifcance for the da te B) that there should be a holiday honouring American workers C) whether the signifcance of Labor Day in the US had changed D) whereas, in many other countries, May Day serves a similar purpose E) when the frst Monday in September was to be known as Labor Day

20. Germany is similar in many ways to France, ltaly and the UK ----. 17. A colour-blind person cannot see difference between two colours ----. any
A) unless it attaches primary importance to both multilateral and bilateral diplomacy B) as though the EU were essentially in control of environmental policies C) where the foreign policy process in Germany had to agree to a compromise in recent years D) although this had led to arguments concerning the proper role of the German Foreign Ministry in shaping and implementing policy E) in that it is one of just a few European states which attempt to maintain worldwide representation

A) while to people with normal sight they are clearly different B) as if red and green were completely different C) if this were the case with traffic-lights D) since this is a potentially dangerous situation E) whether the top light or the bottom light signals "stop"

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TEST3
1. Until China becomes the most powerful nation in the world, with Chinese spoken universally, ----.
A) the problems of wide variations in English may well be lessened B) English will remain the primary language of science and diplomacy C) many countries in the world have shifted to printing their scientific journals only in English D) immigrants to the United States or Britain acquire English rapidly and well E) people who speak English and anather language have an advantage over those who speak only English

5.

---- because he had led the country into four wars which he had lost, and brought economic ruin to his people.
A) Serbia experienced widespread corruption under Milosevic, who ruled the country as a dictator, B) Many Serbians felt humiliated by the atrocities commited in Bosnia by the Milosevic government C) Milosevic's rule in Serbia literally meant political tyranny, which led to pro-democracy protests in the country, D) Milosevic, the ex-president of Serbia, was protested nationwide and then removed from power E) Taday Serbia's writers constantly remind their people of the shameful past of their country under Milosevic

2.

---- before grapes can be transformed into fne wine.


A) Harvesting was a very costly and tiring process B) Farmers were expecting higher prices C) Drought does much damage to grape vines D) The farm workers in France have protested at lowerwages E) There is much work to be done

6.

Many of the larger companies in Somalia have issued shares, ----.


A) if the lack of a government in the country poses a wide range of problems B) since the local telecom offers the best and cheapest phone service in Africa C) although there is no stock exchange or fnancial authority of any sart in the country D) but business leaders have taken steps to increase the country's foreign-trade capacity E) even if foreign aid mig ht have benefts as well as drawbacks

3.

---- what makes Hong Kong so exhilarating.


A) B) C) D) E) lt's hard to explain Many travellers are curious One soan becomes aware lt has been debated We have been much impresse

7.

Traditionally, textbooks on British government and politics have focused on institutions and behaviour ---.
A) whether it is appropriate to deseribe the British Constitution as uncodifed rather than unwritten B) in case political institutions and issues are inseparable and need to be discussed together C) just as a brief analysis of the leading types of government found in the modern world was left out D) because one had to explore in detail the impact of Thatcherism upon British politics E) while ignoring the controversies and issues which are the fundamentals of politics

4.

----, yet it is not possible to go much further without any breakthroughs in battery technology.
A) Electric cars don't make economic sense in view of the harsh environmental regulations in force B) Electric cars have simply been a technological failure C) Hybrid cars are certainly a step in the right directian D) Any fuel savings resulting from electric or hybrid cars are likely to be offset by the cost of the cars themselves E) One fears that the hybrid car may be yet anather technological failure

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8. Metearites are extraterrestial complex rocks with roughly equal amounts of metal and silicates ----. A) because the moon has been studied extensively by spacecraft and has been sampled directly at a few locations B) which have major implications for the collisional history of planetary bodies C) whereby the various planetary and asteroital bodies in the solar system contain a specifc isotopic label D) so that each meteorite is a smail sample of a much larger parent body, probably an un i dentifed asteroid E) while measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority of NASA's Genesis mission 12. Because children enjoy the process of play, --

A) various other options had been taken into consideration 8) they are not primarily focused on achieving a product or achieving a goal C) group demands begin to grow steadily D) many alternative approaches also had to be test ed E) the acquisition of social skills is a positive as set

13. If there is too much mineral accumulation in the compost, ----. A) B) C) D) roots get burnt and plants die some plants need less fertilizer than others the flowering season was greatly reduced most plants grow far more quickly in wet are as E) the growing conditions also need to be considered

9.

Climate change may alter composition of species, ----.

the

genetic

A) but assessment of any shift in this respect requires genetic data sampled over time B) even though , for most species, environmental conditions have some impact on breeding C) despite the fact that recent analyses clearly show the magnitude and directian of genetic shifts in various populations D) which, according to the evidence available, is geographically widespread from North Africa to Scandinavia E) so long as one can observe the genetic impact that environmental differences have on living beings

14. ---- that the reasons for introducing the newdesign dollar bills were the persistent reports of high quality counterfeits circulating in the Middle East. A) Following a US Seeret Service probe the US Federal Reserve has wondered B) Enormous quantities of dollar bills are held in reserve in the US and overseas C) All of them are old allegations made by the US Federal Reserve D) The US government's currency policy has been sharply criticised E) lt has been claimed, but never confrmed by the US Federal Reserve,

1O. ----, street erime in major As ian cities is stili less common than in most European cities. A) B) C) D) E) Since the governments are concerned Because severe measures had been taken Though it is rising sharply If one were to admit it Before reliable statistical data can be obtained

15. The United Nations officially recognized the greenhouse effect in 1995, ---. A) when its International Panel on Climate noted that human activity had a discernible influence on global temperatures B) as the economies of developing nations will grow over the next few decades C) if developing nations were exempted from the Kyoto Agreement D) since the US government announced that it would not participate in Kyoto Agreement E) that the participating nations must make large and costly changes in their energy systems

11. Though the smell of fumes in an aircraft cockpit may not always spell danger, ----. A) a forced landing could have been avoided B) even a smail sensor can detect a wide range of chemicals C) harmless fumes had been caused by a smail leak of oil D) it is guaranteed to alarm the pilot E) such a detector can easily be ftted into an aircraft

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16. Oxygen, sugars and amino acids are allawed into the brain ----.
A) as toxins could severely impair the brain's functioning B) which provided early evidence of the bloodbrain barrier C) but most other substances are kept out D) that controls which molecules in the bloodstream can enter the brain E) just as no other organ is equally efficient

20. Because energy production expends resources and causes pollution, ----.
A) we depend upon nature to provide the basics of life, such as food and oxygen 8) many resources are used once and then thrown away C) modern technical challenges are seldom met by scientists D) scientists and engineers must work to develop energy-efficient processes E) engineers must solve problems without even understanding the underlying theory

17. Africa Report is a weekly TV programme ----.


A) unless it showcases the very best in Africa B) that focuses on business and investment in Africa C) though it covers everything from economic reform to rewarding investment opportunities D) so it has 250 million viewers in Africa alone E) as it is brought to you by the world's leading business channel

18. Environmentalists are criticizing the patent office for delaying its decision on some new measuring instruments ----.
A) while the guidelines have been consistently ignored B) if applications for patents on plants are on the increase C) before objections were filed against patents on a herbiide resistant plant D) since they believe that these are urgently needed to detect certain problems E) as if the controversy had actually died down

19. ----, they operate as effective carriers and may pass it on to other birds which are more susceptible.
A) Though many migratory birds are immune to the effects of the avian flu viru . B) Since many residents of outlying villages have refused to carry out the culling of their chickens to prevent the spread of avian flu C) Despite the fact that the avian flu virus is spread , primarily, by migratory birds D) As symptoms of bird flu in humans are similar to those of common flu E) If the spread of the avian flu virus through populations of wild birds remains unchecked

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TEST4
1. If only she had come up with some positive suggestions, ----.
A) the scheme certainly had very many drawbacks B) nobody else is likely to complain C) so far this is the best thesis to be submitted D) the others will already have been rejected E) 1 wouldn't have minded her criticism of the Project

4.

Before the 21st century has run its course,

----.

A) the powers of computers have expanded vastly due to advanced research B) countless technologies not envisioned yet will be available to us C) a great deal of scientific effort is being made to fnd solutions to complex problems D) most people in developed countries enjoy a state of true health throughout their lives E) our knowledge of the world araund us has improved to a great extent

2.

---- while such African languages as Hausa and Swahili continued to serve the everyday needs of the masses.
A) During the colonial era in Africa, English became the shared language of the administration and a Western-educated elite B) In colonial Africa , the teaching of Engli~h literature is no langer popular C) Modern African writers have found it necessary to adapt certain aspects of English, D) Today, English is the official language of sixteen countries in Africa , E) English as a second language has been taught in Africa for nearly four hundred years,

5.

Smallpox was once a dreaded human disease,

----.

A) while genetic engineering can be used in several ways to make vaccines B) although taday DNA technology is helping medical researchers develop vaccines C) even if artifcial-mutant vaccines may cause fewer side effects than natural mutants D) but it was eradicated worldwide in the 1970s by widespread vaccination E) since there has been no effective drug treatment for many viral diseases

6. 3. ---- but cannot be proved and is difficult to assess.


A) The influence of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language on the development of the language has been widely assumed B) Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language played a role in propagating a standard spelling among the less literate C) Samuel Johnson was an enthusiastic reader of classical and English literature from his earliest years D) lt took Samuel Johnson eight or nine years to complete work on his Dictionary of the English Language E) With his Dictionary of the English Language , Samuel Johnson provided a powerful but conservative model of language usage

Neanderthals were human relative ----.

a recent

evolutionary

A) who lived in Europe and became extinct 30,000-40,000 years ago B) as researchers studying human origins debated this question for decades C) which are muscular and robust, with a brain similar to ours in size D) while the relationship between humans and Neanderthals may best be deseribed as sister species E) despite the fact that they had hands as nimble as those of present-day humans, with a thumb and fngers

7.

The Welsh language has changed so little through the centuries ----.
A) whose annual Eisteddfod celebration honours its best poets and writers B) that an educated Welshman can stili read the Welsh of the Mid die Ages C) as more and more English families setlle in Wales , bringing their habits with them D) although Wales recently formed its own national assembly E) unless it embodies the kind, unambitious nature of the Welsh people

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8. By 1809, Sweden's military power had waned to such an extent ----.
A) as a new constitution transferred power from the king to Parliament B) so that it could no langer continue as a great power C) that the country was forced to surrender part of its territory to Russia D) in that nearly one million Swedes migrated, mostly to America E) even though the Swedes had contributed to Europe's Age of Enlightenment with advances in science

12. Salmon farms are prohibited in Alaska ----.


A) unless salmon actually does protect against cancer B) because fshermen blame the farms for undercutting their price C) since farmed salmon used to be fattier than wild salmon D) but they say salmon farms are bad for the environment E) once the industry begins to attack so me of the problems

9.

Road and rail connections in generally better in the north, ----.

ltaly are

13. The Sermuda Triangle, ----, is noted for a high ineidence of unexplained losses of ships, smail boats and aircraft.
A) that an entire squadron of planes vanished shortly after takeoff B) as local environmental conditions could be the cause C) since the sea here is particularly fast maving D) when there is an almost unique magnetic effect on compasses E) which is off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the US

A) because between the snowy peaks of the Alps and the rugged shores of Sicily lies a whole series of regions , each with its distinctive culture B) but there are many other attractive historic towns and cities C) but people speak of two ltalies: the rich industrial North and the poorer agricultural South D) just as the government has allocated extra funds for road repairs E) where Milan, Bologna and Verona are the key transport centres

14. The stereotype of woman as "emotional" sex is the one ----.


A) B) C) D) E)

the

more

10. There is a general agreement among car manufacturing companies that, ----, hydrogen is likely to be the fuel of choice.
A) B) C) D) E) if sulphur emissions had been checked when oil runs out as it could have been stored asa gas as if no mechanical energy was required unless there were giant fuel cells

that stili persists taday as emotions are so unpredictable but it had been encouraged by the Stoics until overruled by 20th century psychology which a more sophisticated mode of thinking will have denied

15. ---- who will become schizophrenic.


A) There seems to be a genetic predisposition B) A cure is nowhere in sight C) Neither doctors nor scientists can accurately predict D) They confuse the real and the imaginary E) Treatment of the disorder is improving

11. He has focused on maving the complexity of computing from the desktop to the network,

----.

A) where it can be managed more easily B) if c>mputers could communicate more easily with one anather C) that his improvements actually caught the eye of the Pentagon D) though it became the most widely used operating system of its day E) which would have been the greatest challenge of his career

16. In general, when credit demand is low, ---A) it is not sensible to take out loans during deflation B) fallawing the wrong guideline could have been catastrophic C) interest rates measure the cost of credit, not the price of money D) interest rates are correspondingly low E) precautionary savings were rising at this time

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YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi


17. ---- why the minister refused to comment on the issue. A) Nobody else put the manager himself was allowed to speak

B) The journalist was of the opinion


C) The members of the subcommittee were warned D) That must be the reason E) Several suggestions had been made

18. ---- that engineers do not restrict themselves to technical matters. A) The engineering curriculum has long required B) Many potential leaders were of the opinion C) The courses involved substantial reading and writing assignments D) The aim was to attract a wider audience E) He acquired a sophisticated knowledge of scientific and technical matters

19. ---- even though she's stili not prepared to forgive herself. A) B) C) D) E) The wrong person got blamed After all, she committed an error, not a erime Others were also involved in the affair A lot of people have forgiven her She was wrongly accused

20. After we had learned the true story from our daughter, -----. A) B) C) D) her apologies are obviously worthless she begged us to apologize for her manners 1have ignored her excuses she's stili too proud to admit she did something wrong E) it seems to Iate for her apologies

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SENTENCE COMPLETION CEVAP ANAHTARI


TEST 1
1. B 2.D 3.C 4.E 5.A 6. B 7.C 8.A 9. D 10.E 11. D 12.E 13.C 14.B 15.E 16. A 17.E 18.B 19.C 20.D

TEST3
1. B 2. E 3.A 4.C 5. D 6.C 7. E 8.B 9.A 10.C 11. D 12.B 13. A 14.E 15. A 16.C 17. B 18.D 19. A 20.D

TEST2
1. c 2.E 3.D 4.D 5.E 6.A 7. E 8.A 9.C 10.B 11. B 12.D 13.D 14.E 15. B 16.D 17. A 18.E 19.B 20.E

TEST4
1. E 2.A 3.A 4.B 5. D 6.A 7.B 8.c 9. E 10.B 11. A 12.8 13.E 14.A 15. c 16.D 17. D 18 A 19.D 20.B

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TEST 1
1.

IF the cost of health benefits for working people in a country rlses, -.


SIMPLE PRESENT

A) soaring health costs are one of the big factors that have crippl d the economy S.PRESENT

konu
B) usually employers C)
frms

uyumu(fiyatlarn

ykselmesi)
S.PRESENT

cut wages or pass on the costs as higher prices to customers

should, in fact, be indifferent to whether they pay employees cash wages or benefts S.PRESENT

D) those costs have nearly doubled this decade alone in many industrialized countries P.PERFECT E) the current economic difficulties have_forced politicians to focus on health reform P.PERFECT

ncesinde fiil gelmeli!


A) A group of students are experimenting + something B) Scientists had wondered + whether C) A great deal of evidence needs to be gathered
D) lt'S

A.experiment fiili ardndan isim ahrl B.kkndaki fiil "whether'' ile

long been known

E) Over the years, no scientist has questioned + whether

3.

negative meaning
A) A team of sc ntists has cl aimed that the traditional method s of production in plastics are extremely costly and have a adverse impact on the environment B) lt has bee announced that a company in China, sponsored by the government, is planning to harvest plastics fr m crops of corn kon ar ayn! C) Eight

t nnes

of crude oil are currently needed to create one tonne of polyol , which is an alcoholic

substance usedin a number of plastics

(positive sentence)

D) Scientists are now using a new type of microscope that lets them view internal structures of materials in greater detail than ever before E) The device the company's scientists use utilizes X-ray analysis technology and reveals chemical compositions of objects being studied

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137

ailed to hatt the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi war machine.
A) During Worl W ar ll , France was split into a German-occupied north and an unoccupied south B) Following W rld War ll , France turned its attention to its African colonies, where there was a growing demand from he natives for independence C) After a series of extremely savage battles, Allied armies liberated France in August 1944 from the German occup tion D) In May 1940, th Germans marched into an undefended Paris, and in the following month the French government sign d an armistice

E) Beginning in of alliances

tense uyumu (s. past) + konu uyumu 1919, French foreign policy aimed at keeping

Germany weak through a system

5.

Although there were plenty of sceptics when

Mau

financial centre - .

A) B) C) D) E)
1

it has partly attained its goal, since it now hosts 19 national and international banks it has built a textile industry that has made the country relatively prosperous last month it brought in a new labour law, making it easier to hire and fire it imports most of its food and energy as rising world prices are pushing up inflation mu ch of the economy remains concentrated in the hands of a few local magnates

6.

In his opinion, poetry ! essentially an effort to elude facts, - .


A) since he had been igarded as a promising young poet / ~S. PRESENT

B) whereas prose

is essentially a means of unearthing and exhibiting them

C) but his poems have been published in respectable literary journal D) because many critics share the view that poets should be concerned with politics

zne uyumu yok! (as, because, since)


E)

if many prose writers enjoy writing about social and cultural issues

If ciause type 1(will ya da present modal


7.

almas

gerekirdi!)

Moon's previously unvisited mountains and polar regions will 8ld the searoh for

noun/isim

(ardndan

which/that gelir!)

A) s ince th frst erewed mission will be planned for the far s ide of the Moon B) wher y test landings are scheduled to begin in 201 O
C) W ich is vital to any future lunar base to be set up by NASA D) even if the mission aims to land astronauts on the surface of the Moon by 2015 E) even though dense clouds of interstellar dust conceal the heart of our galaxy

138

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

e biterse

ardndan

suggest + that noun ciause gelir!(ardndan cmle gelen that)

A) that mass extinctions of mammoths and wild horses 10,000 years ago were caused by natural elimale
shifts B) whether humans were to blame for extensive destruction in the natural world and also for the pollution of the oceans C) how scientists began to understand clearly what dinosaurs ate and why they disappeared from the face of the Earth D) if an olive branch buried for thousands of years in volcanic ash could have revealed the fate of the great Minoan civilization on the Greek isiand of Thera E) when it was scientifcally established that dinosaurs belonged to a large group of reptiles called archosauria

9.

- . it would be regarcled as a disaster at home and abroed.

If ciause type ll (with s. past)


A) B) C) D) E) Since power generatian in China fell by 7% last year As lndia had enjoyed a big economic advantage over China Because unrest and even insurgency are widespread in many countries !f.China's growth rate were to fall to 5% or less While lndia is considered to be a major economic power

cmle sonu fiil +Joun ciause


debate, there W88
A) B) C) D) while Ch ina has been bl amed for the elimale erisis tod although scientists have concluded that this w g is dangerous since the details of future forecasts ab arming remain unclear that warming would be a signif problem in the decades ahead

over-.

E)

whetfier the planet was indeed warming

111. -that the basic principle of coHective ownership of ruralland wlll remaln unchanged.
noun ciause (ncesinde fiil gelir!)
A) B) C) D) E)

PRESENT FORM

In the past, many people in China teared The Chinese government had already decided Some politicians in China took part in a debate The Chinese Prime Minister has stated PRESENT FORM Chinese peasants held a protest meeting last Sunday

A. VE B. SEENEKLERi PAST YAPlDADlRI

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!12. -, but it no longer sponsors terrorism.


reg'me A) B) C) D)

S.PRESENT

North K ea had long wanted to reach an agreement with the us North Kor had, until recently, no intention of giving up nuclear weapons The North reans and the Japanese have had talks on a variety of issues Two decades o, two North Korean agents-blew up a South Korean airliner

E) North Korea's r gime m ay be brutal in all sorts of ways S.PRESENT

13. Because Brazil's ex orts include a wide variety of valuable raw materials, -. A) the unpredictable exchange rates n damaged the country's economy a lot B) the government introduced a number o sterity measures to reduce inflation C) the country has had huge earnings in fore n currenc over the past few years

D) the COUntry's economy cannot satisfy domestic demand without higher inflation

konu ekonomi deil! E) most economists agree that a weaker currency will mean higher inflation

14. -

where bones that span six million years of human evolution have been dug up over the last 25 ncesinde place(yer)gelmeli! ('in' ve 'from' ilgeleri yer imgesidir!)

A) B) C) D) E)

New archaeological evidence helps us to understand the evolution of primitive humans Various fossils have recently been found in an Ethiopian valley The history of human evolution can best be traced through the study of fossils The new discoveries in Ethiopia signifcantly expand our knowledge of primitive humans In Ethiopia, a wide range of fossil s, including teeth, s ku ll, jaw and ha nd bones, have been discovered

15. When Franois Mitterrand nationalized France's banksin 1981,-.

PAST FORM
A) B) C) D) PERFECT FORM PERFECT FORM PERFECT FORM PERFECT FORM E) he d id so because he thought the state would run them better PAST FORM he opposed the view that economic liberty had been under attack he had already decided to min im ize these risks in a short term he had tried to avoid populist gestures his ultimate aim has been to regulate France's fnancial system

(FiiLERiN TM SIMPLE PAST TENSE YAPISINDADIR!)

140

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi


16. In the 1970s and 1980s, Colombia and traffckin

became one of the international centers for illegal drug


S. PAST

production

A) because the drug cartels virtually


B) C) D) E)

controlled the country

even though 2 million Colombians have left the country in the past several year PRESENT that the government unsuccessfully attempted to stern the guerrilla violence just as the leading drug dealers were offered lenient punishment in exchange for their surrender since the country has turned into a battleground with bombs, killings and kidnapping PRESENT

B. ve E. Seeneklerinde tense
u yokl

17. New Zealand consists of two main islands and a number of smaller, outlying islands, which

are....2

scattered -.
SO ....... THAT KURALI!
A) B) C) D) E)
w~le the country has been in the farefront in instituting social welfare legislation

as other inhabited islands include the Chatham lslands and Great Barrier Isiand ev n if the North Isiand and the South Isiand are separated by the Cook Strait si ce the Maoris, who consisted of several tribes, were the frst inhabitants of the country that they range from the tropical to the Antaretic

18. Suriname, now a Latin American coun


ayn konu! because the English transferred sovereignt to the Dutch in 1667 but by 1602 the Dutch began to settle the land, followed by the English since colonization was confned to a narrow coastal strip although African slaves made up the workforce for coffee and sugarcane plantations while after 1870 plantatian workers were mostly imported from British lndia
~----------------------,

A) B) C) D) E)

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YDS iFRELERi

A) as an infected breast usually appears red and swollen

B) so long as they can be detected


C) only after th become very large

D) so that the diseased breast may be removed E) because recently two separate genes for breast cancer have been

identifed

PR

A) if schizophrenia is a relatively serious mental disorder B) since it is regarded as a major public health problem throughout the world C) because schizophrenia and other delusional disorders share certain features

D)

although areas of higher or lower pre alence have been identified


~~------------------------------------~

E) unless people with schizophrenia occupy one

A. if cause cmlesi olup will ile B. neden-sonu ilikisi yokl

kullanlmaldr!

142

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YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi


TEST2

11.

lt Iran

!!If !2

go nuclear, - .
(with would)

If ciause type ll

A) Russia and Ch ina did their best to Lop it B) the United States may have taken freventive action C) other countries in the region would follow su it D) the UN Security Council sanctions need to be enacted without delay E) it can fire hundreds of missiles at lsrael

2.

after strong winds and a heat wave started dozens of forest fires.
S.PAST Many villages in the area will be evacuated No precautions had been taken The government would have set up a special team of fire fighters Many fire fighting teams will have been called in ~---------------..

A) B) C) D)

E) Last summer, Athens was engulfed in thick smoke

S. PAST

! 3.

During the Cold War, even as they

prepared to destroy one another, - .

S.PAST Past pertect A) the West has always sought opportunities to m peace withlthe Soviet Union had been involved ina constructive dialogue B) the United States and the Soviet Un C) Britain has imported enormous quantities of timber from t oviet Union D) the West and the Soviet Union struck deals andtradedin energy E) the Soviet Union contributes a great deal to China's economic development

were continually forced to defend their own conquests against other invaders.
A) The Romans did not us ose heavy tax burdens on the cities they conquered ve influence on Rome's development B) The geography of the ltalian peninsula ha C) The Romans were descended from various lndo- uli'O:reao...o ltaly during the second millennium B.C. D) The Romans were a sternly military society almost from the moment they settlrd on ltalian soil

ayn konu! (settle=invade:yerlemek)


E) The Romans looked to their gods to bestow upon their households and their city the blessings of prosperity, victory, and fertility

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143

YDS iFRELERi

- that they influenced cultures across the Mediterranean. ncesinde fiil gelmeli!
~relative

ciause "where"

A) B) C) D) E)

Phoenician textiles commanded a high price everywllere their merchants went The Phoenicians may have played an important role in introducing urban life into the Greek world Phoenician cities oriented themselves towards the sea The Phoenicians became famous as merchants and seafarers The widespread colonial and mercantile efforts of the Phoenicians meant

fiil

6.

Economic as well as social roblems plagued Europe during the 1970s and 1980s - .
ayn
A) B) C) D) E)

konu!

but these problems had actually begun much earlier because new industries continued to presper in case the West German growth rate would slow down whereas seven hundred thousand French workers had been laid off unless demand for manufactured goods fell sharply

7.

-.it does n t necessarily produce peace, equality, or homogeneity.


negative
teknii! A) If key feature of globalization has been the transformatian of the world economy B) J st as globalization has radically altered patterns of trade areund the world henever globalization has forced the reorganization of economic enterprises C) D) S ce globalization suggests a uniform process, one that operates similarly everywhere

umu

E)

lthou h globalization means worldwide economic integration


A. soru cmlesi if ciause yapsna uygun B. just as sonras continuous yap
deili

'As, although, though, even though, than now, but now' balalar ile Tense uyumu art deildir!

la.

Everyone

knows -.

cmle fiil ile biterse


A) B) C) D) E)

that the politics of oil is crucial to life in the Middle East


whether to the Arabs oil means the vast petroleum reserves lying under the desert sands if in the Middle East oil is a precious source of wealth and all too often a cause for war si nce non-OPEC o il producers currently account for 58% of total production as lraqi crude oil exports in 2007 were more than 5% lower than in 2006

----

ardndan

noun ciause gelir!

144

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi


9.
According to a report released by the

-.

US Seeret Service, the Middle East .1! one of the world's hotspots

aynkonu! PRESENT A) as there are other conspiracy theo ies emanating from the region B) whether ran and Syria are actively engaged in economic warfare against the US C) when it comes to counterfeit US currency

PRES ENT

D) while the Iranian government dismisses charges of collaboration with counterfeiters E) although there is a conspiracy to undermine the US economy through counterfeit currency

A. "as" yaps ile cmlelerin iki tarafnda ayn zne olmalyd! B. soru cmlesi flll lle bltseydl "whether''

l1o.

Few figures in Westem history have


A) B) C) D) E)

held the attention of the world - .

so long as Napoleon pursued serious interests in history, law, and mathematics

as Napoleon d id during the ffteen years of his rule in France


because Napoleon's character seemed suited to the age in which he lived since Napoleon's particular strength asa leader lay in his capacity for inspiring others just as Napoleon believed that he was destined to be the savior of France

A. So long as if yaps (type ll)olduu iin soru cmlesinde would gelmeliydil B. cOmlesi olmasa nedenille soru

11.

Although tbe British Roval Naw ctaims that it was not operating any warships in the ares at
thetime - .
A) underwater noise has 't been fully recognized as a form of pallutian

zne uyumu

teknii!(although,

though, even though)

B) must have been military sonarthat killed the whales and dolphins C) there are no hard and fast guidelines for seismic surveys D) the UK would have had 25 warships which carried active sonar E) a number of marine mammals beached themselves during this American military operation

tl

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

145

YDS iFRELERi

noun/isim (ardndan relative ciause gelir)


A) unless the European Commission set up this programme to promote investment and technology flow in these countries B) although the EU has used trade to advance its development cooperation objectives in the ACP nations for decades C) ~hich the EU is negotiating regional Economic Partnership Agreements designed to remove all tariff and quota barriers to the EU market D) whi ould have enabled the least-developed countries to use trade more effectively to achieve

--their developmen relative ciause


E) because the European Commission allocated billions of dollars for cooperation with non-ACP countries

relative pronoun ile preposition + relative pronoun arasnda preposition almayn tercih edilmelidir!
13. - , but just over 1 per cent of them

kalndnda

PRES ENT
A) Visitors to Lake Trasimeno will see few other B) Perugia is home to a world-fam estival in the summer and a chocolate festival in the fall C) In the town of Deru made gift-items fll many shop windows ayn konu!

D) Tusc ny attracts more than 12 per cent of all visitors to ltaly E) Scenic stone hill t1wns such as Assisi and Gubbio are among the main attraction

[ !4.

lt llbour

PRES ENT
bo ,_.. adequllllly in~ tomogo_,.

oils ol time, such os labour hou8, -.

If ciause type ll(with would)


A) it covers many other kinds of areas as well, such as social security and worker satisfaction B) a change in the organization of the community's labour would be ~ to increase the annual production of wealth C) earlier economists failed to fnd a simple relation between the value of a product and the quantity of labour that it embodied D) different uses of the available supply of labour need to be considered E) the problems of economics would be considerably simplifed

If ciause type ll

146

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

A) The Mississippi

ator, the American crocodile, and the Chinese alligator are the only other species

ncesinde p Central America

B) Crocodiles are found near swamps, lakes, and rivers

e(yer) gelmeli! - - - - - - - - . IN Asia, Africa, Australia, and

C) As recently as several decades ago, crocodiles were plentiful in much of the tropics and subtropics D) This would have helped crocodiles to adapt to different environments E) Crocodiles can grow up to 7 metres in length, and have long, powerful tails that propel them when swimming
16. White some argue that the El govemment does not accept the

Marbles. -. are more carefuUy preserved there, the Greek ality of the sale that took place in 1816 and believes they telong in

Athens.
A) after they were ac red from the Ottoman authorities of the time so called the Parthenon Marbles B) since they ar C) so they a ery famous indeed noun/isim (ardndan relative ciause gelir!) D)

which are kept in the British Museum in London

E) as if they were sol d to the British nation

17. A colour-blind person cann

PRES ENT
ayn

k nu!
---PRESENT

A) B) C) D) E)

while to people with normal sight they are clearly different as if red and green were completely different if this were the case with traffic-lights since this is a potentially dangerous situation whether the top lig ht or the bottom light signals "stop"

B. "as if' yaps belirli filler sonrasnda geliri C. if ciause type ll yapas soru cmlesi lle

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

147

YDS iFRELERi

r cltles and lslands of S

in have arports, - .

ses will be a faster and mo re frequently used option between s maller towns B) until pain has an increasingly efficient transportation system C) even if both the road and rail networks were greatly improved during the 1980s and in the run-up to the Barc lona Olympics in 1992 D) so in much of rural Spain, public transportation is limited and a car is the most practical solution for getting arou d zne uyumu teknii!(though) E)

tho,gh only a few of them cater to international flights Though


baiac

ile iki tarafta

ayn

zne

kullanm!

19. In the US in 1882, Peter J. McGuire, who is generally given credit for the idea of Labor Day, SUQgested to the Centrallabor Union of New Yort< - .
A) if there was any particular significance for the date

c~le

fiil ile biterse

ardndan

noun ciause gelir! (suggest + that)

B) tHat there should be a holiday honouring American workers C) whether the significance of Labor Day in the US had changed D) whereas, in many other countries , May Day serves a similar purpose E) when the first Monday in September was to be known as La bor Day

A) B) C) D)

unl~ss it a aches primary importance to both multilateral and bilateral diplomacy as thoug the EU were essentially in control of environmental policies where t foreign policy process in Germany had to agree to a compromise in recent years althou this had led to arguments concerning the proper role of the German Foreign Ministry in shaping and i plementing policy E) in t at it is one of just a few European states which attempt to maintain worldwide representation

baiac

Benzerlik ve farkllk bildiren cmleler in that ile kullanlrlari

148

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS GRAMMAR TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST3

Untll China becomes the most powerful nation in the world, with Chinese spoi<Atn universa
PRE ENT
A) the pr bl em s of wide variations in English m ay well be lessen

UNTIL s. present, will

kural!

B) English Wl ll remain the primary language of science and diplomacy


C) many countries in the world have shifted to printing their scientific journals only in English D) immigrants to the United States or Britain acquire English rapidly and well E) people who speak English and another language have an advantage over those who speak only English

2.

A) B) C) D)

before gra!)Eis can be transfonned into fine wine.


Harvesting was a ery costly and tiring process Farmers were pecting higher prices Drought doe uch damage to grape vines The farm w rkers in France have protested at lower wages

S.PRESENT
E) There

is much work to be done

3.- what makes Hong Kong so exhilarating.


A) lt's hard to

explain

+ WHAT/WHY + ABOUT +THAT +WHETHER +THAT

B) Many travellers are C) D) E)

curiOUS One soon becomes aware lt has been debated We have been much impressed

t it is not possible to go much further without an

(positive sentence, yet negative sentence)


A) Electric cars

don't

make economic sense in view of the harsh environmental regulations in force

negative
B) Electric cars have simply been a technological C) Hybrid cars are certainly a step in the right directian themselves

failure negative POSITIVE offset


by the cost of the cars

D) Any fuel savings resulting from electric or hybrid cars are likely to be

negative negative
149

E) One fears that the hybrid car may be~ another technological failure

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS iFRELERi

e had led the country into four wars which he had lost, and brought economic ruin ID his
A) Serbia expe ienced widespread corruption under Milosevic, who ruled the country as a dictator, B) Many Serb ns felt humiliated by the atrocities committed in Bosnia by the Milosevic government C) Milosevic' rule

1 Serbia

literally meant political tyranny, which led to pro-democracy protests in the

~---------------------------YER!

D) power E) Taday Serbia's writers constantly remind their people of the shameful past of their country under Milosevic
1

zne uyumu tekn i i!(beca u se) Milosevic. the ex-president of Serbia, was protested nationwide and then removed from

6.

Many of the larger companies in

So~ia have issuad shares, - . konu uyumu!- - - - - - - - - - - .

A) B) C) D) E)

if the lack of a government in the country poses a wide range of problems since the local telecom offers the best and cheapest phone service in Africa although there is no stock exchange or fnancial authority of any sart in the country but business leaders have taken steps to increase the country's foreign-trade capacity eve n if foreign aid mig ht have benefts as well as drawback

7.

Tradtonally, textbooks on British govemment and behaviour-.

politics

.:.:ha:;:;:.;.ve;;::;.....~;;;;u=ed= on instltutions and

PRESENT FORM

A) B) C) D)

whether it is appropriate to deseribe the Bri h Constitution as uncodified rather than unwritten in case political institutions an issues are inseparable and need to be discussed together just as a brief analysis of the leading types of government found in the modern world was left out because one had to explore in detail the impact of Thatcherism upon British politics E) whi_ le ignoring the controversies and issues which are the fundamentals of politics

A. whether noun ciause gelmesi gerekirdil

yaps

ncesinde

fil

B. in case cmlesi precautlon (nlem)

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oun/isim (ardndan relative ciause gelir!)


A) because the oon has been studied extensively by spacecraft and has been sampled directly at a few locatio n B) whi have major implications for the collisional history of planetary bodies C) whereby the various planetary and asteroital bodies in the solar system contain a specifc isotopic label D) so that each meteorite isa smail sample of a much larger parent body, probably an unidentifed asteroid E) while measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority of NASA's Genesis mission

A)

ayn u! (alter= shift= deitirmek) but assessment of any shift in this respect requires genetic data sampled over time

B) even though, for most species, environmental conditions have some impact on breeding C) despite the fact that recent analyses clearly show the magnitude and direction of genetic shifts in various populations D) which, according to the evidence available, is geographically widespread from North Africa to Scandinavia E) so long as one can observe the genetic impact that environmental differences have on living beings B. ve C. seeneklerinde yer alan ztlk bildiren cmleleri soru cmlesi ile ztlk bildirmiyorl
bala

D.

cOmlesi konuaunctan

bir

A) Since the go ernments are concerned B) Because sev re measures had been taken zne uyum teknii!(though, although,
C) Though is rising sharply D) If one were to admit it E) Before reliable statistical data can be obtained

even though)

1!

A) a forced la ng could have been avoided B) even a s all sensor can detect a wide range of chemicals C) harml s fumes had been caused by a smail leak of oil zne uyumu teknii!(though) D) is guaranteed to alarm the pilot E) such a delector can easily be ftted into an aircraft

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YDS iFRELERi

A) va ous o B) C) D) E)

r options had been taken into consideration

zne uyumu

teknii!(because)

~ are not primarily focused on achieving a product or achieving a goal group demands begin to grow steadily many alternative approaches also had to be tested the acquisition of social skills is a positive asset

there

ls too mu h mineral accumulation in the compost, - .


'too' cmleye olumsuz anlam ykler!
tayor!)

If ciause type zero


A) roots
B) C) D) E)

negative---:1

burnt and plants de (lmek negative bir anlam

some plants need less fertilizer than others the flowering season was greatly reduced most plants grow far more quickly in wet areas the growing conditions also need to be considered

t the reasons for introducing the new-design dollar bills were the persistant reports of high quality
circulati in the Middle East.

A) Following a US Seeret Se e probe the US Federal Reserve has wondered B) Enormous quantities of dollar b re held in reserve in the US and overseas C) All of them are old allegation s made the US Federal Reserve D) The US government's currency policy has E)

+ whether

n sharply criticized + whether lt has been claimed, but never confirmed by the us Federal Reserve,

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l1s.

The United Nations officially recognr-d the greenhouse effect in

1995,-.
1

tense uyumu! (PAST)


A) B) C) D) E)

time (with 'when')

its International Panel on Climate noted that human activity had a discernible influence on global temperatures as the economies of developing nations will grow over the next few decades if developing nations were exempted from the Kyoto Agreement since the US government announced that it would not participate in Kyoto Agreement that the participating nations must make large and costly changes in their energy systems

when

A. when zaman baiac ile iki tarafta ayn tense yaps kural grlmektediri B. cmlenin tense yaps present olup soru cmlesinin tense ile zaman uyumu gstermemektedlrl

A) as tlons could severely impair the brain's B) whic provided early evidence of the blood-brain bar er

functioni~

ayn konu! tense uyu ost other substances are kept out C) but

u!

(PRESENT)

D) that controls which molecules in the bloodstream can enter the brain E) just as no other organ is equally efficient

l1r.

Africa Reportisa wee1<1y TV

pr,ramme -.
relafve ciause gelir!)

noun/isim (ardndan A) unless it showcases the very best in Africa

B) that focuses on business and investment in Africa (ardndan fiil gelen; noun ciause olan 'that') C) though it covers everything from economic reform to rewarding investment opportunities D) so it has 250 million viewers in Africa alone E) as it is brought to you by the world 's leading business channel

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153

YDS iFRELERi
rnroaman

li

are critlcizlng the patent oflice for delaylng its decision on some new

instruments -.
A) while the uidelines have been consistently ignored B) if applicati ns for patents on plants are on the increase C) before obj ctions were fled against patents on a herbicide resistant plant zne uyumu tekni ~ i! a n konu!
D)

si nce they believe that these are urgently needed to detect certain problems

E) as if the controversy had actually died down

as effective carriers and


'----, 1

which are more susceptible.

A)

zne uyumu teknii! (though Though many migratory bird re mmune to the effects of the avian tl u virus

B) Since many residents of outlying villages have refused to carry out the culling of their chickens to prevent the spread of avian tl u C) Despite the fact that the avian tl u virus is spread, primarily, by migratory birds D) As symptoms of bird tlu in humans are similar to those of comman flu E) If the spread of the avi an tl u virus through population s of wild birds remains unchecked

the basics of life, such as food and oxygen A) we depend upon nature to pro en thrown away B) many resources are used once an C) modern technical challenges are seldo et by scientists konu uyumu teknii!

(energy)

D) scientists and engineers must work to develop en rgy-efficient processes E) engineers must solve problems without even understanding the underlying theory

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TEST4

A) B) C) D)

the sche nobody so far thi the other

e certainly had very many drawbacks se is likely to complain is the best thesis to be submitted will already have been rejected

E)

If ciause type lll (with would have V 3 ) wouldn't have minded her criticism of the Project

2.

while such African languages as Hausa and Swahlli continued to serve the everyday needs of the

masses. umu!
Westem-educated elite, B) In colonial Africa, the teaching of English literatura is no langer popular C) Modern African writers have found it necessary to adapt certain aspects of English, D) Taday, English is the officiallanguage of sixteen countries in Africa, E) English as a second language has been taught in Africa for nearly four hundred years,
(S. PAST TENSE)

A) During the colonial era in Africa, English became the shared language of the administration and a

PRESENT

3.

but cannot be proved and S difficult to assess.

tense uyumu! (PRESENT) A) The influence of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language on the development of the
language has been widely assumed B) Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language played a role in propagating a standard spelling among the less literate C) Samuel Johnson was an enthusiastic reader of classical and English literatura from his earliest years D) lt took Samuel Johnson eight or nine years to complete work on his Dictionary of the English Language E) With his Dictionary of the English Language, Samuel Johnson provided a powerful but conservative model of language usage

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YDS iFRELERi

A) the powe" of o+pute". have expanded vat

~ to advanoed ""ea"h

B) countless technologes not envisioned yet wll be available to us C) a great deal of scientific effort is being made to fnd solutions to complex problems D) most
people in developed countries enjoy a state of true health throughout the ir lives E) o ur knowledge of the world araund us has improved to a great extent

Soruda yer alan before cmlesinin dier tarafnda yer alabilecek tense yaplar s. present ve will olup; bu tense yaplan sadece B. ve D.

5.

Smallpox was once a dreadecl human disease, - .

A) while gen tic engineering can be used in several ways to make vaccines B) although oday DNA technology is helping medical researchers develop vaccines C) even if a ifcial-mutant vaccines may cause fewer side effects than natural mutants tense uyumu! (PAST)
D) but it wa eradicated worldwide in the 1970s by widespread vaccination E) since there has been no effective drug treatment for many viral diseases

6.

Neanderthals were a recent evolutionary human

relative - . relative ciause gelir)

. - - - - - - - - - noun/isim
A)
B) C) D) E)
7.

(ardndan

who lived in Europe and became extinct 30,000-40,000 years ago


as researchers studying human origins debated this question for decades which are muscular and robust, with a brain similar to ours in size while the relationship between humans and Neanderthals may best be deseribed as sister species despite the fact that they had hands as nimble as those of present-day humans, with a thumb and fngers

The Welsh language has changecl SO

little through the centuries - .

A) whose annual Eis

od celebration honours its best poets and writers

B) read the Welsh of the Middle Ages C) as more and more English families settle in Wales, bringing their habits with them D) although Wales recently formed its own national assembly E) unless it embodies the kind, unambitious nature of the Welsh people

S ... .. that kural! that an educated Welshman can stili

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8.

ch an extent -.
A) as a new constitution transferre er from the king to Parliament B) so that it could no lo ntinue as a great power C)

Suc at ku ral ! that the country was forced to surrender part of its territory to Russia

D) in that nearly one million Swedes migrated, mostly to America E) even though the Swedes had contributed to Europe's Age of Enlightenment with advances in science

9.

Road and rail connections in ltaly are generally better in

the north, -.

A) because between the snowy peaks of the Alps and the rugge shores of Sicily lies a whole series of regions, each with its distinctive culture B) but there are many other attractive historic towns and cities C) but people speak of two ltalies: the rich industrial North and the p orer agricultural South D) just as the government has allocated extra fundsfor road repairs E) where Milan , Bologna and Verona are the key transport centre
1

place (yer) sonrasnda c ause yaps 'where' gelir!

10. There

is

fuel of c

a general agreement among car manufacturing companies that,-, hydrogen is likely to be the ice.

A) if sulphur missions had been checked PRESENT TENSE B) C) D) E) when oil ru n out as it could have been stored as a gas as if no mechanical energy was required unless there were giant fuel cells

to the network,
e:.~:tmasnda

'where' ciause

yap s

gelir!

A) B) C) D) E)

W ere it can be managed more easily if computers could communicate more easily with one anather that his improvements actually caught the eye of the Pentagon though it became the most widely used operating system of its day which would have been the greatest challenge of his career

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157

YDS iFRELERi

!12. Salmon farms are prohibited n Alaeka - . A) unless salmon actually ~oes protect against cancer
B)

because

fishermen

ltense uyumu! 1 konu uyumu! blame the farms for undercutting their price

C) si nce farmed salmon used to be fattier than wild salmon D) but thty say salmon farms are bad for the environment E) once thl industry begins to attack some of the problems

Who? ('they' zamiri niteleyicisi soru cmlesinde verilmiyor!)


13.

The Sermuda Triangle,


boats and aircraft. A) B) C) D)

-.is noteel for a high ineidence of unexplained losses of ships, smail

that n entire squadron of planes vanished shortly after takeoff as lo al environmental conditions could be the cause since the sea here is particularly fast maving when there is an almost unique magnetic effect on compasses

E)

noun/isim (ardndan relative ciause gelir!) which is off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the US

14. The stereotype otwoman as the more emotiona sex is the

o -.
relative ciause gelir!) who

r-----------------------------~--

noun/isim

(ardndan

A) B) C) D) E)

that stili persists taday that = as emotions are so unpredictable but it had been encouraged by the Stoics until overruled by 20th century psychology which a mo re sophisticated mode of thinking will have denied

15. -who

wil

A) There seems to be a g c predisposition B) A cure is nowhere in sight predict' fiilinin ardnda en C) Neither doctors nor scientists can accurately D) They confuse the real and the imaginary E) Treatment of the disorder is improving

cmlede will gelir!

('predict, hope, think, suppose, investigate, assume' fiilierinin gelen cmleye 'will' gelir!)

ardndan

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18. In general, whencredit demand is 1
A) it is not sensible to take out loans ring deflation B) following the wrong guideline could ave been catastrophic C) interest rates measure the cost of cr dit, not the price of money

ortak konu!
D) interest rates are correspondingly low E) precautionary savings were rising at this time

117. _.

r mimster-"'
the

comment on the-'

noun ciause (ncesinde 'the reason' gelir!)


A) Nobody else put the manager himself was allawed to speak B) The journalist was of the opinion C) The members of the subcommittee were warned D) That must be the reason E) Several suggestions had been made

at engineers do not re$trict.thernsetves.to .technical matters.


noun ciause (ncesinde fiil gelir!)
A) B) C) D) E) The engineering curriculum has long reguired Many potentialleaders were of the opinion The courses involved substantial reading and writing assignments The aim was to attract a wider audience He acquired a sophisticated knowledge of scientific and technical matters

A) The wrong person got blamed B) After all, she committed an error, not a erime C) Others were also involved in the affair D) A lot of people

have forgiven

!!!!
teknii! (PRESENT TENSE)

tense uyumu+ konu uyumu


E) She was wrongly accused

tense uyumu!
A) her apolog i B) C) D) E) are obviously worthless

(PAST)

she b ed us to apologize for her manners 1have ignored her excuses she's stili too proud to admit she did something wrong it seems to Iate for her apologies

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

ENGLISH -TURKISH TRANSLATION TESTS


TEST 1
1. Despite the rapid industrialization of countries such as China and lndia, climate change is neither any one country's fault nor any one country's responsibility.
A) in ve Hindistan ' n hzl sanayilemesi nedeniyle oluan iklim deiiklii, kesinlikle baka bir lkenin suu veya sorumluluu
deildir.

3.

Deprived of the moderating effects of the oceans, much of Central Asia experiences bitterly cold winters and boiling hot summers.
A) Orta Asya oun l ukla okyanuslarn etkilerinden uzak olduu iin, burada klar ok souk ve yazlar olduka scak olur. B) Orta Asya, okyanuslarn yumuatc etkilerinden uzak olduu iin, pek ok blgede k lar olduka sert ve yazlar da son derece scak geer. C) Orta Asya ' nn pek ok blgesinde klarn ok sert ve yazlarn ok scak gemesi, okyanuslarn yumuatc etkilerinin burada
yumuatc
bulunmamasndandr. Okyanuslarn yumuatc

lkelerin hzl iklim deiiklii , ne herhangi tek bir lkenin hatasdr, ne de herhangi tek bir lkenin sorumluluudur. C) in ve Hindistan dahil, pek ok lkenin hzla sanayilemesi sonucu ortaya kan iklim deiikl i i , herhangi bir lkenin suu olmad gibi , sorumluluu da deildir. D) Tek bir lkenin suu veya sorumluluu olmayan iklim deiiklii , in ve Hindistan dahil, pek ok lkenin hzla sanayilemesi sonucunda ortaya kmtr. E) in ve H i ndistan ' n yan sra , eitli lkelerin h zla sanayilemes i, iklim deiikliine yol am olup, tek bir lke sulu veya sorumlu B) in ve Hindistan gibi
sanayilemelerine ramen , deildir.

D)

olan Orta
souk
yaar .

Asya ' nn

klar

etkilerinden yoksun byk blm , ok sert ve son derece scak yazlar

E) Orta Asya , okyanuslarn yumuatc etkilerinden tamamyla yoksundur ve dolaysyla bu blgede klar olabildiince souk, yazlar ise dayanlmaz derecede scak geer.

2.

America's conventional military superiority has pushed its enemies inevitably towards insurgency to achieve their objectives.
A)
Amerika ' nn kan lmaz

4.

klasik

askeri

stnl ,

There are stili places in the world where one can go to dive and see very little indication of human impact.
A) Hala
dnyann yaplabilir

iin , olarak ayaklanmaya itmitir. B) Klasik askeri gc nedeniyle, Amerika ' nn dmanlar , hedeflerine ulaabilmek iin, hi ekinmeden ayaklanma yolunu semilerd i r. C) Amerika ' nn klasik askeri gcn bilen dmanlar , amalarnda baarl olmak iin, ister istemez ayaklanma yoluna gitmilerdir . D) Amerika'nn klasik askeri stnlnn sonucu olarak, dmanlar, ayaklanma yoluna amalarna ulamay giderek,
benimsemilerdir.

dmanlarn , amalarn gerekletirmek

pek ok yerinde dal ve insan etkisinin ok az belirtisi

E)

Amerika ' nn dman lar ,

klasik askeri gcnden ekinen ancak ayaklanma yoluyla hedeflerine ulaabileceklerini fark etmilerdir.

grlebilir. B) Dnyada hala yle yerler vardr ki dal yapmak iin buralara gidilebilir ve buralarda insan etkisinin ok az belirtisi grlebilir. C) Dal yapmak iin gidilebilecek ve insan etkisinin ok az grlebilecei yerleri dnyada hala bulmak mmkndr. D) Dnyada, insan etkisinin ok az olduu ve dal yapmak iin gidilebilecek hala pek ok yer bulunmaktadr. E) Dnyada, dal yapmak iin gidilebilecek ve insan etkisinin ok az belirtisi grlebilecek yerler hala mevcuttur.

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YDS iFRELERi
5. The Democratic Republic of Congo's government set up a special commission last week to review at least 60 mining contracts signed in the last ten years.
A) Son on yl iinde imzalanm olan 60 kadar madencilik szlemesi , Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmetinin geen hafta oluturmu olduu zel bir komisyonca incelenecektir. B) Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmetince geen hafta kurulan zel komisyon, ncelikle son on yl iinde imzalanm olan 60 kadar madencilik szlemesini inceleyecektir. C) Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmeti, son on ylda imzalanm olan en az 60 madencilik szlemesini gzden geirmek iin, geen hafta zel bir komisyon kurmutur. D) Son on ylda imzalanm olan yaklak 60 madencilik szlemesinin gzden geirilmesi amacyla, Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmeti, zel bir komisyonu geen hafta
oluturmutur .

7.

New Zealand was the first country in the world to give women in 1893 the right to vote.
A) 1893'te dnyada kadnlara ilk seme hakk verilen lke Yeni Zelanda ' dr . B) Dnyada kadnlara 1893'te ilk seme hakkn veren lke Yeni Zelanda olmutur. C) Yeni Zelanda, dnyada, kadnlara 1893'te seme hakk veren ilk lkeydi. D) Dnyada kadnlara ilk seme hakk , 1893'te Yeni Zelanda'da verilmitir. E) Kadnlara 1893'te seme hakk verilen dnyadaki ilk lke, Yeni Zelanda idi.

8.

The issue under debate today is whether, for all its flaws, capitalism is the best economic system man has yet invented.
A) Bir sr en iyi
aksaklklarna ramen ,

insanolunun

kapital izmin, bugne kadar ortaya koyduu iktisadi sistem olup olmad

tartlmaktadr .

B) Bugn icat

E) Geen hafta Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmetince kurulan zel komisyonun amac , son on ylda imzalanm bulunan 60 kadar madencilik szlemesini deerlendirmektir.

ramen,

konu , tm kusurlarna kapitalizmin , insann imdiye kadar ettii en iyi iktisadi sistem olup
tartlan

olmaddr.

C) Eksiklikleri de olsa, insanln bugn ortaya koyduu en iyi iktisadi sistemin, kapitalizm olup olmad hala tartlmaktadr. D) Insann imdiye kadar yaratt en iyi iktisadi sistem olan kapitalizmin kusurlar , bugn tartma konusudur. E) Insanln bugne kadar yaratt en iyi iktisadi sistem olmasna ramen , kapitalizmin aksaklklar gnmzde tartlmaktadr.

6.

Undernutrition, a deficiency of essential nutrients, can result from inadequate intake because of poor diet or poor absorption from the intestine.
A) Temel besin eksiklii olan yetersiz beslenme , az beslenmeden veya barsaktaki az emilimden dolay yeterli gda alnmamasndan kaynaklanabilir. B) Az beslenme veya barsaktaki az emilim sonucu temel besinierin yeterli alnamamas nedeniyle, beslenme yetersizlii oluur. C) Temel besin eksiklii olarak . anlalan beslenme yetersizlii , az beslenme veya barsakta az emilim sonucu ortaya
kmaktadr.

9.

The West needs to keep talking to Russia about many things, notably about efforts to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons.
A) iran'n nkleer silahlar retmesini engelleme giriimleri, Bat'nn Rusya ile konumak zorunda olduu pek ok konunun iinde zellik tamaktadr . B) Bat ' nn Rusya ile konumak zorunda olduu pek ok konu iinde zellikle iran'n nkleer silahlar elde etmesini engelleme giriimleri
bulunmaktadr.

C)

D) Az beslenme veya barsaktaki az emilim nedeniyle yeterli gda alnamamas, temel besinierin eksikliine ve yetersiz beslenmeye yol amaktadr. E) Temel besinierin eksikliine bal olarak oluan beslenme yetersizliinin kayna , az beslenme veya barsaktan az emilim
olmasdr .

Bat ' nn, Rusya ile pek ok konu zerinde, zellikle Iran ' n nkleer silahlar edinmesini engelleme abalar zerinde konumay srdrmesi gerekmektedir. D) Bat, iran'n nkleer silahlar edinmesini engelleme abalar dahil, pek ok konuyu zellikle Rusya ile tartmak zorundadr . E) Bat, iran ' n nkleer silahlar retmesini engellemek iin yapaca giriimleri, Rusya ile konuaca pek ok konu ile birlikte ele almak
zorundadr.

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10. The European Union can help underdeveloped countries, especially those in Africa, by offering financial aid, more open trade arrangements and easier visa conditions. A) Avrupa
Birlii'nin, zellikle Afrika'daki az lkelere yardm edebilmek iin, mali yardm, daha ak ticaret kolaylklar ve daha uygun vize koullar sunmas gerekir. Avrupa Birlii , az gelimi lkelere, zellikle Afrika'dakilere, mali yardm, daha ak ticaret dzenlemeleri ve daha kolay vize koullar sunarak yardm edebilir. Az gelimi lkelere mali yardm, daha ak ticaret olanaklar ve daha rahat vize kolaylklar sunan Avrupa Birlii, zellikle Afrika'daki lkelere yardm edebilir. Avrupa Birlii'nin, az gelimi ve zellikle Afrika'daki lkelere yardm edebilmesi iin, mali yardm ve daha ak ticaret koullarnn yan sra, daha uygun vize kolaylklar da sunmas gerekir. Avrupa Birlii ' nin az gelimi lkelere ve zellikle Afrika lkelerine yapaca yardmlar, mali yardm, daha ak ticaret koullar ve daha uygun vize kolaylklar olabilir.
gelimi

12. In February 1994, the US lifted its trade embargo on Vietnam, which had been in place since it entered the war. A) ABD, savaa girdiinden beri Vietnam zerinde uygulad ticaret ablukasn ancak ubat 1994' te kaldrabilmitir. B) ABD'nin ubat 1994'te Vietnam zerinden kaldrd ticaret ablukas , savaa girdii yldan beri uygulanmaktayd. C) 1994 ubat'nda Vietnam zerinden kaldrlan ticaret ablukasn, ABD, savaa girdikten sonra uygulamaya balamt. D) ABD, ubat 1994'te, savaa girdiinden beri Vietnam zerinde uygulam olduu ticaret
ablukasn kaldrmtr.

B)

C)

E)

D)

ubat 1994'te Vietnam zerinden kaldrlan ticaret ablukas , ABD'nin savaa girmesinden beri uygulanyordu.

E)

11. In 1979, when its alliance with Great Britain ended, Malta sought to guarantee its neutrality through agreements with other countries. A) Malta, Ingiltere ile ittifaknn sona erdii 1979'da, baka lkelerle antlamalar yaparak tarafszln gvence altna almaya
almtr.

13. In Egypt, a number of oil deposits have been discovered in recent years, but it is unlikely that oil will play a major role in the country's economy in the near future. A) Son birok petrol yataklar ancak petroln, yakn gelecekte lke ekonomisinde nemli bir rol oynamas muhtemel deildir. B) Msr'da son yllarda birtakm petrol havzalar bulunmu olsa da petroln, lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte oynayaca rol ok nemli olmayacaktr. C) Son yllarda Msr' da, lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte nemli rol aynamas muhtemel olan pek ok petrol havzas
kefedilmitir,
kefedilmitir. yllarda Msr'da

B) Malta, 1979'da Ingiltere ile ittifakna son vererek, tarafszln gvence altna almak iin birok lke ile antlamalar yapmtr . C) Tarafszln gvence altna almak amacyla eitli lkelerle antlamalar yapan Malta, ingiltere ile olan ittifakna 1979'da son verdi. D) Ingiltere ile olan ittifak 1979'da sona eren Malta, baka lkelerle antlamalar yapm ve tarafszln gvence altna almtr . E) eitli lkelerle antlamalar yaparak tarafszln gvence altna alan Malta, Ingiltere ile olan ittifakn 1979'da bitirmitir.

D) Son

yataklarnn,

petrol Msr'da kefedilen lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte nemli bir rol aynamas ihtimal ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte nemli bir rol aynamas muhtemel olmayan yataklar son yllarda ortaya petrol
karlmtr. dndadr. Msr'da, lke

yllarda

E)

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14. Albania remained under Turkish rule for more than tour hundred years until it proclaimed its independence on 28 November 1912. 16. People spend energy when they are physically active, but they also spend energy when they are resting quietly.

A) Arnavutluk, drt yz yl Trk ynetiminde kaldktan sonra. 28 Kasm 1912'de


bamszlna kavumutur .

A) Insanlar, bedensel olarak etkin olduklarnda

enerji
B)

harcarlar.

ama

sakin

bir

ekilde

B) Drt yz yldan daha fazla Trk ynetiminde kalm olan Arnavutluk, bamszln 28 Kasm 1912'de elde etmitir . C) Bamszlna 28 Kasm 1912'de kavuan Arnavutluk, drt yz yl akn bir sre Trk ynetiminde kalmtr. D) Arnavutluk, her ne kadar bamszln 28 Kasm 1912'de elde etmise de, drt yz yldan fazla bir sre Trk ynetiminde
kalmtr .

C)

D)

E)

E) Arnavutluk, 28 Kasm 1912'de bamszln ilan edinceye kadar, drt yz yldan fazla Trk ynetiminde kalmtr.

dinlenirlerken de enerji harcarlar. Insanlarn bedensel olarak etkin olmas, onlarn enerji harcamalarna yol aar; ancak, hi hareket etmediklerinde de enerji harcarlar. Bedensel olarak etkin olduklarnda ene~i harcayan insanlar, sakin olduklarnda da enerji harcarlar. Insanlar, bedensel etkinlikte bulunurlarsa enerji harcamas olur, ama hi hareket etmezlerse de enerji harcamas olur. Bedensel etkinlikte bulunan insanlar enerji harcarlar; ancak, bu insanlarn enerjileri dinlendiklerinde de harcanr.

15. The lungs are particularly prone to allergic reactions because they are exposed to large quantities of airborne antigens, including dusts, pollens, and chemicals.

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

toz, polen ve kimyasallar dahil havadan gelen eitli antijenlere fazlasyla ak olduklar iin alerjik reaksiyonlardan ok etkilenirler. Toz, polen ve kimyasallar gibi hava ile gelen pek ok antijene ak olan akcierler, ale~ i k reaksiyonlara olduka yatkndrlar. Alerjik reaksiyonlara fazlasyla yatkn olan akcierler , hava ile tanan toz, polen ve kimyasallarn da arasnda bulunduu ok sayda antijene aktrlar. Akcierler ale~ik reaksiyonlara zellikle yatkndr, nk toz, polen ve kimyasallar dahil hava ile tanan byk miktardaki antijenlere aktrlar. Toz, polen ve kimyasallar gibi hava ile tanan pek ok antijen, daima bunlara ak olan akcierlerde alerjik reaksiyonlara yol aar.
Akcierler ,

17. Many people believe that an ulcer is caused by stress or spicy foods, but this is not the cas e.

A) Stresin veya baharatl yiyeceklerin lsere neden olduu ou insann kansdr, fakat bu hi de doru deildir. B) Birok insan, lserin olumasnda stresin veya baharatl gdalarn etkili olduuna inansa da, gerek durum byle deildir. C) ok sayda insann inancna gre, stres veya baharatl gdalar sklkla lsere yol amaktadr , ancak durum yle deildir. D) Pek ok insan, lserin, stres veya baharatl g dalar nedeniyle olutuuna inanr, ancak durum byle deildir . E) lserin zellikle stresin veya baharatl yiyeceklerin sonucu olarak ortaya ktna birok insan inanmaktadr, ancak iin gerei bu deildir.

166

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18. In addition to traffic fatalities, aleohal use has been implicated in many other deaths among young people, including drownings, falls, suicides, and homicides.
A) Genler arasnda alkol kullanm. trafik lmlerinden baka, boulmalar, dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler gibi dier lm trlerinin de nedeni olmutur. B) Genler arasndaki alkol kullanm, trafik lmlerinin yan sra, boulmalar, dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler gibi dier pek ok eit lme yol aabilmektedir. C) Alkol kullanm, genler arasnda, trafik lmlerine ek olarak, boulmalar , dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler dahil dier birok lmn nedeni olmutur. D) Trafik lmlerinden ayr olarak, boulmalar, dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler, alkol kullanm nedeniyle genler arasnda yaygn olan dier lm biimleridir. E) Alkol kullanm nedeniyle, trafik lmlerinden ayr olarak, genler arasnda yaygn olan dier lm biimleri, boulmalar, dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetlerdir.

20. The purpose of this training is to accustom the soldiers of the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces to working in a dangerous but largely civilian environment.
A) Bu eitimle. Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerinin tehlikeli fakat ounlukla sivil bir evrede alma ve grev yapmalar
amalanmaktadr.

B)

Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerini tehlikeli ancak sivil bir evrede grev yapmaya altrmak bu eitimin asl amacn
oluturmaktadr.

C) Bu eitimin amac, tehlikeli ancak ounlukla sivil bir evrede, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerinin grevlerini yerine getirmelerini salamaktr. D) Bu eitimin amac, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerini, tehlikeli fakat ounlukla sivil bir evrede almaya altrmaktr. E) Bu eitimle amalanan, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerinin son derece tehlikeli ancak ounlukla sivil bir evrede grev iin
almalarn salamaktr.

19. We are proud to be part of a programme that gives these often overlooked but extremely talented athletes long-overdue recognition.
A) Son derece yetenekli olsalar da bugne kadar ihmal edilmi olan bu atietiere hak ettikleri katlmaktan bizim de kvan itibar, duyduumuz bu programla salanmaktadr. B) Bizim de gururla dahil olduumuz program, bugne kadar unutulmu, ancak stn yeteneklere sahip tm bu atetiere hak ettikleri
itibar salamaktadr.

C) Biz hepimiz, ou kez nemsenmemi, ancak stn yetenekleri olan tm bu atietiere hak ettikleri itibar salayan bir programda yer almaktan son derece kvanlyz . D) Iinde yer almaktan son derece kvan duyduumuz bu programla, bugne kadar nemsenmeyen, ancak yetenekleri en stn olan bu atietiere hak ettikleri itibar
salanmaktadr.

E) Biz, ou kez nem verilmemi, ancak son derece yetenekli bu atetiere oktan hak ettikleri itibar salayan bir programn paras olmaktan gurur duyuyoruz.

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YDS iFRELERi

TEST2
1. More than half of the work force walked out yasterday after the company announced it would close the plant to save millions of dollars. A) I gcnn yarsndan fazlas dn i yerini terk edince, irket, milyonlarca dolar tasarruf etmek amacyla fabrikay kapatabileceini belirtti. B) Milyonlarca dolar kurtarmak iin, irket ,
fabrikay kapatacan aklaynca , i

3.

In the 1970s in Britain, it seemed that union power had grown to the point where union leaders were amongst the most influential political figures in the country. A) 1970'1i yllarda Ingiltere'de sendika gucu, sendika liderlerinin lkede en etkili siyasal kiilermi gibi grnmesine yol aacak bir noktaya gelmiti. B) 1970'1erin Ingiltere'sinde sendika gc o kadar artmt ki sendika liderleri lkenin en etkili siyasal kiileri gibi alglanyordu. C) 1970'1i yllarda lngiltere'de, sendika liderlerinin lkedeki en etkili siyasal kiilermi gibi grnmesinin nedeni, sendika gcnn ar bir noktaya gelmi olmasyd. D) Sendika gc 1970'1er ingiltere'sinde yle bir noktaya gelmiti ki sendika !iderleri, lkenin en etkili siyasal kiilerinden saylyordu. E) 1970'1erde Ingiltere'de sendika gc, sendika liderlerinin lkede en etkili siyasal kiiler arasnda olma noktasna ulam gibi grnyordu.

etti. C) iin, fabrikay kapatacan bildirmesi zerine, i gcnn yarya yakn dn ii brakp gitti. D) irket , milyonlarca dolar tasarruf etmek iin, fabrikay kapatacan ilan ettikten sonra , i gcnn yarsndan fazlas dn i brakt. E) Dn i gcnn yarsna yakn i brakt iin, irket , fabrikay kapatacan ve bylelikle milyonlarca dolar tasarruf edecein i
aklad.

gcnn

yaklak yars dn i yerini terk irketin , milyonlarca dolar kurtarmak

4.

During World War ll many Britons believed that Churchill was clearly the man to lead the country to fnal victory, but few expected him to go on after the war. A) ll. Dnya lkeyi kesin zafere birinin Churchill olduuna inanan birok Ingiliz, onun savatan sonra da liderliini srdreceini
ulatracak kiilerden dnyordu . Sava ' nda

2.

Pressure groups are informal political institutions which, just like parties, seek to influence the decision-making process. A)
Bask gruplar , karar alma srecini , tpk partiler gibi etkilemek iin aba gsteren gayri resmi siyasal kurululardr . Gayri resmi siyasal kurulular olan bask gruplar tpk partiler gibi karar alma srecini etkilerneyi amalarlar. Karar alma srecini etkileme amacn gden eitli bask gruplar, gayri resmi siyasal kurulular olup partilere benzemektedir. Partilere ok benzeyen bask gruplar, gayri resmi siyasal kurululardr ve karar alma srecini etkilerneye alrlar . Tpk partiler gibi bask gruplar da karar alma srecini etkileyen gayri resmi siyasal
kurululardr .

B)

C)

D)

E)

ou, Churchill'in, ll. Dnya lkeyi nihai zafere ulatracak kii olduuna inanmsa da birka onun savatan sonra grevini srdreceini sanyordu . C) ll. Dnya Sava srasnda pek ok Ingiliz, Churchill'in kesinlikle lkeyi nihai zafere gtrecek kii olduuna inanyor, ancak ok az onun savatan sonra devam etmesini umuyordu. D) ll. Dnya Sava boyunca ou Ingiliz, lkeyi kesin zafere ulatracak tek kii olan Churchill'in, sava sonrasnda da grevini srdreceini umuyordu. E) Churchill'in ll. Dnya Sava srasnda lkeyi mutlak zafere ulatracak adam olduuna kesinlikle inanan pek ok Ingilizce karn sadece birka Ingiliz onun sava sonrasnda da devam etmesini bekliyordu.

B) Ingilizierin

Sava ' nda

168

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5. A new approach that is being tested in the treatment of cancer is the possibility of mobilizing the immune system to attack tumor cells.
A) Kanser tedavisinde denenmekte olan yeni bir yaklam, tmr hcrelerine saldrmas iin bakl k sistemini harekete geirme
olasldr . Baklk sistemini harekete geirerek tmr hcrelerini yok etmek, kanser tedavisinde uygulamaya konulan yeni bir yaklamdr. C) Tmr hcrelerini yok edebilmek n baklk sisteminin etkisini artrmak, kanser tedavisinde zerinde durulan yeni bir

7.

lt is time to recall that the European Union was founded on the basis of human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law, including the right to a fair trial .
A) Bir kez daha anmsanma l dr ki Avrupa Birlii ' nin temeli , insan haklarna , temel zgrlklere ve adil yarglanma hakkn da ieren hukukun s-tnlne daya l dr. B) Her zaman anmsanmaldr ki Avrupa Birlii ' nin dayand temel, insan haklar, temel zgrlkler, hukukun stnl ve buna bal adil yarglanma hakkdr. C) Insan haklar , temel zgrlkler, hukukun stnl ve bunun bir paras olan adil yarglanma hakknn, Avrupa Birlii ' nin temelini oluturduu hususu her zaman
anmsanmaldr.

B)

yaklamdr.

D) Kanser tedavisinde ortaya konan yeni bir yaklama gre, tmr hcreleri ile mcadele etmek iin baklk sistemini tmden etkili klmak gerekir. E) Kanser tedavisinde zerinde durulan yeni bir yaklam, baklk sisteminin etkisinden yararlanarak tmr hcrelerini yok edebilmektir.

D) Avrupa Birlii ' nin, insan haklar , temel zgrlkler ve , adil yarglanma hakk dahil , s-tnl temel i zerine hukukun
kurulduunu anmsamann zamandr .

E) Avrupa Birlii ' nin temelinde , insan haklar, temel zgrlkler, adil yarglanma hakk ve hukukun stnlnn olduunu anmsamann tam zamandr .

6.

More than any other factor in human history, culture has made homo sapiens a unique force in the history of life on Earth.
A) Insanlk tarihindeki dier etkenlerden herhangi biri kadar etkili olan kltr, homo sapiens'i yeryzndeki yaam tarihinin tek gcne dntr mtr. B) Kltr, insanlk tarihindeki baka herhangi bir etkenden daha fazla, homo sapiens'i, yeryzndeki yaam tarihinde emsalsiz bir g yapmtr. C) Yeryzndeki yaam tarihinin esiz bir gc olan homo sapiens'in insanlk tarihinde baka bir et kenden daha ok nem kazanmas , kltr ile mmkn olmutur. D) insanlk tarihinde herhangi bir etkenden daha nemli olan kltr vastasyla , homo sapiens, yeryzndeki yaam tarihindeki tek g
olmu-tur.

8.

Do you think there is anywhere in the world where the left remains a vibrant and progressive force?
A) Solun, dnyann herhangi bir yerinde varl n srdren dinamik ve ilerici bir g olduunu mu dnyorsunuz? B) Dinamik ve ilerici bir g olarak solun , dnyadaki herhangi bir yerde hala varln srdrdn m san yorsunuz? C) Sanyer musunuz ki bir zamanlarn dinamik ve ilerici gc olan sol, dnyann herhangi bir yerin-de varln srdrmektedir? D) Solun, eskisi gibi dinamik ve ilerici bir g olarak dnyann herhangi bir yerinde varln srdr-dn m sanyorsunuz? E) Dnyada, solun dinamik ve ilerici bir g olarak varln srdrd herhangi bir yer olduunu dnyor musunuz?

E) insanlk tarihinde baka etkenierin yan sra kltr olmasayd, homo sapiens yeryzndeki yaam tarihinin emsalsiz gc olamazd .

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YDS iFRELERi
9. Temples were the most important public buildings in ancient Greece, because religion was a central part of daily life. A) Eski Yunan'da tapnaklar en nemli kamu binalaryd ; nk din , gnlk yaamn temel bir parasyd. B) Din gnlk yaamn temel ini oluturduu iin, tapnaklar eski Yunan'da en nemli kamu binalar olarak kabul ediliyordu. C) Eski Yunan'da gnlk yaamn byk lde di-ne dayanmas , tapnaklarn neden en nemli kamu binalar olduunu aklyor . D) Eski Yunan'da dinin gnlk yaamn temel bir paras olmas , tapnaklar kamu binalarnn en nemlisi haline getirmiti . E) Eski Yunan 'da, en nemli kamu binalar olan tapnaklarda srdrlen dini faaliyetler gnlk yaamn en temel parasyd. 11. A person's health history may reveal a disease that interferes with the body's use of nutrients or that affects the person's eating habits. A) Kiinin salk yks , yemek yemesini engelleyen veya bedeninin besinlerden yararlanma srecini etkileyen bir hastal
aa karmada kullanlabilir.

B)

yks , bedenin besinlerden engelleyen veya kiinin yemek yeme alkanlklarn etkileyen bir hastal
yararlanmasn
aa karabilir .

Kiinin

salk

C) Insann yemek yemesini engelleyen veya bedenin besinlerden yararlanma srecini hastalklar , kiinin salk etkileyen yksnden yararlanlarak ortaya karlabilir. D) Bir kiin i n salk yksnden , hem onun yemek yeme alkanlklarn etkileyen hem de yararlanmasn bedenin besinlerden engelleyen hastalklar kolaylkla anlalab i lir. E) Bedenin besinlerden yararlanma srecini etkileyen veya kiinin yemek yemesn engelleyen hastalklarn ou , kiinin salk yksnden anlalmaktadr.

12. As we learn from the works of many biologists in the past, since sponges did not move from one place to another, they were thought to be plants. A) 1O. In the last century, mu ch attention was given to the language of literature and the question of whether the re was in fa ct a separate literary language. A) Geen yzylda , edebiyat dili ok ilgi ekmi ve gerekte apayr bir edebi dil olup olmad soru-su zerinde nemle durulmutur. B) Geen yzylda , edebiyat dili ok ilgi ekmi ve apayr bir edebi dil olup olmad sorusu hep tartlmtr. C) Geen yzylda , edebiyat diline ve gerekte ayr bir edebi dil olup olmad sorusuna ok ilgi gsterilmitir . D) Edebiyat dilinin ne olduu ve apayr bir edebi dilin gerekten var olup olmad sorusu , geen yzylda ok ilgi ekmitir. E) Edebiyat dili geen yzylda ok tartlmtr ve gerekte ayr bir edebi dilin olup olmad sorusu ele alnmtr.
Gemiteki pek ok biyoloun , eserlerinde, sngerlerden bitki olarak sz etmesinin nedeni, bu canllarn bir yerden bir yere hareket etmemesidir. B) Gemiteki biyologlarn eserlerinden rendiimiz kadaryla, sngerler bir yerden bir yere hareket etmemeleri dolaysyla bitkilerle ayn grupta ele alnyordu. C) Gem i teki pek ok biyoloun eserlerinden rendiimiz kadaryla , sngerler bir yerden bir yere hareket etmedii iin onlarn bitki

bir yerden bir yere hareket etmedikleri iin bitki olarak kabul edildii halde, pek ok biyolog bu gre eserlerinde yer vermemitir . E) Sngerler, bir yerden bir yere hareket gemite bitki olarak etmedikleri n , snflanyordu ; fakat birok biyolog, yanl olduunu eserlerinde bunun belirtmektedir.

D)

olduu sanlyordu . Gemite, sngerler,

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13. Overrun by the Austro-German armies in World War 1, Poland declared its independence on November 11, 1918, and on June 20, 1919, was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty of Versailles. A) 1. Avusturya-Alman ordular tarafndan igal edilmi olan Polonya, bamszln 11 Kasm 1918'de ilan etmi olsa da bamsz bir devlet olarak tannmas , 20 Haziran 1919'da imzalanan Versailles
ordularnca

15. When the Sirkeci train station went into service on November 3, 1890, the waiting room was heated with stoves brought from Austria and lit by coal-gas lamps. A) 3 Kasm 1890'da hizmete giren Sirkeci tren gaz lambalaryla istasyonunun hava aydnlatlan bekleme salonu, ou Avusturya'dan ithal edilen sobalarla
stlyordu.

Dnya

Sava'nda

Antiamas'yla gereklemitir .

B) Avusturya-Alman
Sava'nda

1. Dnya olan Polonya, 11 Kasm 1918'de bamszln ilan etmitir; ancak bir devlet olarak bamszl Versailles Antiamas ' yla 20 Haziran 1919'da
igal edilmi kesinlemitir.

C) Polonya, 1. Dnya Sava'nda AvusturyaAlman ordularnn igaline urasa da 11 Kasm 1918'de bamszln ilan etmi ve bir devlet olarak bamszl, 20 Haziran Antiamas ' yla Versailles 1919'da
kesinlemitir.

D)

Avusturya-Alman Polonya, Versailles Antiamas ' na gre, bamszln 11 Kasm 1918'de ilan etmi ve 20 Haziran 1919'da da bamsz bir devlet olarak
ordularnn igaline urayan
tannmtr.

Dnya

Sava srasnda

B) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasm 1890'da girdiinde, bekleme salonu hizmete Avusturya'dan getirtilen sobalarla stlyor ve hava gaz lambalaryla aydnlatlyordu . C) 3 Kasm 1890'da, bekleme salonu hava gaz lambalaryla aydnlatlan ve Avusturya 'dan ithal edilen sobalarla stlan Sirkeci tren istasyonu hizmete girdi . D) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasm 1890'da hizmete girdiinde , hava gaz lambalaryla aydnlatlan bekleme salonunu stmak iin Avusturya'dan soba ithal edilmit i. E) Sirkeci tren istasyonunun Avusturya sobalaryla stlan ve hava gaz lambalaryla aydnlatlan bekleme salonu, 3 Kasm 1890'da hizmete girmiti.

E) Avusturya-Alman
Sava'nda

1. Dnya olan Polonya, 11 Kasm 1918'de bamszln ilan etmi ve Versailles Antamas ' yla 20 Haziran 1919'da bams z bir devlet olarak tannmtr.
igal edilmi

ordularnca

14. James Joyce, whom Samuel Beckett knew in Paris in the 1920s, had a great impact on Beckett's thinking regarding the art of writing. A) Samuel
tand

16. Last fall, Tony Blair announced that he would serve a full five-year term if the Labour Party won. A) Geen sonbaharda, Tony Blair, ii Partisi kazand takdirde, be yl tam dnem hizmet edeceini ilan etti. B) Tony Blair, eer Ii Partisi kazanrsa, be yl daha hizmet edeceini geen sonbaharda
aklam t.

B)

C)

D)

E)

Beckett' in 1920'1erde Paris'te James Joyce' un, Beckett' in yazma sanatyla ilgili dnceleri zerinde byk bir etkisi oldu. James Joyce' un yazma sanat konusundaki dncelerinden ok etkilenen Samuel Beckett, onu 1920'1erde Paris'te tanmt. Samuel Beckett 1920'1erde James Joyce' la Paris'te tantktan sonra, yazma sanat konusundaki dnceleri bir lde deiti. James Joyce 1920'1erde Paris'te tand Samuel Beckett' in yazma sanat konusundaki dncelerini byk lde etkiledi. 1920'1erde Paris'te yaayan Samuel Beckett' in yazma sanat konusundaki dnceleri James Joyce sayesinde tamamyla deiti.

C) Geen sonbaharda ii Partisi'nin kazanmas zerine, Tony Blair grevini be yl daha srdreceini ifade etti. D) Tony Blair, ii Partisi'nin kazanmasnn kendisine be yl tam dnem hizmet olana salayaca yolundaki aklamasn geen sonbaharda yapt. E) Geen sonbaharda Tony Blair, eer ii Partisi kazanrsa, bir be yl daha hizmet etmek istediini syledi.

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YDS iFRELERi
17. Minority representatives in any political establishment must be made to feel that their interests are sufficiently protected. 19. Germany's far-right National Democratic Party upset the other parties by winning nearly 10 per cent of the votes in the economically depressed state of Saxony last year.

A) Herhangi

bir

siyasal
karlarnn

kuruluta,

aznlk

temsilcileri,
korunduunu

tam

olarak

B) C) D)

E)

hissetmelidirler. Herhangi bir siyasal kurulutaki aznlk temsilcilerine, karlarnn yeterince korunduu hissettirilmelidir. Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluun aznlk temsilcileri, karlarnn olabildiince korunduunu hissedebilmelidirler. Aznlk temsilcileri , bir siyasal kurulutaki karlarnn tamamen korunduunu hissetmelidirler. Bir siyasal kurulu, aznlk temsilcilerine, karlarnn tamamen korunduunu hissettirmelidir.

A) Almanya ' nn ar sa Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, geen yl , ekonomik olarak geri kalm Saksonya eyaletinde, oylarn hemen hemen yzde onunu kazanarak dier partilerin cann s kt. B) Geen yl , daha byk ekonomik skntlar iinde olan Saksonya eyaletinde, oylarn yzde onunu alan ar sa Ulusal Demokratik dier partileri Partisi, Almanya'daki
telalandrmtr.

C)

Almanya ' nn

ar sa Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, geen yl , ekonomik skntlar iinde olan Saksonya eyaletinde oylarn aa yukar yzde onunu kazanm ve dier partilerin
ounu skntya sokmutur.

D) Almanya'daki dier partilerin cann skan ar sa Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, geen yl , ekonomik durgunluk iinde olan Saksonya eyalatindeki oylarn yzde onunu kazanmtr . E) Almanya ' nn ar sa Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, geen yl , ekonomik sknt iindeki Saksonya eyalatindeki oylarn yzde onunu alnca, dier partiler telaa kaplmtr.

20. The European Union is engaged in a variety of programmes all around the world to promote and protect the rights of children, particularly in countries where children are affected by war.

18. The Pentagon has estimated that about 25 per cent of the military facilities in the country are unnecessary.

A) Pentagon'a gre, lke iinde bulunan askeri tesislerin yzde 25'i gereksizdir. B) Pentagon. lke iindeki askeri tesislerin hemen hemen yzde 25'ine gereksinim
duymadn belirtmitir.

C) Pentagon'un hesaplarna gre, lkedeki askeri tesislerin yzde 25'ine hi gereksinim yoktur. D) Pentagon , lkedeki askeri tesislerin yaklak yzde 25'inin gereksiz olduunu
hesaplamtr.

E) lkedeki askeri tesislerin aa yukar yzde 25'ine gereksinim olmad konusunda Pentagon kararldr.

A) Tm dnyada zellikle savaan lkelerdeki ocuklar iin ocuk haklarn desteklemek ve korumak iin Avrupa Birlii birok programa izin veriyor. B) Avrupa Birlii dnyada savaan lkelerin ocuklarnn haklarn desteklemek ve korumak iin eitli programlar destekliyor. C) Avrupa Birlii tm dnyada, zellikle ocuklarn savatan etkilendii lkelerde, ocuk haklarn desteklemek ve korumak iin eitli programlarla ilgileniyor. D) Avrupa Birlii zellikle savatan etkilenen lkelerin ocuklarn desteklemek ve korumak iin tm dnyada eitli programlar dzenliyor. E) zellikle ocuklarn savatan etkilendii lkelerdeki ocuk haklarn destekleyen ve koruyan Avrupa Birlii tm dnyada eitli programlarla ilgilidir.

172

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

ENGLISH- TURKISH TRANSLATION CEVAP ANAHTARI


TEST 1
1. B 2. A

TEST2
1. D

3.D
4.E 5. C 6. A 7.C

2.A 3. E

4. C
5.A

6.B 7.D

S. B
9.C

S. E
9.A

10.B
11. A

10.C
11. B

12.D
13. A 14.E 15. D 16. A 17. D

12.C
13.E 14. A 15. B 16. A 17. B

18.C
19.E

18.D
19. A

20.D

20.C

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

173

YDS iFRELERi

ENGLISH TURKISH TRANSLATION TEKNiKLERi


VERiLEN BU TEKNiKLERi SORU ZMLEMESiNDE SIRASI iLE TAKiP EDiLMELiDiR! 1. BAGLA UYUMU TEKNiGi!
CU MLE BAlNDA YA DA ORT ASINDA YER ALAN BAGLA SEENEKLERDE CU MLE ORTASINDA ARANIR. BAGLA UYUMU ARANIRKEN; CMLE BAlNDA YER ALAN BAGLA SEENEKLERDE NCELiKLiDiR CMLE ORTASINDA YER ALAN TEKNiKTEN NCE ARANMALlDlR. ARA BAGLALAR iLK TEKNiK OLARAK DEGiL; 4.

2. TANIMLAMA TEKNiGi!
CUMLE BAlNDA BAGLA YER ALMADIGINDA BU TEKNIK UYGULANlR. CUMLENIN ZNESiNDE RELATIVE CLAUSE(WHO,WHICH, .. ) YA DA NOUN CLAUSE (WHAT,WHERE, .. ) TANIMLAMA BiLGiSi BULUNUYOR iSE; RELATIVE PRONOUNS (WHO,WHICH,THAT, .. ) SIFAT ZAMIRLERI SONRASINDA YA DA iSiM CMLECiKLERiNDE YER ALAN BiLGi SEENEKTE CMLE BAlNDA ZNEDEN NCE ARANIR.

ZNE UYUMU TEKNiGi!


CUMLE
BAlNDA

BAGLA YA DA OZNEDE RELATIVE CLAUSE YER ALMADIGINDA; CUMLE

BAlNDAKi ZNE ZAMAN + YER + ZNE SIRLAMASI STNLGNDE SEENEKTE CMLE


BAlNDA

ARAN IR.

CMLELERiN ZNELERi BiREBiR AYNI OLMAK KAYDI iLE YER VE ZAMAN CMLE BAINA GELMELiDiR. YER VE ZAMAN CMLE BAINA GELDiGiNDE iKi CMLENiN ZNELERi FARKLILIK GSTERiYOR iSE; EViRiDE NCE ZNE SONRA YER VE ZAMAN GELMELiDiR. CMLEDE HEM YER HEM DE ZAMAN VAR iSE; EViRiDE NCE ZAMAN SONRA YER SIRALAMASI YAPlLMALlDlR.

4. FiiL UYUMU TEKNiGi!


UYGULANAN BU TEKNIKLERE RAGMEN SEENEKLER ARASINDA
ELIKIYE

DLDGNDE; SORU CMLESi iLE SEENEKLER ARASINDA FiiL UYUMU ARANIR.

174

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

ENGLISH -TURKISH TRANSLATION TEKNiKLERi


TEST 1
1. DESP the rapid industrialization of countries such as China and lndia, climate change is ne one country's fault nor any one country's responsibility. A) in ve Hindistan'n hzl san esi nedeniyle oluan iklim kesinlikle baka bir lkenin suu veya soru - deildir.
deiiklii,

B) in ve Flindistan gibi lkelerin hzl sanayilemelerine RAGMEN. iklim deiiklii, ne herhangi tek bir lkenin hatasdr, ne de herhangi tek bir lkenin sorumluluudu~r ~ - ----~------------------------------------~ C) in ve Hindistan dahil, pek ok lkenin hzla sanayilemesi sonucu ortaya kan iklim deiiklii, herhangi bir lkenin suu olmad gibi, sorumluluu da deildir. D) Tek bir lkenin suu veya sorumluluu olmayan iklim deiiklii, in ve Hindistan dahil, pek ok lkenin hzla sanayilemesi sonucunda ortaya
kmtr .

E) in ve

Hindistan ' n

yan

deiikliine

yol

am

sra, eitli lkelerin hzla sanayilemesi, iklim olup, tek bir lke sulu veya sorumlu deild i r.

2. AMERI 'S CONVENTIONAL MILITARY SUPERIORITY has pushed its enemies inevitably towar s to achieve their objectives.

B) Klasik askeri gc nedeniyle, Amerika ' nn dmanlar, hedeflerine ulaabilmek iin, hi ekinmeden ayaklanma yolunu semilerdir. C) Amerika ' nn klasik askeri gcn bilen dmanlar, amalarnda baarl olmak iin, ister istemez ayaklanma yoluna gitmilerdir. D) Amerika ' nn klasik askeri stnlnn sonucu olarak, dmanlar, ayaklanma yoluna giderek, amalarna ulamay benimsemilerdir. E) Amerika'nn klasik askeri gcnden ekinen dmanlar , ancak ayaklanma yoluyla hedeflerine ulaabileceklerini fark etmilerdir.

3. DEPRIVED OF THE MODERATING EF.FECTS OF THE OCEANS MUCH OF


CENTRAL ASlA experiences bitterly col winters and boiling hot summers. A) Orta Asya ounlukla okyanuslarn burada klar ok souk ve yazlar old B) Orta Asya, okyanuslarn yumuatc blgede klar olduka sert ve yazlar C) Orta Asya' nn pek ok blgesinde gemesi, okyanuslarn yumuatc etk
umuatc etkilerinden uzak olduu iin, ka scak olur. etkilerinden uzak olduu iin, pek ok a son derece scak geer. klarn ok sert ve yazlarn ok scak erinin burada bulunmamasndandr.

E) Orta Asya,
dolaysyla

okyanuslarn

yumuatc

bu blgede derecede scak geer.

klar

olabildiince

etkilerinden tamamiyle yoksundur ve souk, yazlar ise dayanlmaz

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

175

YDS iFRELERi 4. There are stili places in the world WHER ONE CAN GO TO DIVE AND SEE VERY LITTLE INDICATION OF HUMAN IM ACT. A) Hala dnyan n pek ok yerinde dal ya grlebilir. B) Dnyada hala yle yerler vardr ki da buralarda insan etkisinin ok az belirtisi C) Dal yapmak iin gidilebilecek ve insa dnyada hala bulmak mmkndr. D) Dnyada, insan etkisinin ok az olduu pek ok yer bulunmaktadr.
labilir

ve insan etkisinin ok az belirtisi

yapmak iin buralara gidilebilir ve rlebilir. etkisinin ok az gr l eb i lecei yerleri e


dal

yapmak iin gidilebilecek hala


SININO~

E}Onyada, DALl YAPMAK IIN Gi LEB LECEK VE INSAN AZ BELIRTISI GRLEBILECEK yerler hala mevcuttur.

5. THE DEMOCRATIC REP.UBLIC OF CONGO'S GOVERNMENT set up a special commission last week to review at least 60 mining contracts signed in the last ten years . A) Son on yl iinde imz !anm olan 60 kadar madencilik szlemesi, Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti kmetinin geen hafta oluturmu olduu zel bir komisyonca incelene ktir. B) komisyon , ncelikle on on szlemes i n i inceleye ektir.
yl imzalanm

iinde

hkmetince geen hafta kurulan zel olan 60 kadar madencilik

C) DEMOKRATIK KONGO ClJMHORIYETI HKOMET' , son on ylda imzalanm olan en az 60 madencilik szlemesini gzden geirmek iin, geen hafta ze bir komi~on kurmu tur. D) Son on ylda imzalanm olan yaklak 60 madencilik szlemesinin gzden geirilmesi amacyla, Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmeti, zel bir komisyonu geen hafta oluturmutur . E) Geen hafta Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti hkmetince kurulan zel komisyonun amac , son on ylda imzalanm bulunan 60 kadar madencilik
szlemesini deerlendirmektir.

6. Undernutrition, a deficiency of essential nutrients, CAN RESUL T from inadequate intake because of poor diet or poor absor om the intestine.

iru~ffli"RR~SIZ BESLENME, az oeslenmecten veya


dolay

yeterli

gda

alnmamasndan

B) Az beslenme veya barsaktaki az emilim sonucu temel besinierin yeterli alnamamas nedeniyle, beslenme yetersizlii oluur. C) Temel besin eksiklii olarak anlalan beslenme yetersizlii , az beslenme veya ba rsakta azemilim sonucu ortaya kmaktadr . D) Az beslenme veya barsaktaki az emilim nedeniyle yeterli gda alnamamas, temel besinierin eksikliine ve yetersiz beslenmeye yol amaktadr. E) Temel besinierin eksikliine bal olarak oluan beslenme yetersizliinin kayna , az beslenme veya barsaktan azemilim olmasdr.

176

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

7. NEW Z ALAND was the


to vote .

frst

country in the world to give women in 1893 the right

A) 189 'te dnyada kadnlara ilk seme hakk verilen lke Yeni Zelanda'dr . B) Dn ada kadnlara 1893' te ilk seme hakkn veren lke Yeni Zelanda olm tur.

D) Dnyada kadnlara ilk seme hakk, 1893' te Yeni Zelanda'da verilmitir . E) Kadnlara 1893' te seme hakk verilen dnyadaki ilk lke, Yeni Zelanda idi.

8. The issue under debate TODAY is whether, for all its flaws , capitalism is the best
economic system man ha et invented.

A) Bir sr aksakl
koyduu

arna ramen, kapitalizmin, insanolunun bugne kadar ortaya e iktisadi sistem olup olmad tartlmaktadr .

C) Eksiklikleri de olsa, insanln bugn ortaya koyduu en iyi iktisadi sistemin, kapitalizm olup olmad hala tartlmaktadr. D) Insann imdiye kadar yaratt en iyi iktisadi sistem olan kapitalizmin kusurlar, bugn tartma konusudur. E) insanln bugne kadar yaratt en iyi iktisadi sistem olmasna ramen , kapitalizmin aksaklklar gnmzde tartlmaktadr.

9. The West NEEDS TO keep talking to Russia about many things, notably about
efforts to preve t Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons.
A) Iran ' n nkl konumak z B) Bat ' nn Ru Iran ' n nkl

er silahlar retmesini engelleme giriimleri , Bat ' nn Rusya ile runda olduu pek ok konunun iinde zellik TAlMAKTADlR. ya ile konumak zorunda olduu pek ok konu iinde zellikle r silahlar elde etmesini engelleme giriimleri 8UlUNMAKTADIR.

C) Bat'nn, R sya ile pek ok konu zerinde, zellikle Iran'n nkleer silahlar: abalar zerinde konumay srdrmesi edinmesini engelleme GEREKMEKTEDIR.

D) Bat, iran ' n nkleer silahlar edinmesini engelleme abalar dahil, pek ok konuyu zellikle Rusya ile tartmak ZORUNDADlR. E) Bat, Iran'n nkleer silahlar retmesini engellemek iin yapaca giriimleri, Rusya ile konuaca pek ok konu ile birlikte ele almak ZORUNDADlR.

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

177

YDS iFRELERi 10. The European Union CAN ELP underdeveloped countries, especially those in Africa, by offering fnancial aid, re open trade arrangements and easier visa conditions. A) Avrupa Birlii' nin, zellikle Afrika'daki az ge lkelere yardm edebilmek iin, mali yardm , daha ak ticaret kolaylklar ve a uygun vize koullar sunmas gerekir. B) Avrupa Birlii, az gelimi lkelere, zellikle Afrika'dakilere, mali ya ak ticaret dzenlemeleri ve daha kolay vize koullar sunarak EDEBILIR. C) Az lkelere mali yardm, daha ak ticaret olanaklar ve daha rahat vize sunan Avrupa Birlii, zellikle Afrika'daki lkelere yardm edebilir. D) Avrupa Birlii' nin, az gelimi ve zellikle Afrika 'daki lkelere yardm edebilmesi iin, mali yardm ve daha ak ticaret koullarnn yan sra, daha uygun vize kolaylklar da sunmas gerekir. E) Avrupa Birlii' nin az gelimi lkelere ve zellikle Afrika lkelerine yapaca yardmlar, mali yardm, daha ak ticaret koullar ve daha uygun vize kolaylklar olabilir.
kolaylklar
gelimi

11.1n 1979, when its alliance with Great Britainended, Malta SOUGHT TO GUARANTEE its neutrality through agreements with other countries . sona 1979'da, lkelerle A) Malta, Y-a(!arak tar f zl!l! GVENCE ALTINA ALMAYA CALISMISTIR.

ln~ifaknn

erdii

baka

antlamalar

B) Malta, 1979'da ingiltere ile ittifakna son vererek, tarafszln gvence altna almak iin birok lke ile ANTlAMAbAR YAPMlTlR. C) gvence altna almak amacyla eitli lkelerle antlamalar yapan Malta, Ingiltere ile olan ittifakna 1979'da son verdi. D) Ingiltere ile olan ittifak 1979'da sona eren Malta, baka lkelerle antlamalar yapm ve tarafszln gvence altna almtr. E) eitli lkelerle antlamalar yaparak tarafszln gvence altna alan Malta, ingiltere ile olan ittifakn 1979'da bitirmitir.
Tarafszln

12.1N FE RUARY 1994, The US lifted its trade embargo on Vietnam, which had been in plac since it entered the war. A) ABD , savaa girdiinden beri Vietnam zerinde uygulad ticaret ablukasn ancak bat 1994' te kaldrabilmitir . B) ABD'nin ubat 1994' te Vietnam zerinden kaldrd ticaret ablukas, savaa girdii yl n beri uygulanmaktayd. C) 1994 uba ' nda Vietnam zerinden kaldrlan ticaret ablukasn , ABD, savaa girdikten son a uygulamaya balamt. D) ABD,
oldu

UBAT

ae

1994' TE, savaa girdiinaan beri Vietnam zerinde bluka kal r. _ _ _ __


kaldrlan

uygulam

E)

ubat 1994' te Vietnam zerinden girmesinden beri uygulanyordu.

ticaret

ablukas ,

ABD'nin

savaa

178

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


13.1N EGYPT, a number of oil deposits have been discovered in RECENT YEARS, !!.__ unlikel that oil will play a major role in the country's economy in the near future. A) SON YILLARDA MISIR'DA birok petrol yataklar kefedilmitir, AK! petroln, yakn gelecekte lke ekonomisinde nemli bir rol aynamas muhtemel
deildir.

B) MISIR'DA SON YILLARDA birtakm petrol havzalar bulunmu OLSA DA petroln, lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte oynayaca rol ok nemli
olmayacaktr.

C) SON YILLARDA MlSlR'DA, lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte nemli rol oynamas muhtemel olan pek ok petrol havzas kefedilmitir. D) Son yllarda Msr' da kefedilen petrol yataklarnn, lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte nemli bir rol oynamas ihtimal dndadr . E) Msr'da, lke ekonomisinde yakn gelecekte nemli bir rol oynamas muhtemel olmayan petrol yataklar son yllarda ortaya karlmtr.

14. Albania remained under Turkish rule for more than tour hundred years UNTIL it proclaimed its independence on 28 November 1912. A) Arnavutluk, drt yz yl Trk ynetiminde KALDIKTAN SONRA, 28 1912'de bamszlna kavumutur. daha fazla Trk ynetiminde kalm olan 28 Kasm 1912'de elde etmitir. C) Bamszlna 28 Kasm 1912'de kavuan Arnavutluk, drt yz sre Trk ynetiminde kalmtr. B) Drt yz
bamszln

Kasm

yldan

D) Arnavutluk, her ne kadar bamszln 28 Kasm 1912'de &bO&:-e:fM~t& DE, drt yz yldan fazla bir sre Trk ynetiminde kalmtr.

15. The lungs are particularly prone to allergic reactions BECAUS they are exposed to large quantities of airborne antigens, including dusts, pollens, and chemicals . A)
Akcierler,

fazlasyla ak olduklar

toz, polen ve kimyasallar dahil havadan gel eitli antijenlere IIN alerjik reaksiyonlardan ok etkil nirler.

B) Toz, polen ve kimyasallar gibi hava ile gelen pek ok antijene ak olan akcierler, alerjik reaksiyonlara olduka yatkndrlar. C) Alerjik reaksiyonlara fazlasyla yatkn olan akcierler, hava il tanan toz, polen ve kimyasallarn da arasnda bulunduu ok sayda antijene ktrlar. D) Akciener alerjik reaksiyonlara zellikle yatkndr, CONKO toz, polen ve kim asallar dahil hava ile tanan byk miktardaki antijenlere aktrtar. E) Toz, polen ve kimyasallar gibi hava ile tanan pek ok antijen, daima bunlara ak olan akcierlerde alerjik reaksiyonlara yol aar.

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179

YDS iFRELERi
16. People SPEND energy when they are physically active, but they also spend energy uietly. when they are re Insanlar, bedensel olarak olduklarnda kilde dinlenirlerkan de ene 'i HAR LAR.
ene~i

harcarlar, ama sakin bir.

B) Insanlarn bedensel olarak etkin olmas , onlarn enerji harcamalarna yol aar; ancak, hi hareket etmediklerinde de enerji harcarlar. C) Bedensel olarak etkin olduklarnda ene~i harcayan insanlar, sakin olduklarnda da enerji harcarlar. D) insanlar, bedensel etkinlikte bulunurlarsa enerji harcamas olur, ama hi hareket etmezlerse de enerji MARCAMASI OblJR. E) Bedensel etkinlikte bulunan insanlar enerji harcarlar; ancak, bu enerjileri dinlendiklerinde de harcanr.
insanlarn

17. MANY EOPLE believe that an ulcer is caused by stress or spicy foods, but this is not the ase. A) Stre in veya baharatl yiyeceklerin lsere neden faka bu hi de doru deildir.
olduu ou insann kansdr ,

lflf~~ iNSAN, lserin olumasnda stresin veya baharatl gdalarn etkili

una inansa da, gerek durum byle


ayda insann inancna ktadr ,

deildir. baharatl gdalar sklkla

gre, stres veya ancak durum yle deildir.

lsere yol

D) PEK COK INSAN. lserin, stres veya baharatl gdalar nedeniyle olutuuna inanr, ancak durum b e d~,-" ild ""i,r.'-------.., E) lserin zellikle stresin veya baharatl yiyeceklerin sonucu olarak ortaya ktna birok insan inanmaktadr, ancak iin gerei bu deildir.

18. IN ADDITION TO traffic fatalities , alcohol use has been implicated in many other deaths amo oung people, including drownings, falls, suicides, and homicides. A) Genler
kullanm , trafik lmlerinden baka , boulmalar, intiharlar ve cina r gibi dier lm trlerinin de nedeni olmutur. B) Genler arasndaki alkol kullan trafik lmlerinin yan sra, boulmalar , dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler g dier pek ok eit lme yol aabilmektedir. arasnda

dmeler,

C) Alkol kullanimi, genler arasnda, trafik lmlerine EK O.:ARAK, bOulmalar, dO meler intiharlar ve cina~etler dahil di r bi[Qk lmn nedeni olmu= tu"'"' r.___ D) Trafik lmlerinden ayr olarak, boulmalar , dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler, alkol kullanm nedeniyle genler arasnda yaygn olan dier lm biimleridir. E) Alkol kullanm nedeniyle, trafik lmlerinden ayr olarak, genler arasnda yaygn olan dier lm biimleri , boulmalar, dmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetlerdir.

180

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKlERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


19. WE are proud to be part of a programme that gives these often overlooked but e remely talented athletes long-overdue recognition . Son derece yetenekli olsalar da bugne kadar ihmal edilmi olan bu atietiere hak ettikleri itibar, katlmaktan bizim de kvan duyduumuz bu programla
salanmaktadr .

Bizim de gururla dahil olduumuz program, bugne kadar unutulmu , ancak '" stn yeteneklere sahip tm bu atietiere hak ettikleri itibar salamaktadr. iz hepimiz, ou kez nemsenmemi, ancak stn yetenekleri olan tm bu tletlere hak ettikleri itibar salayan bir programda yer almaktan son derece
vanlyz .

D) 1 inde yer almaktan son derece kvan duyduumuz bu programla, bugne k dar nemsenmeyen, ancak yetenekleri en stn olan bu atetiere hak ettikleri iti ar salanmaktadr.

20. The purpose of this training IS TO ACCUS OM the soldiers of the United
Nations Peacekeeping Forces to working in environment. dangerous but largely civilian

A) Bu eitimle, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc as rlerinin tehlikeli fakat ounlukla sivil bir evrede alma ve grev yapmalar a alanmaktadr. B) Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerini tehli eli ancak sivil bir evrede grev yapmaya altrmak bu eitimin asl amacn ol turmaktadr.

C) Bu eitimin amaci, tehlikeli ancak ounl kla sivil bir evrede, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerinin g evlerini yerine getirmelerini SAGbAMAKTIR.

D) Bu

eitimin amaci, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerini, Qunlukla sivil bir ~vrede ~lma~a ALISTIRMAKTIR.

tehlikeli fakat

E) Bu eitimle amalanan, Birlemi Milletler Bar Gc askerlerinin son derece tehlikeli ancak ounlukla sivil bir evrede grev iin almalarn salamaktr .

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

181

YDS iFRELERi

TEST2
1. More than half of the work force walked out yesterday AFTER the company announced it would close the plant to save millions of dallar .

A) I gcnn yarsndan fazlas dn i yerini t edince, irket, milyonlarca dolar tasarruf etmek AMACIYlA fabrikay ka ileceini belirtti. B) Milyonlarca dolar kurtarmak iin, et, fabrikay kapatacan AIKlAYINCA, i gcnn yaklak yars d yerini terk etti. r kurtarmak iin, fabrikay kapatacan bildirmesi C) irketin, milyonlarca UZeRINe, i gc "" .. yarya yakn dn ii brakp gitti. D)
irl<et,

SONRA,

onlarca aolar tasarruf etmek: iin, fabrikay i gcnn ~arsndan fazlas dn i brakt.

kapatacan

ilan ettikten

E) Dn i gcnn yarsna yakn i brakt IIN, irket, fabrikay ve bylelikle milyonlarca dolar tasarruf edeceini aklad.

kapatacan

2.

B) Gayriresmi siyasal kurulular olan bask gruplar tpk partiler gibi karar alma srecini etkilerneyi amalarlar. C) Karar alma srecini etkileme amacn gden eitli bask gruplar, gayriresmi siyasal kurulular olup partilere benzemektedir. D) Partilere ok benzeyen bask gruplar , gayriresmi siyasal kurululardr ve karar alma srecini etkilerneye alrlar. E) Tpk partiler gibi bask gruplar da karar alma srecini etkileyen gayriresmi siyasal kurululardr.

3. In the 1970S in Britain, it SEEMED that union power had grown to the point where union leaders were amongst the m t influential political figures in the country.

A) 1970'1i yillarda ingiltere'de send a gc, sendika liderlerinin lkede en etkili siyasal kiilermi gibi grnmasine y aacak BIR NOKTAYA GelMITI. B) 1970'1erin ingiltere'sinde sendika g o kadar artmt ki sendika liderleri lkenin en etkili siyasal kiileri gibi Al.;bflbAJPfH'-\;;Jf'QI-l#. C) 1970'1i yillarda ingiltere'de, sendika lide rinin lkedeki en etkili siyasal kiilermi gibi grnmesinin nedeni, sendika cnn ar BIR NOKTAYA GElMI OlMASlYDI. D) Sendika gc 1970'1er Ingiltere'sinde yle bir n ktaya gelmiti ki sendika !iderleri, lkenin en etkili siyasal kiilerinden saylyor . E) etkili

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4. During World War ll MANY BRITONS believed that Churchill was clearly the man to lead the country to fina victory, but few expected him to go on after the war. A) II.Dnya
Sava ' nda

olduuna inanan birok 1


dnyordu .

lk yi kesin zafere ulatracak kiilerden birinin Churchill iliz, onun savatan sonra da liderliini srdreceini

B) Ingilizierin

ou ,

ulatracak kii olduuna srdreceini sanyordu .

Churchi 'in, ll. Dnya Sava ' nda lkeyi nihai zafere in msa da birka onun savatan sonra grevini

C) ll. Dnya Sava srasnda PEK COK iNGILiZ, Churchill'in kesinlikle lkeyi nihai zafere gtrecek kii olduuna inanyor, ancak ok az onun savatan sonra evam etm sini u u~ordu . D) ll. Dnya Sava boyunca oGu iNGiLiZ, lkeyi kesin zafere ulatracak tek k i i olan Churchill'in, sava sonrasnda da grevini srdrecein i umuyordu. E) Churchill'in ll. Dnya Sava srasnda lkeyi mutlak zafere ulatracak adam olduuna kesinlikle inanan pek ok ingilize karn sadece birka ingiliz onun sava sonrasnda da devam etmesini bekliyordu .

5.

Baklk sistemini harekete geirerek tmr hcrelerini yok etmek, kanser tedavisinde uygulamaya konulan yeni bir yaklamdr. C) Tmr hcrelerini yok edebilmek iin baklk sisteminin etkisini artrmak , kanser tedavisinde zerinde durulan yeni bir yaklamdr. D) Kanser tedavisinde ortaya konan yeni bir yaklama gre, tmr hcreleri ile mcadele etmek iin baklk sistemini tmden etkili klmak gerekir.

B)

E) KANSER TEDAVISINDE ZERINDE DURUbAN yeni bir yaklam , baklk sisteminin etkisinden yararlanarak tmr hcrelerini yok edebilmektir.

zne +
Bala
(Kyaslama)

6. MORE THAN any other factor in human history, culture has made homo sapiens a he history of life on Earth. A) insanlk tarihindeki dier e homo sapiens'i yeryzndeki den herhangi biri KADAR etkili olan kltr, tar

yaam

Uyumu
teknii!

more than = daha fazla

C) Yeryzndeki yaam tarihinin esiz bir gc olan homo sapiens'in insanlk tarihinde baka bir etkenden daha ok nem kazanmas , kltr ile mmkn
olmutur.

D) Insanlk tarihinde herhangi bir etkenden daha nemli olan kltr vastasyla , homo sapiens, yeryzndeki yaam tarihindeki tek g olmutur . E) Insanlk tarihinde baka etkenierin yan sra kl-tr olmasayd , homo sapiens yeryzndeki yaam tarihinin emsalsiz gc olamazd.

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7. IT IS TIME TO recall that the European Union was founded on the basis of human rights, undamental freedoms and the rule of law, including the right to a fair trial. A) Bir kez daha anmsanmaldr ki Avrupa Birlii'nin temeli, insan haklarna, temel z rlklere ve adil yarglanma hakkn da ieren hukukun s-tnlne

Bai a

Uyumu
teknii!

(Zaman
Balalar ayn)

da
B) He te C) ins adi za

aldr.

lt is time
Zamandr

zaman anmsanmaldr ki Avrupa Birlii'nin dayand temel , insan haklar, el zgrlkler, hukukun stnl ve buna bal adil yarglanma hakkdr. n haklar, temel zgrlkler, hukukun stn-l ve bunun bir paras olan yarglanma hakknn, Avrupa Birlii ' nin temelini oluturduu hususu her an anmsanmaldr.

D) Avrupa Birlii;ii'nin, insan haklar, temel zgrlk-ler ve, adil yarglanma hakk dahil, hukukun stnlj;j temeli zerine kurulduunu anmsama-nn

ZAMANlDlR.
E) Avrupa Birlii ' nin temelinde, insan haklar, temel zgrlkler, adil yarglanma hakk ve hukukun stnlnn olduunu anmsamann-+AM ZAMANlDlR.

8. DO YOU THIN K there is ANYWHERE in the world where the left remains a vibrant and progressive force? A) Solun, dnyann herh? :! bi!. yerinde varln srdren dinamik ve ilerici bir g eldYYRY my D UNUYORSUNUZ? B) Dinamik ve ilerici b' g olarak solun , dnyadaki herhangi bir yerde hala .. SANlYORSUNUZ? -

9. TEMPLES were the most important public buildings in ancient Greece, because religion central part of daily life.

B) Din gnlk yaamn temelini oluturduu iin, ta-pnaklar eski Yunan'da en nemli kamu binalar olarak kabul ediliyordu. C) Eski Yunan'da gnlk yaamn byk lde diline dayanmas,tapnaklarn neden en nemli kamu binalar olduunu aklyor. D) Eski Yunan'da dinin gnlk yaamn temel bir paras olmas , tapnaklar kamu binalarnn en nemlisi haline getirmiti. E) Eski Yunan'da, en nemli kamu binalar olan tapnaklarda srdr len dini faaliyetler gnlk yaamn en temel parasyd.

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


10.1n the last century, much attention WAS GIVEN to the language of literature and the question of whether the re was in tae a separate literary language. A) Geen yzylda, edebiyat dili ok gi ekmi ve gerekte apayr bir edebi dil olup olmad sorusu zerinde emle durulmutur. B) Geen yzylda, edebiyat dili k ilgi ekmi ve apayr bir edebi dil olup olmad sorusu hep tartl tr. C) Geen yzylda, edebiyat diline ve gerekte ayr bir eaebi dil olup olmaa o o 1 l GSTERILMI TIR. D) Edebiyat dilinin ne olduu ve apayr bir edebi dilin gerekten var olup sorusu, geen yzylda ok ilgi_EKMITIR. E) Edebiyat dili geen yzylda ok tartlmtr ve gerekte olup olmad sorusu ele alnm tr.
ayr
olmad

bir edebi dilin

11. A person's health history MAV REVEAL a disease that interferes with the body's use of nutrients or that affects e person's eating habits. A)
Kiinin salik

yararlanma

yks , yemek yemesini engelleyen veya bedeninin besinlerden srec etkileyen bir HASTALIGI AIGA lKARMADA

C) Insann yemek yemesini engelleyen veya bedenin besinlerden yararlanma srecini etkileyen hastalklar, kiinin salk yksnden yararlanlarak ortaya
karlabilir.

D) Bir kiinin salk yksnden, hem onun yemek yeme alkanlklarn etkileyen hem de bedenin besinlerden yararlanmasn engelleyen hastalklar kolaylkla
anlalabilir.

E) Bedenin besinlerden yararlanma srecini etkileyen veya engelleyen hastalklarn ou, kiinin salk yksnden

kiinin

yemek yemesini

anlalmaktadr.

12. As we learn from the works of MANY BIOLOGISTS in the past, since sponges did not move from one place to anoth r, they were thought to be plants. A)
Gemiteki pek ok biyol un, eserlerinde, sngerlerden bitki olarak sz etmesinin nedeni, bu cani i rn bir yerden bir yere hareket etmemesidir. Gemiteki!!!:~!::!:!~~~

B)

yerden bir
alnyordu.

eserlerinden rendiimiz kadaryla,sngerler bir hare et etmemeleri dolaysyla bitkilerle ayn grupta ele

C) Gemiteki K BIYOLOOUN eserlerinden rendiimiz kadaryla, sngerler bir yerden bir yere hareket etmedii iin onlarn bitki olduu sanly_ , o,r ., d, u". ------------------------'
Gemite, sngerler, bir yerden bir yere hareket etmedikleri iin bitki olarak kabul edildii halde, pek ok biyolog bu gre eserlerinde yer vermemitir. E) Sngerler, bir yerden bir yere hareket etmedikleri iin, gemite bitki olarak snflanyordu; fakat birok biyolog, eserlerinde bunun yanl olduunu belirtmektedir.

D)

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13. Overrun by the Austro-German armies in World War 1, Poland declared its independence on November 11 , 1918, AND on June 20, 1919, was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty of Ver illes. A) 1. Dnya
Sava'nda

Avusturya-Alman

rdular tarafndan igal edilmi

olan

Polanya,
olarak

bamszln

11

Kasm

1918'de an

etmi

olsa da

bamsz

bir devlet

tannmas,

20 Haziran 1919'da i

alanan Versailles

Antiamas'yla

gereklemitir.

B) Avustu a-Aiman ordularnca I.Dn a Sa olan Polonya, 11 Kasm 1918'de bamszln ila etmi tir ANCAK bir devlet olarak bamszl Versailles Antiamas ' yla 20 Ha iran 1919'da kesinlemitir.
C) Polonya, 1. Dnya Sava'nda Avusturya-Alman ordu rnn igaline urasa da 11 Kasm 1918'de bamszln ilan etmi ve bir devle olarak bamszl, 20 Haziran 1919'da Versailles Antiamas'yla kesinlemitir.

14.JAMES JOYCE, WHOM SAMUEL BECKETT KNEW IN PARIS IN THE 1920S, had a reat im act on Beckett's thinking regarding the art ofwriting.

B) James Joyce'un yazma sanat konusundaki dncelerinden ok etkilenen Samuel Beckett, onu 1920'1erde Paris'te tanmt. C) Samuel Beckett 1920'1erde James Joyce'la Paris'te tanlktan sonra, yazma sanat konusundaki dnceleri bir lde deiti. D) James Joyce 1920'1erde Paris'te tand Samuel Beckett'in yazma sanat konusundaki dncelerini byk lde etkiledi. E) 1920'1erde Paris'te yaayan Samuel Beckett'in yazma sanat konusundaki dnceleri James Joyce sayesinde tamamyla deiti.

15. When the Sirkeci train station went into service on November 3, 1890, THE WAITING ROOM was heated with stoves brought from Austria and lit by coal-gas lamps. A) 3 Kas 1890'da hizmete giren Sirkeci tren istasyonunun hava gaz lambalaryla aydnla lan bekleme salonu, ou Avusturya'dan ithal edilen sobalarla stlyo du . .B) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasm 1890'da hizmete girdiQinde, B LEME SALO U Avusturya'dan getirtilen sobalarla stlyor ve hava gaz lambalanyla a~dnlatl)l~ or .., d, u._ . _____ C) 3 Kasm 1890'da, bekleme salonu hava gaz lambalaryla aydnlatlan ve Avusturya'dan ithal edilen sobalarla stlan Sirkeci tren istasyonu hizmete girdi. D) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasm 1890'da hizmete girdiinde , hava gaz lambalaryla aydnlatlan bekleme salonunu stmak iin Avusturya'dan soba ithal edilmiti.
E) Sirkeci

tren

lambalaryla aydnlatlan

istasyonunun Avusturya sobalaryla stlan ve hava gaz bekleme salonu, 3 Kasm 1890'da hizmete girmiti.

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16. Last fall, Tony Blair ANNOUNCED that he would serve a full Labour Party won.
fve-year

term if the

A) Geen sonbaharda, Tony lair, Ii Partisi kazand takdirde, be yl tam in :!._ i :..ILA::c.N.:...=:.:..TT..:..:.I, . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __. dnem hizmet edece]!. B) Tony Blair, eer Ii Partisi kazanrsa, be yl daha hizmet edeceini geen sonbaharda aklamt. C)
yl

Geen sonbaharda Ii Partisi'nin kazanmas zerine, Tony Blair grevini be daha srdreceini ifade etti.

D) Tony Blair, Ii Partisi'nin kazanmasn n kendisine be yl tam dnem hizmet olana salayaca yolundaki aklamasn geen sonbaharda yapt. E) Geen sonbaharda Tol"!y Blai~, eer Ii Partisi kazanrsa , bir be yl daha hizmet etmek istediini SOYbliDI.

17. Minority representatives in any political establishment MU T BE MADE TO FEEL that their interests are sufficiently protected . A) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluta, hissetmelidirler.
aznlk

t
karlarnn

korunduunu

B) Harilangi bir siyasal kurulu aznlk temsilcilerine, korunduu HISSETTIRILMEt: DIR. C) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluun aznlk temsilcileri , korunduunu HISSI!Dii81bMiibiDIRLER. temsilcileri, bir siyasal kurulutaki hissetmelidirler. E) Bir siyasal kurulu , aznlk temsilcilerine, hissettirmelidir. D)
Aznlk

yeterince

karlarnn olabildiince

karlarnn karlarnn

tamamen tamamen

korunduunu korunduunu

18. The Pentagon HAS ESTIMATED that about 25 per cent of the military facilities in
the country are u necessary. A) Pentagon'a g re, lke iinde bulunan askeri tesislerin yzde 25'i gereksizdir. B) Pentagon, l e iindeki askeri tesislerin hemen hemen yzde 25'ine gereksinim duymadn C) Pentagon'un hesaplarna gre, lkedeki askeri tesislerin yzde 25'ine hi gereksinim y ktur. D) Pentagon, ei:iki askeri tesislerin HESAPLAMI TIR.
yaklak

yzde 25'inin gereksiz

olduunu

E) lkedeki askeri tesislerin aa yukar yzde 25'ine gereksinim olmad konusunda Pentagon kararldr.

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YDS iFRELERi
19. Germany's far-right national democratic party PSET the other parties by winning nearly 1O per cent of the votes in the e nomically depressed state of Saxony last year.

B) Geen yl, daha byk ekonomik skntlar iinde olan Saksonya eyaletinde, aylarn yzde onunu alan ar sa Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, Almanya'daki dier partileri telalandrmtr.

C) Almanya'nin airi sa ulusal demokratik partisi, geen yl, ekonomik skntlar iinde olan Saksonya eyaletinde aylarn aa yukar yzde onunu kazanm ve dier partilerin ounu SlKlNTlYA SOKMUTUR.
D) Almanya'daki dier partilerin cann skan ar sa Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, geen yl, ekonomik durgunluk iinde olan Saksonya eysietindeki aylarn yzde onunu kazanmtr. E) Almanya'nin airi sa ulusal demokratik partisi, geen yl, ekonomik sknt iindeki Saksonya eysietindeki aylarn yzde onunu alnca, dier partiler
TElAA !<APilMlTlR.

20. The European Union IS ENGAGED IN a variety of programmas all araund the
world to promote and protect t e rights of children, particularly in countries where children are affected by war. A) Tm dnyada zel!" le savaan lkelerdeki ocuklar iin ocuk haklarn desteklemek ve kor. mak iin Avrupa Birlii birok programa izin veriyor. B) Avrupa Birlii nyada savaan lkelerin ocuklarnn ve korumak i n eitli programlar DESTEKliYOR. C) Avrupa
rlii
haklarn

desteklemek

haklarn

tm dnyada, zellikle ocuklarn savatan etkilendii lkelerde, desteklemek ve korumak iin eitli programlarla

NIYOR. D) Avrupa Birlii zellikle savatan etkilenen lkelerin ocuklarn desteklemek ve korumak iin tm dnyada eitli programlar DZENliYOR. E) zellikle ocuklarn savatan etkilendii lkelerdeki ocuk haklarn destekleyen ve koruyan Avrupa Birlii tm dnyada eitli programlarla ilgilidir.

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

TURKISH- ENGLISH TRANSLATION TEST


TEST 1
1: Tm AB devletleri, Ekonomi ve Para Birlii'nin paras olmalarna ramen , AB lkelerinin tm, Avro blgesinin paras deildir. A) Since the Economic and Monetary Union consists of all the EU states, the inclusion in the euro area of every EU country is not out of place. B) Although all EU states are part of the Economic and Monetary Union, not all EU countries are part of the euro area. C) Even if EU states all make up the Economic and Monetary Union, the euro area does not include every EU country. D) Even though every EU country is not included in the euro area, the Economic and Monetary Union is made up of all the EU states. E) lt is unlikely that every EU country, which is part of the Economic and Monetary Union, will al so be part of the EU area.

3.

Mevcut kresel kriz nedeniyle uluslararas ticaretin kmesi, kalknma iktisatlarn, ticareti, bir byme motoru olarak grme konusunda kukulandrmtr. A) The fact that trade is an engine of growth has been dismissed by development economists, since the current global erisis has caused the collapse of international trade. B) The current global erisis has undermined international trade, and this has led development economists to scepticism about tradeasa means of growth . C) In view of the current global erisis and its adverse impact on international trade, many development economists have come to disregard trade as an engine of growth . D) Due to the current global erisis and the decline of international trade , development economists doubt whether trade can be regarded as an effective means of growth . E) The collapse of international trade due to the current global erisis has made development economists sceptical about regarding trade as an engine of growth .

2.

ou bilim insan, yllarca, gezegenimizdeki ekolojik sistemlerin dengesinin gerekten ne denli hassas olduunun nemini kavramamtr.

4.

Her

yabanc yazarn

byd

in'e bak lke ile biimlenir.

as,

iinde

A) For years, most scientists have underestimated just how delicate the balance of the ecological systems on our planet really is. B) The question as to whether the ecological systems on our planet have a delicate balance has in fact been overlooked for years by many scientists. C) The ecological systems on our planet are so delicate that, for years, most scientists have not really taken them into account. D) Our planet's ecological systems, which are really extremely delicate, have been neglected for years by various scientists. E) Many scientists have failed for years to understand that our planet's ecological systems are indeed very delicate.

A) For a foreign writer, in order to have an opinion of Ch ina, he should frst know his own country where he has grown up. B) A foreign writer's attitude towards the Chinese is essentially inspired by the country in which he has grown up. C) How a foreign writer understands China depends a great deal on the country he originally comes from. D) Every foreign writer's perspective on China is shaped by the country, in which he grew up. E) Before a foreign writer can understand China , he ought to focus in the frst place on his own country in which he was born.

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YDS iFRELERi
5. OPEC'in ikinci en byk petrol ihracats olarak, iran, halknn artan enerji gereksinimlerini karlamak amacyla, sadece nkleer yakt elde etmek iin uranyumu zenginletirrnek istediini iddia etmektedir.
A) Although Iran is the second largest oil exporting country in OPEC, it stili continues to enrich uranium for the production of nuclear fuel and, thus, solve the rising energy erisis faced by its people. B) Iran, which is OPEC's second largest oil exporter, is resolved to enrich uranium and, thus, make nuclear fuel so that the desperata energy needs of its people can be met. C) As OPEC's second largest oil exporter, Iran claims that it wants to enrich uranium only to make nuclear fuel to meet the growing energy needs of its people. D) By enriching uranium, Iran, the second largest oil exporting OPEC member, intends to produce nuclear fuel in order to meet its people's increasing energy needs. E) Stili OPEC's second largest oil exporter, Iran claims that it wishes to produce nuclear fuel by enriching uranium for the growing energy needs of its people.

7.

Zimbabve'den,
baladkianna

insanlarn ilikin

alktan

lmeye

yrek

paralayc

haberler szmaktadr.
A) Heart-rending news has been tiltering out from Zimbabwe that the people are starting to die of starvation. B) One gets heart-rending news out of Zimbabwe that the people there are dying of starvation. C) The news out of Zimbabwe that people are about to die of starvation is heart-rending. D) The heart-rending news that has been leaked out of Zimbabwe is that people have been dying of starvation. E) The news that the people in Zimbabwe have been dying of starvation is extremely heartrending.

6.

Ekonomik kalknma gibi, siyasi barklk, Afganistan n ozumun gerekten bir paras olmak zorundadr.
A) Political reconciliation , just like economic development, must indeed be regarded as a fnal sattiement in Afghanistan. B) Not only economic development but also political reconciliation has really to be the ultimate sattiement in Afghanistan. C) lt is essential that, in addition to economic development, political reconciliation must in fact be considered for a lasting solution in Afghanistan . D) As part of a lasting solution in Afghanistan, political reconciliation as well as economic development must indeed be taken into consideration. E) Like economic development, political reconciliation does indeed need to be part of the solution for Afghanistan.

8.

Kafkaslar,
knden

1991'de Sovyetler Birlii'nin arta kalm birok iten ie

kaynayan

atmay barndrmaktadr.

A) After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 , the Caucasus has become an area with various simmaring conflicts. B) Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there have emergad various tensions in the Caucasus ready to explode into conflicts. C) The Caucasus harbours several simmaring conflicts left after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 . D) lt is in the Caucasus that, following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, a number of issues have risen, ready to explode into conflicts. E) Several regional conflicts have risen in the Caucasus since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


9. Shakespeare, her ne kadar tm yaratclk enerjisini ncelikle sahneye odaklam olsa da, kendisi ayn zamanda ann en nde gelen lirik airi idi. A) Even if Shakespeare's creative energy was primarily focused on the stage, he was indeed the most ad mired lyric poet of the period. B) For Shakespeare, the stage was the focus of his creative energy, but he was also a leading lyric poet of his time. C) lt was on the stage that Shakespeare mainly focused his creative energy, even though he was regarded as the most eminent lyric poet of the period. D) Shakespeare was the most respected lyric poet of his age, although his creative energy was mainly focused on the stage. E) Although Shakespeare focused all his creative energy primarily on the stage, he was as well the foremost lyric poet of his age. 11. Srcsz metrolar, kii bana den 25.200 dolarlk milli geliri ve tkr tkr ileyen ticaret Asya'nn en merkezleri ile Singapur,
Batlllam ehirleri arasndadr.

A) With its driverless subways , $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres , Singapare is among the most westernized cities in Asia . B) One of the most westernized cities in Asia is Singapore, for it has driverless subways, $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres. C) lt is because of the driverless subways , $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres that Singapare is one of the most westernized cities in Asia. D) Singapare remains the most westernized city in Asia with driverless subways, $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres. E) The reason why Singapare is regarded as one of the most westernized cities in Asia is that it has driverless subways, $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres.

10. Son yllarda, tarihiler, st snflar ve onlarn siyasi atmaianna ilikin yklere daha az, ancak alt snf insanlarnn yaamlarn biimlendiren iktisadi ve toplumsal glere daha ok vurgu yapmlardr. A) In recent years, historians have emphasized more the economic and social forces that have an impact on the lives of lower-class people, but less the stories about upper-class political confrontations. B) Stories about the upper classes and their political differences have not received much emphasis from historians in recent years, while more emphasis has been put on the economic and social developments that have affected the lives of lower-class people. C) The economic and social factors that shape the lives of lower-class people have often been emphasized by historians in recent years, since stories about the upper classes and their political quarrels no fonger receive any attention. D) In recent years, historians have placed less emphasis on stories about the upper classes and their political conflicts, but more on the economic and social forces that shape the lives of Icwerelass people. E) In recent years, historians' emphasis on the economic and social developments that have shaped the lives of lower-class people rather than on the stories of upper-class political conflicts has received much attention.
deiikliklerin, beyinlerimizde 12. evredeki zamann znel biimde alglanmasna nasl yol at sorusu, ruhbilimcileri ve beyin aratrmaclarn dndrmeye devam etmektedir.

A) Psychologists and brain researchers have recently started to wonder how changes in the environment cause the brain to experience time subjectively. B) The question of how changes in the environment give rise to the subjective experience of time in our brains continues to preoccupy psychologists and brain researchers . C) How changes in the environment can lead to the subjective experience of time in our brains is a matter of d iscussion among psychologists and brain researchers. D) The subjective time experience of our brains resulting from environmental changes has long been a controversial issue among psychologists and brain researchers. E) The reasons behind the subjective perception of time by the brain have not yet been explained by psychologists or brain resea re hers.

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13. ister kendinden ynl ortanca konumunuz i kadar baarl etkileyebilir. emin byk ocuk, ister ok ocuk olun, aile iindeki seiminizden evliliinizin ne olduuna kadar her eyi 15. Gladyatr dvleri ilk kez Roma'da, M.. 264 ylnda, Junius Brutus'un oullar tarafndan
babalarnn ansna dzenlenmitir.

A) Everything, from your choice of career to the success of your marriage, is determined by whether you were born as a confdent frst child or as a resourceful younger child. B) No matter what your position in the family may be, your choice of career and the success of your marriage depend highly on whether you have been a confdent elder child or a resourceful middle child . C) Whether you are a confdent frst-born or a resourceful middle child, your position in the family can affect everything from your choice of career to how successful your marriage is. D) lt seriously matters, both as regards your career and the success of your marriage, whether you were born the confdent elder child or the resourceful middle child of the family. E) Even if you are a confdent frst child rather than a resourceful middle child , everything from your choice of career to how successful your marriage is will be affected by your position in the family.

A) Gladiator fghts were frst organized in Rame in the year 264 B.C. by the sons of Junius Brutus in memory of the ir father. B) The gladiator fghts, which were held in Rame in 264 B.C. for the frst time, were organized by the sons of Junius Brutus as they wanted to commemorate their father. C) The sons of Junius Brutus, who organized gladiator fghts in Rome in the year 264 B.C. for the frst time, did so in memory of their father. D) Gladiator fghts date back to 264 B.C. , when the sons of Junius Brutus first organized a ritual of sacrifice in Rame in memory of their father. E) The origin of gladiator fights goes back to 264 B.C. , when the sons of Junius Brutus wished to honour the memory of their father in this way in Rame.

16. 1996'da bir Gney Kore aratrma gems, Gney Koreiiierin "Dokdo," Japonlarn ise "Takeshima" dedikleri bir grup adaya yakn ihtilafl sulara girerek Japonya'nn fkesine yol at.

14.

Rusya ve Amerika'nn youn nkleer ortadan kaldrmak iin daha fazla bir ey yaplmazsa, Kuzey Kutup blgesi yeniden bir nkleer cephe haline gelebilir.
silahlarn

Eer

A) Unless further steps are taken to dismantle their extensive nuclear arms, the Aretic may become a nuclear front again for Russia and the US. B) If nothing further is done to dismantle the extensive Russian and US nuclear arms, the Aretic could once again become a nuclear front. C) In order for the Aretic to become a nuclear front again, something must be done to reduce the vast amount of nuclear weapons of Russia and the US. D) Whether or not the Aretic is to become a nuclear front again , Russia and the US must reduce their nuclear arms. E) Should Russian and US plans for turning the Aretic once more into a nuclear front be put into effect, both countries will have to reduce the amount of nuclear power.

A) In 1996, a South Korean research vessel aroused Japanese anger by entering disputed waters near a group of islands that the South Koreans call "Dokdo" and the Japanese ''Takeshima". B) lt was in 1996 that, when a South Korean research vessel entered disputed waters araund a group of islands called "Dokdo" by the South Koreans and "Takeshima" by the Japanese, the Japanese people got exceedingly angry. C) Upon the entry of a South Korean research vessel in 1996 into disputed waters surraunding a group of islands which the South Koreans call "Dokdo" and the Japanese ''Takeshima," a great deal of anger was aroused among the Japanese people. D) In 1996, the Japanese people were angered since a South Korean research vessel had entered disputed waters near a group of islands called "Dokdo" by the South Koreans , and "Takeshima" by the Japanese. E) In 1996, disputed waters surraunding a group of islands, which the South Koreans call "Dokdo" and the Japanese "Takeshima ," were entered by a South Korean research vessel , causing much anger in Japan.

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17.
Gs kanseri hakkndaki korkunun bir ksm, bu hastaln tehlikelerine ilikin yanl bilgiye ve yanl anlamaya dayanmaktadr.

19. iklim deiiklii ile ilgili ou bilim adam, kentlerin, evrelerinden daha scak olduu ve bulut oluumuna neden olan dikey hava
akmlar yaratt grndedir.

A) There is so much misinformation as well as misunderstanding about the risks of breast cancer that it has led to a great deal of fear about this disease. B) Misinformation and misunderstanding with regard to the risks of breast cancer have caused people to fear this disease. C) The risks of breast cancer are such that misinformation and misunderstanding about this disease have been the cause of much fe ar. D) Some of the fear about breast cancer is on misinformation and based misunderstanding concerning the risks of this disease. E) Breast cancer involves various risks, but some of the fear about this disease mainly derives from misinformation and misunderstanding concerning it.

A) Most scientists concerned with climate change are of the opinion that cities are hotter than their surroundings and create updrafts of air causing cloud formation. B) A number of scientists dealing with climate change maintain that, as cities are much hotter than the surraunding environment, updrafts of air occur over them and lead to cloud formation . C) As many scientists studying climate change have suggested, since cities are relatively warmer than their surroundings, there are updrafts of air over them which bring about cloud formation. D) Many scientists who are experts in climate change are convinced that cloud formatian results from updrafts of air over cities, which are usually hotter than their surroundings. E) A lot of scientists who are specialists in climate change have argued that, because cities are far hotter than their surroundings, this causes updrafts of air which lead to cloud formation.
ou oyunda, bize sunulan dnya ne denli gerek d olursa olsun, bizden onu geici olarak gerek dnya gibi grmemiz beklenir.

18. Siyasi bir dahi, ancak bir ekonomi amatr olan Bakan Bill Clinton'n en kayda deer baars, Beyaz Saray'da bulunduu sekiz yl boyunca, Amerika'nn ekonomik temeline gerekten yeni bir g katlmasdr. A) During the eight years President Bill Clinton was in the White House, the American economic base was remarkably strengthened by the truly new power which, as an economic amateur, but a political genius, he put into it. B) During his eight years in the White House, President Bill Clinton, who was a political genius but an economic amateur, achieved great success by adding a great deal of new power to the heart of the American economy. C) As a political genius, but an economic amateur, President Bill Clinton's most controversial success was in fact the new power which he injected into the core of the American economy during his eight years in the White House. D) During the eight years he spent in the White House, President Bill Clinton, a political genius, though an economic amateur, put real new power into America's economic base. E) The most remarkable achievement of President Bill Clinton, who was a political genius but an economic amateur, was that, during the eight years he was in the White House, truly new power was added to America's economic base.

20.

A) In a variety of plays, the world presented to us may be unreal, but it is expected that, at least temporarily, we take it for the real world. B) In most plays, however unreal may be the world presented to us, we are expected to regard it temporarily as the real world . C) The world presented to us in most plays may be unreal, even though we are expected to consider it for some time to be the real world . D) In a number of plays, we are presented with an unreal world, which is to be understood by us, at least for a certain period, as the real world . E) We are expected temporarily to take for real the unreal world which we see presented in most plays.

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TEST2
1.
Yllk olarak retilen 67 milyon ton dokuma ipliinin yarsndan fazlas petrolden elde

3.

edilen sentetiklerdir.
A) Half of the synthetics produced from petroleum within a year make up more than 67 million tons of textile fibres. B) Annually, 67 million tons of textile fibres are produced, almost half of which are synthetics based on petroleum. C) About half of the 67 million tons of textile fibres which are produced in a year are synthetics made essentially from petroleum. D) More than half of the 67 million tons of textile fibres produced annually are synthetics made from petroleum. E) Petroleum-based synthetics account for about half of the annual production of textile fibres , which amounts to 67 million tons.

Kadnlarn bilimsel aratrmalardaki durumuna ilikin olarak denilebilir ki temel sorun, kadnlar bilime ekmek deil, ancak yetitirildikten sonra onlar bilim iinde tutabilmektir.

A) On the part women play in scientific studies, it is to be emphasized that the initial problem is not if women find science attractive but if they can be involved in it after their training . B) One may argue about the position of women in scientific studies that the major problem is not how to attract women into science, but how to employ them as soon as they complete their training. C) With reterence to the role of women in science, it must be stated that the primary problem is not whether women can take part in scientific research but whether they can be relied on after they have been trained . D) As for the role of women in scientific research, one can maintain that the ultimate problem is not whether science is attractive to women but whether, following their training, they can contribute to it. E) As regards the status of women in scientific research , it may be said that the fundamental problem is not attracting them to science but retaining them in science after they have been trained.

2.

gibi, Amerika gre, Kongre yetkisine sahip deildir.


anayasasna

Bildiimiz

Birleik

snrsz

Devletleri bir yasama

A) As far as we know, the Constitution of the United States of America does not grant to Congress unlimited powers for legislation. B) As we know, according to the Constitution of the United States of America, Congress does not have unlimited power of legislation. C) We know that, according to the Constitution of the United States of America, Congress cannot exercise unlimited power for legislation. D) As is well known to us all, Congress is denied by the Constitution of the United States of America the right to use unlimited power for legislation. E) As we all know, Congress's unlimited power of legislation has been curtailed by the Constitution of the United States of America.

4. Uyku haplar, zellikle birka haftadan daha uzun sre veya yksek dozlarda dzenli olarak kullanldnda, baz insanlarda bamlla neden olabilir.
A) When people take sleeping pills regularly at particularly high doses for much longer than one or two weeks, they become very dependent on these medicines.
B) If sleeping pills are used regularly at high

doses for a few weeks or longer, some people in particular can develop an addiction to them . C) Sleeping pills, especially when used regularly for longer than a few weeks or at high doses, can cause dependency in some people. D) So long as sleeping pills are taken at very high doses for several weeks or longer, they can cause dependency in a number of people. E) Some people can be particularly addicted to sleeping pills when used at high doses or for much longer than several weeks.

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5.
Baz siyaset bilimciler, yeleri arasnda derin duygusal ilikilerin var olduu ailenin, ufak apta siyasal bir sistem gibi olduunu ileri
srmlerdir.

7. Shakespeare'in ailesi, idam, 13. yzyl ortasnda kayda gemi olan Warwickshire'l ekiya William Sakspere'e dayanmaktadr.
A) lt is to William Sakspere, a Warwickshire
th

A) Some political scientists have argued that the family, in which deep emotional relationships exist between members, is like a political system in miniature. B) In the opinion of various political scientists, the family, which consists of members with deep emotional relationships, can be compared to a minor political system. C) As a few political scientists have argued, the family reminds one of a political system in miniature, in which members have deep emotional ties. D) As pointed out by a number of political scientists, the family, whose members are emotionally bound together, resembles a minor political system. E) Some of the political scientists present have suggested that the family, in which members maintain strong emotional ties with each other, is similar to a smail political system.

B)

C)

D)

E)

robber in the mid-13 century, whose hanging is recorded, that Shakespeare's family is related . th William Sakspere was a mid-13 century Warwickshire robber whose hanging was recorded and to whom Shakespeare's family can be traced. Shakespeare's family can be traced back to a Warwickshire robber, William Sakspere, who th was hung some time in the mid-13 century. Shakespeare's family goes back to the Warwickshire robber William Sakspere, th whose hanging was recorded in the mid-13 century. Shakespeare's family has been traced back to William Sakspere, a Warwickshire robber.
th

whose hanging in the mid-13 recorded .

century was

8.

Yallarn

genleri sayca geeceg bir gelecekten korkan pek ok hkmet, insanlar ocuk sahibi olmaya tevik etmek iin ne gerekiyorsa yapmaktadr.

6. Dilbilimi, son zamanlarda hemen tm alanlarda muazzam bir genileme salayan, gen bir sosyal bilimdir.
A) Linguistics, which is, in a sense, a young social science, has expanded in every area in recent times. B) Linguistics is a young social science, which has recently had a massive expansion in almost all areas. C) As a young social science, linguistics has expanded enormously in all areas in recent years. D) Although linguistics is in fact a sornewhat young social science, its recent expansion in almost all felds has been remarkable. E) Linguistics, which has expanded rapidly in all areas in recent years, is in fact a young social science.

A) Fearful of a future in which the elderly outnumber the young, many governments are doing whatever they can to encourage people to have children . B) Most governments, afraid of a future in which there are more elderly than young people, are taking whatever measures they can in order to persuade people to have more children . C) In order to urge people to have more and more children, a number of governments, which fear that the elderly will outnumber the young in the future, are introducing whatever incentives they can . D) Various governments fear a future in which the number of the elderly will exceed that of the young, and are hence doing their best in order to convince people to have children . E) Since governments are afraid that, in the future, the number of the elderly will exceed that of the young, they are doing all they can so that people may have more children .

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9. Elmaslar, muhteem gzellikleri iin ok iddetle arzu edilir, ancak basit gerek u ki onlar sadece sktrlm kristalize karbondur.
A) Because of their wonderful beauty, one always has a great desire for diamonds, but the truth is that they are no more than just compressed crystallized carbon . B) Although diamonds are always desired for their exceptional beauty, in fact they are really only compressed crystallized carbon. C) Diamonds are much coveted for their exquisite beauty, but the simple truth is that they are just compressed crystallized carbon . D) lnvariably one has a strong urge for diamonds because of their extreme beauty even though in truth , they are only compressed crystallized carbon. E) In fact, diamonds are merely compressed crystallized carbon , but there is always a widespread desire for them due to their magnifcent beauty.

11. Kuzey irlanda, Birleik Kralln ayrlmaz bir parasdr; ancak, 1920'de irianda'nn Ynetimi Yasas'na konmu olan hkmlere _ gre, yar zerk bir ynetime sahiptir.
A) Northern lreland constitutes a major part of the United Kingdem even though , according to the Government of lreland Act of 1920, it is governed semi-autonomously. B) According to the terms of the Government of lreland Act of 1920, Northern lreland makes up a signifcant part of the United Kingdem despite the fact that its government is semiautonomous. C) Northern lreland is an integral part of the United Kingdom, but, in accordance with the provisions made in 1920 in the Government of lreland Act, it has a semi-autonomous government. D) Northern lreland is regarded as an essential part of the United Kingdem and, under the terms of the Government of lreland Act of 1920, is administered by a semi-autonomous government. E) According to the provisions made in the 1920 Government of lreland Act, Northern lreland, which is an inseparable part of the United Kingdom, has a semi-autonomous ad m in istration.

10. ABD,

Arap petrolnn serbest akn iin askeri g dahil gerekli her vastay kullan-maya kendini resmen baml
salamak
klmtr.

A) In order to secure the free flow of Arab oil , the USA has officially decided to resort to any means imaginable, including military force. B) The USA is officially committed to the use of
any means necessary, including military

12. Patara'da pek ok pansiyon ve birka grkemli otel olmasna ramen, geleneksel ky yaam hala devam etmektedir.
A) Patara boasts various pensions and a number of magnifcent hotels even though viiiage life
continues here in a traditional way.

force, to ensure the free flow of Arab oil. C) lt is a determined policy of the USA to make sure , through the official use of any means, including military force , that Arab oil flows freely. D) The USA is clearly determined to use any means whatsoever, even military force, in an effort to secure the unobstructed flow of Arab oil. E) lt is the official policy of the USA to ensure the {ree flow of Arab oil by using all kinds of means except military force.

B) Despite a number of pensions and some excellent hotels, Patara is stili a viiiage which has a traditional way of life. C) Though a viiiage where traditional life stili goes on, Patara has a great number of pensions and severalluxurious hotels. D) Although in Patarathere are many pensions and a few splendid hotels, traditional viiiage life stil continues. E) Patara, which has several pensions but few nice hotels, is just a viiiage where life goes on in a traditional manner.

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13. On altnc yzyln ilk yarsnda Fransa kral olan 1. Franois, lkesini Avrupa'da nde gelen bir g yapmay dlemi, ancak Avusturya imparatoru V. Charles tarafndan
engellenmitir.

15. Roma imparatorluu'nun yklndan sonra, imparatorluun bir paras olan Avusturya, Slav kkenli eitli milletlerce istila edilmitir. A) Following the tali of the Roman Empire, Austria, which had constituted part of the Empire, was settled by different peoples of Slavic origin. B) In the aftermath of the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria, which had been one of the regions of the Empire, was overrun by a number of originally Slavic peoples. C) Soon after the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria, which had been a region of the Empire, was conquered by various nations, mostly of Slavic origin. D) After the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria, which had been a part of the Empire, was invaded by various nations of Slavic origin . E) When the Roman Empire teli , a number of nations of Slavic origin had already invaded Austria , which was part of the Empire.

A) The French king Franois 1 , who had the dream of making his country Europe's dominant power in the first half of the sixteenth century, was opposed by the Austrian emperor Charles V. B) Franois 1, the king of France in the first half of the sixteenth century, dreamt of making his country a leading power in Europe but was prevented by Charles V, emperor of Austria . C) Charles V, the emperor of Austria, stood up against Franois 1, the king of France, who dreamt of making his country a major European power in the first half of the sixteenth century. D) Franois 1 , the king of France, had the dream of turning his country into the chief European power in the first half of the sixteenth century although he was opposed by Charles V, emperor of Austria. E) The king of France in the first half of the , dreamt of sixteenth century, Franois 1 making his country one of the major powers in Europe but was dissuaded by the Austrian emperor Charles V.

14. On dokuzuncu
kefedildiinde, baka nlar

yzyln sonlarnda

bilim bulmak

adamlar

iin

X olar benzer tr hemen youn

16. Yaklak

tarafndan

aratrmalara giritiler.

olarak M.. 8. yzylda Homer kaleme alnan Truva Sava hakkndaki destanlar, birka yzyl boyunca szl olarak korunmu olabilir.

A) lt was in the Iate nineteenth century that, following the discovery of X-rays, scientists suddenly embarked on a serious research programme to trace various other similar rays . B) Following the discovery of X-rays in the nineteenth century, comprehensive research was soon undertaken by scientists in order to detect other rays of the same kind . C) Towards the end of the nineteenth century, when X-rays were discovered, scientists were already involved in extensive research in order to study other kinds of rays. D) The discovery of X-rays in the Iate nineteenth century motivated scientists to carry out exhaustive research in order to detect other types of rays . E) When X-rays were discovered in the Iate nineteenth century, scientists immediately set out on intensive research to find other similar types of rays.

A) Homer's epics about the Trojan War were written down, probably in the 8th century B.C., but may have been around for centuries in oral form . B) Homer apparently wrote down the epics of the Trojan War sometime in the 8th century B.C., but they had already existed in oral form for centuries. C) The Trojan War epics had probably existed for centuries in oral form before they were finally transeribed by Homer sometime in the 8th century B.C. D) The epics about the Trojan War written down by Homer in about the 8th century B.C. may have been preserved orally for several centuries. E) Homer transeribed the Trojan War epics sometime during the 8th century B.C., but their origins go back to an earfier oral tradition.

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17. Ortaa
yarsn

haritalar Hollanda'nn neredeyse su altnda gsterir, ama o zamandan beri denizden geni alanlar kazanlmtr.

19. ocuklar daha fazla bamszlk kazandka , onlarn genleri kendilerine uyan evreler yaratmak iin daha aktif bir tarzda iieyebil ir.
A) Once children start to grow more independent, their genes operate in a more positive manner to create environments that su it them better. B) As children get more independence their genes start to operate more forcefully to create what is for them a more congenial environment. C) As children gain more independence, their genes can operate in a more active manner to produce environments that suit them. D) When they attain more independence, children start to desire a more congenial environment and their genes work with them to atta in it. E) Once children have attained a greater degree of independence, their genes prompt them to desire a more congenial environment.

A) In medieval maps nearly half of the Netherlands is u nder water, but si nce then the sea has withdrawn from large areas. B) Large areas of what is now the Netherlands have often been claimed from the sea, but in medieval maps they were u nder water. C) Nearly half of the Netherlands does not exist on medieval maps but later large areas were recovered from the sea. D) Medieval maps show that large areas of the Netherlands used to be under the sea, but they have since been reclaimed. E) Medieval maps show nearly half of the Netherlands under water, but since then large areas have been claimed from the sea.

20. Katherine Mansfield, zellikle Rus yazar Chekhov'un ksa hikayelerinden etkilenmi ve onun gibi, konudan ok evre ve karaktere dayal hikayeler yazmtr. 18. Geen olarak
yzyln balarnda, nyargy, baz

rkiara kar doutan

ve igdsel bir tepki

dnmek yaygnd.

A) At the turn of the last century, prejudice was generally regarded more as an innate or instinctive reaction to certain races . B) At the tum of the last century, it was common to consider prejudice to be an innate and instinctive reaction to certain races. C) By the turn of the last century people were prejudiced against certain races and this was regarded as an innate and instinctive reaction . D) By the turn of the last century this innate and instinctive reaction against race was commonly seen as prejudice. E) With the turn of the last century people grew more prejudiced against certain races and this was regarded as an innate and instinctive reaction.

A) The Russian writer Chekhov's short stories depend more on atmosphere and character than on plot, and this impressed Katherine Mansfeld and influenced the way she wrote. B) Katherine Mansfeld was a great admirer of the Russian writer Chekhov, and her short stories, like his, are centred around character and atmosphere rather than action. C) Like the Russian short-story writer, Chekhov, Katherine Mansfeld wrote short stories that depend for their effect more on character and atmosphere than upon action. D) Katherine Mansfeld greatly admired the style of Chekhov in his short stories and, like him, wrote short stories in which character and atmosphere, not action , come to the fore. Mansfeld was particularly E) Katherine impressed by the short stories of the Russian writer Chekhov, and, like him, she wrote stories which depend more on atmosphere and character than on plot.

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

TURKISH -ENGLISH TRANSLATION CEVAP ANAHTARI


TEST 1
1. B 2.A

TEST2
1. D

3.E 4.D 5.C


6. E 7.A

2.8 3.E 4.C


5.A

6.8 7. D
8.A 9.C

S. C

9. E 10.D
11. A

10.8
11.

12.8
13.

12. D
13.8

14.8 15. A 16. A


17. D

14.E 15.D 16.D


17.E

18.E 19. A

18.8 19.C

20.8

20.E

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1. BAGLA UYUMU TEKNiGi!


SORU CUMLESINDE ORTADA YER ALAN BAGLA SEENEKLERDE CUMLE BAlNDA ARNIR.

2. TANIMLAMA TEKNiGi!
SORUDA TANIMLAMA BILGISI YA DA ISIM CUMLECIGI YER ALDIGINDA; SEENEKTEKI CMLEDE NCE ZNE VE ARDlNDAN RELATIVE VE NOUN CLAUSE CMLECiKLERi GELMELiDiR.

3. ZNE UYUMU TEKNiGi!


SORUDAKI OZNE SEENEKLERDE YER VE ZAMAN SIRLAMASI BUTUNLUGUNDE CUMLE BAlNDA ARAN IR.

4. FiiL UYUMU TEKNiGi!


VERILEN TEKNIKLER ILE HALEN SEENEKLER ARASINDA
ELIKIYE DUULDUGUNDE;

SORU CMLESi iLE SEENEKTEKi CMLE ARASINDA FiiL UYUMU ARANIR.

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TURKISH - ENGLISH TRANSLATION TEKNIKLERI


TEST 1
1.

T AB devletleri, Ekonomi ve Para Birlii'nin paras olmalarna ramen. AB lkelerinin tm , Avro blge inin paras deildir. A) Since e Economic and Monetary Union consists of all the EU states, the inclusion in the euro area of every E country is not out of place. B) Although All EU states are part of the Economic and Monetary Union, not all EU countries are part of the euro area. C) Even if EU states all make up the Economic and Monetary Union, the euro area does not include every EU country. D) Even though ~ EU country is not included in the euro area, the Economic and Monetary Union is made up of all the EU states. E) lt is unlikely that every EU country, which is part of the Economic and Monetary Union , will alsa be part of the EU area.

2.

olduu

O- U bilim insani, yllarca, gezegenimizdeki ekolojik sistemlerin dengesinin gerekten ne denli, hassas nemini kavramamtr.

A) For years, MOST scientists have underestimated just how delicate the balance of the ecological systems on our planet really is. B) The question as to whether the ecological systems on our planet have a delicate balance has in fact been overlooked for years by many scientists. C) The ecological systems on our planet are so delicate that, for years, most scientists have not really taken them into account. D) Our planet's ecological systems, which are really extremely delicate, have been neglected for years by various scientists. E) Many scientists have failed for years to understand that our planet's ecological systems are indeed very delicate.

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3. Mevcut kresel kriz nedeniyle ULUSLARA byme motoru olarak grme konusunda k

SI TiCARETiN
kulandrmtr.

KMESi, kalknma iktisatlarn, ticareti, bir

A) The fact that trade is an engine of gro h has been dismissed by development economists, since the current global erisis has caused the coll pse of international trade. B) The current global erisis has undermine international trade, and this has led development economists to scepticism about trade as a means of gr wth . C) In view of the current global erisis an its adverse impact on international trade, many development economists have come to disregard trad as an engine of growth. D) Due to THE CURRENT GLOBAL RISIS AND Tl-le DeCbiNe OF INTeRNATIONAl TRADe, development economists doubt whether rade can be regarded as an effective means of growth.

E) THE COLLAPSE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE due to the current global erisis has made development economists sceptical about regarding trade as an engine of growth.

4.

H R yabanc
A)

yazarn

in'e

bak as,

iinde

byd

lke ile bicimlenir.

or a foreign writer, in order to have an opinion of China, he should frst know his own country where he h s grown up. B) A foreign writer's attitude towards the Chinese is essentially inspired by the country in which he has gr wn up. C) Ho a foreign writer understands China depends a great deal on the country he originally comes from .

D) EVERY foreign writer's perspective on China is shaped by the country, in which he grew up.
E) Before a foreign writer can understand China, he ought to focus in the which he was born.
frst

place on his own country in

202

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


5. OPEC'in ikinci en byk petrol ihracats O RAK lran,halknn artan enerji gereksinimlerini karlamak in uranyumu zenginletirrnek istediini iddia etmektedir. argest oil exporting country in OPEC, it stili continues to enrich uranium for A) Although Iran is the seco r fuel and, thus, solve the rising energy erisis faced by its people. the production of nu B) Iran, which is C's second largest oil exporter, is resolved to enrich uranium and, thus, make nuclear fuel so th e desperate energy needs of its people can be met. C) AS OPEC's second largest oil exporter, Iran claims that it wants to enrich uranium only to make nuclear fuel to meet the growing energy needs of its people. D) By enriching uranium, Iran , the second largest oil exporting OPEC member, intends to produce nuclear fuel in order to meet its people's increasing energy needs. E) Stili OPEC's second largest oil exporter, Iran claims that it wishes to produce nuclear fuel by enriching uranium for the growing energy needs of its people ..

6.

siyasi

barki k ,

Afganistan iin zmn gerekten bir

paras

olmak

zorundadr.

A) Political reconcili on , just like economic development, must indeed be regarded as a final settlement in Afghanistan. B) Not only econ mic development but also political reconciliation has really to be the ultimate settlement in Afghanistan C) lt is essen al that, in addition to economic development, political reconciliation must in fact be considered for a las g solution in Afghanistan . D) As pa of a lasting solution in Afghanistan , political reconciliation as well as economic development must inde be taken into consideration. E) LIKE economic development, political reconciliation does indeed need to be part of the solution for Afghanistan.

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7. Zimbabve'den , insanlarn (ACTIVE VERB)
alktan

lmeye

baladkianna ilikin

yrek paralayici haberler SlZMAKTADlR

A) Heart-rending news HAS BEEN FILTERING OUT from Zimbabwe that the people are starting to die of starvation. ACTIVE (Etken) B) One gets heart-rending news out of Zimbabwe that the people there are dying of starvation. C) The news out of Zimbabwe that people are about to die of starvation is heart-rending. D) The heart-rending news-+MAl= HAS BEEN LEAKED OUt of Zimbabwe is that people have been dying of starvation. PASSIVE (Edilgen) E) The news that the people in Zimbabwe have been dying of starvation is extremely heartrending.

8.

KAFKASLAR 1991 'de Sovyetler


barndr aktadr.

Birlii'nin knden

arta

kalm

birok iten ie kaynayan

atmay

A) After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Caucasus has become an area with various simmering confl cts. B) Follo ing the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there have emerged various tensions in the Caucasus read to explode into conflicts. C) THE CAUCASUS harbours several simmering conflicts left after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. D) lt is in the Caucasus that, following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, a number of issues have risen , ready to explode into conflicts. E) Several regional conflicts have risen in the Caucasus since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 .

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9. Shakes are, her ne kadar tm yaratclk enerjisini ncelikle sahneye ann en nde gelen lirik airi idi.
odaklam

OLSA DA. kendisi

ayn

A) EVEN 1 Sl:akespeare's Greative eRergy was primarily focused on the stage, he was indeed the most admired 1 ic poet of the period. B) For Shakesp are, the stage was the focus of his creative energy, but he was also a leading lyric poet of his time. C) lt was on the s ge that Shakespeare mainly focused his creative energy, even though he was regarded as the most emi nt lyric poet of the period. D) Shakespeare wa the most respected lyric poet of his age, although his creative energy was mainly focused on the sta E) ALTHOUGH Shakespeare focused all his creative energy primari Iy on the stage, he was as well the foremost lyric poet of his age.

10. Son yillarda, tarihciler, st


insanlarnn yaamlarn

snflar ve onlarn siyasi atmaianna ilikin yklere D HA AZ, ancak alt biimlendiren iktisadi ve toplumsal glere daha ok vur a m lardr.

snf

A) In recent years, historians I-IAlJE EMPI-IASIZED MORE the economic nd social forces that have an impact on the lives of lower-class people, but less the stories about upp -class political confrontations. B) Stories about the upper classes and their political differences h e not received much emphasis from historians in recent years, while more emphasis has been put o the economic and social developments that have affected the lives of lower-class people. C) The economic and social factors that shape the lives of lo r-class people have often been emphasized by historians in recent years, since stories about the up r dasses and their political quarrels no longer receive any attention . D) In recent years, historians have placed LESS EMPHASIS on stories about the upper dasses and their political conflicts, but more on the economic and social forces that shape the lives of Icwerelass people. E) In recent years, historians' emphasis on the economic and social developments that have shaped the lives of lower-class people rather than on the stories of upper-class political conflicts has received much attention .

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11. Srcsz metrolar, kii bana den 25.200 dolarlk milli geliri ve tkr tkr ileyen ticaret merkezleri iLE Singapur, Asya ' nn en Batllam ehirleri arasndadr. A) WL_ its driverless subways, $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres, Singapare is among the most westernized cities in Asia. B) One of the most westernized cities in Asia is Singapore, for it has driverless subways, $25 ,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres. C) lt is because of the driverless subways , $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres that Singapare is one of the most westernized cities in Asia . D) Singapare remains the most westernized city in Asia with driverless subways, $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres . E) The reason why Singapare is regarded as one of the most westernized cities in Asia is that it has driverless subways, $25,200 per capita ineome and smoothly running business centres.

12. evredeki deiikliklerin , beyinlerimizde zamann znel biimde alglanmasna nasil yol ati"i ruhbilimcileri ve beyin aratrmaclarn dndrmeye devam etmektedir. A) Psychologists and brain researchers have receo;.....,stan cause the brain to experience ti vely.

ORUSU,

B) THE QU ION OF how changes in the environment give rise to the subjective experience of time in our brains continues to preoccupy psychologists and brain researchers. C) How changes in the environment can lead to the subjective experience of time in our brains is a matter of discussion among psychologists and brain researchers. D) The subjective time experience of our brains resulting from environmental changes has long been a controversial issue among psychologists and brain researchers. E) The reasons behind the subjective perception of time by the brain have not yet been explained by psychologists or b ra in researchers.

zne Uyumu
teknii!

The question of how ... ...

=
nasl

yol at sorusu

206

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13. iSTER kendinden emin byk ocuk, iSTER ok ynl ortanca ocuk olun, aile iindeki konumunuz i se minizden evliliinizin ne kadar baarl lduuna kadar her eyi etkileyebilir. verything, from your choice of career o the success of your marriage, is determined by whether you re born as a confdent frst child or as resourceful younger child . B) N MATTER WWA+-your position in the family may be, your choice of career and the success of your ma iage depend highly on whether you h e been a confident elder child or a resourceful middle child . C) WHETHER you are a confdent frst-born OR a resourceful middle child, your position in the fami ly can affect everything from your choice of career to how successful ','OUr marriage is. D) lt seriously matters, both as regards your career and the success of your marriage, whether you were born the confdent elder chil d or the resourceful middle child of the family. E) Even if you are a confdent frst child rather than a resourceful middle child , everything from your choice of career to how successful your marriage is will be affected by your position in the family.

14. EG R Rusya ve Amerika ' nn youn nkleer silahlarn ortadan kaldrmak iin daha fazla bir sey a lmazsa, Kuzey Kutup blgesi yeniden bir nkleer cephe haline gelebilir. nless further steps are taken to dismantle their extensive nuclear arms, the Aretic may become a uclear front again for Russia and the US. B) IF nothing further is done to dismantle the extensive Russian and US nuclear arms, the Aretic could once again become a nuclear front. C) In order for the Aretic to become a nuclear front again, something must be done to reduce the vast amount of nuclear weapons of Russia and the US. D) Whether or not the Aretic is to become a nuclear front again, Russia and the US must reduce their nuclear arms. E) Should Russian and US plans for turning the Aretic once more into a nuclear front be put into effect, both countries will have to reduce the amount of nuclear power.

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15. Gladyator dvleri ilk kez Roma'da, M.. 264 ylnda, Junius Brutus'un oullar tarafndan babalarnn ansna DZENLENMiSrR. PASSIYE VERB (Edilgen) A) Gladiator fights WERE FIRST ORGANIZED in Rome in the year 264 B.C. by the sons of Junius Brutus in memory of their father. PASSIYE (Edilgen) B) The gladiator fights , which were heldin Rome in 264 B.C. for the first time, were organized by the sons of Junius Brutus as they wanted to commemorate their father. C) The sons of Junius Brutus, who organized gladiator fights in Rome in the year 264 B.C. for the f rst time, d id so in memory of their father. D) Gladiator fights DATE 8ACK to 264 B.C., when the sons of Junius Brutus first organized a ritual of sacrifice in Rome in memory of their father. ACTIVE (Etken) E) The origin of gladiator fghts goes back to 264 B.C. , when the sons of Junius Brutus wished to honour the memory of their father in this way in Rome.

16.

A) In 1996, A SOUTH KOREAN RESEARCH VESSEL aroused Japanese anger by entering disputed waters near a group of islands that the South Koreans caii"Dokdo" and the Japanese"Takeshima". B) lt was in 1996 that, when a South Korean research vessel entered disputed waters areund a group of islands called "Dokdo" by the South Koreans and "Takeshima" by the Japanese, the Japanese people got exceedingly angry. C) Upon the entry of a South Korean research vessel in 1996 into disputed waters surraunding a group of islands which the South Koreans call "Dokdo" and the Japanese "Takeshima," a great deal of anger was aroused among the Japanese people. D) In 1996, TME JAPANESE PEOPbE were angered since a South Korean research vessel had entered disputed waters near a group of islands called "Dokdo" by the South Koreans, and "Takeshima" by the JaRanese. E) In 1996, DISPUTED WATERS_surrounding a group of islands, which the South Koreans call "Dokdo" and the Japanese "Takeshima ," were entered by a South Korean research vessel , causing much anger in Japan.

208

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17.
Gs kanseri hakkndaki ...===:..:=:..:....=..:....:.-?Z.:.:M:.:.I,, yanl anlamaya dayanmaktadr .

bu

hastaln

tehlikelerine

i likin yanl

bilgiye ve

A) There is so much misinformation a eli as misunderstanding about the risks of breast cancer that it has led to a great deal of fear abo s disease.

B) Misinformation and misun

standing with regard to the risks of breast cancer have caused people to fear

this disease. C) The risks of bre cancer are such that misinformation and misunderstanding about this disease have been the ca of much fear. D) SOME OF THE FEAR about breast cancer is based on misinformation and misunderstanding concerning the risks of this disease. E) Breast cancer involves various risks , but some of the fear about this disease mainly derives from misinformation and misunderstanding concerning it.

18. Siyasi bir dahi , ancak bir ekonomi amatr olan Bakan Bill C linton ' n =E~N!......!::~~~~~~~~~~ Beyaz Saray'da bulunduu sekiz yl boyunca, Amerika ' nn ekonomik te ine gerekten yeni bir g
katlmasdr.

A) During the eight years President Bill Clinton was in the W House, the American economic base was remarkably strengthened by the truly new power whic , s an economic amateur, but a political genius, he put into it. B) During his eight years in the White House esident Bill Clinton, who was a political genius but an economic amateur, achieved great suc s by adding a great deal of new power to the heart of the American economy. C) As a political genius, but an eco mic amateur, President Bill Clinton's most controversial success was in fact the new power which njected into the core of the American economy during his eight years in the White House. rs he spent in the White House, President Bill Clinton , a political genius, though an D) During the eight ur, put real new power into America's economic base. E) THE MOST REMARKABLE ACHIEVEMENT OF President Bill Clinton, who was a political genius but an economic amateur, was that, during the eight years he was in the White House, truly new power was added to America's economic base.

zne Uyumu
teknii!

The most remarkable achievement of... = en kaydedeer


baars

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209

YDS iFRELERi 19. iklim deiiklii ile ilgili ;.;=~BiLiM ADAMI, kentlerin , evrelerinden daha scak olduu ve bulut oluumuna neden ol ava akmlar yaratt grnded ir. A) MOST SCIENTISTS concemed with climate change are of the opinion that cities are hatter than their surroundings and create updrafts of air causing cloud formation .
B) A NUM8ER OF SCIENTISTS dealing with climate change maintain that, as cities are much hatter than the surraunding environment, updrafts of air occur over them and lead to cloud formation . C) As many scientists studying elimale change have suggested , since cities are relatively warmer than their surroundings, there are updrafts of air over them which bring about cloud formation . D) Many scientists who are experts in elimale change are convinced that cloud formatian results from updrafts of air over cities, which are usually hatter than their surroundings. E) A lot of scientists who are specialists in climate change have argued that, because cities are far hatter than their surroundings, this causes updrafts of air which lead to cloud formation.l':!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!;'l

20.

NDA bize sunulan dnya ne denli gerek dnya gibi grmemiz beklenir.

dii

olursa olsun, bizden onu geici olarak gerek

A) Ina variet of plays , the world presented to us may be unreal, but it is expected that, at least temporarily, we take it the real world .

B) IN MOST PLAYS, however unreal may be_the world presented to us, we are expected to regard it temporarily as the real world.
C) The world presented to us in most plays rtay be unreal, even though we are expected to consider it for some time to be the real world . D) In a number of plays, we are presented with an unreal world , which is to be understood by us, at least for a certain period , as the real world . E) W e are expected temporarily to take for real the unreal world which we see presented in most plays

210

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TEST2
1.
Yllk

olarak retilen 67 milyon ton dokuma sentetiklerdir.

ipliinin

YARIS NDAN FAZLASI petrolden elde edilen

A) MAbF OF the synthetics produced from petrole textile fibres. B) Annually, 67 million tons of textile petroleum.

within a year make up more than 67 million tons of

res are produced, almost half of which are synthetics based on


fbres

C) About half of the 67 llion tons of textile roleum.

which are produced in a year are synthetics made


fbres

D) MORE T AN HALF OF the 67 million tons of textile from petroleum.

produced annually are synthetics made

E) Petroleum-based synthetics account for about half of the annual production of textile amounts to 67 million tons.

fbres,

which

2.

BiLDiGi
deildir.

Amerika

Birleik

Devletleri

anayasasna

gre, Kongre

snrsz

bir yasama yetkisine sahip

A) As far as we know, the Constitution of the United States of America does not grant to Congress unlimited power for legislation. B) AS W KNOW. according to the Constitution of the United States of America, Congress does not have unlimited power of legislation. C) We know that, according to the Constitution of the United States of America, Congress cannot exercise unlimited power for legislation. D) As is well known to us all, Congress is denied by the Constitution of the United States of America the right to use unlimited power for legislation. E) AS WE Abb KNOW, Congress's unlimited power of legislation has been curtailed by the Constitution of the United States of America.

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3.
Kadnlarn bilimsel aratrmalardaki durumuna iLi iN OLARAK denilebilir ki temel sorun, kadnlar bilime ekmek deil, ancak yetitirildikten sonra onlar im iinde tutabilmektir.

A) On the part women play in scientific studie , t is to be emphasized that the initial problem is not if women fnd science attractive but if they can b volved in it after their training . B) One may argue about the positio f women in scientific studies that the major problem is not how to attract women into science, but w to employ them as soon as they complete their training. C) With reterence to the role o omen in science, it must be stated that the primary problem is not whether women can take part in entific research but whether they can be relied on after they have been trained. D) As for the role of w en in scientific research , one can maintain that the ultimate problem is not whether science is attrac e to women but whether, following their training, they can contribute to it.

E) AS REGARDS the status of women in scientific research, it may be said that the fundamental problem is not attracting them to science but retaining them in science after they have been trained .

4.

UYKU H PLARI
kullanld nda , baz

zellikle birka haftadan daha uzun sre veya yksek dozlarda dzenli olarak insanlarda bamlla neden olabilir.

A) When people take sleeping pills regularly at particularly high doses for much longer than one or two weeks they become very dependent on these medicines. B) If leeping pills are used regularly at high doses for a few weeks or longer, some people in particular ca develop an addiction to them.

C) SLEEPING PILLS. especially when used regularly for longer than a few weeks or at high doses, can cause dependency in some people.
D) So long as sleeping pills are taken at very high doses for several weeks or longer, they can cause dependency ina number of people. E) Some people can be particularly addicted to sleeping pills when used at high doses or for much longer than several weeks.

zne Uyumu teknii!

212

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi 5.


BAZI SIYASET BILIMCILER, yeleri arasnda derin duygusal bir ~em gibi olduunu ileri srmlerdir.
ilikilerin

var

olduu

ailenin, ufak apta siyasal

A) SOME POLITICAL SCIENTISTS have argued that the family, in which deep emotional relationships exist between members, is like a political system in miniature.
B) In the opinion of various political scientists, the family, which consists of members with deep emotional relationships, can be compared to a minor political system. C) As a few political scientists have argued, the family reminds one of a political system in miniature, in which members have deep emotional ties . D) As pointed out by a number of political scientists, the family, whose members are emotionally bound together, resembles a minor political system. E) SOME OF THE POLITICAL SCIENTISTS PRESENT have suggested that the family, in which members maintain strong emotional ties with each other, is similar to a smail political system.

zne + Fiil Uyumu teknii!

6.

Dilbilimi, son zamanlarda hemen tm alanlarda muazzam bir genileme salayan, GEN BiR SOSYAL BiLiMiDiR
h is, in a sense, a young social science, HAS EXPANDED in every area in recent times.

B) Linguistics IS A YOUNG SOCIAL SCIENCE, which has recently had a massive expansion in almost all areas.
C) As a young social science, linguistics has expanded enormously in all areas in recent years. D) Although linguistics is in fact a sornewhat young social science, its recent expansion in almost all has been remarkable.

felds

E) Linguistics, which has expanded rapidly in all areas in recent years, IS IN FACT A YOUNG SOCIAL SCIENCE.

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7. Shakespeare'in ailesi, idam, 13. yzyl ortasnda kayda Sakspere'e DAYANMAKTA IR. ACTIVE (Etken)
gemi

olan

Warwickshire ' l ekiya

William

A) lt is to William Shakespe re, a Warwickshire robber in the mid-13 century, whose hanging is recorded, that Shakespeare's farnil is related. B) William Shakespeare wa a mid-13 century Warwickshire robber whose hanging was recorded and to whom Shakespeare's fa ily can be traced. C) Shakespeare's family
blf'lflt-ttEc-H-~..-Ei..H&A....._r-H.r_,a
th

th

Warwickshire robber, William Shakespeare, who

was hung some time in t D) Shakespeare's family GOES BACK TO the Warwickshire Robber William Shakespeare, whose hanging was recorded in the mid-13 century. E) Shakespeare's family HAS BiiliN TRAC6D BACK TO William Shakspeare, a Warwickshire robber,
~

whose hanging in the mid-13 century was recorded .

zne + Fiil Uyumu


teknii!

Etken fiil yaplar!)

8.

Yallarn genleri sayca geecei bir gelecekten korkan ~HKMET, insanlar ocuk sahibi 1 olmaya tevik etmek iin ne gerekiyorsa yapmaktadr.

A) Fearful of a future in which the elderly outnumber the young, MANY GOVERNMENTS are doing whatever they can to encourage_people to have children. B) MOS+ GOVERNMENTS, afraid of a future in which there are more elderly than young people, are taking people to have more children. whatever measures they can in order to persuade_ C) In order to urge people to have more and more children, a number of governments, which fear that the elderly will outnumber the young in the future, are introducing whatever incentives they can . O) Various governments fear a future in which the number of the elderly will exceed that of the young , and are hence doing their best in order to convince people to have children . E) Since governments are afraid that, in the future, the number of the elderly will exceed that of the young, they are doing all they can so that people may have more children.

214

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9. ELMASLAR, muhteem gzellikleri iin ok kristalize karbondur.
iddetle

arzu edilir, ancak basit gerek

ki onlar sadece

sktr

A) Bec are B) Alth com

use of their wonderful beauty, one always has a great desire for diamonds, but the truth is that they o more than just compressed crystallized carbon . ugh diamonds are always desired for their exceptional beauty. in fact they are really only ressed crystallized carbon .

C) DIAMONDS are much coveted for their exquisite beauty, but the simple truth is that they are just compressed crystallized carbon.

D) lnvariably one has a strong urge for diamonds because of their extreme beauty even though in truth , they are only compressed crystallized carbon . E) In fact, diamonds are merely compressed crystallized carbon, but there is always a widespread desire for them due to their magnifcent beauty.

zne Uyumu
teknii!

10. ABD, Arap petrolnn serbest akn kendini resmen baml klmtr .

salamak

iin askeri g DAHIL gerekli her


offciall

vastay

kullan-maya

A) In order to secure the free flow of Arab oil, the USA has imaginable, including military force.

decided to resort to any means

B) THE USA is officially committed to the use of any means necessary, !NCLUDING military force, to ensure the free flow of Arab oil.

C) lt is a determined policy of the USA to make sure, through the official use of any means, including military force, that Arab oil flows freely. D) THE USA is clearly determined to use any means whatsoever, even military force, in an effort to secure the unobstructed flow of Arab oil. E) lt is the offcial policy of the USA to ensure the free flow of Arab oil by using all kinds of means except military force

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11. Kuzey irlanda, Birleik Kralln ayrlmaz bir parasdr; ANCAK, 1920'de irianda ' nn Ynetimi Yasas ' na konmu olan hkmlere gre, yar zerk bir ynetime sahiptir. A) NORTHERN IRELAND constitutes a major part of the Unite Kingdam I!VI!N TMOUGM, according to the Government of lreland Act of 1920, it is governed serni-auton mously. B) According to the terms of the Government of lreland Act of 1 20, Northern lreland makes up a part of the United Kingdam despite the fact that its governme t is semi-autonomous.
signifcant

C) Northern lreland is an integral part of the United Kingdom, BUT, inaccordance with the provisions made in 1920 in the Government of lreland Act, it has a semi-autonomous government. D) Northern lreland is regarded as an essential part of the United Kingdom::ANJ:), under the terms of the Government of lreland Act of 1920, is administered by a semi-autonomous government. E) According to the provisions made in the 1920 Government of lreland Act, Northern lreland, which is an inseparable part of the United Kingdom, has a semi-autonomous administration.

zne + Bala Uyumu


teknii!

12. PATARA'DA pek ok pansiyon ve birka grkemli otel deva etmektedir. A) Pata a boasts various pensions and a number of here i a traditional way.

olmasna ramen ,

geleneksel ky

yaam

hala

magnifcent

hotels even though viiiage life continues

B) Despite number of pensions and some excellent hotels, PATARA is stili a viiiage which has a traditiona way of life. C) Though a lage where traditionallife stili goes on, PATARA has a great number of pensions and severalluxur us hotels. TARA there are many pensions and a few splendid hotel s, traditional viiiage life stil continues . E) Patara, which has several pensions but few nice hotels, is just a viiiage where life goes on in a traditional manner.

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


13. ON ALTINCI YZYillN iLK YARISIN A FRANSA KRALI OLAN 1. FRAN OIS, lkesini Avrupa'da nde gelen bir g yapmay dlemi, ancak vusturya imparatoru V. Charles tarafndan engellenmitir.
A) The French king Franois 1, who h d the dream of making his country Europe's dominant power in the frst half of the sixteenth century, w opposed by the Austrian emperor Charles V.

B) FRANCOIS 1. THE KING OF FRANCE IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, dreamt of making his country a leading P.Qwer in Europe but was prevented by Charles V, emperor of Austria.
C) Charles V, the emperor of Austria, stood up against Franois 1, the king of France, who dreamt of making his country a major European power in the frst half of the sixteenth century.

D) FRANOIS 1, THE! KING OF FRANC15, had the dream of turning his country into the chief European power in the frst half of the sixteenth century although he was opposed by Charles V, emperor of Austria.
E) The king of France in the frst half of the sixteenth century, Franois 1, dreamt of making his country one of the major powersin Europe but was dissuaded by the Austrian emperor Charles V.

14. On dokuzuncu yzyln sonlarnda X nlar K FEDiLDiGiNDE, bilim adamlar benzer tr baka nlar bulmak iin hemen youn aratrmalara giritil .
A) lt was in the Iate nineteenth centu at, following the discovery of X-rays, scientists suddenly embarked on a serious research program to trace various other similar rays. B) Following the discovery o -rays in the nineteenth century, comprehensive research was soon undertakan by scientists order to detect other rays of the same ki nd. C) Towards the end o e nineteenth century, when X-rays were discovered, scientists were already involved in exten e research in order to study other kinds of rays. D) The discove of X-rays in the Iate nineteenth century motivated scientists to carry out exhaustive research i rder to detect other types of rays.

E) WHEN X-rays were discovered in the Iate nineteenth century. scientists immediately set out on intensive research to find other similar types of rays.

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YDS iFRELERi
sonra, Imparatorluun bir paras olan Avusturya , Slav kkenli

A) Fo lowing the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria , which had constituted part of the Empire, was settled by DIFFERENT peoples of Slavic origin. he aftermath of the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria , which had been one of the regions of the pire, was overrun by A NUM8ER OF originally Slavic peoples.

C)

after the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria, which had been a region of the Empire, uered by various nations, MOSTbY of Slavic origin .

D) A ER the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria ,which had been a part of the Empire, was invaded by VARIOUS nations of Slavic origin. E) When the Roman Empire fell , a number of nations of Slavic origin had already invaded Austria, which was part of the Empire.

16. Yaklak olarak M.. 8. yzylda Homer tarafndan kaleme alnan DESTANLAR. birka yzyl boyunca szl olarak korunmu olabilir. A) Homer's epics about the Trojan War were written down, probably i been around for centuries in oral form . B) Homer apparently wrote down the epics of the Trojan already existed in oral form for centuries . C) The Trojan War epics had probably existe centuries in oral form before they were by Homer sometime in the 8th centu

fnally

transeribed

D) THE EPICS ABOUT THE TROJAN WAR written down by Homer in about the 8th century B.C. may have been preserved orally for several centuries. E) Homer transeribed the Trojan War epics sometime during the 8th century B.C., but their origins go back to an earlier oral tradition.

218

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17.
Ortaa
geni

haritalari Hollanda ' nn NEREDEYSE alanlar kazanlmtr .

yarsn

su

altnda

gsterir, ama o zamandan beri denizden

A) In medieval maps nearly half o the Netherlands is under water, but since then the sea has withdrawn from large areas. B) Large areas of what is now the Netherlands have often been claimed from the sea. but in medieval maps they were under water. C) Nearly half of the Netherlands does not exist on medieval maps but later large areas were recovered from the sea. D) Medieval maps show that l~rge areas of the Netherlands used to be under the sea, but they have since been reclaimed .

E) Medieval maps show NEARLY half of the Netherlands under water, but si nce then large areas have been claimed from the sea.

18. Geen yzyilin balarinda, nyargy, baz rkiara kar doutan ve igdsel bir tepki olarak DNMEK YAYGI 1. A) last century, PRI!JUCICI! WAS instinctive reaction to c
GI!NI!R.6.bbY

RI!GARCI!C more as an innate or

B) At the turn of the last century, IT WAS COMMON TO CONSIDER prejudice to be an innate and instinctive reaction to certain races. C) By the turn of the last century people were prejudiced against certain races and this was regarded as an innate and instinctive reaction . D) By the turn of the last century this innate and instinctive reaction against race was commonly seen as prejudice. E) With the turn of the last century people grew more prejudiced against certain races and this was regarded as an innate and instinctive reaction.

Fiil

+
Zaman Uyumu
teknii!

(Zaman
balalar ayn)

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19. ocuklar daha. fazla baQf!lszlk aktif bir tarzda 1 LEYEBILIR.
kazandka, onlarn

genleri kendilerine uyan evreler yaratmak iin daha

A) Once children start to gro are independent, their genes operate in a more positive manner to create environments that suit them be B) As children get more independence the for them a more congenial environment. enes START TO QPERATE more forcefully to create what is

C) As children gain more independence, their genes CA environments that su it them.

OPERATE ina more active manner to produce

D) When they attain more independence, children start to desire a more congenial environment and their genes work with them to attain it. E) Once children have attained a greater degree of independence, their genes prompt them to desire a more congenial environment.

20. Katherine Mansfeld, ===:.:r= Rus yazar Chekhov'un ksa hikayelerinden etkilenmi ve onun gibi, konudan ok evre ve karaktere yal hikayeler yazmtr.

A) The Russian writer Chekhov' short stories depend more on atmosphere and character than on plot, and this impressed Katherine Man field and influenced the way she wrote. B) Katherine Mansfeld was a eat admirer of the Russian writer Chekhov, and her short stories, like his, are centred araund character nd atmosphere rather than action. C) Like the Russian short-story iter, Chekhov, Katherine Mansfeld wrote short stories that depend for their effect more on character and tmosphere than upon action . D) Katherine Mansfield greatly dmired the style of Chekhov in his short stories and, like him, wrote short stories in which character and atmosphere, not action, come to the fore.
E) Katherine Mansfield was PARTICULARLY impressed by the short stories of the Russian writer Chekhov, and, like him, she wrote stories which depend more on atmosphere and character than on plot.

220

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RESTATEMENT TEST (ENGLISH - ENGLISH)


1. At the end of World War ll, Algerian nationalists called on the Allies to recognize Algeria's independence in return for their good service during the war.
A) When World War ll ended, Algerian nationalists, claiming that Algeria had made a useful contribution during the war, appealed to the Allies to acknowledge as right the independence of their country. B) As soon as World War ll ended, the Allies were approached by Algerian nationalists to grant independence to Algeria, since they had benefited from the resources of the country. C) Algerian nationalists had served the Allies so well during World War ll that, as soon as the war ended, they expected them to grant full independence. D) Following World War ll, in which Algeria had played a useful part, the Allies were required by Algerian nationalists to grant independence to their country. E) Since Algeria had offered the Allies various services during World War ll , Algerian nationalists were keen to secure with Allied support the independence of their country.

3.

The eighteenth century witnessed the last phase of Baroque music and had two of the greatest compasers of all time: Bach and Handel.
A) The eighteenth century was noted for its interest in Baroque music, and at the time both Bach and Handel were the most notable representatives of this music. B) lt was in the eighteenth century that Baroque music became most popular and that Bach and Handel were recognized as the most famous compesers of the time. C) Bach and Handel were so admired in the eighteenth century that they were regarded as the greatest compesers of Baroque music. D) Baroque music reached its final stage of development in the eighteenth century, which also produced Bach and Handel, regarded as the greatest compesers ever. E) The development of Baroque music reached its elimax in the eighteenth century when , as the greatest Baroque composers, Bach and Handel created the best of the ir music.

2.

The increasing wealth of Iate medieval Europe transformed the social structure of European society.
A) Europe in the Middle Ages accumulated much wealth, and this was due to new developments in European social life. B) In the Iate Middle Ages, Europe became increasingly rich , and this led to a structural change in society. C) The social changes witnessed in Europe towards the end of the Middle Ages were wholly related to contemporary economic prosperity. D) European society in the Iate Middle Ages underwent a process of change due to the ri se of wealthy classes. E) lt was at the close of the Middle Ages that Europe experienced a major social and economic transformation .

4.

The attack on the World Trade Center in 2001 gave the term "globalization" a new and frightening meaning.
A) When the World Trade Center was attacked in 2001 , the meaning of the term "globalization" changed completely. B) Because of the attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center, the term "globalization" has acquired a meaning which is both horrific and unusual. C) The usual meaning of the term "globalization" was further broadened by the terrifying attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center. D) The term "globalization" has lost its usual meaning in the aftermath of the attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center. E) Following the attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center, further meanings have been given to the term "globalization."

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5. The city of Port Elizabeth lies in one of South Africa's poorest provinces, a region burdened with 40 per cent unemployment. A) The city of Port Elizabeth is situated in a province in South Africa that is one of the poorest, suffering from an unemployment rate of 40 per cent. B) The province in which lies the city of Port Elizabeth is completely underdeveloped due to a 40 per cent rate of unemployment. C) The city of Port Elizabeth is so poor that the province in which it is situated has an unemployment rate of 40 per cent. D) One of the least prosperous provinces in South Africa is that of Port Elizabeth, where unemployment has risen to 40 per cent. E) South Africa has several least developed provinces, in one of which lies the city of Port Elizabeth, with a rate of 40 per cent unemployment. 7. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a battleground in the rivalry between Britain and Russia for control of Central Asia. A) During the 19th century, the invasion of Afghanistan by Britain and Russia led to serious hostilities in Central Asia. B) lt was in the 19th century that there emerged hostilities between Britain and Russia in Afghanistan, since Central Asia was important for them. C) In the 19th century, both Britain and Russia got into a fierce conflict with each other in Afghanistan in order to dominate Central Asia. D) Throughout the 19th century, the hostilities between Britain and Russia in Afghanistan were essentially for the possession of Central Asia. E) In the 19th century, Central Asia was so important for Britain and Russia that they first tried to conquer Afghanistan.

8.

A drug may affect several functions, even though it's targeted at only one. A) While a drug may be used for various functions, it becomes effective only if it is taken for a specific function . B) Despite various other uses, a drug usually has a function for a special effect. C) The functions expected of a drug are various even if it is used for a specific disease. D) However effective a drug may be, its functions have to be severaL E) A drug is taken for a specific purpose, but it may have a range of other effects.

6.

With an economic growth over the past decade of nearly 50 per cent, lreland enjoys a level of prosperity greater than that of Brita in. A) Unlike Britain, lreland has much prosperity since it has done its best over the past decade to achieve an economic growth of 50 per cent. B) lreland's prosperity, which is much higher than that of Britain, has led to a 50 per cent rate of economic growth over the past
decade.

9.

What is certain is that Azerbaijan's oil-fred economy has been booming in recent years. A) Although Azerbaijan's economy is largely dependent on oil, in recent years it has entered a period of recession .
B) There is no doubt that, over the past few

C) Both Britain and lreland enjoy a high level of prosperity, which has resulted from a 50 per cent rate of economic growth over the last ten years . D) lreland's economic growth over the past decade has been just 50 per cent, and this has led the country to a level of prosperity which is comparable to that of Britain. E) During the past ten years, lreland achieved almost 50 per cent economic growth, which has enabled it to become more prosperous than Britain.

years, Azerbaijan's economy, which thrives entirely on oil, has been growing fast. C) Since Azerbaijan's economic prosperity is related to oil, there has been some minor improvement lately. D) lt is only in recent years that, because of its oil, Azerbaijan has experienced some economic progress. E) Over the past few years, due to an increase in its oil output, Azerbaijan's economy has become much stronger.

222

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1O. Although Senegal is neither a large nor a it has strategically-located country, nonetheless played a prominent role in African politics since its independence.
A) Senegal is a smail African country with no strategic importance; however, ever since it gained independence, it has always been in the farefront of African politics. B) As a minor but strategically signifcant country, Senegal has been very active in the politics of Africa since its independence. C) Once Senegal, which is a major African country with some strategic importance, gained its independence, it began to pay much attention to political developments in Africa at large. D) Despite the fact that Senegal has had much importance in African politics since its independence, its strategic position has been of no signifcance. E) As an African country, Senegal is so smail that it has little strategic importance, and its involvement in African politics has not been notable ever since it gained independence.

12. Actually, 1 try to keep out of her way because, whenever 1do run into her, she pesters me for a loan.
A) Whatever you do, don't ever give her a loan or you'li find yourself forced to lend her Money every time she asks for it. B) Even so, it's best to keep out of her way, if you can, as she takes every available opportunity to get money out of you . C) As a matter of fact, 1 avoid her as much as possible since, if we ever do happen to meet, she's sure to work on me to lend her money. D) Even so, 1prefer not to risk a meeting with her as 1 know she will do her best to make me lend her the money. E) l'd rather not put myself in a position to be forced to lend her money again.

13. By all accounts, the operation was a success, but the period of recuperation looks like being a long one.
A) So long as the operation is carried out successfully, the period of recuperation that follows will be short. B) Even if the operation is successful, it will be a long time before he gets back to normal. C) Since the operation was only a partial success, we mustn't expect a speedy recovery. D) The operation was a huge success, so he is expected to be back to normal almost at once. E) The operation apparently went off well , but quite some time may be required for him to recover fully.

11. While the world has been distracted by Iraq and Afghanistan, Iran has come closer to the point where it could build an atomic bom b.
A) Contrary to Iraq and Afghanistan, both of which have been the object of international attention, Iran has upgraded its capacity to develop more nuclear arms. B) Both Iraq and Afghanistan continue to preoccupy the world, which has remained indifferent to lran's attempts to produce new weapons. C) In developing nuclear arms, Iran pays no attention to international reactions, since the world is wholly concerned with issues in Iraq and Afghanistan. D) Because the world's attention has been drawn completely to Iraq and Afghanistan , Iran has in the meantime made much progress towards the development of an atomic bomb. E) lt is true that Iran has made some advances in developing nuclear weapons, while the circumstances in Iraq and Afghanistan continue, to draw international attention.

14. Everyone seems to be on edge these days, but with the elections so near that is hardly surprising.
A) The approaching elections seem to have caused a higher than average amount of friction between people. B) As elections are drawing near, we can expect such displays of bad-temper. C) The approach of the elections is no exeuse for such displays of bad-temper. D) Nowadays tempers everywhere are frayed, which, 1suppose, is only natural, with election day so close. E) With elections so close it's essential that everyone makes an effort to stay calm.

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15. If the film focuses on terrorism, it is not likely to attract large audiences.
A) Films that focus on terrorism are not as popular as they used to be. B) If terrorism is central to the film. it probably won 't achieve much popularity. C) As the film touches on terrorism we can't expect it to be popular. D) Unless there is at least a background of terrorism to the film , it won't be a hit. E) If you want the film to be a box-office success, choose any subject but terrorism .

18. Though management may not realize it, a very large proportion of the success of this company is due to the loyalty and hard work of its workers.
A) Whether or not management is aware of it, this company owes its success, to a very large extent, to the industry and loyalty of its staff. B) Whatever management may say, the success of this company depends more than anything else on the dedication of those who work here. C) Management should be made to recognize that the role of the staff is of first importance in the company's success. D) As management realizes full well, it is the workers in the factory who make it so successful. E) The workers in this company, with their hard work and devotion, contribute more to success of the company than management does.

16. People have usually assumed that this mountain viiiage was abandoned because easier living conditions were available elsewhere.
A) The prospect of better living conditions in anather place must have tempted the inhabitants to desert this mountain village. B) Apparently, people abandoned this mountain village, tempted by the prospect of a better way of life elsewhere. C) lt must have been hard to make a livelihood in this mountain village, so people opted out and went in search of an easier way of life. D) The mountain viiiage was presumably abandoned when people realized that easier conditions were on offer elsewhere. E) lt has generally been presumed that people deserted this mountain viiiage because there was the prospect of a pleasanter way of life in anather place.

17. Leonardo da Vi nci forged close friendships with a wide variety of people, from humble apprentices to the king of France.
A) Leonarda da Vinci had same close friends, who mainly included apprentices and alsa the king of France. B) Among the few people Leonarda da Vinci regarded as his friends were same poor apprentices as well as the king of France. C) Leonarda da Vinci was very fond of his friends, who in fact consisted of the French king and same poor apprentices. D) Leonarda da Vinci had a wide range of close friends, including poor apprentices and alsa the king of France. E) The king of France and a number of apprentices were the only people who made friends with Leonarda da Vinci.

19. Many people prefer to eat organic food, that is, food unpolluted by chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
A) A growing number of people are interested in organic food, since it is produced free of chemicals and pesticides. B) Organic food is thought to be healthier as no chemical fertitizers or pesticides are used in its production. C) Obviously, organic food is preferable since it is free of chemical fertitizers and pesticides. D) The preference for organic food has led to a reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. E) Organic food, food produced without the aid of chemical fertitizers or pesticides, has many adherents.

224

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20. Students will usually concentrate harder in the lesson if they know they will be organized into smail groups for interactive discussion. A) Once students get used to being split up for interactive discussion, their ability to concentrate generally improves. B) On the whole, when students know they are going to be split up into smail groups for interactive discussion, they will concentrate better. C) One way to improve concentration is to split students up into smail groups for interactive discussion. D) lnteractive discussion is a sure way of encouraging students to increase their powers of concentration . E) The best way to stimulate concentration is to organize these students into smail groups for interactive discussion. 23. The pictures of the 18th-century painter, Hogarth, seem modern because of their wit and satire. A) Hogarth gives an authentic picture of 18thcentury life which appeals to modern times. B) lt is the detail and worldliness of the drawings of Hogarth that give them a modern touch, though they date from the 18th century. C) Though the scenes and the costumes in the drawings are very 18th century, there is stil something modem about Hogarth's drawing. D) The appeal of Hogarth lies in the dramatic depiction of everyday life in the 18th century. E) There is a contemporary feel for the pictures of 18th-century painter, Hogarth, owing to their humour and satirical content. 24. Clinton is said to be charismatic because he seems to embody the virtue of caring when he speaks. A) Because people are very impressed by what Clinton says, they admire him and think that he has a great deal of charisma . B) Because, through his speech, Clinton can move people, they believe that charisma is a distinctive quality of his character. C) Since in addressing people Clinton appears to be genuinely concemed, it is said that he has charisma. D) People are always very concemed when Clinton addresses them, and so they regard him as a very charismatic person. E) When Clinton addresses people, he arouses their feelings so much that they admire him forhis charismatic personality. 25. According to de-miners, up to 90 per cent of their time is spent combing areas that ultimately prove to be free of mines. 22. Take-off was delayed again and again, so we began to wonder if there was something seriously wrong with the aircraft. A) Unless the problem were serious, they wouldn't have delayed the flight for so long. B) If there had been no problem with the aircraft, they wouldn't have delayed take-off like that. C) The flight was postponed indefnitely, so we presumed there was engine-trouble. D) We began to feel that there might be a real problem with the aircraft as take-off was continually being delayed. E) We assumed that, since there was a problem with the aircraft, they were obliged to delay takeoff indefinitely. A) De-miners point out that they spend almost all of the ir time searching thoroughly for mines in areas which, in the end, turn out to be without them . B) As de-miners have pointed out, the search for mines in areas which in fact do not have any mines usually takes quite a long time. C) As far as de-miners are concerned , a lot of time is needed to undertake a search for mines in areas where it is almost impossible to discover them. D) As we learn from de-miners, it takes same time to look for mines in areas in which one discovers that actually there are no mines. E) For de-miners, it takes little time to search for mines in areas which in fact do not have them.

21. Get your brother to fx the roof; he's quite the best person to do it. A) Try to persuade your brother to fx the roof: he's good at such things. B) As he's good at things like that, why don't you get your brather to fx the roof? C) Your brother would mend the roof better than any one else; teli him to do it. D) Why don't you get your brother to fx the roof? l'm sure he would . E) Since your brother is good at roof-fxing, ask him to do it.

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RESTATEMENT TEST (ENGLISH -ENGLISH) CEVAP ANAHTARI


1. A

2.8
3. D

4.8 S.A

6.E 7.C 8.E


9.8 10. A
11. D

12.C 13.E 14.D


15.8

16.E
17. D 18. A 1St E

20.8 21. c 22.D 23.E 24.C


25.A

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RESTATEMENT TEST (ENGLISH - ENGLISH) TEKNiKLERi


1.
AT THE END OF World War ll , Algerian nationalists called on the Allies to recognize Algeria's inde~endence in return for their good service 1111#)1~ dllllf+f4#JII

A) When World War ll ended, Algerian nationalists, daiming that Algeria had made a useful contribution during the war, appealed to the Allies to acknowledge as right the independence of the ir country.
B) As soon as World War ll ended, the Allies were approached by Algerian nationalists to grant independence to Algeria, since they had benefted from the resources of the country.

C) Algerian nationalists had served the Allies so well during World War ll that, as soon as the war ended , they expected them to grant full independence. D) Following World War ll , in which Algeria had played a useful part, the Allies were required by Algerian nationalists to grant independence to their country. E) Since Algeria had offered the Allies various services during World War ll, Algerian nationalists were keen to secure with Allied support the independence of their country.

A) Europe in the Middle Ages accumulated much wealth, and this was due to new developments in European social life. B) In the Iate Middle Ages, Europe became, increasingly rich , and this led to a structural change in society. C) The social changes witnessed in Europe towards the end of the Middle Ages were wholly related to contemporary economic prosperity. D) European society in the Iate Middle Ages underwent a process of change due to the ri se of wealthy classes. E) lt was at the close of the Middle Ages that Europe experienced a major social and economic transformation.

TEKNiKI

led to a structural change in society

KONULAR AYNII

transformed the social structure of European society

TEKNiKI

A. SE~ENEGI iLE SORUNUN BAGLA YAPILARI CMLE SIRALAMASlNDA AYNI YERDEl

. .

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the greatest composers HandeL A) When the World Trade Center was attacked

A) The eighteenth century was noted for its


interest in Baroque music, and at the time both Bach and Handel were the most notable representatives of this music. lt was in the eighteenth century that Baroque music became most popular and that Bach and Handel were recognized as the most famous composers of the time. Bach and Handel were so admired in the eighteenth century that they were regarded as the greatest composers of Baroque music. Baroque music reached its fnal stage of development in the eighteenth century, which also produced Bach and Handel, regarded as the greatest composers ever. The development of Baroque music reached its elimax in the eighteenth century when , as the greatest Baroque composers, Bach and Handel created the best of their mu sic .
. TEKNiKI B)

in

2001.

the

meaning

of

the

te rm

B)

C) D)

C)

D)

E)

"globalization" changed completely. Because of the attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center, the term "globalization" has acquired a meaning which is both horrifc and unusual. The usual meaning of the term "globalization" was further broadened by the terrifying attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center. The term "globalization" has lost its usual meaning in the aftermath of the attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center. Following the attack in 2001 on the World Trade Center, further meanings have been given to the te rm "globalization."
TEKNiKI

E)

~e

term 'globalization' has acquired a meaning which is both horrifc and unusual

~ Baroque

=
gave the term globalization' a new and frightening meaning

KONULAR AYNII

music reached its fnal stage of development

KONULAR AYNU

=
witnessed the last phase of Baroque music

228

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5.

THE CITY OF PORT ELIZABETH lies in one of South Africa's poorest provinces, a region burdened with 40 per cent unemployment. A) The city of Port Elizabeth is situated in a province in South Africa that is one of the poorest, suffering from an unemployment rate of 40 per cent. B) The province in which lies the city of Port Elizabeth is completely underdeveloped due to a 40 per cent rate of unemployment. C) The city of Port Elizabeth is so poor that the province in which it is situated has an unemployment rate of 40 per cent. D) One of the least prosperous provinces in South Africa is that of Port Elizabeth, where unemployment has risen to 40 per cent. E) South Africa has several least developed provinces, in one of which lies the city of Port Elizabeth, with a rate of 40 per cent unemployment. TEKNiKI

6.

A) Unlike Britain, lreland has much prosperity since it has done its best over the past decade to achieve an economic growth of 50 per cent. B) lreland's prosperity, which is much higher than that of Britain, has led to a 50 per cent rate of economic growth over the past decade. C) Both Britain and lreland enjoy a high level of prosperity, which has resulted from a 50 per cent rate of economic growth over the last ten years. D) lreland's economic growth over the past decade has been just 50 per cent, and this has led the country to a level of prosperity which is comparable to that of Britain. E) During the past ten years, lreland achieved almost 50 per cent economic growth, which has enabled it to become more prosperous than Britain. TEKNiKI

~The city of Port Elizabeth


= The city of Port Elizabeth
2. is situated in a province in South Africa that is one of the poorest

ll

= lies in one of Africa's poorest provinces

1. lreland lreland 2. more prosperous than a level of prosperity greater than (comparative)

A.. SEENEOIILE SORU AYNI ZNE VE FHLE SAHIPI

E. SEENECI80RU ILE AYNI COIIP~"'WE YAPlYA SAHIP

~The city of Port Elizabeth


The city of Port Elizabeth 2.is so poor f: lies in one of Africa's poorest provinces

~. 1. lreland =lreland
2. much prosperity greater than
f:

a level of prosperity

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7.

9.

What is [118ijlf41@ is ~ Azerbaijan 's oil-fred economy has been booming in recent years. A) Although Azerbaijan 's economy is largely dependent on oil , in recent years it has entered a period of recession . B) There is no doubt that, over the past few years, Azerbaijan 's economy, which thrives entirely on oil , has been growing fast. C) Since Azerbaijan 's economic prosperity is related to oil, there has been some minor improvement lately. D) lt is only in recent years that, because of its oil , Azerbaijan has experienced some economic progress. E) Over the past few years , due to an increase in its oil output, Azerbaijan 's economy has become much stronger. TEKNiKI

A) During the 19th century, the invasion of Afghanistan by Britain and Russia led to serious hostilities in Central Asia . B) lt was in the 19th century that there emerged hostilities between Britain and Russia in Afghanistan , since Central Asia was important for them . C) In the 19th century, both Britain and Russia got into a ferce conflict with each other in Afghanistan in order to dominate Central Asia . D) Throughout the 19th century, the hostilities between Britain and Russia in Afghanistan were essentially for the possession of Central Asia. E) In the 19th century, Central Asia was so important for Britain and Russia that they frst tried to conquer Afghanistan. TEKNiK!

13

1. that that (noun clause)

AYNI NOUN CLAUSE YAPISINA SAHIP! AYNI SAHIP! SIFATLARA

2. no doubt Britain and Russia got into a fierce conflict the rivalry between Britain and Russia A dru~ may affect several functions, ~

=certain

KONULAR AYNI!

8.

il#[e11ii it' s targeted at only one.

A) While a drug may be used for various functions , it becomes effective only if it is taken for a specific function . B) Despite various other uses, a drug usually has a function for a special effect. C) The functions expected of a drug are various even if it is used for a specifc disease. D) However effective a drug may be , its functions have to be severaL E) A drug is taken for a specifc purpose, but it may have a ran ge of other effects.

TEKNiK!

1. but "" even though

E. SEENEeliLE SORU AYNI BA4LA YAPlSlNA SAHIP! AYNI ZNEYE SAHIP! AYNI FIILE SAHIP!

2. a drug a drug

3. purpose "" target

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11. While the world has been distracted ~ Iraq and Afghanistan , II#JUI#t,_W1*!M41e}; 1~ to the point where it could build an atomic bomb.

politics since its independence.

A) Senegal is a smail African country with no


strategic importance; however, ever since it gained independence, it has always been in the forefront of African politics. B) As a minor but strategically significant country, Senegal has been very active in the politics of Africa since its independence. C) Once Senegal, which is a major African country with some strategic importance, gained its independence, it began to pay much attention to political developments in Africa at large. D) Despite the fact that Senegal has had much importance in African politics since its independence, its strategic position has been of no significance. E) As an African country, Senegal is so smail that it has little strategic importance, and its involvement in African politics has not been notable ever si nce it gained independence.
TEKNiKI

A) Contrary to Iraq and Afghanistan, both of which have been the object of international attention, Iran has upgraded its capacity to develop more nuclear arms. B) Both Iraq and Afghanistan continue to preoccupy the world , which has remained indifferent to lran's attempts to produce new weapons. C) In developing nuclear arms, Iran pays no attention to international reactions, since the world is wholly concerned with issues in Iraq and Afghanistan . D) Because the world's attention has been drawn completely to Iraq and Afghanistan , Iran has in the meantime made much progress towards the development of an atomic bomb. E) lt is true that Iran has made some advances in developing nuclear weapons, while the circumstances in Iraq and Afghanistan continue, to draw international attention.
TEKNiKI

~ Iran

has made much progress towards the development of an atomic bomb

KONULAR AYNII

Iran has come closer to the point where it could build an atomic bom b

has played a prominent role DIFFERENT VERB

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12.

13. ~ll accounts, the operation ~ a success,

1.:1!11

pesters me for a loan. A) Whatever you do, don't ever give her a loan or you'li fnd yourself forced to lend her Money every time she asks for it. B) Even so, it's best to keep out of her way, if you can, as she takes every available opportunity to get money out of you. C) As a matter of fact, 1 avoid her as much as possible since, if we ever do happen to meet, she's sure to work on me to lend her money. D) Even so, 1prefer not to risk a meeting with her as 1 know she will do her best to make me le nd her the money. E) l'd rather not put myself in a position to be forced to lend her money again.
TEKNiKI

the period of being a long one.

recuperati~4XU@ like

A) So long as the operation is carried out successfully, the period of recuperation that follows will be short. B) Even if the operation is successful, it will be a long time before he gets back to normal. C) Since the operation was only a partial success, we mustn't expect a speedy recovery. D) The operation was a huge success, so he is expected to be back to normal almost at once. E) The operation apparently went off well, but quite some time may be required for him to recover fully.
TEKNiKI

1. As a matter of fact

c. SEENEOt ILE
SORU AVNt 8ENTENCE
CONNECTOR(BA6L.A)

;l.

1. but = but

AYNIBAaA

=
Actually 2. avoid = try to keep her out 3. if ... ever (CONDITION)

YAPISINA SAltiPI
2. s.past but s.present

ILE BASUYORI

AYNI FIILE SANIPI

=
s. past but s.present

AYNITI!N8E

SAHIP!

KOIIBINAsYONLARINA

=
whenever (TIME) since = because

AYNI ADVERBIAL YAPILARINA SAMIPI

14. Everyone seems to be on edge

....,:L.::Io:,j~

but with the elections so near that is

fJIIiJQd"-11@@.
A) The approaching elections seem to have caused a higher than average amount of friction between people. B) As elections are drawing near, we can expect such displays of bad-temper. C) The approach of the elections is no exeuse for such displays of bad-temper. D) Nowadays tempers everywhere are frayed, which, suppose, is only natural, with election day so close. E) With elections so close it's essential that everyone makes an effort to stay calm .
TEKNiKI

1. nowadays = these
da s 2. hardly surprising only natural

AYNII
RELATIVE CLAUSE FIILLERI AYNII

232

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15.

[i the film focuses on terrorism, it is not lll;i!!l!i


to attract large audiences. A) Films that focus on terrorism are not as popular as they used to be. B) If terrorism is central to the film, it probably won't achieve much popularity. C) As the film touches on terrorism we can't expect it to be popular. D) Unless there is at least a background of terrorism to the film , it won't be a hit. E) If you want the film to be a box-office success , choose any subject but terrorism.

17.

A) Leonardo da Vinci had some close friends, who mainly included apprentices and also the king of France. B) Among the few people Leonardo da Vinci regarded as his friends were some poor apprentices as well as the king of France. C) Leonardo da Vinci was very fond of his friends, who in fact consisted of the French king and some poor apprentices. D) Leonardo da Vinci had a wide range of close friends, including poor apprentices and also the king of France. E) The king of France and a number of apprentices were the only peop!e who made friends with Leonardo da Vinci.

TEKNiK!

~IF (TYPE 1)
=

won't is not likely to 2. probably likely

B. SEENEGIILE SORU AYNI IF CLAUSE VE ZARF YAPISINA SAHIP!

TEKNiK!

~type zero ~ if type 1


16. People have usually assumed that this mountain :mma viiiage was abandoned LIVING CONDITIONS were available elsewhere.

':P Lenorda da Vi nci =Leonardo da Vi nci


2. a wide range of close friends close friendship with a wide variety of people

I:J:(If;.1if*i

D. SEENEGIILE SORUNUN KONULARI AYNI!

A) The prospect of better living conditions in another place must have tempted the inhabitants to desert this mountain village . B) Apparently, people abandoned this mountain village, tempted by the prospect of a better way of life elsewhere. C) lt must have been hard to make a livelihood in this mountain village, so people opted out and went in search of an easier way of life. D) The mountain viiiage was presumably abandoned when people realized that easier conditions were on offer elsewhere. E) lt has generally been presumed that people deserted this mountain viiiage because there was the prospect of a pleasanter way of life in another place.

~ Leonardo da Vi nci =Leonardo da Vi nci


2.
~

close friendships
~

close friendships with a wide variety of people

TEKNiKI

;tl

1. because

=because

AYNIBAGLA YAPISINA SAHIP! AYNI COMPARATlYE YAPlYA SAHIPI

2. pleasanter way of life easier living conditions

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realize it, a very of the success of this company is I.!W.:Il!l the loyalty and hard work of its workers.
~portion

U:t11ICJII management may not

20. Students will usu; concentrate harder in the lesson I!Mi;:i :mVMU14W'*91!! be organized into smail groups for interactive d iscussion .

A) Whether or not management is aware of it, this company owes its success, to a very large extent, to the industry and loyalty of its staff. B) Whatever management may say, the success of this company depends more than anything else on the dedication of those who work here. C) Management should be made to recognize that the role of the staff is of first importance in the company's success. D) As management realizes full well, it is the workers in the factory who make it so successful. E) The workers in this company, with their hard work and devotion, contribute more to success of the company than management does.

A) Once students get used to being split up for


B)

C)

D)

E)

interactive discussion, their ability to concentrate generally improves. On the whole, when students know they are going to be split up into smail groups for interactive discussion, they will concentrate better. One way to improve concentration is to split students up into smail groups for interactive d iscussion . lnteractive discussion is a sure way of encouraging students to increase their powers of concentration. The best way to stimulate concentration is to organize these students into smail groups for interactive discussion .
TEKNiK!

TEKNiK!

ri! 1. whether or not


though

AYNIBAGLA. YAPISINA SAHIP!

when students know they are go ing to ... if students know they

KOUL CMLELERI AYNI!

wili
2. owe = due to
FIIL iLE SORU BAGLACI AYNI GREVDE
KULLANILMII

21. ~our brother to fx the root; he's quite :.a:J.I person to do it.

iili!!

19. MANY PEOPLE prefer to eat organic food, that is, food unpolluted by chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

A) A growing number of people are interested in organic food , since it is produced free of chemicals and pesticides. B) Organic food is thought to be healthier as no chemical fertilizers or pesticides are used in its production. C) Obviously, organic food is preferable since it is free of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
D) The preference for organic food has led to a

A) Try to persuade your brother to fx the root: he's good at such things. B) As he's good at things like that, why don't you get your brother to fx the root? C) Your brother would mend the root better than any one else; teli him to do it. D) Why don't you get your brother to fix the root? l'm sure he would. E) Since your brother is good at roof-fxing , ask him to do it.
TEKNiK!

reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. E) Organic food , food produced without the aid of chemical fertilizers or pesticides, has many adherents. TEKNiK!

~ better than anyone one else = the best

iKI CMLEDE DE KlYASLAMA VAR!

1. many adherents
man

KONULAR AYNI!

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22. Take-off was delat.ed amain and again, ~ we i:Jiffi.1~1iW#114;1 i there was something
seriously wrong with the aircraft. A) Unless the problem were serious , they wouldn't have delayed the flight for so long. B) If there had been no problem with the aircraft, they wouldn 't have delayed take-off like that. C) The flight was postponed indefnitely, so we presumed there was engine-trouble. D) We began to feel that there might be a real problem with the aircraft as take-off was continually being delayed. E) We assumed that, since there was a problem with the aircraft, they were obliged to delay takeoff indefnitely .
TEKNiK!

24. Clinton is said to be charismatic because he

@44M':I(e) embody the


speaks.

virtue of caring when he

A) Because people are very impressed by what Clinton says, they admire him and think that he has a great dea of charisma . B) Because, through his speech, Clinton can move people, they believe that charisma is a distinctive quality of his character. C) Since in addressing people Clinton appears to be genuinely concerned, it is said that he has charisma . D) People are always very concerned when Clinton addresses them, and so they regard him asa very charismatic person. E) When Clinton addresses people, he arouses their feelings so much that they admire him forhis charismatic personality.
TEKNiK!

~ 1. as= so
2. began to feel that the re mig ht be ...

IKICUMLEDE NEDEN .SONU ILISKISI VERlYORI IKiCMLE DE OLASILIK iFADE EDIYOR!

c.
appears to = seems to

= began to wonder if...

AYNI FIILE SAHIP!

23. The pictures of the 18th-century painter, Hogarth, their wit and satire. seem modern

l=hllfJIIJ:Cli

25. According to de-miners, UP TO 90 PER CENT ~ their time is spent combing areas that ii~Mi4!fi prove to be free of mines.

A) Hogarth gives an authentic picture of 18th century life which appeals to modern times . B) lt is the detail and worldliness of the drawings of Hogarth that give them a modern touch , though they date from the 18th century. C) Though the scenes and the costumes in the drawings are very 18th century, there is stil something modern about Hogarth's drawing. D) The appeal of Hogarth lies in the dramatic depiction of everyday life in the 18th century. E) There is a contemporary feel for the pictures of 18th-century painter, Hogarth, owing to their humour and satirical content.
TEKNiK!

A) De-miners point out that they spend almost all


of their time searching thoroughly for mines in areas which , in the end, turn out to be without them. As de-miners have pointed out, the search for mines in areas which in fact do not have any mines usually takes quite a long time . As far as de-miners are concerned , a lot of time is needed to undertake a search for mines in areas where it is almost impossible to discover them. As we learn from de-miners, it takes some time to look for mines in areas in which one discovers that actually there are no mines. For de-miners, it takes little time to search for mines in areas which in fact do not have the m.
TEKNiK!

B)

C)

D)

E)

~wing to= because of

AYNI BAGLA YAPlSlNA SAHIP!

~ . 1. thoroughly = ultimately
2. almost all of up to 90 percent of

AYNI ZARFLARA SAHIP!

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PARAGRAPH COMPLETION TEST


1. The Africans who go abroad to work usually send money back home to pay for their relatives'medical care, education, and housing. Today, most African countries get the largest part of their foreign exchange earnings from such remittances. ----. Without this subsidy, Africa's dictators would have to face the political consequences of an angry population.
A) In Africa, foreign aid goes mostly to those governments that have mismanaged their economies. B) There are over three million Nigerians in the US and another one million in Britain. C) From a quarter to almost 50% of universityeducated graduates from Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya leave their countries to work in the West. D) lronically, African citizens abroad subsidize state corruption . E) About three million middle-class Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since 1999.

3.

After more than 30 years without building a nuclear plant, US power companies are seeking licences for over 30 new reactors. In addition, more than 300 reactors have been proposed worldwide. Countries such as Egypt, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela have serious plans to build their first nuclear plant. ----.
A) In other parts of the world, some 40 reactors are already under construction, though many have been underway for decades with no end in sight B) Annual emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to double by 2050, from a current 7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year to more than 14 billion tonnes C) According to a recent report, nuclear power is a major solution to the West's growing electricity needs, and increased nuclear use can substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions D) On the contrary, a country's use of nuclear power has much to do with government intervention, whether through state loans or streamlined regulations E) Therefore, global electricity demand is estimated to nearly double by 2030, with nuclear power currently accounting for about 15 per cent of global use

4.

2.

The United States and its allies cannot remain in Afghanistan indefinitely. For them, building a capable Afghan security force and a credible Afghan government is the fastest and most responsible exit strategy. ----. On the other hand, a security force can only be as good as its government, and the Afghan government has been crippled by corruption. However, national elections scheduled for this year provide an incentive for the Afghan government to continue to improve.
A) Afghans' greatest concerns are access to electricity, jobs, water, and education B) lndeed, more US troops are absolutely necessary to defeat the insurgents in Afghanistan C) lt is a clear fact that Pakistan is connected to the Afghan insurgency O) The Pakistani army remains primarily focused on the perceived threat from lndia E) However, US efforts so far to reach a decision for a complete withdrawal have been mixed

For decades, China has been content to let the invisible hand of the market work its magic on the country's economy. But there's one area where the government wants to reassert state control: healthcare. ----. Today, nearly 40 per cent of the population can't afford to see a doctor. The average hospital stay for a Chinese citizen costs nearly as much as an individual's annual per capita ineome in the country. Healthcare grievances have been at the heart of thousands of organized protests countrywide in recent years.
A) Some hospitals have had to hire security personnel to protect medical staff from angry mo bs B) By comparison, Japanese pay just 15 per cent of their medical spending out of pocket C) So the government has recently developed a strategy to provide -affordable medical insurance to 90 per cent of its population by 2010 D) In fact, the free market retorms in China were first initiated in the Iate 1970s and early 1980s E) The Chinese government has already met many of its economic goals and is now beginning to address scientific and technological development

236

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5. The African Union is well aware that, although Africa has enormous agricultural potential, it stili remains a major food importer. The majority of Africans live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood; but the performance of the agricultural sector has been dismal. In addition to internal and structural problems that each African country faces, external setbacks such as climate change and global economic instability have made the conditions worse for growth and development in all sectors, including agriculture. ----.
A) The vision of the African Union is to achieve an integrated, prosperous, well-governed, and peaceful United States of Africa B) These are some of the most serious issues that the African Union is determined to address as efficiently as possible C) Africa seeks to promote existing and agreedupon shared values across the continent at individual, national, regional, and internationallevels D) All the African countries wish to eliminate ongoing conflicts and prevent the occurrence of new ones in order to achieve development and integration E) Some of the values cherished and upheld by each African nation are good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, accountability, and transparency

7.

Most foreign tourists visiting London come to see the Houses of Parliament. This monumental Gothic building on the River Thames is probably Britain's best-known landmark. lndeed, the people who come to visit it may know very little and care even less about what happens inside, but they appreciate the place as one of the greatest achievements of nineteenth-century art. ---.lndeed, the Parliament is a magnificent building.
A) Before the Norman Conquest in 1066, King Edward the Canfessor established his palace on the site B) Also, most of those who work daily in the building remain awed by its artistic power C) The disaster of the great fire of 1834 destroyed much of the medieval palace D) For security reasons , the Houses of Parliament can no longer be viewed by the general public E) The word "parliament" derives from the French word "parler", which means "to speak" or "to talk"

6.

Turkey offers much for the naturalist, with rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife, and elusive larger mammals. Especially the rugged eastern provinces and also the regions with thick forests harbour a large variety of these mammals. ----. The tulip is perhaps the most famous of these. The great diversity of plants stems not only from the variety of habitats, which include arid plains as well as mountains and temperate woodlands, but also from Turkey's position as a "biological watershed" at the crossroads of Europe and Asia.
A) There are huge tracts of unspoiled countryside, some of which have been set aside as national parks B) Unfortunately, Turkish wetlands are under threat from dams, drainage, pollution, and climatic change C) The country's position on the migratory flyways makes it a paradise for birdwatchers D) The country is also floristically rich, with more than 11,000 plant species recorded E) In winter, the country's lakes and wetlands hold thousands of wintering wildfowl

8.

At the start of the twentieth century, Britain was stili the greatest world power. By the middle of the century, although stili one of the "Big Three", B rita in was clearly weaker than both the United States and the Soviet Union. ---. lts power had ended as quickly as Spain's had done in the seventeenth century. One reason for this sudden decline of Britain was the cost and effort of two world wars.
A) lndeed, by the end of the 1970s, Britain was no longer even among the richest European powers B) In electronics and technology, Britain is stili a world competitor C) No one doubts that Britain is living in an age of uncertainty D) But the most important reason was the basic weaknesses in Britain's industrial power E) The discovery of oil in the North Sea has given Britain a great deal of economic advantage

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9. During World War ll, the Allies had started to think of ways in which a new world order could replace the failed League of Nations. Even before it joined the war against Germany and its allies, the US had agreed on an "Atlantic Charter" with Britain. The basis of this new charter was US President Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms": freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from fear, and freedom from want. At the end of the war, the victorious Allies created the United Nations, which expressed the ideas of the Atlantic Charter. . A) In the early 1960s, Britain was increasingly interested in joining the newly-formed European Community B) In 1948, the Soviet Union tried to capture West Berlin by stopping all road and rail traffic to it C) Thus, they hoped that the success of the wartime alliance could be carried into peacetime D) All these military and scientific developments drew Britain more closely to the US E) During the post-war period, Britain was seriously concerned about the danger from the Soviet Union 11. Around 1550, the Renaissance in ltaly began to decline. The causes of this decline were varied. . The French King Charles VIII viewed ltaly as an attractive target for his expansive dynastic ambitions. In 1494, he led an army of thirty thousand well-trained troops across the Alps to press his claims to the Duchy of M ilan and the Kingdom of Naples. A) The French invasion of 1494 and the incessant warfare that ensued was one of the major factors B) Renaissance humanists were primarily interested in the study of classical texts C) To the ltalian political disasters was added a waning of talian prosperity D) As ltalian wealth diminished, there was less and less of a surplus to support artistic endeavours E) ltaly's virtual monopoly of trade with Asia in the ffteenth century had been an economic support for the ltalian Renaissance

10. Little is known about the life of women in the Middle Ages, but without doubt it was hard. --. lt also spread two very different ideas about women. So, on the one hand, women were regarded as pure and holy, while, on the other, they could not be trusted and were a moral danger to men. Such religious teaching led men both to worship and also to look down on women. A) lt is unlikely that love played much of a part in most marriages B) Marriage was always the single most important event in the lives of medieval men and women C) This was because by marriage a family could improve its wealth and social position D) The Church taught that women were always to obey their husbands E) Once married, a woman had to accept her husband as her master

12. Our knowledge of the Celts in Britain is slight. As with previous groups of settlers, we do not even know for certain whether the Celts invaded Britain or came peacefully as a result of the lively trade with Europe from about 750 B.C. onwards. At first, most of Celtic Britain seems to have developed in a generally similar way. . Consequently, this tali led to serious economic and political differences between the Celts of southeast Britain and those of the northwest. A) The Celts were joined by new arrivals from the European mainland B) The Geltic tribes continued the same kind of agriculture as the Bronze Age people before the m C) The Celts knew how to work with iron and could make a variety of weapons D) But from about 500 B.C., trade contact with Europe declined E) During the Geltic period, women may have played an important role in political life

238

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13. Logistics as a business concept began to gain ground in the 1950s, particularly in the US. This was because, as businesses expanded and reached out both to far-flung markets and sources of materials, the need for expert logisticians became imperative. Logisticians applied their own ingenuity to create companies that aimed to deliver the right item in the right quantity at the right time in the right place for the right price. ----. lndeed, with increasing globalization and ever longer and more complex supply chains, logistics companies have become ever more sophisticated and adaptable. A) The US has led the way in the development of efficient logislical systems B) No region in the world requires efficient logistics more urgently than Africa does C) Logistics is considered one of the most important aspects of military campaigns D) The problems of the logistics industry have not been clearly identifed yet E) These aims have not changed, but the world has 15. St. Petersburg is not just a city of names and movements. lt is also a city of bridges, with more of them than any other city in the whole world. With its 101 islands, it is also worthy of the title "city of islands." Not only that, but it has enough canals to compete with Venice, Amsterdam, and Stockholm. As Dostoevsky's hero puts it, "lt is the most abstract and tantastic city on earth." A) But most of all St. Petersburg is a city of culture , of literature and poetry in particular B) There are a total of 539 bridges, including 315 in the city centre C) The sports facilities and activities in it cannot go unnoticed D) The people of St. Petersburg are offered various educational opportunities E) A considerable number of painters and sculptors have lived there , too

14. The year 1960 seemed golden and full of promise. Despite nearly constant international tension, everyday life in Europe and North America seemed to be improving. Economies recovered, many standards of living rose, and new forms of culture flourished. The economic horizon looked bright. ----. Western Europeans could no longer be so certain of their prosperity or of their leaders' ability to provide the sort of life they took for granted. A) Legal changes would not have occurred without women's movements of the time B) These changes marked a new culture of mass consumption boosted by marketing, advertising, and credit payment C) However, by 1990, most of the familiar landscape had been dramatically transformed D) The civil rights movement in the US had enormous signifcance for the twentieth century E) The most serious outbreak of student unrest in Europe came in Paris in the spring of 1968

16. Despite numerous intellectual and literary advances, the longest-lived achievements of the ltalian Renaissance were made in the realm of art. Of all the arts, painting was undoubtedly supreme. Although Giotto was the great artistic genius around 1300, it was not until the fifteenth century that ltalian painting began to come fully of age. ----. Fifteenth-century artists also experimented with effects of light and shade and, for the first time, carefully studied the anatomy and proportions of the human body. A) From about 1450 until about 1600 ltalian thought was dominated by a school of NeoPiatonists, who sought to blend Platonism with Christianity B) One reason for this was that, in the early ffteenth century, the laws of linear perspective were discovered and frst employed to give the fullest sense of three dimensions C) Sixteenth-century ltalian writers, such as Machiavelli, Ariosto, Tasso, and Sannazaro, were also highly accomplished creators of imaginative prose and verse D) Perhaps the greatest of the Florentine artists was Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most versatile geniuses who ever lived E) Most Venetian painters showed little of the Florentine school's concerns with philosophical and psychological issues

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17. World War ll left Europe a land of wreckage and confusion. Millions of refugees travelled hundreds or thousands of miles on foot to return to their homes white others were forcibly displaced from their lands. ----. Food remained in dangerously short supply, and even a year after the war roughly 100 million people in Europe stil lived on less than 1,500 calories per day.
A) In same areas housing was practically nonexistent, with no available means to build a new B) The Soviet campaign to control eastern Europe did not go unchallenged C) Historians estimate that in World War ll nearly 50 million people died D) Even more than World War 1 , World War ll involved the combined efforts of whole populations E) Since industry was essential to winning the war, centres of industry became vital military targets

19.

For instance, Alpine scenery predominates in the Tatra Mountains to the south, while the North is dominated by lakes. Mountain lovers can make use of the welldeveloped infrastructure of hostels and shelters, such as those found in the Tatras. The countless lakes of Warmia and Mazuria, collectively known as the Land of a Thousand Lakes, are a haven for water-sports enthusiasts.
A) Since 1989, many new luxury hotels have been built in Paland and the majority of them belong to international hotel chains B) Poland's borders have changed continually with the course of history C) Bordering the Baltic Sea, Paland is one of the largest countries in Central Europe, with a population of araund 39 million D) Warsaw, the capital of Poland, is located at the centre of Poland, on the banks of the Vistula River E) Although situated on the plains of Central Europe, Paland has an extremely varied landscape

18. Western perceptions of the Middle East as a viable tourist destination have been adversely affected by the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US, the subsequent war on terrorism, and the war in Iraq. lndeed, the impact of the 9/11 attacks upon the tourist sector in the region has been profound.----. North Africa in general and Tunisia in particular have fared comparatively well, but Morocco has suffered badly.
A) Morocco is already one of the biggest tourist destinations in the Middle East and North Africa , drawing 2.25 million visitors a year B) Especially, the effect on visitor numbers has been decisive although it has varied considerably from country to country C) Morocco has a better developed domestic beach culture than probably anywhere else in the Middle East or North Africa D) The target of 1O million visitors a year by 201 O may have been a little over-optimistic, although Egypt has made huge investments E) Some of the driest parts of Morocco lie on the coast, and so one feasible option is to pipe water there from the Atlas Mountains

20. The Scandinavian countries - Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland - are, arguably, among the least-populated countries in Europe. ----. Away from the main towns and cities lie vast expanses of unspoiled, often wild terrain, from the breathtaking Norwegian fjords to the dense pine forests and clear lakes of Finland. Smaller and largely fiat and rural, Denmark shares characteristics with both mainland Europe and Scandinavia proper.
A) In Norway, Sweden, and Finland, the majority of the population lives in the south , in affiuent, modern cities, which are also rich in history and tradition B) Sweden is Europe's ffth-largest country, with an area about the size of California C) Finland's main cities are all served by an efficient railroad system and regular, inexpensive internal flights D) Norway is so long and narrow that, if Oslo remained fxed and the rest were turned upside down, it would stretch all the way to Rom e E) Oslo, Norway's capital , is an attractive city of grand Neoclassical buildings, wide boulevards, and green open spaces

240

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20. An independent city close to Berlin, Potsdam has almost 150,000 inhabitants and is the capital of Brandenburg. ----. The town blossomed in the 1600s, during the era of the Great Elector, and then again in the 18th century, when the splendid summer palace, Schloss Sanssouci, was built for Frederick the Great. Potsdam suffered badly in World War ll, particularly on April 14 and 15, 1945, when the Allies bombed the town centre. A) The Marmorpalais (Marble Pa la ce) is located on the edge of the lake in the Neuer Garten, a park northeast of Potsdam's centre B) Despite its wartime losses, Potsdam is today one of Germany's most attractive towns C) The Schloss Cecilienhof played an important role in history in 1945, when it served as the venue for the Potsdam Conference D) The first documented reterence to the town dates from A.D. 993; it was later granted municipal rights in 1317 E) Tourists flock to see the magnificent royal estate, Park Sanssouci, and to stroll in the Neuer Garten 23. In finance, interest, which is a sum of money paid by a borrower to a lender in return for the loan, is usually expressed as a percentage per annum. ----. In compound interest, the interest earned over a period of time is added to the principal, so that at the end of the next period, interest is paid on that total. A) Nevertheless, certain problems remain in perennial interest, and these fall into two main groups B) The theory of capital was not a matter of primary concern to economists in the Iate 2oth century C) Simple interest is calculated as a straight percentage of the amount loaned or invested, called the principal D) However, it may be expressed either in Money terms or as a rate of payment E) Various theories have been developed to account for and justify interest

22. Ballet is theatrical representation in dance form in which music also plays a major part in teliing a story or conveying a mood. Some such form of entertainment existed in ancient Greece. ----. From there, it was taken by Caterina de' Medici in the 16th century to France in the form of a spectacle combining singing, dancing, and speech. During the 18th century, there were major developments in technique, and ballet gradually became divorced from opera, emerging as an art form in its own right. A) Ballet developed in the UK through the influence of Marie Rambert B) But Western ballet as we know it today first appeared in Renaissance ltaly, where it was a form of court entertainment C) Ballet developed further in the USA through the work of George Balanchine and the American Ballet Theater D) In fact, it was drama, rather than ballet, which greatly appealed to the Greeks E) In the 2oth century, Russian ballet had a vital influence on the classical tradition in the West

24. This year a lot of good things have happened in the US economy. US companies have become more competitive, and exports are now booming. This strong export growth is helping to stabilize the trade gap, and slower US demand will bring down imports. ----. Moreover, long-term interest rates are stili low, stock prices are setting records, and the economy continues to grow at a moderate pa ce. A) The biggest danger in the weeks ahead is a US recession , since currency markets began to worry at the end of 2006 that the housing recession could sp ili over to other areas of the economy B) In the meantime, profits from overseas operations and returns on international investments are rising as the gains are translated back into dollars C) Some leading economists have forecast that the US dollar's value could plunge by a third over the next few years D) The US dollar will be sornewhat more vulnerable against the euro, given that the European Central Bank will most likely continue to raise interest rates E) The dollar is down 3% from a year ago against the Chinese yuan , and futures markets expect an additicnal 5% decline later in the year

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25. In recent years, the amount of aid for devetoping countries has increased, and the price of many drugs has fallen. So why does one third of the world's population stili taek access to proper healthcare? ----. Many charge high tariffs on life-saving medicines and equipment, sometimes even taxing products that are donated for free. A) If these tariffs were lowered, it would dramatically increase access to pharmaceuticals B) Thus, even in places where tariffs are waived, other barriers remain C) To a large extent, the fault lies with the poor countries themselves D) Naturally, it is the right of any nation to raise ineome as it sees fit E) These regulatory constraints are imposed on a wide variety of medical equipment as well as drugs 27. The biggest problems affecting the IMF, the World Bank, and other instruments of globalization concern governance. At both the IMF and the World Bank, voting rights are allocated not according to population but according to economic power, and the various countries' representatives are typically finance ministers or members of central banks, not officials with broader outlooks and concerns. ----. Therefore, the voices of those most affected by globalization are barely audible in discussions about what policies these international bodies should follow. A) lt is within these same smail, elite circles that most of the debate about reforming the international economic architecture occurs B) IMF policies have always had a lasting impact on the economies of devetoping countries C) Yet well-managed globalization has enormous potential for improving the lives of people in poor countries D) Traditionally, the World Bank has been reluctant to lend money unless the IMF certifes that the country in question has a solid macro-economic framework E) If we continue with globalization as it has been managed in the past, the future will not be bright

26. Laying undersea cable systems is a monumental process. After surveying tanding studying seabed geology, and sites, assessing risks, engineers plot a route. ----. For months, these ships tower the cables thousands of feet to the seabed. In congested spots, engineers use robots to dig trenches for the cable that protect it from wayward anchors and fishing nets. Then crews pull the cable ends above the water and connect them to land-based stations. A) One of the new Pacific systems is part of a $1 .5 billion global network massive connecting 60 countries B) Traditional crass-ocean systems are loops made up of two cables, usually many miles ap art C) Operaters building new cable systems are mindful of the threat of earthquakes and do what they can to avoid it D) Then gigantic spools of cable and other gear are loaded on cable-laying vessels E) While there are ten major undersea cables linking the US directly with Europe, there are only fve cables connecting the US with Asia

28. Ice climbing and rock climbing share some important features. Both use ropes, harnesses, and other specialized equipment for ascending steep granite or blue ice. ----. A rock climber follows the natural cracks or weaknesses in the rock whereas, with ice tools in each hand, an ice climber has more freedom to blaze a path up and is limited only by the ice conditions and the technology of the tools. A) Most ice climbing trips require an arduous trek into the mountains and possibly several nights out in the cold B) But, the method of climbing in each case is different C) However, climbing itself has always been considered to be very dangerous D) There are many tragic stories of climbing accidents E) But once you find your footing, ice climbing can become addictive

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29. Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological disorders in the world, is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. ---. Most forms of epilepsy have been assumed to stern from brain tissue "scars" acquired through trauma, so that malecular approaches to understanding and treating the disease would be fruitless. A) lt is true that, in developed countries, a principal focus of epilepsy research has been on the ca uses of the disease B) The symptoms of this disease range in severity from mild sensory disruption to recurring seizures and unconsciousness C) In addition, not all cases of epilepsy have been fully studied D) Moreover, proteins as large as insulin have been proposed as neurotransmitters E) On the contrary, a pairing of proteins in neurons may be relevant to the pathogenesis of human epilepsy 30. No description of embarrassment would be complete without considering the blush. For many of us, it is the hallmark display of embarrassment. ----. Although the physiology of the blush is not fully understood, we are getting nearer to a better u nderstanding of it. A) Their results showed that blushing begins with a sharp increase of blood flow, which is then followed by a slower rise in facial temperature B) Although smiling occurs during embarrassment, it has a different appearance from that of amusement C) On the other hand , in embarrassment, the lips turn up but without the accompanying action of the crinkling of the eyes D) Actually, however, blushing does not necessarily accompany embarrassment, and facial reddening can occur during other physical and emotional states as well E) Generally speaking , heart rate and blood pressure tend to rise and fall in many emotional states such as anger, fear and happines 31. Norwegians, like the Danes and Swedes, are of Teutonic origin. The Norsemen, also know Vikings ravaged the coasts of northwest
' th th

Europe from the 8 to the 11 century and were ruled by local chieftains. ----. After 1442, the country was ruled by Danish kings until 1814, when it was united with Sweden in an uneasy partnership. A) Despite severe losses in the World War ll , it recovered quickly as its economy expanded B) Norway became the second largest net oil exporter after Saudi Arabia in 1995 C) When the World War 1 broke out, Norway joined with Sweden and Denmark in a decision to cooperate in the joint interest of the three countries D) Olaf ll Haraidsson became the frst effective king of all Norway in 1015 and began converting the Norwegians to Christianity th E) In the Iate 20 century, the Labor Party and the Conservative Party seesawed for control , each sametimes having to lead minority governments

32. ----. Traditionally, one of the most important tools used to study cell structures has been the microscope. In fact, cells were not deseribed until 1665, when Robert Hooke examined the cell walls of dead cork cells using a microscope he had made. Hooke used the term "cell" because the tissue reminded him of the smail rooms that monks lived in during that period. A) A light microscope can be used to view stained or living cells, but at relatively low resolution B) Early biologists thought that the cell consisted of a homogeneous jelly, which they called protoplasm C) Lenses in the electron microscopes are actually magnets that bend the beam of electrons D) Because cells are so smail , scientists have had to be extremely elever in devising methods for studying them E) Most of the methods used to prepare and stain cells for observation also kill them in the proces

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33. . What he really seeks, however, are the most meaningful ones, and these vary from one context to another. His words may be grandiose or humble, fanciful or matter of fact, romantic 9r realistic, archaic or modern, technical or everyday, monosyllabic or polysyllabic.
A) lt is not unusual for a poet also to be a musician B) A poet creates new experiences for the reader in which the reader can participate C) A frequent misconception of poetic language is that the poet seeks always the most beautiful or noble-sounding words D) In the poem "Winter" Shakespeare is attempting to communicate the quality of winter life around a sixteenth century English country house E) Language has many levels and varieties, and poets may choose from them all

35. Compared to its Balkan neighbours, Greece is a wealthy country, but it remains one of the poorer members of the European Union. ---Nevertheless, with a nominally capitalist orientation, it has overcome its resemblance to pre-1989 Eastern Europe. Loss-making state enterprises have been sold off, and inflation and interest rates have fallen. However, unemployment remains high.
A) lt is stili a developing economy, with the agriculture and service sectors accounting for two-thirds of its GNP B) Stili , the Greek islands attract thousands of tourists, many of whom come simply to enjoy the sun and sand and the relaxed pace of life C) Accordingly, it now seems poised to become a signifcant regional power D) Furthermore, it has one of the lowest birth rates in Europe E) Yet family life and social life are usually one and the same , and tend to revolve around eating out

34. Many professions, such as law, rely almost exclusively on the written and oral word. Although engineers also must write and speak well, this alone is insufficient to convey complex engineering information. For this, graphical or visual communication is required. ----. In addition, it can provide readers with insight they can obtain through no other means.
A) On the contrary, tables are useful for presenting technical information B) As a matter of fact, graphs are prepared from tabulated data C) A well-prepared graph can accurately communicate a great deal of information in just a few seconds D) However, a wide variety of graphs are available to help visualize data E) Nevertheless, graphs should have a descriptive title

36. Headaches are among the most common medical problems. Some people have headaches often, while others hardly ever have them. ----. However, a change in the pattern or nature of headaches could signal a serious problem and calls for prompt medical attention.
A) In addition to drugs, which are enormously benefidal in treating diseases, many other treatments can help rel ieve pain B) In general , though headaches may be painful and distressing, they rarely reflect a serious medical condition C) Pain is an unpleasant sensatian signalling that the body is damaged or threatened with an injury D) On the contrary, high blood pressure may produce a throbbing sensatian in the head E) Actually, pain begins in and around the eyes and begins to affect the whole head

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37. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who was to become Victorian England's most famous woman poet in the nineteenth century, received an unusual education for a woman of her time. Availing herself of her brother's tutor, she studied Latin and Greek. ----. But as her intellectual and literary powers matured, her personal life became increasingly undermined by ili health. Although, by the age of thirty-nine, she was a prominent woman of letters, she continued to live in semiseclusion as an invalid in her father's house, where she occasionally received visitors.
A) In her later poems, in which she took up the cause of ltalian nationalism, she was mostly concerned with the political issues of her time B) Once in ltaly, she regained much health and strength, bearing and raising a son , to whom she was ardently devoted C) Hence, in her early work, she tended to use the visionary modes of Romantic narrative poetry D) Moreover, she read voraciously in history, philosophy and literature and began to write poetry from an early age E) However, her work fell into disrepute with the modernist reaction against the didacticism and rhetorical excess of Victorian poetry

39. At the beginning of the 1990s, it seemed to all appearances that the US comprehensively dominated global affairs. ---. Thus, it was deseribed as "the lonely superpower''. However, that said, the 1990s proved to be a decade of uncertainty and questioning for many Americans. n broad terms, the challenges of the post-Cold War era were as demanding for the US as they were for other countries.
A) In many respects, the ending of the Cold W ar was expected to usher in a period of profound uncertainty B) The debates about US foreign policy in the post- Cold War period have been shaped by the impact of world events C) One of the most frequently used images of US foreign-policy making has been that of contest and struggle D) lndeed, the US has always found it difficult to reconcile the issue of world order with national perspectives E) lt occupied a pre-eminent position in terms of military power, technology and global economic reach

38. The human body changes in many noticeable ways with age. Perhaps the frst sign of aging occurs when the eye cannot focus easily on close objects. Often by age 40 or so, many people find it difficult to read without using glasses. ----. People tend to lose some ability to hear the highest pitched tones. Therefore, older people may find that violin music no longer sounds as exciting as it did when they were young.
A) Hearing loss may be caused by a mechanical problem in the ear canal or middle ear that blocks the conduction of sound B) Some hearing tests can detect disorders in the auditory processing areas of the b ra in C) Neural hearing loss may be caused by brain tumours that also damage nearby nerves and the brain stern D) People who can't hear well enough may need hearing aids that keep the volume of sound at a suitable level E) Hearing also changes with age

40. Mollusks can be found in virtually every habitat on Earth and range in size from microscopic to more than 10 m long. ----. But others, the octopus for instance, are considered to be delicacies.
A) They are indeed an extremely fascinating group of creatures B) Not all of them, however, are encased in a shell C) All the mollusks are invertebrate animals D) Some, like the snails in our gardens, are regarded as pests E) The octopus even has problem-solving abilities

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41. Well into the 1860s the American West remained divided from the East by the harsh nature of the country's interior. ----. Their aim was to build a railroad across the formidable mountainous lands of the Sierra Nevada. They were ridiculed on all sides, but the ambitious enterprise eventually succeeded. A) Their high-flying goal comes with similarly steep challenges B) Top engineers had agreed that the Sierra Nevada could not be crossed by road or rail C) Naturally, politicians were not in favour of uniting East and West D) Then four merchants began raising money to fund a seemingiy impossible project E) The high peaks of the Sierra Nevada were acknowledged as being impassable 44. How common are other civilizations in the universe? This question has fascinated humanity for centuries, but so far no definitive answer has been found. ----. Chief among these is the confirmation, after a long wait and several false starts, that planets exist outside our solar system. A) Most surprising of all is the speed with which life was established on this planet B) A number of recent developments have brought the question once again to the fare C) So far, astronomers have found no Earth-like planets, but we can be fairly confdent that they will do so D) In spite of all this activity, researchers have made no positive detections of extraterrestrial signals E) The lack of success to date cannot be used to inferthat Earth is the only planet with life

42. In the annals of computing, nothing has caused as much disappointment as putting ideas on paper. ----. However, with the coming of the inkjet printer it was soon possible to print really highquality images. A) For decades, printing computer fles was a thankless task for users seeking to reproduce precisely what they saw on their screens B) To start with , thermal inkjets were no match for the costlier laser printers that had just been introduced C) For all its originality the idea behind the inkjet is far from new D) The first inkjet printers were slow, messy machines, but they gradually got better and better E) Designers of printers grew more ambitious and they started to want colour, speed and law costs

45. Acupuncturists treat all kinds of conditions ranging from headaches to strokes. __ . In Britain, this very rarely happens, but some health insurance schemes do cover. A) The Chinese frst developed this branch of medicine B) Many of the people who practice acupuncture are not fully qualifed C) This kind of treatment hasn't been approved of by the medical profession yet D) In France and Germany acupuncture is available under national health schemes E) Contrary to general belief this method of treatment is not in the least painful

43. Most Western industrialized nations have an individualistic orientation, which values independence and self-assertiveness. ----. They stress the interdependence of people within the community. A) There is no internal evidence to suggest this B) Individuals in collectivist Asian cultures are even less likely to commit such errors C) In contrast, many nor:-Western cultures have a more collectivist orientation D) This is why Americans tend to use psychological traits to deseribe themselves E) Actually, situational factors alsa play quite an important role

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PARAGRAPH COMPLETION TEST CEVAP ANAHTARI


1. D

2.E
3.A

24.8 25.C

26.D
27.A 28.8

4.C 5.8

6.D
7.8

8.A 9.C

10.D
11. A

12.D 13.E 14.C 15. A


16.8 17.A 18.8

34. c 35.A 36.8

29.8 30.D 31. D 32.D 33.C

37.D 38.E 39.E 40.D 41.D


42.A 43.C 44.8

19.E
20.A 21. D

22.8 23.C

45.D

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.......UlA TEKNIKLERI EYI PARAGRAFTA BO BIRAKlLAN COIL .T...PARAGRAFTA SORU BOLUGU ORTADA VERiLMi iSE; PARAGRAFIN iLK CMLESiNIN VE SORU BOLUGU SONRASINDA YER ALAN CMLENiN AL Tl SORU CEVABlNI BELiRLEMEDE ELE ALlNMAK ZERE IZILiR PARAGRAFTA SORU BOLUGU PARAGRAFIN BAlNDA VERiLMi iSE;
PARAGRAFIN iLK IKI CMLESiNiN AL Tl SORU CEVABI BELIRLEMEDE ELE ALlNMAK ZERE iZiLiR

PARAGRAFTA SORU BOLUGU SONDA VERiLMi iSE;


PARAGRAFIN iLK CMLESININ VE BOLUKTAN NCE YER ALAN iLK CMLENIN AL Tl SORUCEVABlNI BELiRLEMEDE ELE ALlNMAK ZERE iZILiR

Alt izili cmlede zamir (pronoun) yer alyor ise; zamir seeneklerde ele zamirin niteleyebilecei isim seeneklerde aranr.

alnr

ve

bulunarnyar

ise;

'it is ... that'

yapsndaki
alnmaz!

it

bo zne olup; kelime nitelemediinden, bu yaplarda yer alan.!! zamiri

seeneklerde ele

ALTI IZILI CMLEDE YER ALAN ZAMIR CMLENIN ZNESI KONUMUNDA VERILMI ISE; ZAMIR YA DA NITELEYEBILECEGIISIM SEENEKLERDE ZNE KONUMUNDA ARANMALlDlR!

3. ORTAK KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


iKi CMLE ARASINDAKi ORTAK KELiME SEENEKLERDE ARANIR.

4. ORTAK KELiME/iFADE ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


ALTI IZILI CMLELERDE YER ALAN KELiMELER ANLAMLlLARI YA DA iFADE SEENEKLERDE ARANIR. (ANAHTAR KELiMELER), YAKIN

248

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ALTI IZILI CMLE YA DA CMLELERDEKI KELIMELER (ANAHTAR KELIMELER) SEENEKLERDE ARutiiRKEN;

v"' Alt1
Soru Soru

izili cmlelerin her ikisinde de ver alan kelimeleri ieren seenekler zellikle ele ahn1r!
boluu

ortada verilen sorularda; soru verilen sorularda; soru

boluu sonras

gelen cmlenin,

boluu bata

boluu sonras

gelen cmlenin,
boluu

Soru boluu paragrafn son cmlesi olarak verilen sorularda; soru cmlenin kelimeleri!

ncesi gelen

v"' Anahtar kelimelerden


belirlemede
dier

ieren seenekler soru cevab1n1

seenekiere gre tercih edilirl

v"' Alt1 izili

cmlelerden en ok kelime ieren seenek doru

olarak belirleniri

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1. medical care, ed who go abroad to work usually send money back home to pay for their relatives ' ation, and housing. Today, most African countries get the largest part of their foreign

exchange earninrj; from such remittances . ---- Without face the political crnsequences of an angry population .

hi

Africa's dictators would have to

A) In Africa, forei~n aid goes mostly to those governments t t have mismanaged their economies. B) There are over,three million Nigerians in the US and anot er one million in Britain C) From a quarte to almost 50% of university educated gr duates from Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya leave the ir countries lo work in the West.

D) lronically, AFRICAN CITIZENS

abroad subsidze state corruption . E) About three million middle-class Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since 1999.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


<~'

PARANIN ANA KONUSU: AFRICANS AL Tl IZILI CMLELERDE YER ALAN THIS SUBSIDY ZAMiRiNiN NiTELEDiGi SUBSIDIZE KELiMESiNi iEREN D SEENEGiDiR.

-~'

2.

THE UNITED STATES and its allies cannot remain in Afghanistan indefinitely. For them, building a capable Afghanlsecurity force and a credible Afghan government is the fastest and most responsible exit strategy. ----On fhe other hand, a security force can only be as good as its government, and the Afghan government has been crippled by corruption . However, national elections scheduled for this year provide an incentive for theiAfghan government to continue to improve.
A) B) C) D) concerns are access to electricity, jobs, water, and education. Afghans' lndeed, MdRE US TROOPS are absolutely necessary to defeat the insurgents in Afghanistan. lt isa clear flct that Pakistan is connected to the Afghan insurgency. The Pakista i army remains primarily focused on the perceived threat from lndia.

gre~test

E) However

EFF RT

so far to reach a decision for a complete withdrawal have been mixed.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


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PARANIN ANA KONUSU: THE UNITES STATES B lKKlNDAKi KONU MORE US TROOPS iKEN ( 'MORE ' KULLANIMI SONRASI GELEN TROOPS KELiMESi BiR NCEKi CMLEDE BU KONU ELE ALINMALIYDI!) E IKKINDA KONU US OLARAK GEMEKTEDiR VE PARANIN ANA KONUSUNA YER VERiLMEKTEDiR.

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250

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3.

After more than 30 years without building a nuclear plant, licenses for over 30 NEW REA T R . In addition, more than
worldwide. Countries such as Egypt, their frst nuclear plant. ----

US power companies are seeking 300 reactors have been proposed

eria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela have serious plans to

build

A) In other parts of the world, some 40 REACTORS are already under construction, have been underway for decades with no end in sight.

'

though many

B) Annual emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to double by 2050, from a current 7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year to more than 14 billion tonnes. C) According to a recent report, nuclear power is a major solution to the West's growing electricity needs, and increased nuclear use can substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. D) On the contrary, a country's use of nuclear power has much to dowith government intervention, whether through state loans or streamlined regulations. E) Therefore, global electricity demand is estimated to nearly double by 2030, with nuclear power currently accounting for about 15 per cent of global use.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ ./ A lKKlNDAKi REACTORS PARANIN iLK CMLESiNDE YER ALMAKTADlR. SORU BOLUGUNDAN NCEKi CMLEDE YER ALAN BUILD KELiMESi, A IKKINDA GECEN CONSTRUCTION KELiMESi iLE E$LE$MEKTEDiR.

4.

For decades, CH,NA has been content to let the invisible hand of the market work its magic on the country's economy: But there's one area where the government wants to reassert state control: healthcare. --- Today, nearly 4olper cent of the population can't afford to see a doctor. The average hospital stay for a Chinese citi2fn costs nearly as much as an individual's annual per capita ineome in the country. Healthcare grievar,ces have been at the heart of thousands of organized protests countrywide in recent 1 years. A) So me hospitals have had to hi re security personnel to protect medical staff from angry mobs. B) By comparison,IJapanese pay just 15 per cent of their medical spending out of pocket.

C)

So

THE GOVERNMENT

has recently developed a strategy to provide affordable medical

insurance to 90 per cent of its population by 2010. D) In fact, THE FREE MARKETREFORMSIN CHINA were first initiated in the Iate 1970s and early 1980s.
E)

THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT

has already met many of its economic goals and is now beginning to address scientific and technological development.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGil


./ iLK CMLENiN ZNESi CHINA OLUP; C IKKINDA THE GOVERNMENT, E IKKINDA THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT OLARAK GEMEKTEDiR . D lKKlNDAKi THE FREE MARKET REFORM$ IN CHINA iFADESi FARKLI BiR KONUYU ELE ALMAKTADlR. AL Tl iZiLi CMLELERDEKi KELiMELERDEN EN OK iEREN (3 KELiME iLE) DOGRU CEVAP OLAN C SEENEGiDiR.

./

./

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5.

THE AFRICAN Ufl!ION is well aware that, although Africa has enormous agricultural potential, it stili remains a major food im;,rtw. The majority of Africans live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood; but the performance~f~e agricultural seetar has been dismal. In addition to internal and structural problems that each~f~an country faces, external setbacks such as climate change and
global economic instability have made the ~~ti ons worse for growth and development in all sectors. including agriculture. ---, A) The visian of THE AFRICAN UNION is to achie~ ~ integrated , prosperous, well-governed , and ' peaceful United States of Africa . B) These are same of the most serious issues that THE A~ICAN UNION is determined to address as efficiently as possible. C) Africa seeks to promote existing and agreed upon shared values across the continent at individual, national , regional , and internationallevels. D) All the African countries wish to eliminate ongoing conflicts and prevent the occurrence of new ones in order to achieve development and integration . E) Same of the values cherished and upheld by each African nation are good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, accountability, and transparency.

'

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


../ iLK CMLENiN ZNESi THE AFRICAN UNION OLUP; ZNE A VE B lKLARlNDA YER ALMAKTADlR. B lKKlNDAKi THE MOST SERIOUS ISSUES iLE AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi INTERNAL AND STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS iFADESi iLE ELEMEKTEDiR. A SEENEGi AL Tl iZiLi HER iKi CMLENiN ANA KONULARINI iERMEMEKTEDiR DOGRU CEVAP BU NEDENLE B SEENEGiDiR.

../

./

6.

TURKEY

offers much for the naturalist, with rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife , and elusive larger

mamnils . Especially the rugged eastern provinces and alsa the regions with thick forests harbour a large

. The great diversity of plants varietYlaf these mammals. ---- The tulip is perhaps the most famous of h stems .not only from the variety of habitats, which include arid plains as eli as mountains and temperate woodlclnds, but alsa from Turkey' s position as a "biological watershed" at th crossroads of Europe and Asia.
A) Th~re are huge tracts of unspoiled countryside, same of which have be set as ide as national parks. B) Unllrtunately, Turkish wetlands are under threat from dams, drainage, llution, and climatic change. C) T~ C~RX'S POSII!ON on the migratory flyways makes it a parad e for birdwatchers. D) EJTRY is alsa floristically rich , with more than 11,000 plant species recorded. E) In winter, THE COUNTRX'S bAKES AND WE!bANDS hold thousands ofwintering wildfowl.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


../ SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi ZAM iR (PRONOUN) THESE D lKKlN DA PLANT SPECIES KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTEDiR! (THESE = PLANT SPECIES) GiPARANlN ANA KONUSU TURKEY iLE D lKKlNDAKi THE COUNTRY KELiMESi ELEMEKTEDiR. DOGRU CEVAP BU NEDENLE D SEENEGiDiR.

../

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7.

Most foreign tourists visiting London come to see THE HOUSEJ OF PARLIAMENT. Th is monumental Gothic building on the River Thames isyr~a~ Brit::lm's ~tl-known landmark. lndeed , the people who come to visit it may kno~ v~ l*le"'!!fnacare even less Fout what happens inside, but they appreciate the.J>I~ .ae ~e~f the greatest achievements of rJ,Ifeteenth-century art. ----. lndeed , ~

Parliament isa maqnificent buildinq.

,. /

A) Before the Narman Conquest in 1066, King Edward ~e~onfessor establishe.d his pa~ ac: on the site B)Aiso, most of those who work daily in THE BUILLJING remain awed by ts artstc power C) The disaster of the great fire of 1834 destroyed much of the medieval palace D) For security reasons, THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT can no langer be viewed by the general public E) The word "parliament" derives from the French word "parler", which means "to speak" or "to talk"

TEKNiK: ORTAK KONU + KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


v"

B lKKlNDAKi THE BUILDING KELiMESi iLE CMLEDEN THE HOUSES OF THE PARLIAMENT ELEiP ; ARTISTIC POWER CMLEDEKi MAGNIFICIENT ANLAMINI VERMEKTEDiR. E lKKlNDAKi KOYU RENKLE iARETLi KELiME THE PARLIAMENT KONUSUNU NiTELEM EZ. ALTI iZiLi CMLELERDEKi ORTAK KONUYU VE CMLEDEKi iLE YAKIN ANLAMLI KELiMEYi iEREN B SEENEGiDiR.

v"

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8.

At the start of the twentieth century, BRITAIN was stili the greatest world power. By the middle of the century, although stili one of the "Big ThrEt", Britain was clearly weaker than both the United States and the Soviet Union. ----. lt power had ende~ as quickly as Spain's had done in the seventeenth century. One reason for th den decli!f of Britain was the cost and effort of two world wars .

A) lndeed, by the end of the 1970s. BhiTAIN was no langer even among the richest European powers B) In electronics and technology, BRITAIN is stili a world competitor C) No one doubts that BR ITAl N is living in an age of uncertainty D) But the most important reason was the basic weaknesses in BRITAIN'S industrial power E) The discovery of oil in the North Sea has given BRITAIN a great deal of economic advantage

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


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PARANIN KONUSU BRITAIN OLUP TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR VE ITS ZAMIRI BRITAIN KONUSUNU NiTELEMEKTEDiR!. SORU BOLUGUNUN ARDlNDAN GELEN CMLEDE OLDUGU GiBi , A SEENEGiNDE DE TARiHSEL BiLGiYE YER VERiLMEKTEDiR . A IKKINDA 3 B VE D IKLARINDA 2 C VE E IKLARINDA 1 ANAHTAR KELiME ALTI iZiLi CMLELERDE YER ALMAKTADlR. EN OK ANAHTAR KELiMEYi VE PARANIN ZNESiNi YANi KONUSUNU iEREN CMLE A SEENEGiNDE YER ALMAKT ADIR.

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9.
During World W ar ll, THE ALLI ES had started to thinkof ways in which a new world order could replace the failed League of Nations . ~ven before it joined the war against Germany and its allies, the US had agreed on an "Atlantic Charter'' with 'ritain. The basis of this new charter was US President Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms": freedom of speeh. freedom of worship, freedom from fear, and freedom from want. At the end of the war, the victorious Charter. ----.

ALLI ES
/

created the United Nations, which expressed the ideas of the Atlantic

A) In the early 1960~ B rita in was increasingly interested in joining the newly-formed European Community B) In 1948, the s,_riet Union tried to capture West Berlin by stopping all road and rail traffic to it

C) Thus, THEY hoped that the success of the wartime allian ce could be carried into peacetime
D) All these military and scientific developments drew Britain more closely to the US E) During the post-war period, Britain was seriously concerned about the danger from the Soviet Union

TEKNiK: ORTAK KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


v"
0

PARANIN KONUSU THE ALLIES C SEENEGiNDE THEY ZAMiRi OLARAK GETiGi iiN SEENEK PARANIN KONUSUNA VE CMLELERDEKi ORTAK KONUYA YER VERMESi NEDENi iLE DOGRU CEVAPTlR.

10. Little is known about the life of

spread two very different holy, while, on the other, they could notibe trustEl and were a moral danger to led men both to worship and alsoto loo1 down ,n women. A) !l-is unlikely B)

WOMEN in the Middle Ages, but without doubt it was ideas about Jlomen. So, on the one hand, women were re
.

hard. ----.

also

as pure and ch religious teaching

that love played muctlof in m rriages . MARRIAGE was always the sin.le mportant event in the lves of medeval men-and women 1 C) This was because rrage a fal~could improve its wealth and social position D) THE CHURCH taught that W en were always to obey their husbands E) Once married , a woman had to accept her husband as her master

afrt

TEKNiK: ORTAK KONU ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


./ SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDE YER ALAN ZAM iR (PRONOUN) IT D IKKINDA THE CHURCH KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTEDiR VE CMLELERDEKi ORTAK KONU WOMEN SEENEKTE YER ALMAKTADlR!! A lKKlNDAKi IT ZAMiRi NiTELEMEMEKTEDiR . BO ZNE OLDUGUNDAN HERHANGi BiR iSMi

./

./
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C VE E SEENEKLERiNDE ANAHTAR KELiMELER YER ALMAMAKTADlR.


B SEENEGiNiN KONUSU PARADA GEEN THE LIFE OF WOMEN YERiNE THE LIVES OF WOMEN AND MEN OLUP; SEENEK FARKLI BiR KONUYU ELE ALMAKT ADIR.

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11. Around

1550,

THE RENAISSANCE_in ltaly began to decline. The causes of this decline were

varied . -- -. The F';#jnch King Charles VIII viewed ltaly as an attractive target for his expansive dynastic ambitions. In 494, heledan army of thirty thousand well-trained troops across the Alps to press his claims to the Duchy of ltilan and the Kingdam of Naples. A) The French of 1494 and the incessant warfare that ensued was one of the major factors B) RENAISSANCE HUMANISTS were primarily interested in the study of classical texts C) To the ltalian political disasters was added a waning of ltalian prosperity D) As ltalian wealth diminished, there was less and less of a surplus to support artistic endeavours E) ltaly's virtual monopoly of trade with Asia in the fifteenth century had been an economic support for the ltalian Renaissance

i~vasion

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi HIS ZAMiRi CMLESiNDEKi THE FRENCH KING KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTEDiR VE BU CMLENiN ANA KONUSUNA A SEENEGi YER VERMEKTEDiR!. B lKKlN DA CMLEDEKiNDEN FARKLI KONU OLAN RENAISSANCE HUMANISTS YER ALMAKTADIR VE BU NEDENLE SECENEK ELENMEKTEDiR.

./

12. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF the Celts in Britain is slight. As with previous groups of settlers, we do not even know for certain whether the Celts invaded Britain or came peacefully as a result of the lively trade with Europe from about 750 B.C. onwards. At first, most of Celtic Britain seems to have developed in a generally similar way. ----. Consequently, this fall led to serious economic and political differences between the Celts of southeast Britain and those of t northwest. A) The Celts were joined by new arrivals from the Euro an mainland B) The Celtic tribes continued the same kind of agricultu as the Bronze Age people before them C) The Celts knew how to work with iron and could make Yariety of weapons D) But from about 500 B. C. , trade contact with Europe dec ined E) During the Celtic period , women may have played an important role in political life

TEKNiK: NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


./ SORU BOLUGU SONRASI YER ALAN THIS FALL iARET ZAMiRi D SEENEGiNDEKi DECLINE KELiMESNi NiTELEMEKTEDiRI DiGER SEENEKLERDE ANAHTAR KELiMELER YER ALMASINA KARlN; SEENEKLER ANA KONU OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CEL TS YERiNE; THE CEL TS KONUSUNA YER VERMEKTE VE BU NEDENLE ELENMEKTEDiR.

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13.

LOGISTICS asa business concept began to gain ground in the 1950s, particularly in the US. This was because, as businesses expanded and reached out both to far-flung markets and sources of materials, the need for expert logisticians became imperative. Logisticians applied their own ingenuity to create companies that aimed to deliver the right item in the right quantity at the right time in the right place for the right price. --. lndeed, with increasing globalization and ever longer and more complex supply chains, logistics companies have become ever more sophisticated and adaptable.
A) The US has led the way in the development of effcient LOGISTICAL SYSTEM S B) No region in the world requires efficient logistics more urgently than Africa does C) Logistics is considered one of the most important aspects of military campaigns D) THE PR08LEMS OF THE LOGISTICS industrv have not been clearly identifed yet

E) These aims haye not changed. but the world has

TEKNiK: ORTAK iFADE ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN KONUSU LOGISTICS A VE D SEENEKLERiNDE FARKLI AlLARDAN ELE ALINMITIR E IKKINDA VERiLEN iFADE CMLEDEK i BECOME MORE SOPHISTICATED AND ADAPTAB LE iFADESiNi iLE RNEKLEDiGiNDEN ; E SEENEGi SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI DlR!

./

14.

THE YEAR 1 seemed golden and full of promise. Despite nearly constant international tension, everyday life in E pe and North America seemed to be improving. Economies recovered, many standards of living rose, an1 new forms of culture flourished . The economic horizon looked bright. ----. Western Europeans could no longer be so certain of their prosperity or of their leaders' ability to provide the sort of life they took for grant~.

ro

A) Legal changes lould not have occurred without women' s movements of the time B) These changeslmarked a new culture of mass consumption boosted by marketing, advertising, and credit payment 1 C) However, BY 1990. most of the familiar landscape had been dramatically transformed D) The civil rights movement in the US had enormous significance for the twentieth century E) The most serious outbreak of student unrest in Europe came in Paris IN THE SPRING OF

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ SORU BOLUGU SONRASINDA YER ALAN THEIR ZAMiRi KENDi CMLESiNDEKi WESTERN EUROPEANS KONUSUNU NiTELEDiGiNDEN ZAMiR NiTELEYiCiSi lKLARDA YENiDEN ARANMAZ! PARADA ALTI iZiLi iLK CMLENiN KONUSU THE YEAR 1960 AYNI ZAMANDA PARANIN ANA KONUSU OLUP; C SEENEGi BY 1990 (BEFORE 1990) EKLiNDE ANA KONUYA YER VERMEKTEDiR . E SEENEGiNDE TARiHSEL BiLGiYE YER VERiLMESiNE KARlN, SEENEKTE YER ALAN STUDENT UNREST IN EUROPE KONUSU PARANIN iLK CMLESiNDEKi EVERYDAY LIFE IN EUROPE KONUSUNDAN FARKLILIK GSTERMEKTEDiR.

./

./

256

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15.

ST.

PETE~SBURG is not just a city of names and movements. lt is also a city of bridges , with more of them than ~ other city in the who le world . W ith its 101 islands, it is also worthy of the title "city of islands." Not onltthat, but it has enough canals to compele with Venice , Amsterdam, and Stockholm. ----. As Dostoevsky's hero )uts it, "lt is the most abstract and tantastic city on earth. "

A) But most of all ST. )>ETERSBURG

isa city of culture, of literature and poetry in particular B) There are a total of 539 bridges, including 315 in the city centre C) The sports facilities and activities in it cannot go unnoticed D) THE PEOPLE OF ST. PETERSBURG are offered various educational opportunities E) A considerable number of painters and sculptors have lived there, too

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TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


--' SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iziLi CMLEDEKi IT ZAMIRI A SEENEGiNDE ST. PETERSBURG KONUSUNU NiTELEMEKTEDiR VE SEENEK AYNI ZAMANDA PARANIN ANA KONUSUNA YER VERMEKTEDiR.BU NEDENLE SEENEK SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR! B VE C SEENEKLERiNDE YER ALAN ZAMiRLERiN PREPOSITION iLE KULLANIMLARlNDAN DOLAYI ; ZAMiR ANAHTAR KELiME OLARAK KABUL EDiLMEMEKTEDiR.

--'

16.

Despite

numerous

intellectual

and

literary

advances ,

THE

LONGEST-LIVEP

of the ltalian Renaissance were made in the realm of art. Of all the arts, painting was undoubtedly supreme . Although Giotto was the great artistic genius around 1300, it was not until the ffteenth century that ltalian painting began to come fully of age. ----. Fi~eenth-century artists ALSO experimented with effects of light and shade and, for the frst time, car ully studied the anatomy and proportions of the human body. 1 A) From about 1450 until about 1600 ltalian thought was domirLted by a school of Neo-Piatonists, who sought to blend Platonism with Christianity 1 reason for this was that. in the early fifteenth centurv, the laws of linear perspective were d iscovered and frst employed to give the fullest sense of three dimensions C) Sixteenth-century ltalian writers , such as Machiavelli, Ariosto, Tasso, and Sannazaro, were also highly accomplished creators of imaginative prose and verse D) Perhaps the greatest of the Florentine artists was Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most versatile geniuses who ever lived E) Most Venetian painters showed little of the Florentine school's concerns with philosophical and psychological issues

ACH!EVEMENTS

B) One

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


--' SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLE FIFTEENTH -CENTURY ARTISTS ALSO ... iFADESi iLE DEVAM ETMEKTEDiR. BUNA EK OLARAK ANLAMI VEREN 'ALSO ' CMLESiNiN NNDE YER ALACAK CMLENiN DE 15. YZYILDAN BAHSETMESi VE BU EKiLDE KONU BTNLG SAGLAMASI GEREKLiDiRKONU STNLGN SAGLAYAN BU KONU DOGRU CEVAP OLAN B SEENEGiNDE YER ALMAKT ADIR.

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17.

World War ll

left EUROPE, a land of wreckage and confusion . Millions of refugees travelled hundreds or thousands of m~s on foot to return to their homes while others were forcibly displaced from their lands. ----. Food ren!ned in dangerously short supply, and even a year after the war roughly 100 million people in Eurg(e stili

lived on

less than 1,500 calories per day.

/ A) IN SOME AREAS housinq


one C) Historians estimate that in

was practically nonexistent, with no available means to build a new

B) The Soviet campaign to controi-EASTERN

D) Even E) S ince industry was essential to winning the war, centres of industry became vital military targets

EUROPE did not go unchallenged World W ar ll nearly 50 million people died more than World War 1 , World War ll involved the combined efforts ofwhole populations

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KONU ELEMESI TEKNIGI!


../ AL Tl iZiLi iLK CMLE iRDELENDiGiNDE ; KONU WORLD WAR ll GIBI GRNSE DE ; ANA KONUNUN iKi CMLENiN DE ORTAK KONUSU OLMASI NEDENi iLE iKiNCi DNYA SAVA ININDA AVRUPANIN DURUMU OLDUGU ANLAlLMAKTADlR . - A SEENEGiNDEKi IN SOME AREAS KONUSU PARADAKi SOME AREAS OF EUROPE KONUSU iLE ELEMEKTEDiR ; SEENEK BU NEDENLE SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR. ../ C VE D SEENEKLERi SADECE WORLD WAR ll KONUSUNA YER VERiP CMLEDEKi EUROPE IN WORLD WAR ll KONUSUNU VURGULAMAMAKTADIR. B SEENEGi iSE EUROPEYERiNE EASTERN EUROPE KONUSUNU ELE ALMlTlR.

../

suffered badly. A) Morocco is already e of the biggest tourist destin~tions in the Middle East and North Africa , drawing 2.25 million visitors a ear B) Especially, the effe t on VISITOR NUMBERS has been decisive although it has varied

n to n considerably fr m C) Morocco has a better developed domestic beach culture than probably anywhere else in the Middle East or North Africa D) The target of 10 million visitors a year by 2010 may have been a little over-optimistic, although Egypt has made huge investments E) Some of the driest parts of Morocco lie on the coast, and so one feasible option is to pipe water there from the Atlas Mountains

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


../ SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi NORTH AFRICA AND TUNISIA IN PARTICULAR KONUSU IN PARTICULAR ZELLiKLE BAGLACI iLE VURGULANMAKTADIR ; CMLENiN KONUSUNA VE PARANIN ANA KONUSUNA YER VEREN B SEENEGi SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR!

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19. ----. FOR INSTANCE, Alpine sce~ry predominates in the Tatra Mountains to the south, while the North is dominated by lakes. Mountain lovei'S.can make use of the well-developed infrastructure of hostels and shelters , such as those found in the Tatra~ "(he countless lakes of Warmia and Mazuria, collectively known as the Land of a Thousand La kes, are a hea~no4>r water-sports enthusiasts. A) Since 1989, many new luxury hotel s have been bui lt i N>~and and the majority of the m belong to international hotel chains ' B) Poland's borders have changed continually with the course of histo~ C) Bordering the Baltic Sea, Poland is one of the largest countries in Ce~al Europe, with a population of around 39 million ' D) Warsaw, the capital of Poland , is located at the centre of Poland , on the banks ~t~ Vistula River E) Although situated on the plains of Central Europe, Poland has an extremely varied 1andscape

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./ SORU BOLUGU SONRA GELEN CMLE FOR INSTANCE RNEGiN BAGLACI iLE DEVAM ETMEKTEDiR. BOLUK NCESI GELECEK OLAN CMLEDE NEYE RNEKLEME YAPILDIGINI GRMEK iiN FOR INSTANCE BAGLACI SONRASI GELEN KONUYA BAKILMALIDIR! FOR INSTANCE SONRASI ALPINE SCENERY KONUSU YER ALDlGI iiN ; BiR NCEKI CMLEDE DE SCENERY KONUSUNDAN BAHSEDiLMESi GEREKiR . CMLEDEKi SCENERY KONUSU SADECE E SEENEGiNDE LANDSCAPE OLARAK GETiGi iiN SEENEK SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABlDlR

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20.

THE SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES - Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland


- are, arguably, atllong the least-populated countries in Europe. ----. Away from the main towns and cities lie vast expanses ol unspoiled, often wild terrain , from the breathtaking Norwegian fjords to the dense pine forests and clear lakes of Finland . Smaller and largely fiat and rural, Denmark shares characteristics with both mainland Eulope and Scandinavia proper.
1

A) IN NORWAY. SWEDEN. AND FINLAND.


B) C) D)

the majority of the population lives in the south , in affluent, modern cities , which are also rich in history and tradition

SWEDEN is Europe's ffth-largest country, with an area about the size of California FINLAND'S main cities are all served by an efficient railroad system and regular, inexpensive internal
flights

NORWAY is so long and narrow that, if Oslo remained fxed and the rest were turned upside down, it would stretch all the way to Rome

E) Oslo,

... - NORWAY'S .. ..
...

capital , is an attractive city of grand Neoclassical buildings , wide boulevards , and

...

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN KONUSU YANi ZNESi THE SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES SADECE A IKKINDA NORWAY SWEDEN AND FINLAND OLARAK GEMEKTEDiR. BU NEDENLE SEENEK SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABlDlR DiGER SEENEKLER BU LKELERDEN SADECE BiRiNi iERDiGiNDEN PARANIN KONUSUNU VURGULAMAMAKTADIR.

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21. An independent city close to Berlin , PST~DAM has almost 150,000 inhabitants and is the capital of Brandenburg. ----. The tow 'tl'l'ossomed in the 1600s, during the era of the Great Elector, and then again in the 18th century, when the sptendid summer palace, Schloss Sanssouci, was built for Frederick the Great. Potsdam suffered badly in Wori~War ll , particularly on April 14 and 15, 1945, when the Allies bombed the town centre. ' A) The Marmorpalais (Marble Palace\is located on the edge of the lake in the Neuer Garten, a park ' northeast of Potsdam 's centre B) Oespite its wartime losses, POTSDAI(I is taday one of Germany's most attractive towns C) The Schloss Cecilienhof played an import'(lt role in history in 1945, when it served as the venue for the Potsdam Conference D) The frst documented reterence to THE TbWN dates from A.D. 993; it was later granted municipal rights IN 1317 E) Tourists flock to see the magnifcent royal estate, Park Sanssouci, and to stroll in the Neuer Garte

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o/

PARANIN KONUSU POSTDAM SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLEDE THE TOWN OLARAK GEMEKTEDiR VE CMLELERiN ORTAK KONUSUNU TEKiL ETMEKTEDiR! A IKKINDA CMLENiN ZNESi A PARK NORTHEAST OF POSTDAM'S CENTRE iSiM TAMLAMASI OLARAK GETiGi iiN SEENEK PARANIN KONUSUNDAN FARKLI BiR KONUYU ELE ALMAKTADlR. C IKKINDA YER ALAN THE POSDAM CONFERENCE PARANIN KONUSU iLE
ELEMEMEKTEDiR

o/

o/

o/

D SEENEGi ZNEYi (PARANlN KONUSUNU), BOLUK SONRASI CMLEDE YER ALAN THE TOWN KONUSUNU VE BOLUKTAN SONRAKi CMLEDE OLDUGU GiBi, TARiHSEL BiLGi iERDiGiNDEN DOGRU CEVAPTlR.

260

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22. BALL~T is theatrical representation in dance form in which music also plays a major part in teliing a story or conv,ing a mood. Some such form of entertainment existed in ancient Greece. ----. From taken
b~

the re, it was

Caterina de' Medici in the 16th century to France in the form of a spectacle combining singing, and speech . During the 18th century, there were major developments in technique, and ballet

graduaJ became divorced from opera, emerging as an art form in its own right.
A)

dancihg,

B~TERN
Ballet Theater

C)

BAli FT developed in the UK through the influence of Marie Rambert BALLET as we know it today frst appeared in Renaissance ltaly, where il was a form of court entertainment (there, it zamirieri nitelenmektedir!) BALLET developed further in the USA through the work of George Balanchine and the American BALLET, which greatly appealed to the Greeks RUSSIAN BALLET had a vital influence on the classical
tradition

D) In fact, it was d rama , rather than E) In the 20th century,

in the

TEKNiK: ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


../ SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLEDE THEREVE IT ZAMiRLERi YER ALMAKTADIRTM SEENEKLER THEREZAMiRi NiTELEYiCiSiNE VE BALLET ANA KONUSUNA YER VERMEKTEDiR ANCAK CMLEDEN ORTAK KELiME iEREN YALNlZCA B SEENEGiDiR!

23. In finance,

INTEREST. which isa sum of money paid by a borrower to alender in returnfor the loan, percentage per annum. ----. In compound interest, the interest earned over a period of time is ac:ted to the principal, so that at the end of the next period, interest is paid on that total.
is usually expressd: as a

A) Nevertheless, ctrtain problems remain in perennial interest, and these fall into two main groups B) The theory of clpital was not a matter of primary concern to economistsin the Iate 20th century C) SIMPLE INTERE ST is calculated asa straight percentage of the amount loaned or invested, called the E)

princjpal

D) However, IT may be expressed either in

money terms or asa rate of payment Various theories have been developed to account for and justify INTEREST

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


../ PARANIN ZNESi (KONUSU) INTEREST OLUP; B SEENEGi HARi TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR . GERIYE KALAN D VE E SEENEKLERiNE KlYASLA ; C SEENEGi ALTI iZiLi CMLELERDE YER ALAN KELiMELERDEN EN OK iEREN SEENEKTiR VE BU NEDENLE SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR.

../

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YDS iFRELERi
24. Th is year

A LOT OF GOOD THINGS have happened in the US economy. US companies have become more competitive~ and exports are now booming. This strong export growth is helping to stabilize the trade gap, and slower U!J demand will bring down imports. ----. Moreover, long-term interest rates are stili low, stock prices are setti19 records, and the economy continues to gro~at a moderate pace.
A) The biggest danger inlhe weeks ahead isa US recession, since currency m~k'lls began to worry at the end of 2006 that the hfusing recession could spill over to other areas of the economl"(NEGATIVE) B) In the meantime, profits from overseas operations and returnson international investments are risinq as the gains are translated back into dollars (POSITIVE A LOT OF GOOD THINGS) C) Some leading economists have forecast that the US dollar's value could plunge by a third over the next few years D) The US dollar will be sornewhat more vulnerable against the euro , given that the European Central Bank will most likely continue to raise interest rates (POSITIVE) E) The dollar is down 3% from a year ago against the Chinese yuan , and futures markets expect an additional 5% decline later in the year (NEGATIVE)

'

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi + RENEKLEME TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN ANA KONUSU A LOT OF GOOD THINGS IN THE US ECONOMY OLDUGU iiN ; PARANIN GENELiNDE OLUMLU iFADELERE YER VERiLMESi GEREKMEKTEDiR. A VE E SEENEKLERi OLUMSUZ iFADELERE YER VERiP; PARANIN KONU STNLGN BOZMAKTADIR . C VE D SEENEKLERi US DOLLAR KONUSUNDAN PARANIN ANA KONUSUNDAN UZAKLAMAKTADIR . BAHSETMEKTEDiR VE

./

./

./

B SEENEGiNDE YER ALAN PROFITS ANAHTAR KELiMESi PARANIN ANA KONUSUNA A LOT OF GOOD THINGS RNEKLEME YAPMAKTADlR. BUNUN YANINDA SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLEDEKi GROW FiiLi iLE RISE FiiLi BiRBiRLERi iLE ANLAMCA ELEMEKTEDiR.SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI BU NEDENLE B SEENEGiDiR.

262

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

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25. In recent years, THE AM has increased, and the price of many drugs has fallen. So why doe one third of the world's population stili lack access to charge high tariffs o~ life-saving medicines and equipment, sometimes even proper healthcare? ----. M 1 taxing products that are donate free. A) If these tariffs were lowered, it would tically 'ncrease access to pharmaceuticals B) Thus , even in places where tariffs are waive , h r barriers remain C) To a large extent, the fault lies with THE POO COUNTRIES themselves D) Naturally, it is the right of any nation to raise ineome as it sees ft E These re ulatory constraints are imposed on a wide variet of medical equipment as well as dru

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN ANA KONUSU THE AMOUNT OF AlD FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OLUP; SORU BOLUGU SONRASI YER ALAN MANY C SEENEGiNDE THE POOR COUNTRIES KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTEDiR VE PARANIN KONUSUNA YER VERMEKTEDiR. BU NEDENLE DOGRU CEVAP C SEENEGiDiR.

26.

LAYINQ. undersea cable systems

is a monumental process. After surveying landing s~tes,

studying sea~d.Jleology, and assessing risks, engineers plot a route. ----. For months, thes shps lower the cables lh01!1Sands of feet to the seabed. In congested spots, engineers use robots to di trenches for the cable that protecit fliQ/11 wayward anchors and fshing nets. Then crews pull the cable end above the water and connect them to lan~a~d stations . A) One of the new Pacific systems is part~ a.qassive $1 .5 billion global network connecting 6 countries B) Traditional cross-ocean systems are loops ma~ ~of two cables, usually many miles art C) Operators building new cable systems are mindful o1"t~hreat of earthquakes and do ', avoid it D) Then gigantic spools of cable and other gear are loaded on ABLE-LAYIN E) While there are ten major undersea cables connecting the US with Asia

....

cables

linking the

us directly with

Europe, there are only fve

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


v'

PARANIN ANA KONUSU(ZNESi) LAYING UNDERSEA CABLE SYSTEMSOLARAK VERiLMEKTEDiR. D SEENEGiNDE YER ALAN CABLE-LAYING VESSELS HEM PARANIN ZNESiNi HEM DE SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLENiN ZNESiNi YANi THESE SHIPS KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTEDiR DiGER SEENEKLER PARANIN KONUSUNA ~SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLENiN KONUSUNA YER VERMEMEKTEDiR. SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI BU NEDENLE D SEENEGiDiR.

v'

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

263

YDS iFRELERi
21.

THE BIGGEST PROBLEMS AFFECTING the IMF, the World Bank, and other instruments of globalization concern governance. At both the IMF and the World Bank, voting
rights are allocated not according to population but according to economic power, and the various countries' representatives are typically finance ministers or members of central banks, not officials with broader outlooks and concerns . ----. Therefore . the voices of t ose most affected by globalization are barely e nternational bodies should follow. audible in discussions about what polic

A) lt is within these me smail , elite circles international economic architecture occurs

that most of

the debate

about reforming the

B) IMF policies have always had a rasting impact on the economies of developing countries C) Yet well-managed globalization has enormous potential for improving the lives of people in poor countries D) Traditionally, the World Bank has been reluctant to lend money unless the IMF certifes that the country in question has a solid macro-economic framework E) If we continue with globalization as it has been managed in the past, the future will not be bright

TEKNiK: ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


" PARANIN KONUSU AL Tl iZiLi iLK CMLEDE THE PROBLEMS OF AFFECTING GLOBALIZATION OLARAK GEMEKTEDiR. A SEENEGiNDE YER ALAN THESE ZAMiRi BOLUK SONRASI CMLEDE BULUNAN THOSE ZAMiRi iLE ELEMEKTEDiR. AL Tl iziLi CMLELERDEKi ZAMiRi VE EN OK KELiMEYi iERMESi NEDENi iLE DOGRU CEVAP A SEENEGiDiR.

"

28.

share same important features. Both use ropes, harnesses, and other spec'-lized equipment for ascending steep granite or blue ice. ----. A rock climber follows the natural cracks or w~knesses in the rock whereas , with ice tools in each hand, an ice climber has more freedam to blaze a path up \nd is limited only by the ice conditions and the technology of the tools. A) Most ICE CLIMBING trips re~ire an arduous trek into the mountains and possibly several nights out in the cold ' B) But, the method of CLIMBING in e~h case is different C) However, CLIMBING itself has always been considered to be very dangerous D) There are many tragic stories of climbing accidents E) But once you fnd your footing, ice climbing can become addictive

ICE CLIMBING AND ROCK CLIMBING

'

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi!


" PARANIN ANA KONUSU 'ICE CLIMBING AND ROCK CLIMBING ' B SEENEGiNDE 'IN EACH CASE' OLARAK VURGULANMITIR VE ANA KONU iEREN B SEENEGi SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABlDlR

264

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


29. EPILE~SY. one of the most common neurological disorders in the world , is caused by abnormal electrical a~ity in the brain . ----. Most forms of epilepsy have been assumed to stern from brain tissue "scars" ~quired through trauma , so that molecular approaches to understanding and treating the disease would be~uitless . A) lt is true that, in dev~oped countries , a principal focus of epilepsy research has been on the causes of the disease ~ B) THE SYMPTOM OF THIS DISEASE range in severity from mild sensory disruption to recurring seizures and unconsciousness C) In addition, NOT ALL CAS ES OF EPILEPSY have been tuy studied D) Moreover, proteins as large as insulin have been proposedas neurotransmitters E) On the contrary, a pairing of proteinsin neurons may be relevant to the pathogenesis of human epilepsy

'

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN KONUSU EPILEPSY D SEENEGi DIINDAKi TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR. AL Tl iZILI iLK CMLEDE CAUSED BY FiiLi iLE EP iLEPSi KONUSUNUN NEDENLERiNDEN , SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLEDE FORMS OF EPILEPSY iLE EPILEPSi E iTLERiNDEN BAHSEDiLMEKTEDiR. B SEENEGiNDE YER ALAN SYMPTOMS OF EPILEPSY KONUSU SORU BOLUGUNA GELDiGiNDE; PARANIN ANLAM STNLGN BOZMAMAKTADIR. BU NEDENLE B SEENEGi SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR. ./ iLK CMLEDE EPiLEPSiNiN NEDENiNE YER VERiLDiGiNDEN ARDlNDAN GELECEK CMLEDE AYNI KONUYA (NEDENLERE) YENiDEN YER VERiLMEZ. A SEENEGi BU NEDENLE ELENiR. ./ C SEENEGi OLUMSUZLUK BiLDiRMEKTE ANCAK BOLUK SONRASI GELEN CMLE OLUMLU iFADEYE YER VERMEKTEDiR.

30. NO DESCRIPTION OF EMBA~RASSMENT would be complete without considering the blush . For many of us, it is the hallmark ~lay of embarrassment. ----. Although the physiology of the bl us h is not fully understood, we are getting n~rer to a better understanding of it. A) Thei sults showed that blushing_begins with a sl1rp increase of blood flow, which is then followed by a slower r in facial temperature ' B) Although s g occurs during EMBARRASSMENT, it has a different appearance from that of amusement ' MENT, the lips turn,~ut without the accompanying action of C) On the other hand, ~ the crinkling of the eye D)Actually, however, blus ing does not necessarily accompany EMBARRASSMENT, and facial reddening can occur during other physical and emotional states as well E) Generally speaking , heart rate and blood pressure tend to rise and fall in many emotional states such as anger, fear and happiness

'

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN KONUSU EMBARRASSMENT VE CMLELERiN ORTAK KONUSU THE BLUSH YALNlZCA D SEENEGiNDE BiRLiKTE YER ALMAKTADlR. CMLEDE YER ALAN IT ZAMiRi KENDi CMLSiNDE THE BLUSH KELiMESi YERiNE KULLANlLMAKTADlR.

./

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

265

YDS iFRELERi
31.

NORWlGIANS,

like the Danes and Swedes, are of Teutonic origin. The Norsemen, alsa know Vikings,
th th

ravaged thy coasts of northwest Europe from the 8 to the 11 century and were ruled by local chieftains. ----. was ruled by Danish kingsuntil 1814, when it was united with Sweden in an After 144!, the count uneasy palnership. A) DespitJ severe losses in the World it recovered quickly as its economy expanded B) Norwa'JI became the second largest net oil er after Saudi Arabia in 1995 C) When fle World War 1 broke out, Norway joined Sweden and Denmark in a decision to cooperate in the joi~ interest of the three countries D) Olaf ll 1-araldsson became the first effective king of all Norway in ~ and began converting the

NORWEGIANS
h

to Christianity

E) In the Iate 20 century, the Labor Party and the Conservative Party seesawed for control, each sametimes having to lead minority governments
1

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


../ PARANIN VE CMLENiN ANA KONULARI NORWEGIANS VE NORWAY SADECE D SEENEGiNDE GEMEKTEDiR.

32. ----. Traditionay,

ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TOOLS USEP TO STUDY CELL STRUCTURES has ~e~the microscope. In fact, cells were not deseribed until 1665, when Robert Hooke examined the ce ll walls of d;a~c:t cells using a microscope he had made. Hooke used the

....

term "cell" because the tissue reminded him of the sm~r<lQITlS that monks lived in during that period. A) A light microscope can be used to view stained or living cells, but ~rekitively law resolution B) Early biologists thought that the cell consisted of a homogeneous jelly, wh~ ~~alled protoplasm C) Lenses in the electron microscopes are actually magnets that bend the beam of electNn~ D) Because CELLS are so smail, scientists have had to be extremely elever in devising me1hods

',

for

studying them
E) Most of the methods used to prepare and stain cells for observation alsa kill them in the process

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


../ PARANIN ANA KONUSU TOOLS USED TO STUDY CELL STRUCTURES D SEENEGiNDE METHODS FOR STUDYING THEM OLARAK BiREBiR GEMEKTEDiR. VE BU NEDENLE D SEENEGi SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR. CMLEDEKi HE ZAMiRi KENDi CMLESiNDE NiTELENMEKTEDiR. DiGER SEENEKLERDE STUDYING CELLS KONUSUNA YER VERiLMEYiP CELLS KONUSU FARKLI AlLARDAN ELE ALlNMlTlR. --

../

266

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


33. ----. What ~really

seeks, however, are the most meaningful ones,

and these vary from one cantext to

another. His Wbl'fils...._may be grandiose or humble, fanciful or matter of fact, romantic or realistic, archaic or modern, technical or ever,d~ monosyllabic or polysyllabic . A) lt is not unusual for a poet also to be a rl'!tJ~an B) A POET creates newexperiencesfor the readeT'tn ~ich the reader can participate

..........

.....

C) A frequent misconception of poetic language is that THE POET seeks always the most beautiful or noble-sounding words D) In the poem "Winter" SHAKESPEARE is attempting to communicate the quality of winter life araund
a sixteenth century English country house E) Language has many levels and varieties, and poets may choose from them all

TEKNiK: NiTELEME + ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


-~' SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi HE ZAMiRi E

SEENEGi TM SEENEKLERDE POET KONUSUNU NiTELEMEKTEDiR.


-~'

PARANIN ANA KONUSUNU THE POET , ONES ZAMiRiNi NiTELEYEN WORDS KELiMESiNi VE AL Tl iZiLi CMLELERDEN SEEK FiiLiNi iERMESi NEDENi iLE DOGRU CEVAP C SEENEGiDiR. B SEENEGiNDEKi 'A POET' KELiMESi SHAKESPEARE YERiNE HERHANGi BiR AiRi iFADE ETMEKTEDiR.

34.

MANY PROFESSIONS, such as law, rely almost exclusively on the written and oral word . Although engineers also must write and speak well , th is alone is insufficient to convey complex engineering information . For this, graphical or visual communication is required. ---- In addition it can provide readers with insight they can obtain through no other means.
nical information. A) On the contrary, tables are useful for pres B) As a matter of fact, graphs a from tabulated data. C) A well-prepared graph can accurately communicate a great deal of information in just a few seconds. D) However, a wide variety of graphs are available to help visualize data. E) Nevertheless, graphs should have a descriptive title.

TEKNiK: NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


-~'

SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN IT ZAMiRi SADECE C SEENEGiNDE A GRAPH KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTE, DiGER SEENEKLERDEKi ZNELER OGUL YAPlDA OLDUKLARI iiN ZAMiRi NiTELEMEMEKTEDiR. ZAMiRi (PRONOUN) NiTELEMESi NEDENi iLE C IKKI DOGRU CEVAPTlR.

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

267

YDS iFRELERi
35. Compared to its Balkan neighbours, GREECE isa

members of the European Un,jjjlr.~--~ Nevertheless, with a nominally capitalist orientatio has ave een sold off, overcome its resemblanlie t~pre-1989 Eastern Europe. Loss-maki and inflation ~d Mrtefe'st rates have falle ment remains high .
~

wealthy

country, but it remains one of the

poorer

A) _1_is

stili a developing its GNP.

economy, with

the agriculture and service sectors accounting for two-thirds of

B) Stili, THE GREEK ISLANDS attract thousands of tourists , many of whom come simply to enjoy the sun and sand and the relaxed pace of life. C) Accordingly, IT now seems poised to become a signifcant regional power. D) Furthermore, !I.has one of the lowest birth rates in Europe. E) Yet family life and sociallife are usually one and the same, and tend to revolve around eating out.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


" PARANIN KONUSU GREECE OLUP; SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN IT ZAMiRi E DIINDA TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR. ALTI iZiLi CMLELERDE YER ALAN WEALTHY POORER CAPITALlST ANAHTAR KELiMELERi PARANIN ECONOMY KONUSU ILE iLiKiSiNi ORTAYA KOYMAKTADIR VE BU iLiKi SADECE DOGRU CEVAP OLANA SEENEGiNDE GRLMEKTEDiR. (wealth, poorer, capitalist economy)

./

36.

HEADACtLES are among the most common


while others ha~ ever have them. ---- How signal a serious prolMem and calls for A) In addition to drugs, wltc relieve pain.

dical

problems. Some people have headaches often,

hange in the pattern or nature of

headaches could

'

pt

medical

attention .

e enormously benefidal in treating diseases, many other treatments can help may be painful and distressing, they rarely reflect a serious

B) In general , t HEAI}ACHES medic condition.

C) Pa in is an unpleasant sensatian signalling that the body is damaged or threatened with an injury. D) On the contrary, high blood pressure may produce a throbbing sensatian in the head. E) Actually, pain begins in and around the eyes and begins to affect the whole head.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN ANA KONUSU HEADACHES OLUP; KONU SADECE B SEENEGiNDE GEMEKTEDiR. DOGRU CEVAP OLAN B SEENEGi AYNI ZAMANDA AL Tl iZiLi CMLELERiN ORTAK KONUSUNU iERMEKTEDiR. BU NEDENLE B SEENEGi DOGRU CEVAPTlR.

268

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


37.

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, who was to become Victorian England 's most famous woman poet in 'he nineteenth century, received an unusuat education for a woman of her time. Availing herself of her broder's tutar, she studied Latin and Greek. --- But as her intellectual and literary powers maturd: , her personal life became increasingly undermined by ili health. Although, by the age of
thirty-nine , she w,- a prominent woman of letters, she continued to live in semiseclusion as an invalid in her father's house, where she occasionally received visitors .

A) In her later pqems, in which she took up the cause of ltalian nationalism, .s.J::iE_was mostly concerned with the politic~issues of her time. B) Once in ltaly, HE regained much health and strength , bearing and raising a son , to whom she was ardently devat . C) Hence, in her elrly work, SHE tended to use the visionary modes of Romantic narrative poetry.

D) Moreover, ~ read voraciously in history, philosophy and literature and began to write poetry from an early age. E) However, HER WORK teli into disrepute with the modernist reaction against the didacticism and rhetorical excess of Victorian poetrv.

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TELNiGi!


./ ./ PARANIN ANA KONUSU ELIZABETH OLUP ; TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR. AL Tl iZiLi CMLELERDEKi ANAHTAR KELiMELER iRDELENDiGiNDE; PARANIN KONUSU OLAN POETRY B SEENEGi DIINDA TM SEENEKLERDE YER ALMAKTADlR. SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLENiN KONUSU HER INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY POWERS SORU BOLUGUNDA DA GEMELiDiR Ki PARADA ANLAM BTNLG SAGLANABiLSiN. D SEENEGiNDEKi PHILOSPHY KELiMESi AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi INTELLECTUAL KELiMESi iLE BENZER ANLAM TAlMAKTA VE LITERATURE KELiMESi AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEN LITERARY KELiMESi iLE ELEEREK ANLAM BTNLG SAGLAMAKTADIR. BU NEDENLE SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI D SEENEGiDiR.

./

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

269

YDS iFRELERi
38.

THE HUMAN BODY changes in many noticeable ways with a e. Perhaps the frst sign of aging occurs when the eye cannot focus easily on close objects. Often by ag 40 or so, many people fnd it difficult to read without using glasses. ---- People tend to lose some abili hear the highest pitched tones. Therefore, older people may find that violin music no longer as exciting as it did when they were young .
e ear ca nal or middle ear that blocks the

ed hearing aids that keep the volume of sound at a suitable

E) Hearing

also

changes with age.

TEKNiK: ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


vPARANIN KONUSU AL Tl izili iLK CMLEDE YER ALAN THE HUMAN BODY CHANGE VE WITH AGE ANAHTAR KELiMELERi iLE BELiRLENMEKTEDiR. BU KELiMELERDEN CHANGE WITH AGE E SEENEGiNDE GEEREK SEENEK PARANIN KONUSUNU ORTAYA KOYMAKTADlR . SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN AL Tl iZiLi CMLEDEKi HEAR KELiMESi TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKLE BiRLiKTE; KE LiMENiN ANA KONU iLE iLiKiSiNi SADECE DOGRU CEVAP OLAN E SEENEGi ORTAYA KOYMAKT ADIR.

..,

39. At the beginning of the 1990s, it seemed to all appearances that

THE US

comprehensively dominated

Thus , it was deseribed as "the lonely superpower. However, that said , the of uncertainty and questioning for many Americans . In broad terms, the 1990s proved to be a deca challenges of the post-Col ar era were as demanding for the US as they were for other countries . A) In many respects, ending of the Cold W ar was expected to usher in a period of profound uncertainty.

global affairs. ----

B) The debates ab t US FOREIGN POLICY in the post- Cold W ar period have been shaped by the impact of wor events. ost frequently used IMAGES OF US FOREIGN-POLICY making has been that C) One of th of cont and struggle. D) Inde , THE US has always found it difficult to reconcile the issue of world order with national p pectives. E) 1 occupied a pre-eminent position in terms of military power, technology and global economic reach.

TEKNiK: NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


vvPARANIN KONUSU THE US D SEENEGiNDE YER AllRKEN, E SEENEGiNDE IT ZAMiRi OLARAK GEMEKTEDiR. ALTI iZiLi CMLELERDE YER ALAN EN OK ANAHTAR KELiMEYi VE ZAMiRi iERMESi (ZNE KONUMUNDA) NEDENi iLE SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI E SEENEGiDiR.

270

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


40.

MOLLUSKS

can be found in virtually every habitat on Earth and range in size from microscopic to more

than 10 m long. ----. But

OTHERS, the octopus for instance, are considered to be delicacies .

A) They are indee extremely fascinating group of erealures B) Not all of t~ , however, are encased in a shell C) All the ~usks are invertebrate animals D) SO E. like the snails in our gardens, are regarded as pests E) The octopus even has problem-solving abilities

TEKNiK: NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN KONUSU MOLLUSKS E SEENEGi DIINDAKi TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR. SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLENiN KONUSU OTHERS OLUP; NNDE YER ALAN CMLENiN GRAMATiK KURAL DOGRUL TUSUNDA SOME iLE BALAMASI GEREKLiDiR. ZAMiR NiTELEYiCiSiNi iERMESi NEDENi iLE SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI D SEENEGiDiR.

./

41. Well into the 1860s

THE AMERICAN WEST

remained divided from the East by the harsh nature of

the country's interior. ---- . Their aim was to build a railroad across the formidable mountainous lands of the Sierra Nevada . hey were ridiculed on all sides , but the ambitious enterprise eventually succeeded. A)

THEIR

high-flying

al comes with similarly steep challenges (BU CMLEDEKi ZAMiRiN

NiTELEYiCiSi iLK

MLEDE YOK!)

B) Top engineers had ag ed that the Sierra Nevada could not be crossed by road or rail C) Naturally, politicians ere not in favour of uniting East and West D) Then tour merc ants began raising money to fund a seemingiy impossible Project E) The high peaks of the Sierra Nevada were acknowledged as being impassable

TEKNiK: NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN ANA ALMAMAKT ADIR . KONUSU THE AMERICAN WEST SEENEKLERDE YER SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLEDEKi THEIR ZAMiRi D SEENEGiNDE FOUR MERCHANTS KELiMESiNi NiTELEMEKTEDiR CMLEDEKi " THEIR AIM WAS TO BUILD" iFADESi SEENEKTEKi " THEY BEGAN RAISING MONEY TO FUND A PROJECT" iFADESi iLE ANLAMCA ELEMEKTEDiR . ZAMiRiN NiTELEDiGi KELiMEYi iERMESi VE CMLEDEKi iFADEYi ZETLEMESi NEDENi iLE SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABI D SEENEGiDiR.

./

./

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

271

YDS iFRELERi
42.

IN THE ANNALS OF COMPYTING.


ideas on paper. ----. However, with th highquality images .

nothing has caused as much disappointment as putting coming of the inkjet printer it was soon possible to print really

A) For
B) C) D) E)

decades, printing COMPUT R FILES was a thankless task for users seeking to reproduce precisely what they saw on their screens To start with, thermal inkjets were no match for the costlier laser printers that had just been introduced For all its originality the idea behind the inkjet is far from new The frst inkjet printers were slow, messy machines, but they gradually got better and better Designers of printers_grew more ambitious and they started to want colour, speed and low costs

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN ANA SEENEGiDiR! KONUSUNU VE CMLEDEN KELiME iEREN SADECE A

43.

values independence and sllf-assertiveness. ----. 1 community.

MOST WESTERN INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS have an individualistic orientation, which Th stress the interdependence of people within the

A) There is no internal evidJ.ce to suggest this B) Individuals in collectivislJAsian cultures are even le s likely to commit such errors C} In contrast, MANY NON-WESTERN CUL.: URES have a more collectivist orientation D) This is why Americans tend to use psychological traits to deseribe themselves E) Actually, situational factors also play quite an important role

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


./ PARANIN ANA KONUSUNA MOST WESTERN INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS YER VEREN VE CMLEDEKi THEY ZAMiRiNiN NiTELEDiGi MANY NON-WESTERN CULTURES KONUSUNU iEREN C SEENEGi SORUNUN DOGRU CEVABIDIR.

272

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


44. H E? This question has fascinated humanity for centuries, but so far no def ive answer has been found. ----. Chief among these is the confrmation, after a long wait and several fa~~tarts, that planets exist outside our solar syste '

A) Most su rp ng of all is the speed with which life was established on th~lanet B)A number of recent developments have brought THE QUESTION once again to the fo re C) So far, astronomers have found no Earth-like planets , but we can be fairly confident that they will do so D) In spite of all this activity, researchers have made no positive detections of extraterrestrial signals E) The lack of success to date cannot be used to inferthat Earth is the only planet with life

'

TEKNiK: ANA KONU ELEMESi + NiTELEME TEKNiGi!


--' PARANIN ANA KONUSU B SEENEGiNDE THE QUESTION OLARAK VURGULANMAKT ADIR. SORU BOLUGU SONRASI GELEN CMLEDEKi THESE ZAMiRi B SEENEGiNDE NUMBER OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS KONUSUNU NiTELEMEKTEDiR

--'

--'

ZAMiRi NiTELEMESi VE ANA KONUYU iERMESi NEDENi iLE B SEENEGi DOGRU CEVAPTlR.

45. ACUPUNCTURISTS treat all kinds of conditions ranging from headaches to strokes. _ _ . In Britain, this very rarely happens, but some

health insura B RAN CH

e schemes
OF M

do cover.

A) The Chinese first developed THIS

B) Many of the people who practice ACUPUNCTURE are not fu

ualifed
cal profession yet

C) THIS KIN D OF TREATMENT hasn't been approved of by the

D) In France and Germany ACUPUNCTUREjs available under national !]h~Ul!U!.k[Jlt!!l!i~ E) Contraryto general beliefTHIS METHOD OF TREATMENT_is not in the least painful

TEKNiK: ANA KONU + ORTAK KELiME ELEMESi TEKNiGi!


--' --' PARANIN KONUSU ACUPUNCTURE TM SEENEKLERDE GEMEKTEDiR. D SEENEGiNiN ALTI iZiLi HER iKi CMLEDEN ANAHTAR KELiMELER iERMESi (ACUPUNCTURE, HEALTH SCHEMES) ANLAM STNLGN SAGLAMAKTADIR VE BU NEDENLE SEENEK DOGRU CEVAPTlR.

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273

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SITUATION TEST
1. A colleague of yours seems worried that the paper he is going to present at an international conference contains a great deal of radical argument and that it may provoke the participants into strong objections and protests against his views. So you wish to lend your support for his views and encourage him to speak out confidently. You say: A)
suggest you get rid of all these provocative ideas, since many people at the conference will oppose you vehemently and try to silence you. Your views may be provocative and , therefore, displease others , but 1 know they are sound. So don 't be discouraged. lt is incomprehensible to me why you should always attempt to provoke other people and , ina way, subvert the conference . Everybody knows that you are a radical and always cause trouble at international academic gatherings. So 1 advise you to be careful. This conference you are going to attend is not the right occasion for you to express your provocative views. 1 would advise you not to get involved in a row.

3.

As the chairman of a committee, you must call the members to an unscheduled but urgent meeting. So you phone them each and, with your apologies, inform them about the meeting. You say: A) 1 am wondering whether all the commitlee members will be available to attend a meeting later taday. B) This is your chairman calling . We are going to have a meeting , which 1 want you to attend without any excuse. C) As a committee, we have to come together immediately. 1 am sorry about this , as it is contrary to our usual practice. D) Our commitlee needs to meet as soon as possible. 1 am sure you have no objection whatsoever. E) 1 am asking you and the other members to come to my office right away for a meeting. No one must be absent.

B)

C)

D)

E)

4.

You have been invited to give a talk on the current global economic crisis. Vet you feel that, following your talk, there will be questions which may get you involved in a domestic political debate. Since you don 't wish to be part of such a debate, you decide to decline the invitation. So you say: A) 1 am afraid my talk on the current erisis in the world economy may in the end turn into a controversy over domestic politics, which is not what 1 want. So you will have to exeuse me from giving the talk. B) Before 1 can accept your invitation for a talk on the world economy, you must assure me that there will be no questions concerning domestic politics. C) 1 know out of experience that such issues as the current economic erisis in the world are extremely controversial , and 1 am absolutely sure that questions will be asked about domestic policies. D) There is no doubt that the world economic erisis has its adverse impact on domestic policies , which 1 wouldn 't like to touch on in my talk. E) have decided mainly to focus in my talk on the global effects of the current economic crisis , but 1 am also prepared to answer questions concerning domestic political issues.

2.

As a literary critic, you are asked to Express briefly your opinion of a novel recently published. You have read the novel and noticed some structural and stylistic defects in it. So you say: A) 1 am fully convinced that, like me, other critics will be much impressed by the novel as it deals with serious issues. B) In my opinion , it will take a long time before the novel really draws the attention of the reading public. C) With regard to the novel , 1 should stress in the frst place that the author's portrayal of the characters is very disappointing indeed. D) Although the author of the novel has a great deal of capacity for creativity, he is so much under the influence of other novelists that he lacks originality. E) As far as 1 am concerned , it is not a very successful novel , as it lacks clarity and has certain plot problems.

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5. You've lent a friend of yours one of the reterence books in your own personal library, which you often use for your own research. Although he promised you to return it soon, he hasn't done so, and you need the book urgently. You are upset and say to him: A) Should you need other books for reference, you just let me know, and you needn't worry about returning the book soon, which 1 have already lent you . B) hope the book 1 gave you has been most useful for your research; you can give it back to me when you don't need it any longer. C) Since you haven't kept your word about the book you borrowed from me, 1 am really angry; it is an indispensable source for my research, and 1 need it now. D) Since my library has a number of reterence books, you can borrow them whenever you need them, and you needn't hurry to return the one l've lent you. E) You said you would returnthe reterence book 1 lent you . lt is alright; 1 am using other sources for my research . 7. A young colleague of yoursis worried that the proposal for a paper he has submitted to the scientific commitlee of an international conference may be rejected due to his lack of advanced research experience. As a senior colleague, well aware of his research capacity and seriousness of purpose, you wish to cheer him up and encourage him by saying: A)
told you that your paper needs to be extensively revised . You may be good at research, but your arguments in the paper are extremely controversial. 1 know how a scientific commitlee reaches a decision. Chances are slim for your paper to be accepted as it is hardly based on sound research. Relax. Though you haven't got much experience in research, you are a promising scientist, and am sure they will take that into consideration. lt is too early for someone like you to be welcomed as a speaker at an international conference . You need to show your seriousness of purpose in your studies. As far as 1 am concerned, you should never have submitted your proposal because 1 know your research for this paper has been very limited.

B)

C)

D)

E)

6.

You are leeturing on the lndustrial Revolution and the economic changes it brought about in England in the Iate 18th and early 19th centuries. You conclude your lecture by saying: 8. A) So, to wrap up, the lndustrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century and thereafter altered not only the foundations of the economy but also the very assumptions with which people approached economics. B) Moreover, one can suggest that Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries had ample supplies of coal and a well-developed network of canals, all of which proved important for industrialization . C) In fact, by the end of the 18th century and the early 19th century, London had become the leading centre for international trade and a headquarters for the transfer of raw materials, and manufactured products capital, throughout the world. D) Actually, the lndustrial Revolution began with dramatic technological leaps in a few industries towards the end of the 18th century and the early 19th century, the first of which was cotton textiles. E) Undoubtedly, at the end of the 18th century and during the early decades of the 19th century, expanding networks of trade and finance in Britain created new markets for goods and new sources of raw materials.

As a highly respected economist, you have been invited by a group of businessmen to give a talk on the current global crisis. However, on the very day you are expected to speak, you are taken ili, and, upset about missing such a chance, you call the organizers and say: A) Frankly, have already decided to caneel the talk that you wished me to give on the current consequences of the global crisis. B) Although 1 am not feeling well today, 1 would really like to take this opportunity and discuss with you the effects of the economic problems that the world is currently facing. C) Let me frst express my apologies for cancelling the talk which 1 am expected to give today on the global impact of the current economic crisis. D) This is to inform you that, due to my prolonged poor health, 1 am not going to make my speech today on the global effects of the economic eri sis. E) Unfortunately, 1 am not well at all. 1 would like to convey my apologies for not being able to share my thoughts with you all on the problems affecting the world today.

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YDS iFRELERi
9. You are the moderator at a panel on tax reform. The discussion has drifted into a debate on the question of whether indirect taxation needs to be abolished altogether. You feel that, instead of narrowing the panel down to a single issue, the speakers should deal with various other issues that are related to taxation and tax reform in general. So you turn to the speakers and say:
A) 1 think we have to look at tax reform from various angles. So 1would like you to discuss many different aspects of the subject rather than focus only on one aspect. B) 1 can see that you'li never reach an agreement on tax reform . In this case, there is no use in discussing indirect taxation. C) 1 am glad to point out that each speaker has dealt with tax reform in detail and come up with a wide range of recommendations that need to be taken into consideration. D) We all know that indirect taxation is widely practised in the world, and so it is important that this taxation must be looked at from different angles. E) All this time, no speaker has yet addressed the problem of indirect taxation. So 1 would urge every speaker to discuss how this form of taxation can best be reformed.

11. A friend of yours, who you think is a fully qualified accountant, has applied for a vacancy in a company, but his application has been turned down by the Human Resources Department of the company. You are surprised. So, on his behalf, you call the director of the department, teli him about this unexpected decision, and ask him politely for an explanation:
A) 1 didn't expect that my friend would be rejected by your company, since, in my opinion, professionally he is perfect, so 1 would be grateful if you could kindly give me your reasons for his rejection. B) lt is clear that you are biased against my friend, who is a good accountant, and so 1 want you to teli me frankly why he was not accepted. C) Your rejection of my friend's application to your company is absolutely unfair, since he is the best accountant 1 have ever known. So 1 need to know your reasons why he was not accepted. D) Contrary to my expectations, my friend, who is a professional accountant, has been rejected unfairly by your company. Give me a full account of your reasons for his rejection. E) 1 am extremely upset that you have turned down my friend's application for a job in your company. Now 1 want you to teli me in detail why he failed to qualify.

1O. As the head of the department, you have recently noticed that a junior staff member is often Iate for work. So you wish to find out why and send for him. In talking to him politely, you say:
A) 1 have warned you several times, and you stil continue to come Iate. This is a serious offence that can never be tolerated . So be careful. B) You know very well that you are always Iate for work and that this is intolerable. Let me warn you once again, and if you insist on being Iate, 1'11 have to take disciplinary action against you. C) 1 am sure you are aware that it has almost become a habit with you not to get to the Office on time. 1 wonder whether there is something that prevents you from being punctual. D) l've been informed by same of your colleagues that every day you seem to be Iate for work. So 1 sent for you to talk it over and warn you once again. E) Every day, you apologize for being Iate for work. don't fnd your excuses very convincing. Unless you show up on time from now on, you'li be fred right away.

12. At a literary gathering, you are introduced to a famous and popular novelist whose works you have always read with great pleasure. You wish to express your adniration for his writing and say to him:
A) 1 am really very impressed by the popularity you have earned through your novels, same of which, fnd enjoyable. B) 1 know your novels are very popular, but in reading them 1 sametimes feel that some chapters need to be revised . C) Because your novels have always been admired by the public, you must be very pleased and feel encouraged for better writing . D) lt has always been my wish to meet you, since your novels are most admired by the public. E) 1would like to teli you how enormously 1 have always enjoyed reading your novels, which 1 believe are great works of literature.

276

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13. In the workplace a friend is very disappointed because someone else has been promoted to the position she felt she deserved. She is also extremely angry and tatking of giving in her resignation. You feel this would be very unwise, and say:
A) Don't do anything while you are so angry; you may regret it later. B) Of course you're angry. You deserved to be promoted. C) After all, you are better qualified than anyone else here. D) Don't you enjoy working here? 1 always thought you did. E) If you want to resign, do: there's no one stopping you!

16. Your niece has been for an interview for a post. She very much wanted the job on offer, but has been turned down. Learning that this was her first-ever interview, you want to help restore her canfidence and give her some practical advice. So, you say:
A) The person who is giving the interview should try to put you at your ease. B) l'm sorry to hear that you were turned down. C) Don't worry. This was your first interview. You need some practice in being interviewed! Apply for lots of posts and go to lots of interviews. D) Were the questions he asked really all that difficult? E) What did you do wrong at this interview? Did you feel you were being treated unfairly?

14. A friend is being posted to rather a remote part of the world, for two years, to carry out some research. You hear that his wife feels very reluctant to go. You want to awaken in her a more positive approach to the people and culture of the area where the husband has been posted. So you say:
A) Take your computer with you and then you won't feel so cut off from the rest of the world. B) Don't worry; after a time you'li find you've got used to the conditions there. C) What's worrying you? ls it the language? D) What a wonderful opportunity to meet different people and watch a completely different way of life from close quarters. E) The seeret is: keep busy. Then you won't have time to get bored.

17. Your sister is about to buy her first car, and wants your advice. You realize she is attracted to rather large and luxury-class models. You decide to give her a practical reason for choosing something smaller, and say:
A) B) C) D) E) l'd love to drive a car like that. What do you want a big car like that for? That' s a difficult car for a learner driver. Parking big cars like that is always a problem. Cars like that are for experienced drivers only!

15. A colleague has started to spend rather too lavishly and got herself into debt. But this doesn't seem to worry her and she continues to buy very expensive and quite unnecessary things. One day you happen to see her on the point of buying shoes she doesn't need and run across to stop her. You say to her firmly:
A) Are you sure you can afford them? B) Think it over and come back tomorrow. C) Yes. They're quite nice, but there's really nothing special about them . D) Let's go and have a coffee sornewhere and discuss the problem. E) No, you don't! You've got to give up this reckless spending!

18. A friend has been over-working for months and has been losing weight and sleeping badly. You decide to really shock her into taking care of herself on the principle that sometimes you have to be cruel to be kind, and say:
A) Get away from it all for a weekend . Go to a nice quiet place in the country. B) Why are you driving yourself like this? C) There should be more to life than making mo ney! D) suggest you look after yourself well. E) You're kiJiing yourself by working too much. Besides, you're really neglecting your family!

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277

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19. Your roommate has been seriously ili. The doctor says she needs to rest in bed for quite some time. Since she's normally very active, she's going to find this very difficult. You know that the doctor is right, and are determined to help your friend carry out his advice. You say: A) The instructions of the doctor are final you know. You'li just have to make the best of it. 1 '11 get you some books. B) You have been seriously ili, so you can 't expect to get back to normal quickly. C) He's rather an old-fashioned doctor! You don 't have to spend the whole of each day in bed! D) How did you get so ili? You're always so careful about what you eat! 1 can't understand it. E) After a couple of days in bed you'li be as ft as ever. 21. You are being interviewed for a highly confidential job. You are told that, should you be employed, you must on no account discuss the nature of the work even with your closest friends. You want to assure the person who is interviewing you that this would present no difficulty. You say: A) People who talk non-stop about their working lives are extremely boring. B) Actually, 1 am not interested in other people's working lives. C) 1 am used to keeping my work and my private life quite separate, so there would be no problem here for me. D) That's a pity. A little bit of gossip is always nice! People expect to hear about what you're doing. E) 1 '11 do my best to keep quiet, but can't promise to do so.

20. One of your colleagues has to interview candidates for a position in the company she works for. There are a lot of applicants and she is not used to conducting interviews and comes to you for advice on how to gain full insight into each candidate's character. You say: A) Be a careful listener, and avoid asserting your own opinions and comments. B) Ask open-ended questions that will reflect the candidate's personality more than a simple "yes" or "no" response would. C) Once the interview has ended, review what has been said by each candidate. D) If you are tape-recording the interview, frst ask the candidates' permission and start the proceeding. E) Maintain a friendly facial expression, adopt positive body language, and be polite.

22. You are a well-known dramatic critic, and various newspapers have asked you to write about a new play by a young dramatist. The general opinion is that the play is magnificent and that the young dramatist is an extremely promising writer. You feel that, though you liked the play itself, it is too early to reach a final judgement about the writer's creativity. You say: A) The dialogue is colourful, spirited and credible; but the plot is weak and improbable. B) The play itself is rather disappointing, but the quality of acting in this production is extremely high. C) This play is better than any of his earlier plays, but that's not saying much! D) lt is clearly a good play. However, it would surely be better to wait a while before attempting any serious criticism of the writer himself. E) As far as 1 am concerned, this play deals very successfully with the issues of creativity and loneliness.

278

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23. Your friend, who was recently widowed, tells you that he has m ade plans to get married. You think it is stili far too early for your .friend to be thinking about re-marriage as he hasn 't yet had time to recover from the loss of his wife. You want to teli him this in a gentle manner so as not to make him angry or hurt his feelings. You say:
A) l'm glad you' re moving on with your life. lt was time you stopped grieving, anyway. B) What a big decision! But 1 think you're doing the right thing. C) You 're making the wrong decision. You should defnitely wait at least another year. D) Surely, loneliness is a terrible thing . lt is time you made up your mind . E) Are you sure you're ready to take such a big step? Why not wait a while?

25. A colleague of yours who has just returned from an international conference tells you that the paper he presented at the conference generated a good deal of discussion. Clearly you are pleased by the news but are curious to know whether the overall reaction to his paper was positive. So you say to him:
A) So 1 see your mind is stili at the conference. Did many people comment on your paper? B) 1 am very impressed indeed by what you say. Teli me. Did most of those who commented on your paper support your points? C) 1 am sure interesting papers on a wide range of topics must have been presented at the conference . How did yours go? Were there many people in the hall to hear you? D) 1 am glad that you were able to attend the conference . Did your topic arouse much interest in the participants? E) understand that you made a good impression at the conference. Were there many questions put to you?

24. Your daughter is upset because there is a lot of unpleasantness going on in her class. She says that one girl in particular has been teliing lies and trying to manipulate the other girls in the class. You know that this girl's parents were recently divorced, and you think that this may be the reason for the girl's behaviour. You want your daughter to understand this, so you say:
A) Have you thought about the possibility that this girl is acting this way because she feels insecure after her parents' divorce? B) How would you feel if your father and 1 were divorced? Do you think it would change your behaviour at school? C) 1 think you should try to stay away from her for a while until her behaviour improves. D) Why isn't your teacher involved in trying to sort all of this out? E) What if 1 call her mother and talk to her? Would that help?

26. From the cases reported every day in newspapers, you feel that domestic violence is on the rise in society. You think that something should be done to help the victims, so you raise the matter with friends and discuss it with them. Unanimously you agree that some action must be taken immediately. So you make a suggestion to them:
A) Personally, 1think that the victims of domestic violence, who are mostly women, should seek legal advice and demand protection. B) As far as 1 am concerned , it is the responsibility of the authorities to introduce severe measures for the prevention of domestic violence throughout the country. C) If we are to believe social workers and sociologists, the causes of domestic violence are so diverse and complex that the solution of this problem is al most impossible. D) 1 propose that we frst set up a volunteer group to reach victims while at the same time we form an assodation to fight domestic violence in the country. E) Since domestic violence has become an increasingly serious social problem, 1 think that new legislative measures put into effect must be followed up by efficient policies for the solution of the problem.

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27. At your son's school there has been an essay-writing competition. Your son worked very hard on his entry in the competition, researching the material and then organizing it. But, he didn't get a prize, so he's very 29. You are at the airport in a foreign city. You want to hire a taxi to take you to your hotel, but first you want to find out the fare so that the taxi driver can't overcharge you. You say to the taxistand attendant:
A) lt's very expensive to take a taxi these days, isn 't it? B) l'm sorry to disturb you , but is there a taxi available to take me to the Smith Hotel? C) Exeuse me, could you please teli me approximately how much it will cost me to go to the Smith Hotel? D) Why aren't there any taxis waiting? E) 1 think 1 '11 rent a car instead of taking a taxi. Where are the rental offices?

disappointed. You want to console him and


say:
A) lt doesn't matter. But next time try a bit harder. B) Surely, you must be very upset. C) They should have told you what your faults were. D) Never mind ; it was a good essay and 1 know you did your best. E) 1 never wanted you to enter the competition ; 1 knew you wouldn't win.

28. A friend of yours is a famous novelist as his novels published so far have been extremely popular. However, he is worried that the new novel he is writing will not be so popular, since he is not satisfied with the plot and characterization in it. As you know his capacity for creativity and smoothness of style, you try to dispel his worries by saying:
A) You know everybody enjoys reading your novels. Besides, let critics judge your new novel which, l'm sure , will fully reflect your creative and lucid way of writing . Feel at ease. B) Every great writer has had periods of decline in his or her creativity. However, you are not a great writer even though you may be popular. 1 suggest you follow their example: stop writing for a while and wait to recapture your creativity. C) 1 agree that you mustn't be misled by the popularity of your novels, some of which have already been harshly criticised. So, however creative you may be , your new novel may again be attacked by critics. D) This shows that it is time you gave up writing altogether. In recent years, with your novels so popular, you may have thought that you were the greatest writer in fction. E) In a novel, plot and characterization are probably the most important aspects. So 1fnd it rather hard to believe that a novelist who enjoys so much popularity can fail in these areas.

30. Due to the heavy traffic today, you are Iate to your appointment with the dean of the faculty, who you know is always punctual. When you get to his office, you not only apologize but also blame yourself for being Iate. You say:
A) Today there is a lot of traffic on the roads , even though 1 left home earlier than usual! 1 thoroughly regret being Iate for my appointment. B) 1 regret that you had to wait for me. Although 1 left home early, 1 did not think that there would be so much traffic on the roads. C) My apologies for the congestion on the roads , because of which am Iate for the appointment, though 1set out quite early. D) 1 am really very upset because of this delay caused by the heavy traffic on the roads. In fact, 1did leave home at the usual time. E) 1 am very sorry for this delay because of the traffic. 1 should have left home much earlier than usual to be here on time.

280

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

SITUATION TEST 1 CEVAP ANAHTARI


1. B

2.E

3.C
4.A

s. c

6.A 7.C

S. E
9.A

10. c
11. A

12.E 13. A 14.0 15.E 16.C


17. D

18.E 19. A
20.8

21.C 22.0 23.E 24.A


25.8

26.0 27.0 28.A 29.C 30.E

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SITUATION STRATEJiLERi
1. A colleague of yours seems worried that the paper he is going to present at an international conference contains a great deal of radical argument and that it may provoke the participants into strong objections and protests against his views. So you wish to lend your support for his views and encouraqe him to speak out confdently. You say: A) B) C) D) E)
suggest you get rid of all these provocative ideas, since many people at the centerence will oppose you vehemently and try to silence you . Your views may be provocative and , therefore, displease others, but 1 know they are sound. So don't be discouraged. lt is incomprehensible to me why you should always attempt to provoke other people and , in a way, subvert the conference . Everybody knows that you are a radical and always cause trouble at international academic gatherings. So 1 advise you to be careful. This conference you are going to attend is not the right occasion for you to express your provocative views . 1 would advise you not to get involved in a row.

ENCOURAGE HIM
2. Asa literary critic, you are asked to express briefly your opinion of a novel recently published. You have read the novel and noticed some structural and stylistic defects in it. So you say: A) 1 am fully convinced that, like me, other critics will be much impressed by the novel as it deals with serious issues. B) In my opinion, it will take a long time before the novel really draws the attention of the reading public. C) With regard to the novel, 1 should stress in the frst place that the author's portrayal of the characters is very disappointing indeed . D) Although the author of the novel has a great deal of capacity for creativity, he is so much under the influence of other novelists that he lacks originality. E) As far as 1 am concerned , it is not a very successful novel, as it lacks clarity and has certain plot problems.

DEFECTS

3.

As the chairman of a committee, you must call the members to an unscheduled but urgent meeting. So you phone them each and , with your apologies, inform them about the meeting. You say: A) am wondering whether all the committee members will be available to attend a meeting later today. B) Th is is your chairman calling . We are going to have a meeting, which 1 want you to attend without any excuse. C) As a committee, we have to come together immediately. 1 am sorrv about this, as it is contrary to our usual practice. D) Our committee needs to meet as soon as possible. 1 am sure you have no objection whatsoever. E) am asking you and the other members to come to my office right away for a meeting. No one must be absent.

WITH YOUR APOLOG/ES

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4.
You have been invited to give a talk on the current global economic crisis . Yet you feel that, following your talk, there will be questions which may get you involved in a domestic political debate. Since you don 't wish to be part of such a debate, you decide to decline the invitation. So you say:

A) 1am afraid my talk on the current erisis in the world economy may in the end turn into a controversy over domestic politics, which is not what 1want. So you will have to exeuse me from giving the talk. B) Before 1 can accept your invitation for a talk on the world economy, you must assure me that there will be no questions concerning domestic politics. C) 1 know out of experience that such issues as the current economic erisis in the world are extremely controversial, and 1 am absolutely sure that questions will be asked about domestic policies. D) There is no doubt that the world economic erisis has its adverse impact on domestic policies , which 1 wouldn 't like to touch on in my talk. E) 1have decided main Iy to focus in my talk on the global effects of the current economic crisis, but 1 am also prepared to answer questions concerning domestic political issues.

DECL/NE THE INVITA TION


5.
You've lent a friend of yours one of the reterence books in your own personallibrary, which you often use for your own research . Although he promised you to return it soon, he hasn't done so, and you need the book urgently. You are upset and say to him: A) Should you need other books for reference, you just let me know, and you needn't worry about returning the book soon, which have already lent you . B) 1hope the book 1gave you has been most useful for your research ; you can give it back to me when you don't need it any longer. C) Since you haven't kept your word about the book you borrowed from me, 1 am really angry; it is an indispensable source for my research , and 1 need it~ D) Since my library has a number of reterence books, you can borrow them whenever you need them , and you needn 't hurry to returnthe one l've lent you. E) You said you would return the reterence book 1 lent you . lt is alright; 1 am using other sources for my research.

HE HASN'T DONE SO

URGENTLY

6.

You are leeturing on the lndustrial Revolution and the economic changes it brought about in England in the Iate 18th and early 19th centuries . You conclude your lecture by saying: A) So, to wrap up, the lndustrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century and thereafter altered not only the foundations of the economy but also the very assumptions with which people approached economics. B) Moreover, one can suggest that Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries had ample supplies of coal and a well-developed network of canals, all of which proved important for industrialization. C) In fa ct, by the e nd of the 18th century and the early 19th century, London, had become the leading ce ntre for international trade and a headquarters for the transfer of raw materials, capital, and manufactured products throughout the world . D) Actually, the lndustrial Revolution began with dramatic technologicalleaps ina few industries towards the en d of the 18th century and the early 19th century, the first of which was cotton textiles. E) Undoubtedly, at the end of the 18th century and during the early decades of the 19th century, expanding networks of trade and finance in Britain created new markets for goods and new sources of raw materials.

CONCLUDE

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7.
A young colleague of yours is worried that the proposal for a paper he has submitted to the scientific commitlee of an international conference may be rejected due to his lack of advanced research experience. As a senior colleague , well aware of his research capacity and seriousness of purpose, you wish to cheer him up and encourage him by saying: A)
1 told you that your paper needs to be extensively revised. You may be good at research , but your arguments in the paper are extremely controversial. 1know how a scientific commitlee reaches a decision . Chances are slim for your paper to be accepted as it is hardly based on sound research. Relax. Though you haven't got much experience in research , you are a promising scientist, and 1am sure they will take that into consideration. lt is too early for sameone like you to be welcomed asa speaker at an international conference. You need to show your seriousness of purpose in your studies. As far as 1am concerned , you should never have submitted your proposal because 1know your research for this paper has been very limited.

B) C)
D) E)

CHEERHIM UP
8.

As a highly respected economist, you have been invited by a group of businessmen to give a talk on the current global crisis. However, on the very day you are expected to speak, you are taken ili, and, upset about missing such a chance, you call the organizers and say: A) Frankly, 1 have already decided to caneel the talk that you wished me to give on the current consequences of the global crisis. B) Although 1 am not feeling well taday, 1would really like to take this opportunity and discuss with you the effects of the economic problems that the world is currently facing. C) Let me first express my apologies for cancelling the talk which am expected to give taday on the global impact of the current economic eri sis. D) This is to inform you that, due to my prolonged poor health , 1 am not going to make my speech taday on the global effects of the economic crisis. E) Unfortunately, am not well at all. 1 would like to convey my apologies for not being able to share my thoughts with you all on the problems affecting the world taday.

YOU ARE TAKEN/LL

9.

You are the moderator ata panel on tax reform . The discussion has drifted into a debate on the question of whether indirect taxation needs to be abolished altogether. You feel that, instead of narrowing the panel down to a single issue, the speakers should deal with various other issues that are related to taxation and tax reform in general. So you turn to the speakers and say: A) think we have to look at tax reform from various angles. So 1 would like you to discuss many different aspects of the subject rather than focus only on one aspect. B) can see that you'li never reach an agreement on tax reform . In this case, there is no use in discussing indirect taxation . C) am glad to point out that each speaker has dealt with tax reform in detail and come up with a wide range of recommendations that need to be taken into consideration . D) We all know that indireel taxation is widely practised in the world , and so it is important that this taxation must be looked at from different angles. E) All this time, no speaker has yet addressed the problem of indirect taxation . So 1 would urge every speaker to discuss how this form of taxation can best be reformed.

/NSTEAD OF NARROWING THE PANEL DOWN TO A S/NGLE ISSUE

=
RATHER THAN FOCUSING ONLY ON ONE ASPECT

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1 O. As the head of the department, you have recently noticed that a junior staff member is often Iate for work. So
you wish to find out why and send for him. In talking to him politely, you say: A) 1 have warned you several times , and you stili continue to come Iate. This is a serious offence that can never be tolerated . So be careful. B) You know very well that you are always Iate for work and that this is intolerable. Let me warn you once again, and if you insist on being Iate, 1 '11 have to take disciplinary action against you. C) 1 am sure you are aware that it has almost become a habit with you not to get to the office on time. ! wonder whether there is something that prevents you from being punctual. D) l've been informed by same of your colleagues that every day you seem to be Iate for work. So 1sent for you to talk it over and warn you once again. E) Every day, you apologize for being Iate for work. 1 don't fnd your excuses very convincing. Unless you show up on time from now on , you'li be fired right away.

FINDOUTWHY
11. A friend of yours , who you thinkisa fully
qualifed accountant, has applied for a vacancy ina company, but his application has been turned down by the Human Resources Department of the company. You are surprised. So, on his behalf, you call the director of the department, teli him about this unexpected decision, and ask him politely for an explanation:

A) 1 didn't expect that my friend would be rejected by your company, since, in my opinion , professionally he is perfect, so 1would be grateful if you could kindly give me your reasons for his rejection. B) lt is clear that you are biased against my friend , who is a good accountant, and so 1want you to teli me frankly why he was not accepted. C) Your rejection of my friend 's application to your company is absolutely unfair, since he is the best accountant 1have ever known. So 1need toknow your reasons why he was not accepted. D) Contrary to my expectations, my friend, who is a professional accountant, has been rejected unfairly by your company. Give me a full account of your reasons for his rejection . E) 1 am extremely upset that you have turned down my friend 's application for a job in your company. Now 1 want you to teli me in detail why he failed to qualify.

YOU ARE SURPRISED = 1 DIDN'T EXPECT


ASK HIM POLITEL Y FOR AN EXPLANA TION

=KINDL Y G/VE ME

YOUR REASONS

12. At a literary gathering, you are introduced to a famous and popular novelist whose works you have always
read with great pleasure. You wish to express your admiration for his writing and say to him: A) 1 am really very impressed by the popularity you have earned through your novels, some of which, 1 fnd enjoyable. B) know your novels are very popular, but in reading them 1sametimes feel that some chapters need to be revised . C) Because your novels have always been admired by the public, you must be very pleased and feel encouraged for better writing . D) lt has always been my wish to meet you , since your novels are most admired by the public. E) would like to teli you how enormously 1 have always enioyed reading your novels, which believe are great works of literature.

YOUR ADMIRAT/ON FOR HIS WRIT/NG

=
HOW ENORMOUSL Y 1 HAVE ALWA YS ENJOYED READING YOUR NOVELS

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13. In the workplace a friend is very disappointed because someone else has been promoted to the position she felt she deserved. She is also extremely angry and talking of giving in her resignation . You feel this would be very unwise, and say: A) B) C) D) E) Don't do anything while you are so angry; you may regret it later.

Of course you're angry. You deserved to be promoted .


After all, you are better qualified than anyone else here. Don't you enjoy working here? 1always thought you did. If you want to resign, do: there's no one stopping you!

EXTREMEL Y ANGRY =SO ANGRY YOU FEEL THIS WOULD BE VERY UNWISE = YOU MA Y REGRET IT

14. A friend is being posted to rather a remote part of the world, for two years, to carry out some research . You hear that his wife feels very reluctant to go. You want to awaken in her a more positive approach to the people and culture of the area where the husband has been posted. So you say:

A) B) C) D)

Take your computer with you and then you won't feel so cut off from the rest of the world. Don't worry; after a time you'li find you've got used to the conditions there. What's worrying you? ls it the language? What a wonderful opportunity to meet different people and watch a completely different way of life from close quarters. E) The seeret is: keep busy. Then you won't have time to get bored.

PEOPLE AND CUL TURE OF THE AREA DIFFERENT PEOPLE & DIFFERENT WA Y OF LIFE

15. A colleague has started to spend rather too lavishly and got herself into debt. But this doesn't seem to worry her and she continues to buy very expensive and quite unnecessary things. One day you happen to see her on the point of buying shoes she doesn't need and run across to stop her. You say to her frmly: A) B) C) D) E) Are you sure you can afford them? Think it over and come back tomorrow. Yes. They're quite nice, but there's really nothing special about them. Let's go and have a coffee sornewhere and discuss the problem. No, you don't! You've got to give up this reckless spending!

TO STOP HER = NO, YOU DON'T SPEND RATHER TOO LAV/SHL Y = RECKLESS SPENDING

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16. Your niece has been for an interview for a post. She very much wanted the job on offer, but has been turned down. Learning that this was her first-ever interview, you want to help restore her canfidence and give her same practical advice. So, you say:

A) The person who is giving the interview should try to put you at your ease. B) l'm sorry to hear that you were turned down . C) Don't worry. This was your first interview. You need same practice in being interviewed! Apply for lots of posts and go to lots of interviews. D) Were the questions he asked really all that difficult? E) What did you do wrong at this interview? Did you feel you were being treated unfairly?

HER FIRST-EVER INTERVIEW

17. Your sister is about to buy her first car, and wants your advice . You realize she is attracted to rather large and luxury-class models. You decide to give her a practical reason for choosing something smaller, and say:

A) B) C) D) E)

l'd love to drive acar like that. What do you want a big car like that for? That' s a difficult car for a learner driver. Parking big cars like that is always a problem. Cars like that are for experienced drivers only!

GIVE HER A PRACTICAL REASON

=
PARKING BIG CARS ISA PROBLEM

18. A friend has been over-working for months and has been losing weight and sleeping badly. You decide to really shock her into taking care of herselfon the principle that sametimes you have to be cruel to be kind , and say:

A) B) C) D) E)

Get away from it all for a weekend . Go to a nice quiet place in the country. Why are you driving yourself like this? There should be more to life than making money! suggest you look after yourself well. You're killing yourself by working too much. Besides, you're really neglecting your family!

SHOCK HER INTO TAKING CARE OF HERSELF

=
YOU'RE K/LUNG YOURSELF BY WORKING TOO MUCH

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287

YDS iFRELERi 19. Your roommate has been seriously ili. The doctor says she needs to rest in bed for quite same time. Since
she's normally very active, she's going to find this very difficult. You know that the doctor is right, and are determined to help your friend carry out his advice. You say:
A) The instructions of the doctor are fnal you know. You 'li just have to make the best of it. 1'11 get you same books. B) You have been seriously ili, so you can't expect to get back to normal quickly. C) He's rather an old-fashioned doctor! You don't have to spend the whole of each day in bed! D) How did you get so ili? You're always so careful about what you eat! 1can't understand it. E) After a couple of days in bed you'li be as ft as ever.

THE DOCTOR IS RIGHT THE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE DOCTOR ARE FINAL


20. One of your colleagues has to interview candidates for a position in the company she works for. There are a
lot of applicants and she is not used to conducting interviews and comes to you for advice on how to gain full insight into each candidate's character. You say: A) Be a carefullistener, and avoid asserting your own opinions and comments. B) Ask open-ended questions that will reflect the candidate's personalitv more than a simple "yes" or "no" response would . C) Once the interview has ended , review what has been said by each candidate. D) If you are tape-recording the interview, frst ask the candidates' permission and start the proceeding. E) Maintain a friendly facial expression , adopt positive body language, and be polite.

CANDIDATE'S CHARACTER
21. You are being interviewed for a highly confdential job. You are told that, should you be employed, you must on no account discuss the nature of the work even with your closest friends. You want to assure the person who is interviewing you that this would present no difficultv. You say:

A) People who talk non-stop about their working lives are extremely boring. B) Actually, 1 am not interested in other people's working lives. C) 1 am used to keeping my work and my private life quite separate , so there would be no problem here for me. D) That' s a pity. A little bit of gossip is always nice! People expect to hear about what you're doing. E) 1'11 do my best to keep quiet, but 1can't promise to do so.

THIS WOULD PRESENT NO DIFFICUL TY

=
THERE WOULD BE NO PROBLEM

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22. You are a well-known dramatic critic, and various newspapers have asked you to write about a new play by a young dramatist. The general opinion is that the play is magnifcent and that the young dramatist is an extremely promising writer. You feel that, though you liked the play itself, it is too early to reach a final judgement about the writer's creativity. You say: A) B) C) D) The dialogue is colourful, spirited and credible; but the plot is weak and improbable. The play itself is rather disappointing , but the quality of acting in this production is extremely high. This play is better than any of his earlier plays, but that' s not saying much! lt is clearly a good play. However, it would surely be better to wait a while before attempting any seri o us criticism of the writer himself. E) As far as 1am concerned, this play deals very successfully with the issues of creativity and loneliness.

TOO EARLY TO REACH A FINAL JUDGEMENT = BETTER TO WAIT BEFORE ATTEMPTING ANY SERIOUS CR/TIC/SM
23. Your friend, who was recently widowed , tells you that he has made plans to get married. You think it is stili far too early for your friend to be thinking about re-marriage as he hasn't yet had time to recover from the loss of his wife . You want to teli him this in a gentle manner so as not to make him angry or hurt his feelings . You say: A) B) C) D) E) l'm glad you 're moving on with your life. lt was time you stopped grieving, anyway. What a big decision! But 1think you're doing the right thing . You're making the wrong decision. You should defnitely wait at least another year. Surely, loneliness isa terrible thing . lt is time you made up your mind . Are you sure you 're ready to take such a big step? .<.:.:.'"':-'=..:::...==.:..=-:.:..:..:.:.=.;.

IT IS ST/LL FAR TOO EARLY


24. Your daughter is upset because there isa lot of unpleasantness going on in her class . She says that one girl
in particular has been teliing lies and trying to manipulate the other girls in the class. You know that this girl's parents were recently divorced, and you think that this may be the reason for the girl's behaviour. You want your daughter to understand this, so you say: A) Have you thought about the possibility that this girl is acting this way because she feels insecure after her parents' divorce? B) How would you feel if your father and 1 were divorced? Do you think it would change your behaviour at school? C) think you should try to stay away from her for a while until her behaviour improves. D) Why isn't your teacher involved in trying to sort all of this out? E) What if 1call her mother and talk to her? Would that help?

THIS MA Y BE THE REASON

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25. A colleague of yours who has just returned from an international conference tells you that the paper he
presented at the conference generated a good deal of discussion. Clearly you are pleased by the news but are curious toknow whether the overall reaction to his paper was positive. So you say to him: A) So 1see your mind is stili at the conference . Did many people comment on your paper? B) 1am very impressed indeed by what you say. Teli me. Did most of those who commented on your paper support your points? C) 1 am su re interesting papers on a wide range of topics must have been presented at the conference. How did yours go? W ere there many people in the hall to hear you? D) 1 am glad that you were able to attend the conference. Did your topic arause much interest in the participants? E) 1understand that you made a good impression at the conference. W ere there many questions put to you?
YOU ARE CURIOUS ABOUT THE OVERALL REACTiON

26. From the cases reported every day in newspapers, you feel that domestic violence is on the rise in society. You think that something should be done to help the victims , so you raise the matter with friends and discuss it with them . Unanimously you agree that same action must be taken immediately. So you make a suggestion to them :
A) Personally, think that the victims of domestic violence, who are mostly women, should seek legal advice and demand protection . B) As far as 1 am concerned, it is the responsibility of the authorities to introduce severe measures for the prevention of domestic violence throughout the country. C) If we are to believe social workers and sociologists, the causes of domestic violence are so diverse and complex that the solution of this problem is almost impossible. D) 1 propose that we first set up a volunteer group to reach victims while at the same time we form an association to fight domestic violence in the country. E) Since domestic violence has become an increasingly serious social problem, 1 think that new legislative measures put into effect must be followed up by efficient policies for the solution of the problem.

MAKE A SUGGESTION

27. At your son's school there has been an essay-writing competition. Your son worked very hard on his entry in the competition, researching the material and then organizing it. But, he didn't get a prize, so he's very disappointed. You want to console him and say: A) lt doesn't matter. But next time try a bit harder. B) Surely, you must be very upset. C) They should have told you what your faults were.
D) Never mi nd; it was a good essay and 1 know you did your best.

E) 1never wanted you to enter the competition; 1knew you wouldn't win .

WORKED VERY HARD

CONSOLEHIM

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28. A friend of yours is a famous novelist as his novels published so far have been extremely popular. However, he is worried that the new novel he is writing will not be so popular, since he is not satisfed with the plot and characterization in it. As you know his capacity for creativity and smoothness of style, you try to dispel his worries by saying: A) You know everybody enjoys reading your novels. Besides, let critics judge your new novel which. l'm su re, will fully reflect your creative and lu ci d way of writing. Feel at ease. B) Every great writer has had periods of decline in his or her creativity. However, you are not a great writer even though you may be popular. 1 suggest you follow their example: stop writing for a while and wait to recapture your creativity. C) 1 agree that you mustn't be misled by the popularity of your novels, some of which have already been harshly criticised . So, however creative you may be, your new novel may again be attacked by critics. D) This shows that it is time you gave up writing altogether. In recent years, with your novels so popular, you may have thought that you were the greatest writer in fction. E) In a novel, plot and characterization are probably the most important aspects. So 1 fnd it rather hard to believe that a novelist who enjoys so much popularity can fail in these areas.

CAPACITY FOR CREATIVITY AND SMOOTHNESS OF STYLE = CREATIVE AND LUCID WA Y OF WRITING TO DISPEL HIS WORRIES = FEEL AT EASE

29. You are at the airport in a foreign city. You want to hire a taxi to take you to your hotel, but first you want to find out the fare so that the taxi driver can't overcharge you . You say to the taxistand attendant: A) B) C) D) E) lt's very expensive to take a taxi these days, isn't it? l'm sorry to disturb you , but is there a taxi available to take me to the Smith Hotel? Exeuse me, could you please teli me approximately how much it will cost me to go to the Smith Hotel? Why aren't there any taxis waiting? 1think 1 '11 rent a car instead of taking a taxi. Where are the rental offices?

FIND OUT THE FARE= HOW MUCH IT W/LL COST

)' ~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

30. Due to the heavy traffic today, you are Iate to your appointment with the dean of the faculty, who you know is always punctual. When you get to his office, you not only apologize but also blame yourself for being Iate. You say: A) Today there is a lot of traffic on the roads, even though 1left home earlier than usual! thoroughly regret being Iate for my appointment. B) 1regret that you had to wait for me. Although lleft home early, 1did not think that there would be so much traffic on the roads. C) My apologies for the congestion on the roads, because of which 1 am Iate for the appointment, though 1 set out quite early. D) am really very upset because of this delay caused by the heavy traffic on the roads . In fact, did leave home at the usual time. E) 1 am very sorry for this del ay because of the traffic. should have left home mu ch earlier than usual to be here on time .

APOLOGIZE 1AM VERY SORRY BLAME YOURSELF = 1 SHOULD HAVE LEFT HOME MUCH EARLIER

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IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TESTS


TEST 1
1.
(1) Although about 1,400 seed banks exist worldwide, Norway's massive Svalbard Global Seed Vault dwarfs them all and aims to safeguard duplicates of the seeds . (ll) Stored seeds are frequently lost because of natural disasters, war, and warm temperatures. (lll) However, the United Nations predicts that 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2050. (IV) So, Svalbard was built to withstand these challenges. (V) The facility is remote, located 1 ,000 kilomatres beyand ma iniand Norway's northernmost tip.
4. (1) When we exercise , our body naturally produces heat. (ll) Exercising in extreme temperatures theretare provides an added stress on our body to cool down. (lll) In fact, our body cools down by redireeling the flow of blood to the skin , so the evaparation of sweat can dissipate heat from the blood. (IV) Unfortunately, individuals who take part in outdoor activities such as tennis, golf, or running are at greater risk of physical injury. (V) However, when the climate is humid, sweat cannot evaporata from the skin, and the body struggles to cool down.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

5.

2.

(1) On 26 July 1956, Egypt seized the Suez Cana!. (ll) Egypt's president at the time, Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, announced the nationalization of the Suez Cana! Company. (lll) His main aim was to provide funding for the construction of the Aswan High Dam. (IV) Violence is endemic in the Middle East even as the geopolitical landscape is changing rapidly. (V) His unilateral decision led to the invasion of the Cana! area by a joint British and French force.

(1) Ancient Lycia lay in the mountainous area between modern Fethiye and Antalya. (ll) lt wasn't a single country, but a federation of 19 independent cities. (lll) The people of Lycia must have regarded burials as an important aspect of their religion, for they cut hundreds of tombs into cliff faces and crags that can be seen throughout the area today.(IV) These tombs were probably copies of domestic architecture, intended as houses for the dead. (V) Not much is known about the early history of Patara, although it was an influential member of the Lycian League .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

3.

(1) In 1991 , the United States and the Soviet Union signed a historic treaty reducing their stockpiles of nuclear warheads by about a third . (ll) The Obama administration has not "lost its way" despite the myriad problems left behind by the previous administration . (lll) The treaty, known as "START' (The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty), was signed in Moscow by US President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. (IV) At a joint news centerence after the signing ceremony, both Mr Bush and Mr Gorbachev strongly and enthusiastically praised the treaty. (V) Especially, Mr Bush deseribed it as "a signifcant step forward in dispelling half a century of mistrust."

6.

(1) Sprawling across a vast plain at an altitude of almost 2,000 metres and ringed by mountains, Erzurum is one of Turkey's coldest cities. (ll) lt is also by far the most developed city in the region . (lll) Erzincan's history has been marked by earthquakes, notably those of 1939 and 1992. (IV) Because it was located astride the main caravan route from lndia to Europe and controlled the passage between the Caucasus and Anatolia, Erzurum was fought over and ruled by many peoples from the Byzantines to the Ottomans. (V) Yet its most famous sights date from Seljuk times .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A)

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

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7. (1) Towards the end of the eighteenth century, a vast cultural movement began to sweep across Europe. (ll) Within the Romantic movement, a group of compesers were inspired by new ideas about national identity. (lll) The movement, known as Romanticism, called into question many of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. (IV) In other words, the Romantics began to question human reason and the uniformity of human nature. (V) Moreover, they emphasized the diversity of humanity, and the importance of spontaneity, creativity, ernetion and passion. 11 . (1) In 1960, the leading Middle Eastern, African, and Latin American oil producers banded together in a cartel, forming the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (ll) By the Iate 1970s, in the aftermath of two Arablsraeli wars, it appeared that a generatian of fghting might come to an end. (lll) The aim of this body was primarily to regulate the production and pricing of crude oil. (IV) So, in the following decades, it has played a leading role in the global economy. (V) lts policies have essentially reflected the desire to derive maximum proft from oil production.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

8.

(1) By the fall of 1933, Germany had become a oneparty state. (ll) Soon afterward, the socialist and communist left were crushed by the Nazi regime. (lll) Almost all non-Nazi organizations were either abolished or forced to become part of the Nazi system. (IV) At the same time, party propaganda sought to impress citizens with the regime 's ideology. (V) In fact, the 1928 election in Germany was a turning point for the Nazis.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

12. (1) The legacies of colonialism weighed heavily on sub-Saharan Africa . (ll) Most of the continent's former colonies came into their independence after World War ll, with their basic infrastructures of imperial deteriorating after decades negligence. (lll) The Cold War decades brought scant improvement, as governments across the continent were plagued by corruption, poverty and civil war. (IV) By the end of the twentieth century, East Asia had become a centre of industrial and manufacturing production. (V) Moreover, during the Cold War, these postcolonial states often became the very ground on which the superpower struggle was waged .

A) 1
9.
(1) The social unrest of the Sixties was international. (ll) lts roots lay in the political struggles and social transformations of the postwar period. (lll) Mass culture made its most powerful impact in the visual world , especially through film. (IV) Of these, the most important were the anticolonial and civil rights movements. (V) Especially, anticolonial movements reflected a growing racial consciousness and also helped to encourage that consciousness .

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

13. (1) The brain's functions are both mysterious and


remarkable . (ll) From the brain come all thoughts, beliefs, memories, behaviours, and moods. (lll) The brain is the site of thinking and the control centre for the rest of the body. (IV) Before performing a physical examination, the doctor interviews the patient to obtain his or her medical history. (V) The brain coordinates the ability to move, touch, smell , hear, and see.
A)

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

10. (1) Columbus was not the frst European to set foot on the American continents. (ll) Viking sailors had reached and briefly settled present-day Newfoundland and perhaps New England areund the year 1000. (lll) But knowledge of these Vi king landings had been forgotten throughout Europe for hundreds of years. (IV) lt would not be right, therefore, to deny Columbus credit for his accomplishments. (V) In fact, Columbus brought back no Asian spices from his voyages.
A) 1
B) ll

14. (1) Most episodes of illness with a fever in


children are caused by viral infections, although bacterial infections can also produce a fever. (ll) The frst symptom of a severe eye infection is usually swollen and red eyelids. (lll) In fact, it is often hard to distinguish a bacterial infection from a viral infection . (IV) Though bacterial infections can be serious, they usually respond readily to antibiotics. (V) Prompt diagnosis of a bacterial infection is thus important to ensure prompt treatment.

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

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15. (1) Devaluation of the Jamaican dallar made
Jamaican products more competitive on the world market, and the country achieved record growth in tourism and agriculture . (ll) Jamaica was inhabited by Arawak lndians when Columbus explored it in 1494 and named it St. lago. (lll) lt remained under Spanish rule until 1655, when it became a British possession. (IV) In the following decades disease decimated the Arawaks . (V) As a result, slaves were brought from Africa to work on the sugar plantations.
18. (1) The average salt concentration in the oceans at the present time is araund 35 grams per litre of sea water. (ll) Geological evidence shows that this figure has remained constant for the last 1.5 billion years . (lll) Actually, this means that the oceans must lose nearly three billion tons of salt each year to balance the amount that enters them. (IV) Suggested mechanisms for this process include loss through sea spray, chemical reactions at the sea floor, biological activity, and the formatian of salt deposits on land. (V) lt is true that floating ice would not change sea levels if it melted.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

16. (1) Since 1988, when China delivered intermediaterange ballistic missiles and missile launchers to Saudi Arabia, there has been genuine concern that China may have been trying to buy into the lucrative Gulf arms market. (ll) However, there has been no evidence of further significant arms deals between China and the Gulf since that time. (lll) On the other hand, since the 1990s, China has enjoyed a healthy trade in military equipment with Iran . (IV) In 2005 Saudi Arabia supplied China with 17% of its imported oil needs. (V) Obviously, this has caused a great deal of worry in the other Gulf states about the military imbalance that exists between themselves and Iran , an imbalance that China has been instrumental in creating .

19. (1) The label homo sapiens was first attached to man by Linnaeus in his classification of the animal kingdam over two hundred years ago. (ll) That kingdam is now thought to include over threequarters of a million species . (lll) Stili, the physiology of the human body parallels , in a host of different ways , that of the animals . (IV) Though very many more species may be discovered, it is not likely that anything will ever shake our conviction that we belong to a very special class . (V) This conviction is quite as strong taday as it was in the eighteenth century.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

17. (1) Earthquakes are the res ult of forces deep within Earth 's interior that continuously affect its surface . (ll) The energy from these forces is stored in a variety of ways within the rocks . (lll) Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest known shocks have had magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 range. (IV) When this energy is released suddenly by rupturing movements along faults in the crust of Earth, an earthquake results. (V) The area of the fault where the sudden rupture takes place is called the focus of the earthquake, while the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus is called the epicentre of the earthquake.

20. (1) An inearning hurricane might at first seem a powerful photographic subject. (ll) But how is a photojournalist to make a decent stili image when people are hiding, and when there is only howling wind and spraying water? (lll) "That's why hurricane photography generally documents the aftermath," says an illustrations editor. (IV) But this image was different enough to catch one's eye. (V) Uprooted trees and building rubble are mainstays of the gen re .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

294

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


21. (1) In a rare instance of a vertebrate's behaviour being revealed by its fossil , a new species of dinosaur was found with its head tucked under a forelimb . (ll) lt represents the earliest known example of a dinosaur displaying the sleeping posture exhibited by modern-day birds. (lll) As a result, though it is not known how the dinosaur died, it probably was killed instantly by a thick deposit of volcanic ash or by volcanic gas followed by a covering of ash and mud. (IV) The "tuck-in" pose would have preserved body heat, suggesting that, like birds , at least some dinosaurs were warmblooded . (V) Delighted palaeontologists named this pigeon-sized dinosaur "Mei long", meaning "soundly sleeping dragon ." 24. (1) We may not know very much about butterflies, but they are certainly very beautiful. (ll) For the frst time, British scientists have tracked the movements of butterflies. (lll) Two types of flight were found in the 30 butterflies monitored . (IV) One was the straight and fast flight used for travel. (V) The other was a slow and looping route to aid foraging .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

22. (1) Cari Sandburg (1878-1967), born in Galesburg, lllinois, is best known for his poetry. (ll) He was, however, also a journalist, an author of children's books, and a historian. (lll) Sandburg 's poetry celebrates the lives of ordinary people. (IV) In "The People, Yes, " he uses the words, style, and rhythms of common speech to celebrate the tali tales of the American people. (V) lndeed, most American poets in the 19th century were concerned with nature and country life.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

23. (1) zmir owes its famously "special" atmesphere to its turbulent history. (ll) What you see today has mostly risen from the ashes of Ottoman zmir and dates from 1922, when a terrible fire swept across the city. (lll) Before that, zmir was known as "Smyrna" and was the most Westernized and cosmopolitan of Turkish cities. (IV) Nevertheless, famous citizens of ancient Smyrna include the poet Homer, the founder of Western literature, who lived before 700 B.C.(V) lt was a city where the Muslims, Christians and Jewish communities lived in harmony and got on well with each other.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

295

YDS iFRELERi

TEST2
1.

4.

(1) The history of the German occupation of Fran_ce is di~y , tragic, and sametimes darkly comc . (ll) lt s also one of the most intensely researched subjects of the past decades. (lll) In May of 1940, the Germans attacked France and in June they entered Paris. (IV) More than B,OOO books and articles have been devoted to this subject. (V) However, Julian Jackson's recent book, France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944, is an exceptional contribution to the alreadyaccumulated knowledge of the occupation.
A) 1
B) ll

(1) When searching for land mines, it is exceedingly difficult to distinguish them from the tin cans, spent cartridges, and other metallic debris that litter a war zone. (ll) Fewer than one per cent of all signals from de-miners' metal detectors actually indicate land mines. (lll) lndeed, civilians have frequently been victims of land mines. (IV) Moreover, the technology used in the field has barely advanced since World War ll. (V) Therefore , the clearing process is laborious and ineffcient, as well as dangerous.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

5. 2. (1) Academics are smart and fast, and, in nonscientific fields such as law and history, they can be very fluent. (ll) They are able to supply plausible commentary at short notice on pretty mu ch any subject that engages the interest of the public. (lll) The greater that interest, the greater the outpouring of instant commentary. (IV) But when academics speak unprepared, especially about matters outside their area of expertise, the quality tends to go down. (V) Furthermore, topics such as foreign affairs, terrorism , security, the intricacies of politics and the like have been studied extensively.

(1) Since the days of ancient Carthage, the area that makes up present-day Tunisia has been an oasis of urbanity, relative prosperity, and stable government. (ll) Though lacking the oil and natural gas of their Libyan and Algerian neighbours, Tunisia's 9.6 million people are by some estimates sixty per cent middle class, with a poverty rate of only six per cent. (lll) Yearly economic growth rarely falls below five per cent, and inflation is about three per cent. IV) "Africa, " originally a Roman term , meant Tunisia long before it meant the continent. (V) Moreover, the World Economic Forum rates Tunisia as the most competitive country in Africa.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

3.

(1) Caviar has held a place at the top of Russian menus under czarist, communist, and post-Soviet regimes alike. (ll) Until the Russian economic erisis of 1998, even people with modest incomes could afford half a pound or so a month. (lll) Caviar has always been treasured in Russia, where people believe that it provides relief from grief and despair. (IV) In Eastern Europe, caviar fetches as much as $700 a pound . (V) lt is also prized for medical reasons since it contains lipids, vitamins , and albumen. A) B) ll C) lll D) IV
E) V

6.

(1) El Salvador is a country tectonically so volatile that its capital city has been destroyed ten times in the past tour hundred years. (ll) In Latin America, El Salvador is not the first country to switch to the dollar, nor is it likely to be the last. (lll) At least twelve major earthquakes shook El Salvador during the twentieth century. (IV) And in this century, disaster did not wait long to strike. (V) In early 2001, an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale levelled much of the country, killing almost a thousand people. A) B) ll C) lll
D) IV E) V

296

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


7. (1) The governments of the EU, the US, China ,
lndia, Japan, Russia and Korea initialled a treaty International Thermonuclear to build the Experimental Reactor (ITER), the world's largest fusion machine, in Provence, France. (ll) lt will take a decade to build and will then run for two further decades, performing tens of thousands of fusion experiments. (lll) At the end of that time, say its backers, the world will know once and for all if nuclear fusion is technically viable. (IV) Once this point has been settled, the costs can be taken into consideration. (V) As well as being the largest, the fusion reactor known as JET in Culham , Britain, is, by common consent, the world's most successful.
10. (1) The road map of South America constantly needs updating. (ll) Furthermore, we can expect that it will adversely affect international trade . (lll) Hundreds of new bridges, roads and rail lines are turning formerly isolated areas into infrastructure corridors that will accelerate the continent's economic integration. (IV) This vast undertaking, which has largely escaped media attention, is certain to bring unprecedented economic progress within the continent. (V) But it also poses major risks for some of South America's most valuable natural areas.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

8.

(1) In a smail frm the manager may perform the role of cost accountant, salesman, personnel offcer, stock controller ete. (ll) However, as a frm increases in size it can take advantage of specialization of labour. (lll) Each managerial role can be allocated to a specialist in that field. (IV) Many frms spend a lot of money on research and development. (V) Furthermore, bigger frms can buy in-management services and afford large inhouse salaries to entice and retain the best management.

11 . (1) Administrative law frst came into use in Turkey with the introduction of continental European legal thinking in the 191h century. (ll) The most influential model was that of French administrative law. (lll) This model developed in the 1890s as a result of the growing influence of Western academic institutions, namely the Law and Political Science Schools in Istanbul. (IV) The model was further developed when a system of administrative courts, modelled on a French pattern, was established by the Republic in 1927. (V) Unlike the German and French Constitutions, the Turkish Constitution does not merely characterize the Republic as a social state.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

9.

(1) Many historians were sceptical that King Arthur was a histarical fgure . (ll) The mystique of Camelot, Arthur's Palace, endures, from Disney flms to Broadway musicals to the Kennedy White House. (lll) Then, in 1998, scientists unearthed a broken stone at Tintagel Castle on Britain 's Cornish coast, long said to be Arthur's stronghold . (IV) The stone bore the Latin inscription Pater Coliavificit Artognou, which translates as "Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had this built". (V) Artognou is pronounced "Arthnou", lending eredence to theories that the legendary king was real.

12. (1) Patriarchy does not simply mean that men rule. (ll) Otherwise, through a process of cultural evolution, societies that adopted this particular social system maximized their population . (lll) lndeed, it is a particular value system that not only requires men to marry but to marry a woman of proper station. (IV) lt competes with many other male visions of good life, and for that reason alone is prone to come in cycles. (V) Yet before it degenerates, it is a cultural regime that serves to keep birth-rates high among the affluent while also maximizing parents' investments in their children .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

297

YDS iFRELERi
13. (1) Science is systematic because of the attention it gives to organizing knowledge and making it readily accessible to all who wish to build on its foundation . (ll) If the results support the hypothesis, the scientist may use them to generate related hypotheses. (lll) In this way science is both a personal and a social endeavour. (IV) In other words, it is benefidal both to the individual and to society at large. (V) Moreover, science contributes a great dea! to the improvement and the quality of human life. 16. (1) Modern Bergama is a sleepy agricultural market town in the midst of a well-watered plain . (ll) There has been a town here since Trejan times . (lll) Of Bergama's tour main tourist attractions, only the museum is in the centre of the town. (IV) However, it was during the period between Alexander the Great and the Roman damination that Bergama, then called Pergamum , enjoyed its greatest prosperity. (V) At that time , it became one of the Middle East's richest and most powerful smail kingdoms.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

14. (1) As people age, the amount of water in the body decreases. (ll) Since many drugs dissolve in water, and since less water is available to dilute them, these drugs reach higher levels of concentration in the elderly. (lll) Also, the kidneys are less able to excrete drugs into the urine, and the liver is less able to metabolize many drugs. (IV) For these reasons, many drugs tend to stay in an elderly person's body much fonger than they would in a younger person's body. (V) People in every civilization in recorded history have used drugs of plant and animal origin to prevent and treat disease.

17. (1) Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through Earth. (ll) The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology to compare the intensity of earthquakes. (lll) They are recorded on instruments called seismographs. (IV) Seismographs record a zigzag trace that shows the varying amplitude of ground oscillations beneath the instrument. (V) Sensitive seismographs, which greatly magnify these ground movements, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world.

A) 1 A) 1
B) ll C) lll
D) IV E) V

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

15. (1) Many Romantic writers in Europe were preoccupied with the fact and idea of revolution . (ll) For instance, in the early period of the French Revolution, all the leading English Romantics were in sympathy with it. (lll) In fact, they were among its most fervent adherents. (IV) Through the greater part of the eighteenth century, man had been viewed as a limited being in a strictly erdered and essentially unchanging world. (V) Later, even after the frst enthusiastic expectations had been disappointed by the events in France, the younger writers felt that its example stili constituted humanity's best hope.

18. (1) In the fall of 2000 and the winter of 2001, Britain was beset by a series of problems . (ll) In September 2000, rising oil prices prompted protests by truck drivers and farmers who demanded a reduction in the fuel tax. (lll) In November 2000 , a series of unusually severe rainstorms and tornadoes caused high flooding and killed 12 people. (IV) In June 2001, Blair won a second landsiide victory, with the Labour Party capturing 413 seats in Parliament. (V) In February 2001, foot-and-mouth disease broke out among British livestock, prompting other countries to ban British meat import and fareing the slaughter of thousands of cattle, pigs and sheep.
A) B) ll

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

298

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


19. (1) lt used to be argued that, once there were just two major companies involved in civil-aircraft manufacturing, aircraft prices would rise. (ll) There are few engineering tricks left that could give one or other a technological edge. (lll) That theory has been thoroughly discredited . (IV) The best indicator of new-aircraft prices -the average price per seat on flights - has been dedining for several years. (V) This is due, of course, to the brutal competition between the two rivals.
23. (1) The eruption of Nevada del Ruiz in Columbia in 1985 illustrates how a lack of monitoring and poor evacuation can lead to lass of life. (ll) The eruption itself was a smail one and didn't kill anyone. (lll) Disaster came later when malten rock melted the ice cap. (IV) This caused mudflows which wiped out 230,000 people . (V) Sametimes there are early signs that an eruption is imminent.

A) 1 A) 1
B) ll

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

20. (1) The most popular talk show on Ara b TV is The Opposite Direction. (ll) The show is hosted by Faisal al-Kasim , a forty-two-year-old with glasses. (lll) The chance to take part in the region's frst experiment with free journalism was one that could not be missed. (IV) Al-Kasim moderates while two guests debate a topic of his choosing ; viewers join in by telephone, fax and e-mail. (V) No other Arab television personality is as controversial , as despised or as revered as alKasim .

24. (1) Teachers naturally welcome information about their students that might help them to teach more For many, results from effectively. (ll) standardized assessment tests, such as IQ and academic achievement measures, are one useful source of information. (lll) Teachers, however, often interpret a child's quick respanses as rude interruptions. (IV) Normally, of course, such tests are designed to be as accurate as possible. (V) There is one famous one, however, that was built araund deliberately inaccurate information.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

21 . (1) In the past century US life-expectancy elimbed


from forty-seven to seventy-seven. (ll) Similar rises happened in almost every country. (lll) And this process shows no sign of stopping . (IV) Such a pill could give us an extra twenty years of life. (V) According to the United Nations, by 2050 global life expectancy will have increased by anather ten years .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

22. (1) Beginning about age 5, the child develops a sense of obligation to follow rules. (ll) lndeed , young children change the rules frequently and arbitrarily. (lll) He treats them as absolute moral imperatives handed down by same powerful authority. (IV) For him, rules are permanent, sacred and not subject to modifcation. (V) Obeying them to the letter is more important than any human reason for changing them .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

299

YDS iFRELERi

IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TESTS CEVAP ANAHTARI


TEST 1
1.

TEST2
1.

2.0 3.B
4.0 5.E 6.C
7.B

2.E
3. D

4.C
5.0 6.B

8. E
9.C

10.E 11. B 12.0


13.0

7.E 8.0 9.B 10.B


11. E

12.B
13. B

14.B
15. A

14.E
15.0

16.0
17.

16.C
17. B

18.E
19.C

20.0 21. c 22. E


23.0

24.A

18.0 19.B 20.C 21.0 22.B 23.E 24.C

300

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TEKNIKLERI

A) 1 8)

ll

C) lll D) IV E) V

4'TE 4 TEKNG

KONUSU

- m -ORTA~ v .OLAN 'BACTERIAL ~bN~UMLELERiN KONUSU A INF;~~?6~, ~c:NEJ;~;GiNDEKi 'EYE INFECTIO


DAN FARKLlDlR!

N'

'YDS IFRESI . TEKNiKLERi'

30 1

YDS iFRELERi

"SEENEKLERDEKi KONULAR 2 - 2 - 2 ELETiRiLiR"

(1) Earthquakes are the result of

deep within Earth's interior that continuously affect its surface. (ll) THE

ENERGY from is stored in a variety of ways within the rocks. (lll) Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest known shocks have had magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 ran e. IV When THIS ENERGY is released suddenly by rupturing movements along faults in the crust of Earth , n earth uak results. (V) The area of the fa ult where the sudden rupture ta kes place is ca ll ed the focus of the earthquake, while the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus is called the epicentre
A) 1B) ll

of~he

earthquakel.

C) lll

D) IV E) V

FORCES

THESE FORCES

(1)- (ll). CMLELERiN ORTAK KONUSU= FORCES (ll) - (IV). CMLELERiN ORT AK KONUSU = ENERGY

(IV) - (V). CMLELERiN ORT AK KONUSU = EARTHQUAKE

302

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

. _j ____ 4 _'T _E _ 2 TEKNG_ i_


TEKNIK III
"SEENEKLERDEKi KONULAR 2 1 2 ELETiRiLiR"
t;.][.hf@11Muilweighed
(1) The legacies of heavily on sub-Saharan Africa . (ll) Most of the continent's former into their independence after World War ll , with their basic infrastructures deteriorating after decades of imperial negligence. (lll) THE COLD WAR decades brought scant improvement, as governments across the continent were plagued by corruption, poverty and civil war. (IV) By the end of the twentieth century, East Asia had become a centre of industrial and manufacturing production. (V) Moreover, during THE COLD WAR, these postcolonial states often became the very ground on which the superpower struggle was waged. A) B) ll C) lll

t;.][.hl$ came

D) IV

E) V

4'TE 2 TEKNG
COLONIALISM THE COLDWAR

COLONIES

THECOLDWAR

(1)- (ll). CMLELERiN ORTAK KONUSU= COLONIES (lll)- (V). CMLELERiN ORTAK KONUSU=THE COLD WAR

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

303

YDS iFRELERi

"SEENEKLERDE ANA KONU iLE BAGLANTILI 3 CMLE E LETi Ri Li R"

In June 2001, Blair won a second landsiide victory, February 2001,

to ban A) B) ll C) lll

"'7

severe rainstorms and

foot-and-mouth disease
lmport and fo,dng the sla"ghte'

D) IV

E) V

(ll) -(lll)- (V). CMLELERDE KOYU RENKLE iARETLi PROBLEMLER iLK CMLEDEKi (THE PROBLEM$' KONUSUNU RNEKLENDiRMEKTEDiR!

PARAGRAFTA DiKKAT EDiLMESi GEREKEN NOKTALAR!!


1. THIS+ VERB (FiL) LE BALAYAN SEENEK; BR NCEKi CMLENN AIKLAMA CMLESi OLDUGUNDAN ELENMEZ! (THIS MEANS ......,THIS CAUSES ......,ETC.). ELETRME NCELiKLE ZNELERE ODAKLANILMALIDIR! 2.
ZAMRLERE ODAKLANARAK ZAMR YA DA ZAMR LE VERiLEN KELiMENN BR NCEKi CMLEDE GEiP
GEMEDGiNE BAKILMALIDIR! RNEGiN; BR CMLEDE 'THIS ENERGY' KELiMESi GEiYOR iSE; 'ENERGY' KELiMESNN BR NCEKi CMLEDE DE GEMESi GEREKLDiR.EGER GEMiYOR SE; 'THIS ENERGY' SEENEGi ELENR. 'IT ... THAT' (RN: IT SEEMS THAT, IT HAPPENS THAT, ..) iFADESiNDE YER ALAN 'IT' BO ZNE OLUP HiBR SMi NTELEMEMEKTEDR!

304

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

IRRELEVANT SENTENCE TEKNiKLERi


TEST 1
1.

(1) Although about 1,400 SEED banks exist worldwide, Norway's massive Svalbard Global Seed Va ult dwarfs them all and aims to safeguard duplicates of the seeds. (ll) Stored SEEDS are frequently lost because of natural disasters, war, and warm temperatures . (lll) However, the United Nations predicts that 70% of the world 's population will live in urban areas by 2050. (IV) So, Svalbard was bui lt to withstand these challenges. (V) The facility is remote, located 1 ,000 kilometres beyand ma iniand Norway's northernmost tip. A) 1
B) ll C) lll D) IV E) V

4 'TE 3 TEKNiGi!
(1)

=(V)

- NORWAY -SEE DS -SVALBARD

2.

(1) On 26 July 1956, ~ seized the Suez Cana!. (ll) ~s president at the time, Golanel Gamal Abdel Nasser, announced the nationalization of the Suez Cana! Company. (lll) His main ai m was to provide funding for the construction of the Aswan High Dam. (IV) Violence is endemic in the Middle East even as the geopolitical landscape is changing rapidly. (V) His unilateral decision led to the invasion of the Cana! area by a joint British and French force.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4'TE 2 TEKNiGi!

3.

(1) In 1991 , the United States and the Soviet Union signed a historic treatv reducing their stockpiles of nuclear warheads by about a third . (ll) The Obama administration has not "lost its way" despite the myriad problems left behind by the previous administration. (lll) The treaty, known as "START' (The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) , was signed in Moscow by US President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. (IV) At a joint news conference after the signing ceremony, both Mr Bush and Mr Gorbachev strongly and enthusiastically praised the treaty. (V) Especially, Mr Bush deseribed .!! as "a signifcant step forward in dispelling half a century of mistrust. " A) 1
B) ll C) lll D) IV

E) V

T4'TE 4 TEKNiGi!
-THE TREATV
4. (1) When we exercise, our body naturally produces heat. (ll} Exercising in extreme temperatures theretare provides an added stress on our body to cool down. (lll) In fact, our body cools down by redirecting the flow of blood to the skin, so the evaparation of sweat can dissipate heat from the blood. (IV) Unfortunately, individuals who take part in outdoor activities such as tennis , golf, or running are at greater risk of physical injury. (V) However, when the climate is humid, sweat cannot evaporate from the skin , and the body struggles to cool down .
A) 1
B) ll C) lll D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
- OUR BODY

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

305

YDS iFRELERi
5. (1) ANCIENT LYCIA_Iay in the mountainous area between modern Fethiye and Antalya . (ll) IT wasn't a single country, but a federation of 19 independent cities. (lll) THE PEOPLE OF L YCIA must have regarded burials as an im portant aspect of their religion, for they cut hundreds of tombs into cliff faces and crags that can be seen throughout the area today.(IV) These tombs were probably copies of domestic architecture, intended as houses for the dead . (V) Not much is known about the early history of Patara , although it was an influential member of the Lycian League.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) = (ll) - ANCIENT LAY -TOMBS iR
6. (1) Sprawling across a vast plain at an altitude of almost 2,000 metres and ringed by mountains, Erzurum is one of Turkey' s coldest cities. (ll)!! is alsa by far the most developed city in the region . (lll) Erzincan's history has been marked by earthquakes, notably those of 1939 and 1992. (IV) Because !l.was located astride the main caravan route from lndia to Europe and controlled the passage between the Caucasus and Anatolia, Erzurum was fought over and ruled by many peoples from the Byzantines to the Ottomans. (V) Yet its most famous sights date from Seljuk times.
A) 1
B) ll C) lll D) IV E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!

7.

(1) Towards the end of the eighteenth century, A VAST CUL TURAL MOVEMENT began to sweep across Europe. (ll) Within :::w&-Romantic movement, a group of compasers were inspired by new ideas about national identity. (lll) THE MOVEMENT, known as Romanticism, called into question many of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. (IV) In other words, THE Romantics began to question human reason and the uniformity of human nature. (V) Moreover, they emphasized the diversity of humanity, and the importance of spontaneity, creativity, emotion and passion . A) B) ll C) lll
D) IV

E) V

BiR KONUDAN iLK KEZ BAHSEDERKEN 'A '; iKiNCi KEZ BAHSEDERKEN BAlNDA 'THE' KULLANIMINDAN DOLA YI B. SEENEGi YERiNE A. SEENEGi TERCiH EDiLMiTiR!

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(lll)- MOVEMENT - ROMANTICS
8. (1) BY THE FALL OF 1933, Germany had become a oneparty state. (ll) SOON AFTERWARD , the socialist and communist left were crushed by the Nazi regime. (lll) Almost all non-Nazi organizations were either abolished or forced to become part of the Nazi system. (IV) At the same time, party propaganda sought to impress citizens with the regime's ideology. (V) In fact, the 1928 election in Germany was a turning point for the Nazis.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

'SOON, AFTERWARD' iLE BALA YAN BiR CMLENiN NNDEKi CMLEDE BiR ZAMAN DiLiMi YER ALMALlDlRI

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(ll) - THE FALL OF 1933 - THE NAZI SYSTEM/THE NAZI REGIME

306

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


9. (1) THE SOCIAL UNREST of the Sixties was international. (ll) ITS roots lay in the political struggles and social transformations of the postwar period. (lll) Mass culture made its most powerful impact in the visual world , especially through film . (IV) Of these, the most important were the anticolonial and civil rights movements. (V) Especially, anticolonial movements reflected a growing racial consciousness and also helped to encourage that consciousness.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4'TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1)

= (ll} -THE SOCIAL UN REST


- MOVEMENTS

10. (1) COLUMBUS was not the first European to set foot on the American continents. (ll) Viking sailors had reached and briefly settled present-day Newfoundland and perhaps New England araund the year 1000. (lll)
But knowledge of these Vi king landings had been forgotten throughout Europe for hundreds of years. (IV) lt would not be right, therefore, to deny COLUMBUS credit for his accomplishments. (V) In fact, Columbus brought back no Asian spices from his voyages. A) 1
B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNIGI!
(1)

=(IV) - COLUMBUS
- VIKINGS
'::r:'lrr:il:nT:r.~r:!i=

11. (1) In 1960. the leading Middle Eastern, African, and Latin American oil producers banded together in a cartel , forming the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (ll) By the Iate .:f.9+05, in the
aftermath of two Arab-lsraeli wars , it appeared that a generatian of fghting might come to an end. (lll) The aim of this body was primarily to regulate the production and pricing of crude oil. (IV) So, in the fallawing decades, !!..has played a leading role in the global economy. (V) lts policies have essentially reflected the desire to derive maximum proft from .QJ!_production. A) 1 B) ll
C) lll
D) IV

E) V

4'TE 4 TEKNiGi!

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

307

YDS iFRELERi
12. (1) The legacies of COLONIALISM weighed heavily on sub-Saharan Africa. (ll) Most of the continent's former COLONIES came into their independence after World War ll , with their basic infrastructures deteriorating after decades of imperial negl igence. (lll) The Cold War decades brought scant improvement, as governments across the continent were plagued by corruption , poverty and civil war.(IV) By the end of the twentieth century, East Asia had become a centre of industrial and manufacturing production. (V) Moreover, during the Cold W ar, these postcolonial states often became the very ground on which the su perpower struggle was waged.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4'TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) = {ll) -COLONIALISM/COLONY -THE COLD WAR
13. (1) The brain's functions are both mysterious and remarkable. (ll) From the brain come all thoughts, beliefs,
memories, behaviours , and moods. (lll) The brain is the site of thinking and the control centre for the rest of the body. (IV) Before performing a physical examination , the doctor interviews the patient to obtain his or her medical history. (V) The brain coordinates the ability to move, touch , smell , hear, and see.
A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!

14. (1) Most episodes of illness with a fever in children are caused by VIRAL INFECTIONS, although bacterial infections can alsa produce a fever. (ll) The frst symptom of a severe eye infection is usually swollen and red eyelids. (lll) In fact, it is often hard to distinguish a bacterial infection from A VIRAL INFECTION. (IV) Though bacterial infections can be serious , they usually respond readily to antibiotics. (V) Prompt diagnosis of a bacterial infection is thus im portant to ensure prompt treatment.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4'TE 2 TEKNiGi!
{1) = {lll) - VIRAL INFECTION/BACTERIAL INFECTION - BACTERIAL INFECTION
15. (1) Devaluation of the JAMAICAN DObbAR made Jamaican products more competitive on the world market, and the country achieved record growth in tourism and agriculture. (ll) JAMAICA was inhabited by Arawak lndians when Columbus explored it in 1494 and named it St. lago. (lll) IT remained under Spanish rule until 1655, when it became a British possession . (IV) In the fallawing decades disease decimated the Arawaks. (V) As a result, slaves were brought from Africa to work on the sugar plantations. A) 1
B) ll C) lll D) IV E) V

4' TE 3 TEKNiGi!
{ll) = {lll) - JAMAICA {IV)= {V)- DISEASE DECIMATING THE ARAWAKS
('AS A RESUL T' BAGLA C/ NNDEKi S. PAST TENSE iLE SONU iFADE EDEN CMLE iLE BTNLK SAGLIYOR!

I.ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR; A SEENEGININ KONUSU JAMICAN DOLLAR! A

308

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


16. {1) Since 1988, when China_delivered intermediaterange ballistic missiles and missile launchers to Saudi Arabia, there has been genuine concern that China may have been trying to buy into the lucrative GULF arms market. (ll) However, there has been no evidence of further signifcant arms deals between China and The Gulf since that time. (lll) On the other hand, since the 1990s, China has enjoyed a healthy trade in military equipment with Iran. (IV) In 2005 Saudi Arabia supplied China with 17% of its imported oil needs. (V) Obviously, THIS HAS CAUSED a great deal of worry in the other Gulf states about the military imbalance that exists between themselves and Iran, an imbalance that Ch ina has been instrumenta in creating.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

ARDlNDAN DiREK FiiL GELEN 'THIS' ZAMiRi iLE BAYAN CMLE ELENMEZ!

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
{1) = {ll) = {lll) = {V) - 1990'LI DNEMi KONU LAMAKTA iKEN; D SEENEGi 2005 YILINI ELE ALMlTlR! IV.ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR; KONUSUSAUDI ARABIA ILE CHINA ILIKISI!D
17. (1) Earthquakes are the result of FORCES deep within Earth's interior that continuously affect its surface. (ll) The energy from THESE FORCES is stored in a variety of ways within the rocks . {lll) Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest known shocks have had magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 range . {IV) When this energy is released suddenly by rupturing movements along faults in the crust of Earth , an earthquake results. {V) The area of the fault where the sudden rupture takes place is called the focus of the earthquake, while the po int on Earth's surface directly above the focus is ca ll ed the epicentre of the earthquake.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 3 TEKNiGi!
{1) ={ll)- FORCES THAT CAUSE EARTHQUAKE {IV) =(V) - EARTHQUAKE - ENERGY iR

18. {I)The average SALT concentration in the oceans at the present time is araund 35 grams per litre of sea water. (ll) Geological evidence shows that THIS FIGURE has remained constant for the last 1.5 billion years. (lll) Actually, THIS MEANS that the oceans must lose nearly three billion tons of SALT each year to balance the amount that enters them . {IV) Suggested mechanisms for this process include loss through sea spray, chemical reactions at the sea floor, biological activity, and the formatian of SALT deposits on land . (V) lt is true that floating ice would not change sea levels if it melted.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
{1) = {ll) = {lll) = {IV) - SALT {T HIS MEANS CMLESi ELEN

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

309

YDS iFRELERi
19. (1) The label homo sapiens was first attached to man by Linnaeus in his classification of THE ANIMAL KINGDOM over two hundred years ago. (ll) THAT KINGDOM is now thought to include over threequarters of a million species. (lll) Stili , the physiology of the human body parallels , in a host of different ways, that of the animals . (IV) Though very many more species may be discovered , it is not likely that anything will ever shake our conviction that we belong to a very special class. (V) This conviction is quite as strong today as it was in the eighteenth century.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1)

=(ll) - ANIMAL KINGDOM


OUR CONVINCTION

20. (I)An incoming hurricane might at

frst seem a powerful photographic subject. (ll) But how is a photojournalist to make a decent stili image when people are hiding, and when there is only howling wind and spraying water? (lll) ''That's why hurricane photography generally documents the aftermath," says an illustrations editor. (IV) But this image was different enough to catch one's eye. (V) Uprooted trees and building rubble are mainstays of the gen re.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!

IV .ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR; D SEENEGINDE 'THIS IMAGE' DENILEBILMESI IIN NNDEKi CMLEDE 'THE IMAGE' OLARAK BELiRTMESi GEREKiRDi ANCAK PARAGRAFIN BTNNDE BELiRLi BiR FOTOGRAF YERiNE FOTOGRAFILIKTAN BAHSEDiLiYOR!
21. (1) In a rare instance of a vertebrate's behaviour being revealed by its fossil , A NEW SPECIES OF DINOSAUR was found with its head tucked under a forelim b. (ll) IT represents the earliest known EXAMPLE OF A D/NOSAUR displaying the sleeping posture exhibited by modern-day birds. (lll) Asa result, though it
is not known how the dinosaur died, it probably was killed instantly by a thick deposit of volcanic ash or by volcanic gas followed by a covering of ash and mud. (IV) The "tuck-in" pose would have preserved body heat, suggesting that, like birds, at least some DINOSAURS were warmblooded . (V) Delighted palaeontologists named this pigeon-sized DINOSAUR "Mei long", meaning "soundly sleeping dragon."

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
- A NEW SPECIES OF DINASOUR 1 SIMILARITY WITH BIRDS

310

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


22. (1) Cari Sandburg (1 878-1967), bornin Galesburg, lllinois, is best known for his poetry. (ll) He was, however, also a journalist, an author of children's books, and a historian . (lll) Sandburg's poetry celebrates the lives of ordinary people . (IV) In "The People , Yes," h!Luses the words, style, and rhythms of common speech to celebrate the tali tales of the American people . (V) lndeed, most American poets in the 19th century were concerned with nature and country life. A) 1
B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
- STANDBURG

23. (1) izmir owes its famously "special" atmosphere to its turbulent history. (ll) What you see today has mostly
risen from the ashes of Ottoman zmir and dates from 1922, when a terrible fire swept across the city. (lll) Before that, zmir was known as "Smyrna" and was the most Westernized and cosmopolitan of Turkish cities . (IV) Nevertheless, famous citizens of ancient Smyrna include the poet Homer, the founder of Western literature, who lived before 700 B.C.(V) .!!._was a city where the Muslims, Christians and Jewish communities lived in harmony and got on well with each other.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
- THE HISTORY OF iZMi

24. (1) W e may not know very much about lntterflies , but they are certainly very beautiful. (ll) For the frst time, British scientists have tracked the movements of butterflies. (lll) TWO types of flight were found in the 30 butterflies monitored. (IV) ONE_was the straight and fast flight used for travel. (V) THE OTHER was a slow and looping route to aid foraging .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
(ll)
1

= (lll) = (IV) = (V) - BUTTERFLY MOVEMENTS/MOVEMENT TYPES(KELEBEKLER

'I.N;}43a~R AIM33Mfi1a-1!11:Cet:W=niii3ilha~tl~iJ~tll3!:t-'11;JI.i0-

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

311

YDS iFRELERi

TEST2
1.

(1) The history of THE GERMAN OCCUPATION OF FRANCE is dirty, tragic, and sametimes darkly comic. (ll) .!! is also one of the most intensely researched subjects of the past decades. (lll) In May of 1940, the Germans attacked France, and in June they entered Paris. (IV) More than 8,000 books and articles have been devoted to this subject. (V) However. Julian Jackson 's recent book. FRANCE: The Dark Years, 19401944, is an exceptional contribution to the already-accumulated knowledge of THE OCCUPATION.
A) 1
B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(V) -THE GERMAN OCCUPATION OF FRANCE -THE RESEACH FOR THE OCCUPATION

~lm

2.

(1) ACADEMICS are smart and fast, and , in nonscientific felds such as law and history, they can be very fluent. (ll) THEY are able to supply plausible commentary at short notice on pretty much any subject that engages the interest of the public. (lll) The greater that interest, the greater the outpouring of instant commentary. (IV) But when ACADEMICS speak unprepared , especially about matters outside their area of expertise, the quality tends to go down . (V) Furthermore, topics such as foreign affairs , terrorism, security, the intricacies of politics and the like have been studied extensively.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(ll)= (IV) - ACADEMICS - PUBLIC INTEREST

3.

(1) CAVIAR has held a place at the top of Russian menusunder czarist, communist, and post-Soviet regimes alike. (ll) Until the Russian economic erisis of 1998, even people with modest incomes could afford half a pound or so a month. (lll) CAVIAR has always been treasured in Russia , where people believe that it provides relief from grief and despair. (IV) In Eastern Europe, caviar fetches as much as $700 a pound . (V) IT is also prized for medical reasons since it contains lipids, vitamins , and albumen.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

BiR KONU PARANIN HEMEN HEMEN TM CMLELERiNDE TEKRAR EDiYOR VE AYNI ZAMANDA BiR LKE BiRDEN FAZLA CMLEDE YER ALI'(O~ iSE; _BAHE~iLEN KONU iLE O LKE ARASINDA ipKi KURULMALI VE AYNI KONUYU FARKLI BIR ULKE ILE BIRLIKTE ELE ALAN SEENEK ELENMELIDIR!

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(lll)= (V)- CAVIAR - RUSSIA
~~oH.o~

312

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


4. (I)When SEARCHING FOR LAND MINES, it is exceedingly difficult to distinguish them from the tin cans, spent cartridges, and other metallic debris that litter a war zone. (ll) Fewer than one per cent of all signals from de-miners' metal detectors actually indicate tand mines. (lll) lndeed, civilians have frequently been victims of land mines. (IV) Moreover, the technology used in the field has barely advanced since World War ll. (V) Therefore, the clearing process is laborious and inefficient, as well as dangerous.

A) 1

8)11

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

1 + 3 TMDENGELiM TEKNiGi!
(1)

=WAYS OF SEARCHING LAND MINES


- METHODS USED iN SEARCHING LAND MINES

5.

(1) Since the days of ancient Carthage, the area that makes up PRESENT-DAY TUNISIA has been an oasis of urbanity, relative prosperity, and stable government. (ll) Though lacking the oil and natural gas of their Libyan and Algerian neighbours, TUNISIA's 9.6 million people are by same estimates sixty per cent middle class, with a poverty rate of only six per cent. (lll) Yearly economic growth rarely falls below fve per cent, and inflation is about three per cent. (IV) "Africa, " originally a Roman term, meant Tunisia long before itmeant the continent. (V) Moreover, the World Economic Forum rates Tunisia as the most competitive country in Africa .

A) 1

8)11

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(ll)- PRESENT-DAY TUNISIA - ECONOMIC GROWTH OF TUNISIA

6.

(1) EL SALVADOR is a country tectonically so volatile that its capital city has been destroyed ten times in the past four hundred years . (ll) In Latin America , El Salvador is not the frst country to switch to the dallar, nar is it likely to be the last. (lll) At least twelve major earthquakes shook EL SALVADOR during the twentieth century. (IV) And in this century, disaster did not wait long to strike. (V) In early 2001 , an earthguake maasuring 7.6 on the Richter scale levelled much of the country, killing almost a thousand people.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

313

YDS iFRELERi
7. (1) The governments of the EU , the US, China , lndia, Japan, Russia and Korea initialled A TREATV TO BUILD the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the world's largest fusion machine, in Provence , France. (ll) IT will take a decade TO BUILD and will then run for two further decades, performing tens of thousands of fusion experiments. (lll) At the end of that time, say its backers, the world will know once and for all if nuclear fusion is technically viable . (IV) Once this point has been settled, the costs can be taken into consideration . (V) As well as being the largest, the fusion reactor known as JET in Culham , Britain , is, by common consent, the world's most successful.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
(1) = (ll) = (lll) = (IV)- A TREATY TO BUILD THE WORLD'S LARGEST FUSHION MACHINE

8.

(ll In a smail firm THE MANAGER may perform the role of cost accountant, salesman , personnel officer,
stock controller ete. (ll) However, as a firm increases in size it can take advantage of specialization of labour. (lll) EACH MANAGERIAL ROLE can be allocated to a specialist in that field. (IV) Many firms spend a lot of money on research and development. (V) Furthermore, biqger firms can buy in-management services and afford large in-house salaries to entice and retain the best MANAGEMENT.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) = (ll) - FIRMS - MANAGEMENT IN FIRMS

9.

(1) Many historians were sceptical that KING ARTHUR was a histerical figure . (ll) The mystique of Camelot, Arthur's Palace, endures , from Disney films to Broadway musicals to the Kennedy White House. (lll) Then, in 1998, scientists unearthed a broken stone at Tintagel Castle on Britain's Cornish coast, long said to be ARTHUR's stronghold. (IV) The stone bore the Latin inscription Pater Co/iavificit Artognou, which translates as "Artognou , father of a descendant of Coll , has had this built". (V) Artognou is pronounced "Arthnou", lending eredence to theories that the legendary king was real.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) = (lll)- THE HISTORICAL FIGURE,KING ARTHUR ~IV)= ~V~ - ARTOGNOU ll1(t1"3aIM::Wt'iat1Mt<1;Jh3iliiJ;I1atl~:n;:eJ~-M@Wia!Wr1!tl1;D:I

314

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


10. (I)The road map of South America constantly needs updating. (ll) Furthermore, we can expect that it will adversely affect international trade. (lll) Hundreds of new bridges, roads and rail lines are turning formerly isolated areas into infrastructure corridors that will accelerate the continent's economic integration. (IV) This vast undertaking, which has largely escaped media attention, is certain to bring unprecedented economic prograss within the continent. (V) But !! also poses major risks for some of South America's most valuable natural areas.

A) 1

8)11

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
(1) = (lll) = (IV) = (V) - THE EFFECT OF THE ROAD MAP OF SOUTH AFRICA ON ECONOMY II.ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR; KONUYU EKONOMI YERINE; ULUSLARASI TICARET AlSlNDAN ELE AllYOR! B

11. (1) ADMINISTRATIVE LAW first ca me into use in Turkey with the introduction of continental European legal 1 thinking in the 19 h century. (ll) The most influential model was that of French ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. (lll)
This model developed in the 1890s asa result of the growing influence of Western academic institutions, namely the Law and Political Science Schools in Istanbul. (IV) The model was further developed when a system of ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS, modelledon a French pattern, was established by the Republic in 1927. (V) Unlike the German and French Constitutions, the Turkish Constitution does not merely characterize the Republic as a social state.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
-THE MODEL OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
~~~~~~~~~~~~

12. (1) PATRIARCHY does not simply mean that men rule. (ll) Otherwise, through a process of cultural evolution, societies that adopted this particular social system maximized their population. (lll) lndeed, IT is a
particular value system that not only requires men to marry but to marry a woman of proper station. (IV) IT competes with many other male visions of good life, and for that reason alone is prone to come in cycles. (V) Vet before IT degenerates, it is a cultural reg ime that serves to keep birth-rates high among the affluent while also maximizing parents' investments intheir children.

A) 1

8)11

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE TEKNiGi!

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

315

YDS iFRELERi
13. (1) Science is systematic because of the attention it gives to organizing knowledge and making it readily accessible to all who wish to build on its foundation. (ll) If the results support the hypothesis, the scientist may use them to generate related hypotheses. (lll) In this way science is both a personal and a social endeavour. (IV) In other words , .!1._is benefcial both to the individual and to society at large. (V) Moreover, science contributes a great deal to the improvement and the quality of human life.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!

14. (1) As people

~the amount of water in the body decreases. (ll) Since many drugs dissolve in water, and since less water is available to dilute them, these drugs reach higher levels of concentration in the elderly. (lll) Alsa, the kidneys are less able to excrete drugs into the urine, and the liver is less able to metabolize many drugs. (IV) For these reasons , many drugs tend to stay in an elderly person's body much langer than they would in a younger person's body. (V) People in every civilization in recorded history have used drl:lgs of plantand animal origin to prevent and treat disease.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
{1) = {ll) = {lll) = {IV) - THE DECREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF WATER WITH THE
ELDERLY USING DRUGS MANY DRUGS/ ELDE V. ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR; ILA KULLANIMI NEDENIILE YALllNSANLARlN VCUTLARlNDAKi SU MiKTARININ AZALMASI KONUSU YERiNE; 'DRUGS OF PLANT AND ANIMAL' KONUSUNU ELE AllYOR! E
15. (1) MANY ROMANTIC WRITERS in Europe were preoccupied with the fact and idea of revolution . (ll) For
instance, in the early period of the French Revolution , all the leading ENGLISH ROMANTICS were in sympathy with it. (lll) In fact, THEY were among its most fervent adherents. (IV) Through the greater part of the eighteenth century, man had been viewed as a limited being in a strictly ordered and essentially unchanging world . (V) Later, even after the frst enthusiastic expectations had been disappointed by the events in France, THE YOUNGER WRITERS felt that its example stili constituted humanity's best hope.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
- ROMANTIC WRITERS

316

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


16. (1) MODERN BERGAMA is a sleepy agricultural market town in the midst of a well-watered plain. (ll) There has been A TOWN here since Trojan times. (lll) Of Bergama's fo,r main to,rist attrastions, only the museum is in the centre of the town. (IV) However, it was during the period between Alexander the Great and the Roman demination that BERGAMA, then called Pergamum, enjoyed its greatest prosperity. (V) At that time, IT became one of the Mid die East' s richest and most powerful smail kingdoms.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4'TE 4 TEKNiGil

17. (1) SEISMIC WAVES are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through Earth. (ll) The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology to compare the intensity of earthquakes. (lll) THEY are recorded on instruments called seismographs. (IV) Seismographs record a zigzag trace that shows the varying amplitude of ground oscillations beneath the instrument. (V) Sensitive seismographs, which greatly magnify these ground movements, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world .

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) =(lll)- SEISMIC WAVES - SEISMOGRAPHS

18. (1) In the fall of 2000 and the winter of 2001, Britain was beset by A SERIES OF PROBLEMS. (ll) In September 2000, rising oil prices prompted protests by truck drivers and farmers who demanded a reduction in the fuel tax. (lll) In November 2000, a series of unusually severe rainstorms and tornadoes caused high flooding and killed 12 people. (IV) In June 2001, Blair won a second landsiide victory, with the Labour Party capturing 413 seats in Parliament. (V) In February 2001, foot-and-mouth disease broke out
among British livestock, prompting other countries to ban British meat import and forcing the slaughter of thousands of cattle, pigs and sheep.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

1 + 3 TMDENGELiM TEKNiGil
(1) = PROBLEMS OF BRITAIN IN 2000/2001 (ll) (lll) (V)- EXAMPLES FOR THESE PROBLEMS (Rising oil prices, high floading food-and-mounth disease)

2000

Li YLLARDA BRiTANYA'NIN

KARILATIGI PROBLEMLER KONUSU RNEKLENDiRiLiYOR!

IV. ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR BLAIR KONUSUNU ELE ALlYOR! D

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

317

YDS iFRELERi
19. (1) lt used to be ARGUED THAT, once there were just two major companies involved in civil-aircraft manufacturing , aircraft prices would rise. (ll) There are few engineering tricks left that could give one or other a technological edge. (lll) THAT THEORY has been thoroughly discredited. (IV) The best indicator of new-aircraft prices- the average price per seat on flights - has been dedining for several years. (V) This is due, of course, to the brutal competition between the two rivals. A) 1 B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 3 TEKNiGi!

t=ii-
A) 1

(1) (1)

=(lll) - THE THEORY/ THE ARGUMENT =(V)- TWO MAJOR COMPANIES


AIRCRAFT PRICES

20. (1) The most popular TALK SHOWonArab TV is The Opposite Direction . (ll) THE SHOW is hosted by Faisal al-Kasim, a forty-two-year-old with glasses. (lll) The chance to take part in the region's frst experiment with free journalism was one that could not be missed. (IV) Al-Kasim moderates while two guests debate a topic of his choosing; viewers join in by telephone, fax and e-mail. (V) No other Arab television personality is as controversial , as despised or as revered as al-kasim . B) ll C) lll D) IV E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1)

= (ll) - THE TALK SHOW ON ARAB TV


- AL-KASIM WHO HOSTED THE SHOW

21. (1) In the past century US LIFE-EXPECTANCY elimbed from forty-seven to seventy-seven. (ll) Similar rises
happened in almost every country. (lll) And this process shows no sign of stopping . (IV) Such a pill could give us an extra twenty years of life. (V) According to the United Nations, by 2050 GLOBAL LIFE EXPECTANCY will have increased by another ten years.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

22. (1) Beginning about age 5, THE CHILD develops a sense of obligation to follow rules. (ll) lndeed, ymmg ohildren change the rules frequently and arbitrarily. (lll) HE treats them as absolute moral imperatives handed down by some powerful authority. (IV) For HIM, rules are permanent, sacred and not subject to modifcation . (V) Obeying them to the letter is more important than any human reason for changing them.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

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23. (1) THE ERUPTION OF NEVADA DEL RUIZ in Columbia in 1985 illustrates how a lack of monitoring and poor evacuation can lead to loss of life. (ll) THE E RUPTION itself was a smail one and didn't kill anyone. (lll) DISASTER came later when molten rock melted the ice cap . (IV) THIS CAUSED mudflows which wiped out 230,000 people . (V) Sametimes there are early signs that an er~ption is imminent.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 4 TEKNiGi!
(1}

=(ll} =(lll} =(IV} - THE ERUPTION OF NEVADA DEL RUIZ


(DISASTER= FELAKET= VOLKANiK PATLAMA)

V. ORTAK KONU IERMIYOR; 'AN ERUPTION' IFADESI ILE KOLOMBIYA'DAKI PATLAMA YERiNE HERHANGi BiR PATLAMADAN BAHSEDiYOR! E

24. (1) TEACHERS naturally welcome information about their students that might help them to teach more effectively. (ll) For MANY, results from standardized assessment tests, such as IQ and academic achievement measures, are one useful source of information. (lll) Teachers , however, often interpret a child's quick respanses as rude interruptions. (IV) Normally, of course, such tests are designed to be as accurate as possible. (V) There is one famous one, however, that was built around deliberately inaccurate information.

A) 1

B) ll

C) lll

D) IV

E) V

4' TE 2 TEKNiGi!
(1) ={ll)- TEACHERS (1) =(ll) =(lll)= (IV)- ASSESSMENT TESTS (INFORMATION ABOUT STUDENTS) lll. IKILI KONU ELEMESINDE DlARlDA KALlYOR; KONUSU HOCALARlN DAHA ETKiN GRETEBiLMELERi iiN PERFORMANS DEGERLENDiRME TESTLERi iLE GRENCiLER HAKKINDA BiLGi EDiNMELERi DEGil! C

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DIALOGUE COMPLETION TESTS


TEST 1
1. Susan: - Do you know that every year 130 million tonnes of America's trash ends up in landfills? Harry: Oh, yes, 1certainly do, and more than that. Susan: Harry: -Well, together all these landfills emit more of the greenhouse gas methane than any other human-related source. A) ls it true that some American building companies use inorganic retuse such as metals in roadbeds and heavy construction? B) Do you mean engineers have developed an efficient way of dealing with trash? C) What do you mean exactly? You seem to be implying something. D) America produces more trash than any other country in the world , doesn't it? E) Don't you think such a huge volume of trash can be processed to produce electricity? 3. Bill : - As a firm, we are doing our best for fuel improvement. Bob: - lndeed, we must develop new technologies to reduce the environmental impact of gasoline and diesel. Bill: Bob: - Yes, of course. Also you know we have already developed an innovative formula designed to help reduce fuel consumption. A) Have other frms been investing in long-term solutions like hydrogen fuel? B) Can you teli me how we can produce fuels from lots of different sources in order to meet the growing demand? C) Don't you think the solution is a combination of cleaner fuels and cleaner engines? D) How can we produce lead-free and lowsulphur fuels? E) ls the burning of coal and gas for lighting, heating, and cooking one of the causes of local air pollution?

4.

2.

John: - For our investments, we should consider tourism as a new area. Edmund: - Agreed. In fact, tourism has now become the world's biggest industry. John: Edmund:

Mary: - The other day 1 was reading an interesting article on "the Black Death." Tony: -You mean the terrible plague that devastated Europe in the 14th century? Mary: Tony: - Also throughout villages, towns and cities. As a result, the population of Europe was cut nearly in half. A) Right. 1 didn't know that its effects were worst in confned places like hospitals, prisons, and monasteries. B) According to a contemporary account, the city of Florence lost 96,000 people between March and October of 1348. C) European men and women were convinced that the plague had been sent as a divine punishment. D) However, as one learns from the article, the plague did not last long, but actually began to dissipate by 1351. E) feel that more study must be made of the social and political impact the plague had on medieval Europe in general.

1 certainly think so. Therefore, it is of vital


importance for the economies of many of the world's poorest nations. A) Moreover, travel enriches one's life. Don't you agree? B) Actually, it fuels economic growth, doesn't it? C) Do you believe that travelling broadens our experience of the world? D) Furthermore, tourism enables people to explore other cultures and geographies. Right? E) Yes , true. Yet, worldwide mobility because of tourism has its drawbacks. Do you agree?

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5. Malcolm : - believe a great deal of research needs to be made of Martin Luther King and his ideas. Jacob: - fully agree with you, since he was the preeminent figure in the civil rights movements started by blacks in the United States during the 1960s. Malcolm : Jacob: - On the contrary. Fundamentally, he aspired to a fully integrated nation of all the Americans. A) Before King, various civil rights groups in America had started to organize boycotts and demonstrations to condemn racial discrimination against blacks in all walks of life. B) Unfortunately, his inspiring career as a defender of civil rights in America was tragically ended by assassination in 1968. C) In fact, civil rights laws passed under President Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1960s did bring American blacks some measure of equality with regard to voting rights. D) Yes, of course. Yet, he's been accused of seeking complete independence from white society. E) As you know, the civil rights movements of the 1960s in America clearly showed the chasm between the egalitarian promises of American democracy and the real inequalities at the core of American social and political life. 6. Winston: - What does the term "global village" really m ean? Stanley: - Oh, well, it is essentially related to the global flow of information. Winston : Stanley: - Alright, 1 will try. Beginning in the 1990s,increasingly sophisticated computers have brought people into instant communication over the internet with each other across continents in new cultural and political settings, and this has had a great impact on the everyday lives of men and women around the world. A) In other words, are you suggesting that advances in electronic technologies have provided new worldwide platforms and connections for commercial interests? B) Do you mean the wide-ranging effects of information technologies on political struggles around the globe? C) Are you saying that electronic systems and devices designed to create, store and share information have become more powerful and accessible? D) Are you claiming that embattled ethnic minorities have found worldwide audiences through on-line campaign sites? E) What does that exactly mean? Can you be more specifc?

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7.
Richard: - l've been reading about the ancient Egyptians lately. Antony: - How interesting! Anything particularly drawing your attention? Richard : - lt is claimed by some linguists that the early Egyptian language might represent the survival of a "root" language from which the other languages of the Afro-Asiatic group evolved in the past. Antony: 9. John: - By the way, can you teli me what the expression "the scramble for Africa" means? Harry: - Oh, thought you knew it, since you are seriously interestad in the history of Africa. John: Harry: - Well, it is about the colonization of Africa. lt indicates the scope and speed with which the major European powers, excited by stories of rubber forests and rich diamond mines, conquered and colonized Africa in the 19th century. A) For instance, 1 know that in 1884 a conference, attended by the representatives of the European colonial powers, was held in Berlin to settle the matter of control over the Congo River basin. B) lt has been pointed out that by the 1830s the French had created a general government of their possessions in Algeria. C) am afraid 1 don't. 1 came across it in an article 1 was reading yesterday. There was no explanation given. D) Actually, the colonial powers' partition of Africa in the 19th century was the most striking instance of European imperialism. E) According to some eyewitness reports, in the colonies , Africans worked in appalling conditions, with no medicine or sanilation and too little food.

A) Possible. In fact, the language of the ancient Egyptians has for long been a matter of debate among linguists. B) Actually, as you may remember, the frst known permanent settlement in Egypt dates back to approximately 4750 B.C. C) You know that the patterns of development in ancient Egypt differed greatly from those of the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. D) lt is true that, due to the Nile, ancient Egypt was able to forge a cultural and political unity. E) You must recai! that the Egyptian system of pictographic writing , called hieroglyphs, has always fascinated modern scholars.

10. Liz:
8.
Judy: - What do you know about John Stuart Mill? Tom: - As far as 1 can recall, he was the most committed and influential defender of personalliberty in Victorian Britain in the 19th century. Judy: Tom : - lndeed, he was. He wrote many essays on women's political rights. A) Agreed . In his On Liberty, he defended individual freedom in the face of the state and "the tyranny of the majority." B) 1 know his On Liberty became one of the defning texts of Western liberalism. C) He strongly argued that human freedem was essential to social progress. D) Yet, for me, more importantly, he was a dedicated supporter of suffrage for women . E) Historically, the Reform Bill of 1867 in Britain marked the high point of British liberalism.

puzzled about why declining birth rates in the West have been accompanied by growing populations of older adults. Susa n: - You are right. Actually, it is a very complicated issue, and there is a wide range of reasons for it. Liz:
Su san: don't know where to start. 1 think one obvious reason is improved standards of health care.

- am

A) Thank you so much. 1 '11 take your advice and do some research on the subject. B) Exactly. You can perhaps outline some of them for me. C) believe a new type of demographic erisis different from this confronts Western governments. D) One can defnitely see that globalization has a serious impact on the world's population. E) Especially Asia's population as a whole has increased nearly four times over since 1900.

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11. Harriet: - am writing an article about the Cold War period. There is a great deal of material 1have to deal with. Ares : 13. James: Have you been to the Dali exhibition? Rodney: James:

1 suggest you focus on a specific topic


rather than giving a general account. Harriet: Ares : - So, your article will, 1 am sure, arouse a great deal of interest in academic and political circles. A) Right. 1 will demonstrate how the Cold War has given way to more complex global relations. B) You know the Eastern European revolutions of 1989 brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union . C) Especially the Soviet Union's increasingly severe domestic problems led to mounting protests in Russia in 1991 . D) Everyone knows that the lron Curtain had established one of the most rigid borders in European history. E) In my opinion, since the end of the Cold W ar, adapting to change has been difficult throughout Eastern Europe.

Why is that?
Rodney: - 1 don't like being caught up in a crowd when l'm looking at paintings. A) 1 certainly have. And 1 hope to go again soon. B) Not yet. 1 don't go to such exhibitions till they've been going for some time. C) 1 was there at the opening. What about you? D) Yes . was surprised at how few large paintings there were. E) Of course . And it was quite an experience.

12. lsabel: Here is an interesting article on Byzantine learning. Have you seen it? Fred: - Let me have a look. No, 1 haven 't, but it does seem interesting. lsa bel : Fred : - Well, we know from history that, in education, Byzantine schools based their instruction on classical Greek literature. A) In fact, Byzantine achievements in art and architecture have always been admired. B) Evidently, Byzantine scholars were very interested in the politics of ancient Greece. C) As it has been argued by most historians, religion dominated Byzantine life. D) One can point out that inventiveness was highly prized in Byzantine culture. E) lt gives a full account of the Byzantine interest in classical Greek literature.

14. Clare: - What's the matter with you? You're not your usual selfl Kate : - 1 know l'm not. This report l'm doing is getting me down. Clare: Kate: No; thank goodness. But the deadline is near. A) So that's the trouble. ls there stili much left to be done? B) The trouble with you is that you 're a perfection ist. C) When are you expected to hand it in? D) Would you like me to go over it for you? E) But it was nearly fnished last week, wasn't it?

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15. Fred:
- Have you read this article on the economies of the Middle Eastern countries? Mike: - No, not yet. Anything interesting in it? Fred : Mike: - That's to be expected. After all, Iran is the second-largest producer of oil in OPEC. A) Well, lran's nuclear aims seem to have increased international tension . B) To my surprise, 50% of lran 's revenue comes from its oil exports. C) Clearly, the global economy is suffering heavily from the current US economic crisis . D) Just one point: every day, the world spends areund $5.5 billion at current price levels on crude oil purchases. E) lt seems that China , lndia, and Japan have become the primary markets for the Middle East's oil and gas.

17. Tim : - A recent study has found that, in the oilproducing Arab countries in the Middle East, a quarter of the population lives below the poverty line, defined by the World Bank as earning less than $2 per day. Tony: - Unbelievable. Despite record oil profits for those countries? Tim : Tony: - In that case, one can say that Arab governments have been negligent of their social responsibility. A) Yes, indeed. In fact, this clearly shows that the current oil boom has not benefted the average Arab citizen at all. B) lt is true that higher oil prices allow governments to avoid making difficult decisions. C) Moreover, massive infrastructure and housing projects have been undertaken . D) So far, open economies have done much beter than the elesed ones. E) For instance, in the Gulf states, rsng real estate prices have pushed up rents and housing costs.

16. Steve:
According to this latest report on Afghanistan, it's not safe for aid agencies to work there. Ken : - How come? There is a strong NATO force there to provide security. Steve: Ken : -So, it seems that the NATO-Ied attempts to bring peace to this country have already failed. A) You know that the aims of the NATO intervention in this country have been clearly
defned.

18. Liz:
- Do you think the Russian invasion of Georgia will do lasting damage to Russia's relations with the EU? Brian: - In the short term, tensions will be high, but before long things will settle down smoothly again. Liz: - How can you be so positive? Brian:

B) lndeed, northern Afghanistan remains reasonably peaceful and open to trade. C) Sure, but a large part of the country, especially the troublesome southern parts, are controlled by rebel groups. D) In fact, for this country to achieve peace and security, there is an urgent need for more foreign involvement. E) Actually, several nations have helped to build roads, bridges, and other important facilities .

A) Russia's decision last year to reduce gas supplies to Europe was based on economic considerations rather than on any political ai m. B) Russia has always shown a keen interest in European politics and often tries to influence it to its own advantage. C) The response of France has been to construct several new nuclear power stations. D) If we're to live side by side, there must be a good measure of trust. E) Very simple. Russia needs European goods and technology as much as Europe needs Russian gas.

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19. Ralph : - l've learned that there are many details to learn about the maintenance of home aquariums. Dick: Ral ph: - At first glance, it's true. But do you know that even the decorative materials used in aquariums should be placed properly? Otherwise, for example, they may obstruct the tilter pipes. Dick: - Really? 1 hadn't thought of that before. A) Yes. For example, fsh don't disrupt the cleanliness of the home with messy tur or feathers. B) Right; routine maintenance only requires a few minutes of your attention daily, supplemented by an hour or so once a week. C) Oh, are there? l've always thought that looking after an aquarium is very easy. D) Anyone knows that keeping an aquarium is expensive. E) In fact, am as interested as you are in aquariums. 21. Lee: - Do you know about the lron Age hair gel found on the head of a 2,300-year-old body discovered in lreland? Ro n: - Yes. 1 read that the body was found with its hair gelled unusually high above the head. Also, chemical analysis by scientists shows that the hair gel was made of a vegetable oil mixed with a resin probably imported from France or Spain. Lee: Ran : - Well, the body has been preserved incredibly well in a peat bog because the bacteria that decompose flesh can't survive in that oxygenfree environment. Even fingerprints can be seen. A) B)
can say that it's a bit !ike a Mohican style. Do you know what it is made of? lt seems our ancestors were not so primitive that they didn't !ike to take care of themselves. 1 think this indicates he was a wealthy member of lrish society; do you agree? Oh, that's interesting. But how do they know so much about the gel and the body? These findings must be important. But what can we learn from them?

C) D) E)

20. Chris: - Did you know that several years ago Luciano Pavarotti released his first solo album of ltalian pop songs? Robert: - No, 1 didn't. 1 wonder what other tenors thought of this. Chris:
Robert: - In which case, 1 suppose opera fans are also accepting the situation. A) Well, at frst they were not in favour of it, but now they are doing the same thing themselves! B) lt was at least 20 years ago that his record company asked him to make this album . C) As far as know, it was the song "Caruso" that made him do it. D) He asked three well-known singers to join him, but for same reason they said no. E) 1 don't know. Presumably, they were annoyed.

22. James: - How's your philosophy course going? Peter: - lt's hard to say. lt certainly requires a lot of effort. James: Peter: - No. Quite the opposite. In the main, it consists of learning to look at the old and familiar facts in a new and fresh way. A) Which of the great philosophers are you going to study? B) But are you enjoying it? C) Well , 1 hope you're fnding it interesting! D) 1 might take the course next year. E) Why? Are the re a lot of facts to learn?

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23. Mary: - What June:

ook

punctua

for in an airine company is a take-off and a punctua anding.

24. Sue: - Did you know that there are three types of zip and that each is used in a different way?
Jane:

Mary:
- And why not? June: - Think about it! Something as common as bad weather can ead to deays. Woud you care to take off in a hurricane?
A) What 1look for is flight safety. B) But face it; that's not always possible. C) For long flights they now provide beds in business class. D) However hard they try to please the passengers , 1get bored! E) You are hard to please, aren't you?

Su e:
- For instance, chain zips, argey suitabe for luggage, have metal teeth and are, therefore, very strong. Jane: - see. didn't know that.
A) As far as 1 know, there are chain zips, coil zips and concealed zips. Right? B) What about coil zips? l've read something about them ; they are lighter and synthetic. C) Really? Can you give me an example and say where it can be used? D) Well , some are ideal for fine fabrics and others are for stronger ones. E) Does that mean that some of them break easily?

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TEST2
1. John: Have you seen the recent report released by the American Rivers Administration? Alien : - No, not yet. What's your opinion? John: Alien : So it becomes increasingly urgent for the authorities to put into effect far more efficient measures to improve their condition. Don't you think? A) 1 am sure you know that the American Rivers Administration analyzes and studies the condition of the major rivers in the country. B) Most comprehensively prepared. lt is very upsetting to know how endangered most of the nation 's rivers are. C) lndeed, as you have just suggested, dams and canals can be harmful to fish and wildlife populations. D) As 1 recall from previous reports, coal mining operations fill streams with coal and dirt. E) lt has always been admitted that the use of rivers as a water supply for domestic and industrial needs causes much depletion.

3.

Frank: - To learn a little bit about how to cope with physical allergies, l've done some reading. Celia: Teli me in simple terms what you have

learned.
Frank: Celia: - Sounds very sensible, doesn't it? A) Surely you are aware that photosensitivity, which is an allergy, may alsa result from cancurrent use of certain drugs or substances applied to the skin. B) My suggestion is that people who are very sensitive to sunlight should use sunscreens and minimize sun exposure. C) As far as 1 am concerned , itching, asthma , or nasal stuffiness are among the most comman symptoms of physical allergy. D) The comman point everyone agrees on is that the best way to deal with any physical allergy is to prevent it by avoiding whatever tends to causeit. E) As everybody knows, a physical allergy is a condition in which allergic symptoms develop in response to a physical stimulus.

2.

Doctor: - Good to see you again. What's the problem this time? Patient: Upon awakening, 1feel pain and tightness on the sides of my face. Doctor: Patient:

4.

1 hope it's not serious and can be treated


easily.
A) Sleeping pills may be used occasionally to help people who have trouble sleeping because of pa in. B) How interesting! 1 have always stated that people can take steps to break the habit of tooth grinding. C) 1 see. Generally, a case like this results from muscle spasms brought on by repeated muscle or tooth elenching and tooth grinding. D) Of course , treatment is needed when a person has jaw pain or trouble maving his jaw. E) People with this condition need to suppress yawns , cut food into smail pieces, and eat food that's easy to chew.

Jane: - The point is made in this article that we need a reliable source of electricity to meet our needs in the 21st century. Larry: - But we also need clean air. Jane: Larry: - So you mean that nuclear power plants don't pollute the air. Right? A) Well , with nuclear energy, we can have both. B) Why not? Nuclear energy already generates more than 20 per cent of America's electricity. C) Year by year there is a growing need for more energy nationwide. D) In other words , the development of new energy sources is very important to America's energy future. E) 1 am afraid the world is fast heading towards a huge environmental disaster.

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5.

Charles: - Aircraft manufacturers are doing their best to build ever more efficient, more reliable, less polluting, quieter planes. Colleague:

7.

Sally: - Have you spoken to Bobby's parents yet? Rose: - Yes, 1 have. But it wasn't a very satisfactory meeting.

Yes, but there isa long way before absolute


reliability can be achieved! Charles:
Colleague: - There's no doubt about that. Yet every effort must be made for ultimate reliability. A) Let me stress once again that, as the economy develops and per capita ineome rises, per capita travel rises even faster. B) Considered in technical terms, there have been few dramatic changes in large-aircraft design since the 1960s. C) lt is a fact that, by the early 1940s, airplanes had made it possible to cross the Atlantic in one long day of travel. D) On the other hand, in the 1960s, touring families and students could fly from the US to Europe on overnight charter flights. E) Agreed. However, despite occasional horrifc crashes, modern airliners are about the safest means oftravel ever devised.

Sally:
Rose : - Unfortunately not. They seemed determined to put me in the wrong! A) 1 don't know what else 1 can suggest. B) 1 can believe that. They are not very cooperative; are they? C) That's no surprise. Everyone knows how diffcult they are. D) That's a shame. Bobby needs help. E) How was that?

6.

Lucy: - ls it true that China is slightly larger in area than the US? Kate: - That's what l've read in a booklet on China. Lu ey: Kate: - A varied topography indeedi Besides, the Yangtze River is the third-longest river in the world. A) The principal mountain ranges are the Tien Shan, the Kunlun chain , and the TransHimalaya. B) Moreover, from the map one can see that the greater part of the country is mountainous, and the Gobi Desert lies in the North. C) 1 understand it has three great river systems: the Yellow River, the Yangtze River, and the Pearl River. D) The earliest recorded human settlements have been discovered in the Huang Ho basin. E) As you know, in the southwest is Tibet, which China annexed in 1950.

8.

Ada : -Are you an orchid-lover? Sandra: Ada: - 1 feel the same way about them. 1 prefer something more natural. Sandra: - Yes; and more graceful. A) All 1 know about them is that they thrive in 60 per cent humidity and die off if it drops below 40 per cent. B) Yes 1 am. Orchids are affected usually by air and temperature and draughts. C) No; but 1 fnd the stories about their attributes quite fascinating. D) Not really. 1 suppose they are too exotic for my taste. W hat about you? E) 1 certainly am. But 1 leave the growing of them to the experts.

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9. Anna: - Are you in favour of what they now call "educational play"? Alan :

12. Cheryl: - Did Michelle teli you what happened to her on her vacation in Thailand?
Mike:

Anna:
- 1 do agree. A child that dislikes school is not likely ever to be successful there.
A) How can children learn all they have to learn if they waste so much time playing? B) What exactly is that? C) Yes, 1 suppose so. As long as it's not overdone. D) No. 1 don't believe in letting children have too much of their own way. E) Yes, 1 am. lt is important to make learning pleasurable.

Cheryl:
- Yes, that's it. She'd booked a hotel room online, and when she arrived the hotel was full. She had to spend tour hours in the rain trying to find another place to stay.
A) B) C) D) When d id she return from her trip? She told me all about it. No;whathappened? Thailand? 1 thought she went to lndonesia for her vacation . E) Wasn't it something to do with her hotel reservation?

10. Jane: - 1 don't think we should go to Venice for our holiday this year.
Steve: - Have you been reading that disturbing article on how Venice is sinking? Jane: Steve: - know. lt's also in danger because sea levels are rising. A) No. Should 1? B) Yes, 1 have. And it's not simply that Venice is sinking. C) Yes . But 1 think it grossly over-emphasizes the danger, don't you? D) Oh, people have been talking about that for years, but it won 't happen, will it? E) Surely they could do something to save the city!

11. Brian: - What is to be learned from the collapse of the viaduct when the tornado hit it?
Harry: - Perhaps we should simply admit that we can't as yet build major structures capable of resisting tornadoes. Brian: Harry: - 1 suppose it is. But 1 believe it's better to be safe than sorry. A) After all , it was an unusually violent tornado. B) Are you su re that we can't? C) Aren't you overlocking the fact that the anchor-bolt systems had started to corrode? D) Perhaps we can develop ways of doing so. E) lsn't that being rather defeatist?

13. Gail: - Pat and Nigel seem set on seliing their house here and starting a new life in France.
Rachel: - Yes, 1 know. lt seems to be quite the fashion now to make a new start. Gail: Rachel: - l'm not sure that it does. In fact, 1 sometimes wonder about making a new start myself. A) Have you ever thought of making a fresh start? B) couldn't possibly dig up my roots and start again C) 1 imagine that very many people come to regret the move D) True. But it must take a lot of courage. E) 1 couldn't do it myself but 1 sometimes envy those who do

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14. Jeff: - Are there considerable cultural differences in the way business is conducted between China and Western countries?
Neal: - Oh yes, there are many differences and you have to be aware of these if you want to succeed in China. Jeff: Neal : - Well, in Western-style business, we focus on the deal, the possibilities and the risks. In China, top businessmen spend a good deal of time exploring what sort of person you are. Your character is more important than what you do. A) What sart of differences? B) Have you ever done business in China? C) How does one go about making business centacts there? D) What are the advantages of doing business in Ch ina? E) Which regions of China are the best for making high profts? 16. Helen: - 1 think forensics programmes on TV are giving a distorted view of what forensic science can or cannot do. Mark: Helen: - But they do. Some attorneys thin k that these forensics programmes can affect the jurors' demands and decisions. A) 1 think most people are responsible enough not to be affected. B) You do? In what way? C) Do you actually watch those programmes? D) Oh , come on. People don 't take those programmes seriously! E) What's on TV this evening?

15. Carol:
- People appreciate the extraordinary beauty of butterflies, but their colours and shapes might also be functional, mightn't they? Paul: - l've really no idea. In what way? Ca rol :
Paul: - Really? That's interesting. A) This specifc chapter is on the evalutian of patterns on the wings of butterflies. B) For instance, the markings that resemble eyes on butterflies may help them startle predators and then escape from them. C) This has to do with genetics. One should try to learn more about it. D) This book gives examples of all of this and mo re. E) Same dark forms of swallowtail butterflies mimic unrelated inedible species. ls that what you are referring to?

17. Meghan: - Did you know that the government will reduce the amount of taxes you have to pay this year if your baby is born on or before December 31st?
Anna : -Well, mine's due on December 27th. Meghan: Anna : - Me too. 1 could really use a bit of extra Money for the baby's things. A) Well, 1 hope it' s not born after the deadline. B) Oh no, you might miss the deadline if it's overdue! C) How nice to have a baby born araund the New Year. D) What does your daughter think about having a new little brother or sister? E) Well , that's all right, then .

330

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


18. James: - Are you planning to attend any of the plays at the Shakespeare festival this year? Allie : James: -One critic, Harold Bloom, says that it's because he teaches us more about ourselves than any other writer. Allie : - That could be the reason. A) l'd like to, but l'm not sure 1'11 have time . Why do you ask? B) No, but did you know that he wasn't really respected by the public during his own lifeti me? lt was only a hundred years later that he was taken seriously. C) l'm planning to see all of them . In fact, l've already bought a season ticket D) You know Shakespeare's really not my favourite thing. E) Yes , of course . 1 wonder what it is that makes his plays so popular, year after year. 20. Brian: -The aim of this article, apparently, is to show that Shakespeare isn't as special as he's made out to be! Fred: Brian: - Well; it points out that Shakespeare's King Lear and Cervantes' Don Quixote were written in the same year, and then asks which is the best? Fred: - Yes. A tricky question. Thought-provoking, to o. A) 1 don't want to hear any more! B) 1 shan't bother to read it! C) How does it manage to do that? D) That's the fashionable approach moment! E) Didn 't Marlowe write his plays?

at the

19. Helen: How long have the TV's nature documentaries been going? Beth: - For at least 40 years, 1should think. ---Helen: - lndeed they have. In one of the latest they actually show a penguin chick developing inside its egg! A) The series explores the limits of animal endurance in hostile environments. B) And over that time they've been transformed beyond recognition . C) Moreover, the flms grow even - more spectacular and sophisticated . D) Some of the world's leading wildlife camera teams are with the BBC's national history unit. E) Some remarkable footage has been shot.

21. Reg : - Have you put your house up for sale yet? Dave: - Oh, yes. And l've had several offers. The estate agent is urging me to accept the last one. Reg : Dave: - l've noticed that. Mine actually wanted me to accept the initial offer, and that was really low. A) That's typical. They like to get the sale over as soon as possible. B) Why is that? C) And why is that? Are they really offering a very good price? D) lt's not a buyer's market at the moment. E) Don't Jet him push you into a sale.

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331

YDS iFRELERi
22. Matthew: l've been looking at this map of the world's o il. George: Yes. 1took a look at that, too. What surprised you most? Matthew: George: Yes. 1hadn't realized that either. A) 1don't think anything did. B) 1 don't know. But production costs for North Sea Oil are going up. C) The newly discovered oil reserves in West Africa could have proved useful. D) Nothing really. E) The fact that central and South America come second, after the Middle East, for oil reserves. 24. Sue: ls your computer reasonably modern? Wendy: Su e: Then it's terribly out of datel With computers there are new things happening all the time. Wendy: - Tha~ may be. But l'm comfortable with mine and have no intention of changing it. A) 1 suppose so. l've never really thought about it. B) Are you trying to seli me a new one? C) Probably not. lt's a bit slow, though , and that can be annoying. D) Oh, yes. l've had it about six years, that' s all. E) 1 don't know. But it's been giving me a lot of trouble lately.

23. Sam: Don't forget, "clean coal" means different things to different people. Charles: 1 know it does. But at least people are beginning to realize that coal can be cleaned and, indeed, should be. Sam: Charles: lt used to be. But there are now new systems that are far more efficient and far less expensive. A) What's the big problem, sulpher dioxide? B) Clean coal technologies fall into three categories. C) But isn't the deaning of coal an extremely expensive process? D) Coal that has been "aged" gives out more heat and fewer gases. E) ls it really possible to "clean" coal?

332

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

DIALOGUE COMPLETION TESTS CEVAP ANAHTARI


TEST1
1.

TEST2
1. B 2.C 3. D 4.A

3. c 4.A
5. D

2.8

6.E
7.A

8.D 9. C
10.8 11. A 12.E

5.E 6.8 7.8 8.D 9.E


10.8

13.8
14.A 15.8

11. E 12.E 13.D


14.A 15.8

16.C
17.A 18.E

16.D
17.A 18.E

19. c

19.8
20.C

20.A 21. D

22.E 23.8 24.C

21. A 22.E 23.C 24.D

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333

YDS iFRELERi

DIALOGUE COMPLETION TESTS STRATEJiLERi


TEST 1
1. Susan: - Do you know that every year 130 million tonnes of America's trash ends up in landflls? Harry: - Oh, yes, certainly do, and more than that. Susan: Harry: - Well, together all these landflls em it more of the greenhouse gas methane than any other human-related source.

'

------------------- ' '


STRATEJI

'

A. B. D. ve E. klarndaki sorulara "yes/no/ 1think so .. " eklinde bir cevap verilmelidir. C. kkndaki soruya ise cevaben bir aklama gereklidir.

''

A) ls it true that so me American building companies use inorganic retuse such as metal s in roadbed s and heavy construction? B) Do you mean engineers have developed an efficient way of dealing with trash? C) What do you mean exactly? You seem to be implying .
somethng .

~/
;;; ;;

;;- - - - - - - - - - - ,

,' ,' , ;; ,' ; ; ' ; 1;;


1;

D) America produces more trash than any other country in the "' world , doesn 't it? E) Don 't you think such a huge volume of trash can be processed to produce electricity?

2.

John: - For our investments, we should consider tourism as a new area. Edmund: - Agreed . In fact, tourism has now become the world's biggest industry. John: Edmund:

~.,------------------

.... ,

'

STRATEJI
A. C. D. ve E. klarndaki sorulara "yes/ no" cevab verilmelidir. B. kkndaki soruyla "1 think so" cevab elemektedir ve diyaloun sonunda geen "economies" konusu, seenekteki "economic

- 1 certainly thin k so. Therefore , it is of vital importance for the


economies of many of the world's poorest nations.
~~
~

A) Moreover, travel enriches one's life. Don 't you agree? ./ ~ B) Actually, it fuels economic growth, doesn't it? -~- - - _ _ _ C) Do you believe that travelling broadens our experience of ~ the world? ', growth" konusu ile ortaktr. / D) Furthermore, tourism enables people to explore other ' - --- - - -- - - - - - - -- - - """ cultures and geographies. Right? E) Yes , true . Yet, worldwide mobility because of tourism has its drawbacks. Do you agree?

334

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YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


3. Bill: - As a firm, we are doing our best for fuel improvement. Bob: - lndeed, we must develop new technologies to reduce the environmental impact of gasoline and dieseL Bill: Bob: - Yes, of course. Also you know we have already developed an innovative formula designed to help reduce fuel consumption. A) B) C) D) E)

,'

, ;-----------------, '
STRATEJi
A. kknda geen "other firms" konusu cevapta yer
almyor!

'

B. kknda geen "produce fuels" konusu ile eleen bir kelime cevapta bulunmuyor! Have other firms been investing in long-term solutions like hydrogen fuel? C. kkndaki "cleaner Can you teli me how we can produce fuels from lots of fuels and cleaner different sources in ord er to meet the growing demand? engines" diyalogda alt Don't you think the solution is a combination of cleaner izili blmlerle eleiyor! fuels and cleaner engines? ,- How can we produce lead-free and low-sulphur fuels? D. kkndaki sorunun ls the burning of coal and gas for lighting, heating, and \ cevab "yes, of course" \ cooking one of the ca uses of local air pollution? olamaz! \ E. kknda geen "local air \ \ pollution" konusu ile eleen bir yap cevapta 1 1 \ yer almyor! 1 ' ' , _________________ , 1

4.

Mary: - The other day 1 was reading an interesting article on "the Black Death ." Tony: - You mean the terrible plague that devastated Europe in the 141h century? Mary: Tony: - Also throughout villages, towns and cities. As a result, the population of Europe was cut nearly in half.

,.

------------------, ... '


STRATEJi

'

A) Right. didn't know that its effects were worst in confine~"" places like hospitals, prisons, and monasteries. ', B) According to a contemporary account, the city of Florence ' lost 96,000 people between March and October of 1348. C) European men and women were convinced that the plague ', , had been sent as a divine punishment. D) However, as one learns from the article, the plague did not la st long , but actually began to dissipate by 1351. E) 1 feel that more study must be made of the social and political impact the plague had on medieval Europe in general.

A. kk diyalogdaki soruya cevap verilmi olan tek ktr. Ayrca A. kkndaki "hospitals, prisons and monasteries" olarak belirtilen yer isimlerine diyalogda "also villages, towns and cities" eklinde ekleme yaplmtr!

__________________

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335

YDS iFRELERi

5.

Malcolm: - 1 believe a great deal of research needs to be made of Martin Luther King and his ideas. Jacob: - 1 fully agree with you, since he was the preeminent fgure in the civil rights movements started by blacks in the United States during the 1960s. Malcolm: Jacob: - On the contrarv. Fundamentally, he aspired to a fully integrated nation of all the Americans.

/,,-----------------~,,

,'

STRATEJi
D. kk ve diyalogdaki cevap arasnda zne uyumu vardr. Ayrca diyolagda verilen cevap "on the contrary: aksine" baiac ile baladndan bolua gelecek cmle ve cevap arasnda ztlk sz konusu olmaldr. Diyalogdaki "integrated nation" ile D. kkndaki "complete independence" ztlk

A) Before King , various civil rights groups in America had started to organize boycotts and demonstrations to condemn racial discrimination against blacks in all walks of life. B) Unfortunately, his inspiring career as a defender of civil rights in America was tragically ended by assassination in \ oluturur. 1968. ' ...,,"" C) In fact, civil rights laws passed under President Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1960s d id bring American blacks same ," , j~ ~'' measure of equality with regard to voting rights. D) Yes, of course. Yet, he's been accused of seeking complete independence from white society. E) As you know, the civil rights movements of the 1960s in America clearly showed the chasm between the egalitarian promises of American democracy and the real inequalities at the core of American social and politicallife

------------ "

..

1
1

\
~

6.

Winston: - What does the term "global village" really mean? Stanley: - Oh, well , it is essentially related to the global flow of information. Winston: Stanley: - Alright, 1 will try. Beginning in the 1990s,increasingly sophisticated computers have brought people into instant communication over the internet with each other across continents in new cultural and political settings, and this has had a great impact on the everyday lives of men and women araund the world .

,--------------------,,
: STRATEJi A. B. C. ve D.
sorulara "yes 1 no 1 certainly" gibi bir ... cevap __ verilmelidir. ,
1 1 1 1 1 1
1

klarndaki

'

1 1 1 1 1

------------

..

1
1 1 1

1
1 1 ,'

A) In other words, are you suggesting that advances in ,' ,' 1 electronic technologies have provided new worldwide ,' 1 platforms for commercial interests? 1 1 1 B) Do you mean the wide-ranging effects of information ,' 1 technologies on political struggles araund the globe? 1 1 C) Are you saying that electronic systems and devices ,' ,' designed to create, store and share information have 1 , ' 1 become more powerful and accessible? 1 1 D) Are you claiming that embattled ethnic minorities have 1 , ' found worldwide audiences through on-line campaign + :1 1 si tes? E) What does that exactly mean? Can you be more'
specifc?

336

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

7.

Richard: - l've been reading about the ancient Egyptians lately. Antony: - How interesting! Anything particularly drawing your attention?

1 ,

"

....

------------------,
STRATEJi

'\

Richard:
- lt is claimed by some linguists that the early Egyptian language might represent the survival of a "root" language from which the other Languages of the Afro-Asiatic group evolved in the past. An tony:

1 1 1 1

~~',
A) Possible. In fact, the language of the ancient Egyptians ' has for long been a matter of debate among linguists. B) Actually, as you may remember, the frst known permanent settlement in Egypt dates back to approximately 4750 B. C. C) You know that the patterns of development in ancient Egypt differed greatly from those of the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. D) lt is true that, due to the Nile, ancient Egypt was able to forge a cultural and political unity. E) You must recall that the Egyptian system of pictographic writing, called hierog/yphs, has always fascinated modern scholars.

A. kkndaki alt izili kelimelerle diyalogdaki kelimeler eleir. Dier klarda "language" konusu gemediinden seenekler ile cevap arasnda konu btnl
salanamaz. 1 ' ..... __________________ ,. "

8.

Judy: -W hat do you know about John Stuart Mill? Tom: - As far as 1 can recall, he was the most committed and influential defender of personal liberty in Victorian Britain in the 19th century. Judy: Tom: - lndeed. he was. He wrote many essays on women's political rights.

....

,'

------------------- ... '


STRATEJi

A) Agreed. In his On Liberty, he defended individual freedom \ in the face of the state and "the tyranny of the majority." , ... B) 1 know his On Liberty became one of the defning texts of -....Western liberalism. ,."'"'-C) He strongly argued that human freedom was essential to ~ ~-social progress. "' D) Yet, for me, more importantly, he was a dedicated supporter of suffrage for women. E) Historically, the Reform Bill of 1867 in Britain marked the high point of British liberalism.

D. Diyalogdaki "he was" yapsnn ardndan nokta gelmesi bu yapnn aynsnn bolukta da gelmesini gerektirir.Ayrca "suffrage for women" ile "women's political rights" konular eieerak konu btnl salanr.
.... ... ----------- "

1
1

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

337

YDS iFRELERi
9. John: - By the way, can you teli me what the expression "the scramble for Africa" means? Harry: - Oh, 1 thought you knew i!. since you are seriously interested in the history of Africa . John: Harry: - Well, !! is about the colonization of Africa. !1 indicates the scope and speed with which the major European powers, excited by stories of rubber forests and rich diamond mines, conquered and colonized Africa in the 19th century.

/,,---------------- .... ,
1 1

STRATEJi
C. kknda diyalogda "the scramble of Africa" yerine "it" zamiri yer almtr. Ayn zamirin yer ald tek seenek C kkdr. B. kknda yer alan "it" zamiri, "lt+passive+that" yaps iinde
kullanldndan bo

A) For instance, know that in 1884 a conference, attended by znedir ve bir adn yerini the representatives of the European colonial powers, was , tutmaz. held in Berlin to setlle the matter of control over the Co ngo , .... River basin. ~r B) !! has been pointed out that by the 1830s the French had / ... created a general government of the ir possessions in /; _, _,"" . " ... Al gera. ~ ...... C) 1 am afraid 1 don't. 1 came across !! in an article 1 was " reading yesterday. There was no explanation given. D) Actually, the colonial powers' partition of Africa in the 19th century was the most striking instance of European imperialism. E) According to some eyewitness reports, in the colonies, Africans worked in appalling conditions, with no medicine or sanilation and too little food

1
1
/

___________ ,.,"'

10. Liz:
puzzled about why dedining birth ratesin the West have been accompanied by growing populations of older adults. S usa n: - You are right. Actually, it is a very complicated issue, and there is a wide range of reasons for it. Liz: Susan: - 1 don't know where to start. think one obvious reason is improved standards of health care.
- 1 am

;,----------------- .... ,
/

STRATEJi
B. kknda "1 don't know where to start" cevabnn verilebilmesi iin Susan'dan bir ey anlatmas rica edilmi olmal! Rica yaps B kknda yer alr. Ayrca B kkndaki "some of them" miktar belirteci ile, diyalogdaki "reasons" kelimesi ile eleir.
.... , _________________ ...... /

,'

A) Thank you so much. 1'11 take your advice and do some ,' 1 " research on the subject. B) Exactly. You can oerhaos outline some of them for me. ,' // \ C) 1 believe a new type of demographic erisis different fro~ / ' this confronts Western governments. D) One can defnitely see that globalization has a serious impact on the world's population. E) Especially Asia's population as a whole has increased nearly four times over since 1900.

338

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


11. Harriet: - 1 am writing an article about the Cold War period . There is a great deal of materiall have to deal with . Ares: - 1 suggest you focus on a specific topic rather than giving a general account. Harriet: Ares: - So, your article will , 1 am sure , arause a great deal of interest in academic and political circles.
/

, ~-------------------, ' STRATEJi '


hem konu hem de tense(zaman) uyumu
btnl
saladndan doru

A.

kk

cevaptr.

'
/
/

'-~
/

___________ .,. ,

A) Right. 1 will demonstrate how the Cold W ar has given way / , ' to mo re complex global relations . /;'' B) You know the Eastern European revolutions of 1989~ brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union. C) Especially the Soviet Union's increasingly severe domestic problems led to mounting protests in Russia in 1991. D) Everyone knows that the lron Curtain had established one of the most rigid borders in European history. E) In my opinion , since the end of the Cold War, adapting to change has been difficult throughout Eastern Europe.

, ,'

,' ,,

12. lsabel: - Here is an interesting article on Byzantine learning. Have you seen 11? Fred: - Let me have a look. No, 1 haven't, but .!! does seem interesting . lsa bel : Fred: - Well , we know from history that, in education, Byzantine schools based their instruction on classical Greek literature.

/,.

.....

-------- ------- -- .... ,


STRATEJi \

E. kknda diyalogdaki "article" kelimesini niteleyen "it" zamiri kullanlmtr. Bu zamire yer veren E kkdr. Ayrca "Greek literature" ortak kelime konumunda konu

A) In fact, Byzantine achievements in art and architecture \ btnl salar. / havealwaysbeenadmired . ' .... -... ___________ .,,. B) Evidently, Byzantine scholars were very interested in the / .,/ politics of ancient Greece. / ,' C) As it has been argued by most historians, religion / ,-/ dominated Byzantine life. / ," 1 "" D) One can po int out that inventiveness was highly prized in 1 , . Byzantne cu ture. 1,' E) !! gives a full account of the Byzantine interest in classica~ ~ Greek literature.

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

339

YDS iFRELERi
13. James: - Have you been to the Dal i exhibition? Rodney: James:
/~-------------------,,

STRATEJi
bolukta

'
:

B. kknda olduu gibi sylenene karlk

- Whv is that?
Rodney: - 1 don't like being caught up in a crowd when l'm locking at paintings. A) certainly have. And 1 hope to go again soan . B) Not yet. 1 don't go to such exhibitions till they've b!e'n going for same time. C) 1 was there at the opening . What about you? D) Yes. 1was surprised at how few large paintings there were . E) Of course . And it was quite an experience.
1"

1 1 1
1

olarak "why" sorusunun


sorulabilmesi iin, bolua gelecek cmlede olumsuz bir ifade yer alm olmaldr.
'....
-------------------

/ /'

1 /

,.,"'

14. Clare:
- What's the matter with you? You're not your usual self! Ka te: - 1 know l'm not. This report l'm doing is getiing me down. Cia re:

,
'

--- - - - -- - - - - -- -- - - - '
....

STRATEJi
A. kkndaki soru diyalogdaki cevabn verilebilecei tek sorudur. "No, thank goodness:
tanrya kr, hayr"

'

Ka te: - No: than k goodness. But the deadline is near.


;

.. ..

A) 8) C) D) E)

So that's the trouble . .!.. therestili much left to be done? ............ cevab olumsuz bir eyden The trouble with you is that you' re a perfectionist. .... .... .... SZ eden bir soruya When are you expected to hand it in? \ verilebilir. , Would you like me to go over it for you? ' .... _________________ _ .,.."' But it was nearly fnished last week, wasn't it?

15. Fred: - Have you read this article on the economies of the Middle Eastern countries? M ike: - No, not yet. Anything interesting in it? Fred: M ike: - That's to be expected. After all, Iran is the second-largest producer of oil in OPEC.

("

,------------------- .... '


STRATEJi

B. kk diyalogdaki alt izili kelimelerle eleen ve diyalogdaki konunun yer ald tek seenektir. konunun bulunduu tek k , B. kkdr. '

' :

A) Well, lran's nuclear aims seem to have increased .-"' international tension. , .-;, B) To my surprise, 50% of lran's revenue comes from its oil .. ~' exports. C) Clearly, the global economy is suffering heavily from the current US economic crisis. D) Just one point: every day, the world spends araund $5.5 billion at current price levels on crude oil purchases. E) lt seems that China, lndia, and Japan have become the primary marketsfor the Middle East's oil and gas.

--,

,-----------"'

340

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


16. Steve:
- According to this latest report on Afghanistan, it's not safe for aid agencies to work there. Ken: - How come? There is a strong NATO force there to provide security. Steve: Ken: - So, it seems that the NATO-Ied attempts to bring peace to this country have already failed .

, .,.-------------------, ' { STRATEJi '


C. Diyalogdaki alt izili cmle bir gerekten sz etmektedir ve buna karlk verilebilecek tek yorum, "su re", C. kknda yer
1
1

' ' ....._,


/

almaktadr.
/

A) You know that the aims of the NATO intervention in this / , / country have been clearly defined. / ,, B) lndeed, northern Afghanistan remains reasonably peaceful / / and open to trade. , '"" C) Su re, but a large part of the country, especially the~>' troublesome southern parts, are controlled by rebel groups. D) In fact, for this country to achieve peace and security there is an urgent need for more foreign involvement. E) Actually, several nations have helped to build roads , bridges, and other important facilities.

,'

, ,-----------

17. Tim: - A recent study has found that, in the oil producing Arab countries in the Middle East, a quarter of the population lives below the poverty line, defined by the World Bank as earning less than $2 per day. Tony: - Unbelievable. Despite record oil profits for those countries1 Tim: Tony: - In that case, one can say that Arab governments have been negligent of their social responsibility. A) Yes , indeed. In fact, this clearly shows that the current oil "' boom has not benefited the average Arab citizen at all. B) lt is true that higher oil prices allow governments to avoid making difficult decisions. C) Moreover, massive infrastructure and housing projects have been undertaken. D) So far, open economies have done much better than the closed ones . E) For instance, in the Gulf States, rising real estate prices have pushed up rents and housing costs.

, .,.------------------- ..... ' STRATEJi '1


A. Diyalogda boluktan nceki cmlede yer alan soruya verilebilecek tek cevap bu seenekte yer
1
1

1 ,

alr.

'
/ / / /.;" /

'-~
/
/

___________ .,. ,

"

,.""

,. ,.""

,. ,""

,.

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

341

YDS iFRELERi
18. Liz:
- Do you think the Russian invasion of Georgia will do lasting damage to Russia's relations with the EU? Brian: - In the short term, tensions will be high, but before long things will settle down smoothly again. Liz: - How can you be so positive? Bria:

"

,----- ~ -- - ----------,

STRATEJi
E. Diyalogda boluktan nce yer alan soruya

'

verilebilecek tek cevap bu

' ,__ 1
1 1 1 1 1

seenekte yer alr. r----------1


1

1
1

1 A) Russia's decision last year to reduce gas supplies to 1 Europe was based on economic considerations rather than 1 ,' 1 1 on any political aim. 1 1 1 1 B) Russia has always shown a keen interest in European 1 1 politics and often tries to influence it to its own advantage. 1 1 C) The response of France has been to construct several new 11 1 1 nuclear power stations. 1 / D) If we're to live side by side, there must be a good measure ,'/ of trust. ,, E) Very simple. Russia needs European goods andi technology as much as Europe needs Russian gas.

19. Ral ph:


- l've learned that there are many details to learn about the maintenanca of home aguariums. Dick: Ral ph: - At frst glance, it's true. But do you know that even the decorative materials used in aquariums should be placed properly? Otherwise, for example, they may obstruct the flter pipes. Die k: - Really? 1hadn 't thought of that before.
1

"

------------------- ... ' STRATEJi C. there are =are there; maintenance of home aquariums =looking after
an aquarium
yaplar
elemektedir.
'-~
1 "

'

,-----------' "

11
1 ""

, " "

A) Yes. For example, fsh don't disrupt the cleanliness of the / ," home with messy fur or feathers. ' ," B) Right; routine maintenance only requires a few minutes of / , " your attention daily, supplemented by an hour or so once a / , "" week. :" C) Oh , are there? l've always thought that looking after an aguarium is very easy. D) Anyone knows that keeping an aquarium is expensive. E) In fact, 1am as interested as you are in aquariums.

342

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


20. Chris:
- Did you know that several years ago Luciano Pavarotti released his first solo album of ltalian pop songs? Robert: - No, 1didn 't. 1wonder what other tenors thought of this . Chris:

,'
1
1

,,

,.--------------- - .... ,
STRATEJi

'

Robert: - In which case , 1 suppose opera fans are also accepting the situation . ,'
1

1 1 1 1 1 1

A. other tenors = they D. three well-known singers =they E. other tenors = they elemesi konu
btnln salamaktadr.

A) Well , at frst they were not in favour of it, but now they are'-doing the same thing themselves! B) lt was at least 20 years ago that his record company asked him to make this album . C) As far as 1 know, it was the song "Caruso" that made him do it. D) He asked three well-known singers to join him, but for some reason they said no. E) 1 don't know. Presumably, they were annoyed .

A. ve E. klarnda diyalogda geen "other tenors" kelimesi, "they" ile elemektedir. Ancak diyalogda "also accepting" ifadesi yer
aldndan, bolua

gelecek cmleye dier tenrlerin de durumu kabul ettiini gsteren bir cmle gelmelidir ve bu cmle A. 1 \ kknda yer almaktadr.
\

, ' , _________________ ,. ,

,'

21. Lee:
-Do you know about the lron Age hair gel found on the head of a 2,300-year-old body discovered in lreland? Ro n: - Yes. 1 read that the body was found with its hair gelled unusually high above the head. Also , chemical analysis by scientists shows that the hair gel was made of a vegetable oil mixed with a resin probably imported from France or Spain. Lee: Ro n: - Well , the body has been preserved incredibly well in a peat bog because the bacteria that decompose flesh can't survive in that oxygen free environment. Even fngerprints can be seen .
1

------------------- '
STRATEJi
D.
kkndaki parann

'1

A) 1 can say that it's a bit like a Mohican style. Do you know what it is made of? B) lt seems our ancestors were not so primitive that they didn 't ,' like to take care of themselves. C) 1 think this indicates he was a wealthy member of lrish ,'' society; do you agree? ,' D) Oh, that's interesting. But how do they know so much 1 about the gel and the body? E) These fndings must be important. But what can we learn from them?

'-~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 , 1 ,

'

"the body" konusu ile eleir. Ayrca, diyalogda boluktan sonra "how" sorusunun cevab yer almaktadr. ___________

,, , ,, , ,, , , ,,

,,

....
~

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

343

YDS iFRELERi
22. James:
- How's your philosophy course going? Peter: - lt' s hard to say. lt certainly requires a lot of effort. James: Peter: - No. Quite the opposite. In the main, it consists of learning to , look at the old and familiar facts in a new and fresh way. , "'" A) B) C) D) E) Which of the great philosophers are you going to stud'y?.,.,"" But are you enjoying it? , /., ... "" Well, 1hope you're fnding it interesting! , ".,"""" ~~"" 1 mig ht take the course next year. Why? Are there a lot of facts to learn? ~

{"
~

~------------------~,

STRATEJi
soru "yes/no" cevab verilebilecek bir sorudur. Ayrca diyalog ve seenekte "facts" kelimesinin yer almas konu

'\

E.

kkndaki

"

,"

....-\ btnl salar.

' , ___________________ .,,.

23. Mary:
- What 1 look for in an airtine company is a punctual take-off and a punctuallanding. June:

,~--------------------,

'

Mary: - And why not? / June: - Thin k about it! Something as commen as bad weather can ' ; .;r _ _ _ - lead to delays. Would you care to take off in a hurricane? __ - _ _ _ -,"""' _.,.. .,."""'-A) What llook for is flight safety. ~_.,_ .... B) But face it; that's not always possible. C) For long flights they now provide beds in business class. D) However hard they try to please the passengers, 1 get bo red! E) You are hard to please, aren't you?

STRATEJi ~ B. "Why not?" sorusu ancak olumsuz seenekteki gibi bir cmlenin ardndan , sorulabilir. ____________ .,"

- --

24. Sue:
- Did you know that the re are three types of zip and that each is used in a different way? Jane: Su e: - For instance, chain zips, largely suitable for luggage, have metal teeth and are, therefore, very strong. Jane: - 1see. 1didn't know that. A) B) C) D) E)

"'

,-------------------- '
STRATEJi
C. For instance can you give me an example elemesi konu

btnln salar.

'------------,
1
1 1 "

,---"
,"
"

As far as 1know, there are chain zips, coil zips and concealed zips. Right? ,' , "" W hat about coil zips? l've read something about them; they are lighter and synthetic. f," Really? Can you give me an example and say where it can be used? Well, some are ideal for fne fabrics and others are for stronger ones. Does that mean that some of the m break easily?

344

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi

TEST2
1.
John: - Have you seen the recent report released by the American Rivers Administration? Alien: - No, not yet. What's your opinion? John: Alien: - So it becomes increasingly urgent for the authorities to put into effect far more efficient measures to improve their condition. Don't you think?
1 1

,---------------------,
STRATEJi
B. kk diyalogdaki soruya cevap verilmi olan tek seenektir.
'-~ 1
1 1
1 ,

'

, , , ,'

,------------

_../

1 ,

,'

A) 1 am su re you know that the American Rivers , ,, Administration analyzes and studies the condition of the ,~' major rivers in the country. " B) Most comprehensively prepared. lt is very upsetting to know how endangered most of the nation's rivers are. C) lndeed , as you have just suggested , dams and canals can be harmful to fsh and wildlife populations. D) As 1 recall from previous reports , coal mining operations fll streams with coal and dirt. E) lt has always been admitted that the use of rivers as a water supply for domestic and industrial needs causes much depletion.

2.

Doctor: - Good to see you again. What's the problem this time? Patient: - Upon awakening, 1feel pain and tightness on the sides of my face . Doctor: Patient: - 1hope !fs not serious and can be treated easily.

~--------------------

STRATEJi
C. a case like this ifadesi ile it zamiri elemesi konu
btnln salar

'

'

'

--/

A) Sleeping pills may be used occasionally to help people who ,' , "' have trouble sleeping because of pa in. , , , , "' B) How interesting! 1 have always stated that people can take , "' steps to break the habit of tooth grinding. ,;, "'"' C) 1 see. Generally, a case like this results from muscle /"' spasms brought on by repeated muscle or tooth elenching and tooth grinding. D) Of course, treatment is needed when a person has jaw pain or trouble maving his jaw. E) People with this condition need to suppress yawns, cut food into smail pieces, and eat food that' s easy to chew.

,'

,------------'

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

345

YDS iFRELERi

3.

Frank: - To learn a little bit about how to cope with physical allergies , l've done some reading. Celia: - Teli me in simple terms what you have learned . Frank: Celia: - Sounds very sensible , doesn't it?

~~--------------------,
1

STRATEJi
D. Diyalogla konu
btnln salayan

kelimeler D.
/ 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1 ,

kknda

ortak yer

'

almaktadr .

------------ .-'

A) Surely you are aware that photosensitivity, which is an allergy, may also resul! from cancurrent use of certain drugs or substances applied to the skin. B) My suggestion is that people who are very sensitive to sunlight should use sunscreens and minimize sun exposure. C) As far as 1 am concerned , itching , asthma , or nasal stuffiness are among the most common symptoms of physical allergy. /' D) The common point everyone agrees on is that the best way to deal with any physical allergy is to prevent it by avoiding whatever tends to cause it. E) As everybody knows , a physical allergy is a condition in which allergic symptoms develop in response to a physical stimulus.

4.

Jane: - The point is made in this article that we need a reliable source of electricity to meet o ur needs in the 21 st century. Larry: - But we also need clean air. Jane: Larry: - So you mean that nuclear power plants don't pollute the air. Right?

~-----------------,

'
\

STRATEJi

A. nuclear energy nuclear power plants ile ve both reliable source of energy and clean air ile

elemektedir.

A) Well , with nuclear energy, we can have both. ' B) Why not? Nuclear energy already generates more than 20\ per cent of America's electricity. ' C) Year by year there is a growing need for more energy \ nationwide . ' D) In other words , the development of new energy sources is \ very im portant to America's energy future. , / ' ... _________________ ... ~ E) 1 am afraid the world is fast heading towards a huge environmental disaster.

B. kknda da "nuclear energy" ortak kelime k kt d" onumu na geme e r ancak seenek "why not" ile baladndan, diyalogda boluktan nceki cmlenin olumsuz olmas gerekirdi.

346

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


5. Charles: - Aircraft manufacturers are doing their best to build ever more efficient, more reliable, less polluting , quieter planes. Colleague: - Yes, but there isa long way before absolute reliability can be achieved! Charles: Colleague: - There's no doubt about that. Yet every effort must be made for ultimate reliability.

~~-------------------,,

STRATEJi
E. safest means of travel

'

reliability

elemesi

konu
.,.-'

btnln salamaktadr .

'

A) Let me stress once again that, as the economy develops , / and per capita ineome rises , per capita travel rises even / 1 faster. , / B) Considered in technical terms, there have been few / / dramatic changes in large-aircraft design since the 1960s. ' / / 1 C) lt is a fact that, by the early 1940s, airplanes had made it possible to cross the Atlantic in one long day of travel. / / D) On the other hand, in the 1960s, touring families and 1 / students could fly from the US to Europe on overnight ' 1 1 charter flights. 1~ E) Agreed . However, despite occasional horrific crashes, ' modern airliners are about the safest means of travel ever devi sed.

1 1 1 1 1

1 1
1

------------

1
1

6.

Lu ey: - ls it true that China is slightly larger in area than the US? Ka te: - That's what l've read ina booklet on China. Lu ey: Kate: - A varied topography indeed! Besides, the Yangtze River is the third-longest river in the world .

...

~------------------

'

STRATEJi
B. mountainous ve Gobi desert ile varied topography
elemektedir.

'

'

of the country is mountainous, and the Gobi Desert lies irf the North. C) 1 understand it has three great river systems: the Yellow River, the Yangtze River, and the Pearl River. D) The earliest recorded human settlements have been discovered in the Huang Ho basin. E) As you know, in the southwest is Tibet, which China annexed in 1950.

"A varied (eitli) topography" karlnn 1 alnabilmesi iin bolua 1 gelecek cmlede birden A) The principal mountain ranges are the Tien Shan , the / Kunlun chain, and the Trans-Himalaya. ' fazla corafi zellikten 1 .- B) Moreover, from the map one can see that the greater part,.,.- , bahsedilmelidir.

'

-------------------

, ...

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

347

YDS iFRELERi
7. Sally: - Have you spoken to Bobby's parents yet? Rose: - Yes, 1have. But it wasn't a very satisfactory meeting. Sally: Rose: - Unfortunately not. They seemed determined to put me in the wrong! A) B) C) D) E)

~-------------------,

STRATEJi
B. "Unfortunately not"
cevabnn verilebilecei

'

tek

soru B.

kknda

yer

'
;

...
;

almaktadr.

__
; ;
~

____________ .,.. ,

1don't know what else 1can suggest. , -:_ ~ ~ 1can believe that. They are not very cooperative; are they?/~~ That's no surprise. Everyone knows how difficult they are. That's a shame. Bobby needs help. How was that?

8.

Ada: - Are you an orchid-lover? Sandra: Ada: - 1feel the same way about them. 1prefer something more natural. Sandra: - Yes; and more graceful.

"'.,..-- ----------------- ..... , STRATEJi


D. soru Diyalogda D.
,

alt

cevabn

alnabilecei kknda

izili tek yer


/

almaktadr.

'
1

-1

, /
, , / /

------------ ...

1 1

1 A) Alli know about themis that they thrive in 60 per cent 1 humidity and die off if it drops below 40 per cent. 1 1 B) Yes am. Orchids are affected usually by air and 1 , temperature and draughts. 1 ,' 1 / C) No; but 1fnd the stories about their attributes quite 1' fascinating. J' D) Not really. 1suppose they are too exotic for my taste. What aboutyou? E) 1certainly am. But 1leave the growing of them to the experts.

," , ,

9.

Anna: -Are you in favour of what they now ca ll "educational play"? Alan: Anna: - do agree. A child that d islikes school is not likely ever to be successful there .

...

--------------------- '
STRATEJi
alnabilmesi

E. "1 do agree" cevabnn iin bir fikir ne

' --,
1

srlm olmaldr.
,

,-------------"

1
1 / ,' 1

A) How can children learn all they have to learn if they waste 1 1 so much time playing? 1 B) What exactly is that? 1 , C) Yes, suppose so. As long as it' s not overdone. / ," D) No. 1don't believe in letting children have too much of their / ,/ own way. 1, E) Yes, 1am. lt isimportant to make learning pleasurabe:

/
/ / "

348

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


10. Jane: - 1don 't think we should go to Venice for our holiday this year. Steve: - Have you been reading that disturbing article on how Venice is sinking1 Jane:
~-----------------~

,'

'

STRATEJi
B. Diyalogda boluktan nceki soruya cevap veren klar A. B. ve C. klardr. Ancak A. ve C. klar bir soru ile biterken , diyalogda boluktan sonra "1know" kullanlmtr. "1 know" bir

'

'

Steve: - 1know. lt's also in danger because sea levels are rising. A) No. Should 1? __ - 1 B) Yes. have. And it's not simply that Venice is sin king . ~~C) Yes. But 1think it grossly over-emphasizes the danger, ' , , don't you? ,, soruya cevap D) Oh , people have been talking about that for years, but it ' olamayacanmdan doru 1 won 't happen , will it? ' seenek B kkdr. / E) Su rely they could do something to save the city! ' , , _________________ _, "

11. Brian: -W hat is to be learned from the collapse of the viaduct when the tornado hit it? Harry: - Perhaps we should simply admit that we can't as yet build major structures capable of resisting tornadoes. Brian: Harry: - 1suppose it is. But 1believe it' s better to be safe than sorry.

,-------------------, '
STRATEJi
E. Diyalogdaki boluktan sonra gelen "it is" kullanm E. seeneindeki ile eleerek konu

''

btnl salanmaktadr.
-~ /
/

A) After all , it was an unusually violent tornado. ," , " B) Are you su re that we can't? /; ,.. "" C) Aren 't you overlocking the fact that the anchor-bolt systems , " , "" had started to corrode? "~"" D) Perhaps we can develop ways of doing so. ,~:" E) lsn't that being rather defeatist?

,"

,------------

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

349

YDS iFRELERi
12. Cheryl: - Did Michelle teli you what happened to her on her vacation in Thailand? M ike: Cheryl: - Yes, that's it. She'd booked a hotel room online, and when she arrived the hotel was full. She had to spend four hours in the rain trying to fnd another place to stay.
1 1

1 ,

~------------------

'

STRATEJi
E. Diyalogda boluktan sonra "yes" cevab verildiinden , bolua soru gelmelidir. Ayrca, "hotel reservation" ="booked a hotel room" elemesi de konu btnl salar.

'

'

A) B) C) D) E)

When d id she return from her trip? 1 She told me all about it. ,' ; No; what happened? ,' ; ; ',, ;; Thailand? 1 thought she went to lndonesia for her vacatiorv.; ------------------Wasn 't it something to do with her hotel reservation 1 /;

13. Gail: - Pat and Nigel seem set on seliing their house here and starting a new life in France. Ra c hel: - Yes, 1 know. lt seems to be quite the fashion now to make a new start. Gail: Rachel: - l'm not su re that it does. In fact, 1 sometimes wonder about making a new start myself. A) B) C) D) E)

,,------------------- .....
{ STRATEJi
D. Diyalogda boluktan sonra gelen "it does"
yapsndan dolay bolua

'

gelecek cmleye "it+ ', present yap" gelmelidir.


;
/
/
; ; ;;

/
; ; ;

------------

_...

/ Have you ever thought of making a fresh start? / 1 couldn't possibly dig up my roots and start again . / ; ; imagine that very many people come to regret the move! / ; ; True. But it must take a lot of courage . 1 couldn't do it myself but 1 sometimes envy those who do.

350

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


14. Jeff: - Are there considerable cultural differences in the way business is conducted between China and Western countries? Neal: - Oh yes, there are many differences and you have to be aware of these if you want to succeed in Ch ina. Jeff:

/,.------------------ .... ,
,' STRATEJi
A. kkndaki "differences" kelimesi diyalogdaki konu

ile

elemektedir. Ayrca

Neal: - Well, in Western-style business, we focus on the deal, the ,' possibilities and the risks. In China, top businessmen spend a 1 good deal of time exploring what sort of person you are. Your ,' 1 character is more important than what you do. 1
1 "

sonunda; nce "in Western-style business" ardndan "In China" ifadelerinin gelmesi bu farkllklar ortaya
\

diyaloun

/,

koymaktadr.

A) B) C) D) E)

W hat sort of differences? Have you ever done business in China? How does one go about making business centacts there? What are the advantages of doing business in China? Which regions of China are the best for making high
profts?

;"

''------------------~"'

'

15. Carol: - People appreciate the extraordinary beauty of butterflies, but their colours and shapes might also be functional, mightn 't they? Paul: - l've really no idea. In what way? Ca rol: Paul: - Really? That's interesting.

,.-------------------STRATEJi
B. kkndaki "For instance" cmlesi ncesinde "In what way?" sorusunun gelmesini

....

,
'

,,_g_e~ektirir. ___________ ~ ~"


"

~~

A) This specifc chapter is on the evolution of patterns on the " " " --~ " wings of butterflies. "" B) For instance, the markings that resemble eyes on ~-"" butterflies may help them startle predators and then escape from them . C) This has to do with genetics. One should try to learn more about it. D) This book gives examples of all of this and more. E) Some dark forms of swallowtail butterflies mimic unrelated inedible species. ls that what you are referring to?

~"

,,

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

351

YDS iFRELERi
16. Helen: - 1 think forens ics programmas on TV are giving a distorted view of what forensic science can or cannot do. Mark:

,-------------------, '
STRATEJi
D. Diyalogda boluktan sonra "they do"
kullanldndan. bolua gelecek cmlede "they+

'

Hele n:
- But they do. Some attorneys think that these forensics programmas can affect the jurors' demands and decisions. A) B) C) D)
E)

simple present tense"

\ aranr. think most people are responsible enough not to be .... ~-, affected. / / You do? In what way? ,"' ..,.*""' Do you actually watch those programmes? / ...... Oh, come on . People don't take those programmes,. ~ ... seriously! What's on TV this evening?

.,------------"

17. Meghan: - Did you know that the government will reduce the amount of taxes you have to pay this year if your baby is born on or before December 31 st? Anna: - Well , mine's due on December 27th. Meghan: Anna: "" - Me too. 1 could really use a bit of extra Mo ney for the bab)l'~" things. ., .A) B) C) D) Well, 1 hope it' s not born after the deadline. .-Oh no, you might miss the deadline if it's overdue! How nice to have a baby born around the New Year. What does your daughter think about having a new little brother or sister? E) Well , that's all right, then .

,.,.------- ---------- - .......... ,


'

STRATEJi
A. Diyalogda boluktan sonra gelen "me, too"
cevab ncesinde yer alan cmlede "you" ve "it" zamirierine yer vermeyen

.,.,_____ , "' -- -\'


,

bir cmlenin gelmesini

gerektirir.
~

_____________ _ ____ ... .-

18. James: - Are you planning to attend any of the plays at the Shakespeare festival this year? All ie: James: - One critic, Harold Bloom, says that it's because he teaches us more about ourseves than any other writer. Allie: - That could be the reason.

,----------------STRATEJi

.....

'

'

'1

E. Diyaloun ilk cmlesindeki soruya cevap ieren klar A. B. ve E.

seenekleridir.

Diyaloun

devamnda yer alan alt

'11 have time. Why do you ask? A) l'd like to, but l'm not su re 1 B) No, but did you know that he wasn't really respected by the public during his own lifetime? lt was only a hundred years , later that he was taken seriously. , C) l'm planning to see all of them. In fact, l've already bought a '~-., season ticket D)You know Shakespeare's really not my ., " ... favourite thing . ., ":_ ... "" ... E) Yes, of course. 1 wonder what it is that makes his plays,-$'"" ... so popular, year after year.

izili ifadeler, bolua gelecek cmlede sebep bildiren bir yap kullanm gerektirir. Bu yap da E. kknda grlmektedir.
/

1 1

352

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


19.
Heen:
~------------------,,

- How long have the TV's nature documentaries been going? Beth: - For at least 40 years, should think. ---Heen:

'
:

STRATEJi
B. Diyalogda boluktan sonra gelen "they have"
cevab, bolua gelecek cmlede "they+ present perfect tense" kullanm gerektirir.

'

'

- lndeed they have. In one of the latest they actually show a penguin chick developing inside its egg!

A) The series explores the limits of animal endurance in / hostile environments. B) And over that time they've been transformed beyond '"" ""\ ' , __________________ recognition . C) Moreover, the flms grow even more spectacular and sophisticated. D) Some of the world's leading wildlife camera teams are with the BBC's national history unit. E) Some remarkable footage has been shot.

,~

'

20. Brian: - The aim of this artice , apparently, is to show that Shakespeare isn't as special as he' s made out to be! Fred:

... ~------------------ ....

,'

STRATEJi
C. Diyalogda yer alan this article konusu it zamiri ile
elemektedir. Ayn yapy kullanan k C kkdr.
Ayrca boluktan sonraki

'

'

Brian: - Well; .!! points out that Shakespeare's King Lear and Cervantes' Don Quixote were written in the same year, and then asks which is the best? ... , Fred: .......... ... - Yes . A tricky question. Thought-provoking, too. ... ... ... ... ... ... A) 1don't want to hear any more! ...... " --- -, B) 1 shan't bother to read it! / __ -----', C) How does it manage to do that? s~:.--D) That' s the fashionable approach at the moment! E) Didn 't Marlowe write his plays?

cmle ile devam ettiinden, bolua gelecek k seenekteki gibi bir soru

'------------------ . . "

olmaldr.

21. Reg:
- Have you put your house up for sale yet? Dave: - Oh, yes. And l've had several offers. The estate agent is urging me to accept the last one. Reg: Dave: - ve noticed that. Mine actually wanted me to accept the initial offer, and that was really low.

...

,'

------------------- .... '


STRATEJi

'

A. Diyalogda boluktan sonra "l've noticed that"

: ,' ,'

ifadesinin yer almas, bolua soru yerine yorum cmlesi getirilmesini gerektirir.
Ayrca

"they= the estate

A) That's typical. They like to get the sale over as soon as ' agent" elemesi konu possible. - ~ btnl salamaktadr. B) Why is that? ', ,/ C) And why is that? Are they really offering a very good price? ... - - - -- - - -- -- - - - -- --" D) lt' s not a buyer's market at the moment. E) Don 't let him push you into a sale.

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

353

YDS iFRELERi
22. Matthew: - l've been locking at this map of the world' s oil. George: - Yes. 1 took a look at that, too. What surprised you most? Matthew: George: - Yes. 1hadn't realized that either. A) 1don 't thin k anything did. B) 1 don 't know. But production costs for North Sea Oil are going up. C) The newly discovered oil reserves in West Africa could have proved useful. D) Nothing really. E) THE FACT THAT central and South America come second, after the Middle East. for oil reserves
;

'

STRATEJi

'\

E. Diyalogdaki sorunun cevab ancak bir isim ya da noun ciause olabilir. Noun : ciause kullanm E. , kknda yer almaktadr.
/

/ / / / / / /;
;

,"

,"

,"

J"

23. Sam: - Don't forget, "clean coal" means different things to different people. Charles: - 1 know it does. But at least people are beginning to realize that coal can be cleaned and, indeed, should be. Sam: Charles: - lt used to be. But there are now new systems that are far more effcient and far less expensive.

,----------------~,

'

STRATEJi
C. Diyalogdaki boluktan sonar gelen "it used to be" ifadesi kullanlm olmas, bolua gelecek cmlede "lt" zamiri ile nitelenebilecek bir zne ve "be" fiili kullanm gerektirir. C. kk hem bu yapy hem de "expensive" ortak kelimesini iererek konu
btnln salar.

'

A) What's the big problem , sulphur dioxide? B) Clean coal technologies fall into three categories . C) But isn't the cleaning of coal an extremely expensive,- ..! process? 1 D) Coal that has been "aged" gives out more heat and fewer \ gases. \ E) ls it really possible to "clean" coal? 1
1 1

E.

kknda

ise "lt + be"

yaps

yer

almasna ramen

konu

btnln

salayacak

bir

kullanm

,' '
/
/

\ yoktur.

''

'-----------------~

354

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

YDS READING TEST TEKNiKLERi


24. Sue: - ls your computer reasonably modern1. Wendy: Su e: - Then it's terribly out of date! With computers there are new things happening all the time. Wendy: - That may be. But l'm comfortable with mine and have no intention of changing it.

;------------------,,
/ STRATEJi
D. Diyalogdaki soruya cevap ieren seenekler A. C. D. ve E. klardr. Ancak E. kk, "terribly out of date = six years" elemesine yer
verdiinden doru cevaptr.

A) suppose so. l've never really thought about it. ', 8) Are you trying to seli me a new one? .,'~ .C) Probaby not. r s a bit sow, though, and that can be .- .. annoyng . .. .... D) Oh. yes. ve had it about six years , that's all. ,/.. E) don't know. But it's been giving me a lot of trouble Iate!

------------ ., "

;;:---

'YDS iFRESi TEKNiKLERi'

355

YDS iFRELERi

READING PASSAGE TESTS


TESTI
1. 5.
sorular aadaki

3.

paraya

gre

lt is clearly pointed out in the passage that the United States' decision in 1971 to give up the postwar gold standard ----.

cevaplayn z.

A key feature of globalization has been the transformatian of the world economy, highlighted by the rapid integration of markets since 1970. In a series of historic changes, the international agreements that had regulated the movement of people, goods, and money since World War ll were overturned. To begin with, the postwar economic arrangements sealed by various treaties steadily eroded in the Iate 1960s, as Western industrial nations faced a double burden of inflation and economic stagnation. A crucial shift in monetary policy occurred in 1971, when the United States abandoned the postwar gold standard and allowed the dollar to range freely. As a result, formal regulations on currencies, international banking, and lending among states faded away. They were replaced with an informal network of arrangements managed autonomously by large private lenders, their political friends in leading Western states, and independent financial agencies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. The economists and administrators who dominated these new networks steered away from the interventionist policies that had shaped postwar planning and recovery. lnstead, they relied ona broad of market-driven models termed range "neoliberalism."
1. lt is indicated in the passage that the economic performance in the postwar period

A) greatly undermined the process of globalization in the following decades and has since led the world economy into a serious erisis B) has been the primary cause of the chronic inflation and economic stagnation faced by the rest of the world C) was essentially inspired by new economic models based on free-market policies and neoliberal practices D) was extremely important, since it overturned international currency and banking regulations E) was the natural outcome of the wide range of economic arrangements made in the postwar period in the West

4.

As can be understood from the passage, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank----

----.

A) totally eliminated the economic stagnation experienced by Western industrial nations B) primarily depended on policies formulated by the International Monetary Fund C) was mainly based on policies that allowed state intervention D) was so good that leading industrial states remained indifferent to neoliberalism E) had a positive impact on the development of international banking
5. 2. As clearly stressed in the passage, the world economy ----.

A) have always been regarded with suspicion by industrialized Western nations B) develop policies that give priority to state intervention in the management of the economy C) have always introduced new formal regulations for currencies and international banking D) recruit only those economists who strongly support interventionist economic policies E) are fnancial bodies that are free from any intervention by an outside authority

lt is suggested neoliberalism ----.

in

the

passage

that

A) A) underwent a process of radical change after 1970, with markets quickly integraling B) has never recovered from the adverse effects of inflation since World W ar ll C) is now fully managed only by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank D) was affected by globalization for only a relatively short period after 1970 E) is constantly manipulated by the United States and other leading Western countries B) C) D) E)

the economic policies that have been practised by the West si nce World W ar ll isa term that reters to widely different models of the market economy has always been disregarded by World Bank economists and administrators is primarily concerned with the free movement of people and goods in the world has been more dominant in the United States than in any of the other industrial nations

s i gnifes

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6.
10.
sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

8.

cevaplaynz.

As can be seen from the passage, the war between Iran and Iraq ----. A) lasted under a decade and caused a great deal of bloodshed B) was actually a war of attrition, with no victory for either side C) greatly undermined the prosperity of the Iranian people D) made it necessary for the Iranian regime to use all its oil revenues for weapons E) was fought on both sides with weapons provided by the Soviets

During the latter part of 1980, Iraq invaded Iran and hoped to seize its southern oil felds . Iran counterattacked . The result was a murderous eightyear contict marked by the use of chemical weapons and human waves of young Iranian radicals fghting the Soviet-armed lraqis. The war ended with lran's defeat, but not the collapse of its theocratic regime. In the short term , their long defence of Iranian nationalism left the mullahs more entrenched at home, while abroad they used their oil revenues to back grass-roots radicalism in Lebanon and militants elsewhere who engaged in anti-Western terrorism . Over the years, the strongest threats to the Iranian regime ultimately have come from within, from a new generatian of young students and workers who have discovered that their prospects for prosperity and democratic rights have not changed much since the days of the shah.

9.

lt is stressed in the passage that, with the Money earned from oil exports, Iran ----. A) a series of projects to strengthen nationalism among young radicals made huge investments to upgrade the capacity of its southern oil felds re-armed its army and, thus , was able to resist the Iraq i invasion carried out economic retorms to improve the living standards of its people sponsored radical political movements in other Countries
fnanced

6.

According to the passage, the Iranian regime B) A) has always been aware of the need to grant to the people their democratic rights B) was adversely affected by the war with Iraq and lost much of its power C) has introduced radical economic policies to increase its oil revenues D) has failed to gain the unanimous support of the people in the country E) wholly relies on young radicals in the country, who are inspired by nationalism C) D) E)

7.

lt is clear from the passage that lraq's invasion of Iran ----. A) led to a war, which , in the end, settled the issue of the southern oil field s B) was sheer aggression, motivated by an economic purpose C) signifcantly weakened the authority of the Iranian mullahs D) was strongly opposed by the Soviet government of the time E) provoked Iranian students and workers into antiregime demonstrations

10. According to the passage, some segments of Iranian society have ultimately become aware of the fact that ----. A) the Iran-Iraq war resulted from the Iranian regime's failure to cooperate with Iraq B) the Iranian government is wasting the country's oil revenues on unfeasible projects C) the new Iranian regime has not met their economic and political expectations D) the future of the regime in the country fundamentally depends on young radicals E) the power of the mullahs in the country is not so strong as has generally been assumed

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11. 15.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplaynz.

12. lt is clear from the passage that the European discovery and conquest of the Canary lslands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ---.

Until the Iate thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world . Starting araund 1270, however, ltalian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential frst step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic isiand chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary lslands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary lslands did not begin until the ffteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain . The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded . They were also the "jumping-off point" from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia .

A) actually had no commercial and maritime s i gnifcance , but became the major cause of rivalry between Portugal and Spain B) strategically paved the way for further explorations along coastal West Africa and across the Atlantic Ocean C) could have been prevented if the natives had been politically united to resist canversion and colonization D) caused so much excitement across Europe that especially ltalian merchants were keen to use the islands as their commercial base E) had an adverse impact on the Netherlands' maritime trade with England and other countries in northern Europe

13. lt is asserted in the passage that, in the Iate thirteenth century, ----.

A) ltalian merchants were first able to carry their Mediterranean trade into England and the Netherlands B) the Strait of Gibraltar gained so much strategic importance that it became a territorial issue between Spain and Portugal C) the Europeans soon realized that there was a great deal of proft to be made by slave trade across the Atlantic D) both England and the Netherlands emerged as the only major calanizing powers in the North Atlantic E) the ltalians absolutely dominated the trade in the Mediterranean and strongly opposed other nations' attempts to beneft from it
11. As suggested in the passage, in medieval Europe before 1270, ----.

A) Spanish and Portuguese sailors had attempted to explore the west coast of Africa and enslave the natives B) only ltalian merchants had had the monopoly to import wool from England and the Netherlands C) some daring attempts had been made to conquer and colonize the Canaries and the Az o res D) there had been two major zones for maritime trade: the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic E) there had been continual efforts especially by the Portuguese to convert West African natives to Christianity

14. As stated in the passage, the Canary lslands

A) were more densely populated than the Azores, which played no part in transatlantic trade B) had already been Christianized before they were discovered and colonized C) were not so important as the Azares in the increase of trade along the West African coast D) did not interest Christopher Columbus at all in his voyages across the Atlantic E) were subjected to colonization soon after they were discovered by the Genoese

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15. As can be inferred from Christopher Columbus ----. the passage, 17. lt is suggested in the passage that, in their view of slavery, the Romans ----. A) attached a great deal of importance to the military value of slaves B) had largely been inspired by the Greeks and some eastern peoples C) were not so sophisticated as the other peoples of the ancient world D) began to follow a different policy only after they had enslaved the Carthaginians E) d id not differ much from other ancient peoples

A) hoped that his westward voyage across the Atlantic would ultimately take him to Asia B) learned much from Genoese sailors about the locations of the Canaries and the Azores C) had taken part earlier in Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa D) paid little attention to the strategic and economic importance of the Canary lslands E) always dreamed of completely controlling all the maritime commerce with Asia

18. lt is implied in the passage that the early Romans----. 16. 20.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplaynz.

Like nearly all the peoples of the ancient world, the Romans took slavery for granted. Nothing in Rome's earlier experience had prepared it, however, for the huge increase in slave numbers that resulted from its western and eastern conquests . In 146 B.C., ffty-fve thousand Carthaginians were enslaved after the destruction of their city; not long before, one hundred and fifty thousand Greek prisoners of war had met the same fate. By the end of the second century B.C. , there were a million slaves in ltaly alone, making Roman ltaly one of the most slave-based economies known to history. The majority of these slaves worked as agricultural labourers on the vast estates of the Roman aristocracy. Some of these estates were the result of earlier Roman conquests within ltaly itself. But others were constructed by aristocrats buying up the land holdings of thousands of smail farmers who found themselves unable to compete with the great estate-owners in producing grain for the market.

A) had no notion of slavery and knew nothing about it B) were not interested in farming and , therefore, imported their grain C) were so opposed to aristocrats that they protected smail farmers against them D) had one political goal: to conquer all the other peoples east and west E) had always been on friendly terms with all the peoples of the ancient world

19. lt is clear from the passage that, when the Romans began to extend their conquests, ----. A) they were seriously resisted by the Greeks, who had no fear of the m B) their immediate aim was to conquer and enslave the Carthaginians C) it led to an enormous increase in the number of slaves D) they depended heavily on slaves for their military campaigns E) it greatly pleased the Roman aristocracy, si nce they were able to own new estates

16. lt is pointed out in the passage that, in ancient Rome, ----. A) aristocrats always had the right to determine grain prices for the market B) most aristocrats preferred smail farmers to slaves as labourers on their farms C) the production of grain was solely the responsibility of large numbers of smail fa rm ers D) it was aristocrats that owned huge amounts of farming lands E) aristocrats were so hostile to smail farmers that they drove the m off the ir la nd s 20. As emphasized in the passage, slaves in ancient Rome ----. A) were totally of Greek and Carthaginian origin B) made up the backbone of the Roman economy C) formed what the author calls "smail farmers" D) were so great in number that aristocrats were uneasy about them E) knew fa rm ing so well that they produced grain in huge amounts

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21. 25.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

23. lt is claimed in the passage that Byzantine architecture ----.


A) was stili in its early stage during the reign of Emperor Justinian

The fnest example of Byzantine architecture is the church of Saint Sophia (Holy Wisdom) in Istanbul, constructed by the emperor Justinian in the sixth century. Evidently, its structura design was something altogether new in the history of architecture. The central feature of the design was the application of the dome principle to a building of square shape. The church was designed in the form of a cross, with a magnifcent dome over its central square. The main problem for the architects was how to ft the circumference of the dome to the square area it was supposed to cover. The solution was to have tour great arehes spring from pillars at the tour comers of the square. The rim of the dome was then made to rest on the keystones of the arches, with the curved triangular spaces between the arehes flled with masonry. The result was an architectural framework of marvellous strength, which at the same time made possible a style of imposing grandeur and delicacy. The dome itself has a diametre of 107 feet and rises to a height of nearly 180 feet from the floor. So many windows are placed areund its rim that the dome appears to have no support at all but to be suspended in midair.

B) began to improve and further develop after


the construction of Saint Sophia C) was greatly influenced by the architecture that preceded the sixth century D) is best represented and exemplifed by the church of Saint Sophia E) always made use of masonry in the construction of buildings with grandeur

24. As suggested in the passage, the perfect combination of the dome and the arehes in Saint Sophia ----.
A) seemed to the architects to be precarious s ince the do me, with a diametre of 107 feet, was of an immense size and weight B) was sornewhat spoiled by the curved triangular spaces that could be seen between the arehes C) gave it not only amazing strength but also impressive magnifcence and gracefulness D) enabled the architects to design and construct the whole structure in the form of a cross E) gave the architects themselves the impression that the dome was suspended in midair, with no support whatsoever

21. As emphasized in the passage, the design of the church of Saint Sophia in istanbul ensured that ----.
A) it would serve as a model for the design of new churches in the future B) Emperor Justinian was greatly pleased by its structure and grandeur C) the rim of the dome had to have many Windows to let sunlight in D) the weight of the dome had to be reduced by tour great pillars E) architecturally its structure was unique and antirely unprecedented

22. According to the passage, the harmony of the dome and the square base on which the dome rested ----.
A) had been a commen feature of Byzantine architecture before Saint Sophia B) was made possible by the use of four great arehes C) was never regarded as a crucial issue in the construction of Saint Sophia D) was not adequately taken into consideration during the design of Saint Sophia E) has always been a major problem throughout the history of architecture

25. lt is clear that the passage ----.


A) is a concise description of Saint Sophia's architectural features and overall exeellence B) mainly focuses on the distinctive aspects of Byzantine architecture in the sixth century C) gives a detailed account of Emperor Justinian's support for the construction of Saint Sophia D) discusses how Byzantine architects came to use the dome as a major structural element E) explains the reasons why Saint Sophia was designed in the form of a cross

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TEST ll
1. 5.
sorular aadaki

3. paraya gre

One understands from the passage that the Tudor dynasty in England ----. A) was best represented by Henry VIII, who followed a policy of friendship with other countries B) introduced a number of military retorms in order to build the strongest army in Europe C) focused its main attention on the improvement of agriculture in the country D) was represented by powerful sovereigns, who played a leading role in European politics E) came to power in the Iate ffteenth century and ruled the country over a centur

cevaplayn z.

The 16 th century in England is generally known as the Tudor period, which historically lasted from 1485 to 1603. Among the famous Tudor sovereigns were Henry VII, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth . In fact, the early years of the Tudor period were marked by signifcant changes in trade and in the arts of war. Henry VII made commercial treaties with European countries. Economically, England, which had always been a sheep-raising country, was by now manufacturing and exporting signifcant amounts of cloth. As lands were enclosed to permit grazing on a larger scale, people were driven off the land to the cities, and London grew into a metropolitan market with sophisticated commercial institutions. These changes had an impact on the traditional feudal social order, which also began to decline; also, due to the introduction of cannons and frearms , the feudal system of warfare became obsolete. Yet, it would be a mistake to imagine these changes as sudden and dramatic. In fact, it was a slow and long process whereby England was transformed into a modern sta te. 1. According to the passage, it was during the Tudor period that ----. A) England's overseas trade was adversely affected by ongoing wars in Europe B) feudalism in England was further strengthened C) England's exports to European countries were signifcantly in decline D) sheep-raising was introduced into England, which had large areas of grazing E) London was transformed into a major trade cent re 2. lt is pointed out in the passage that the changes that took place in Tudor England ----. A) were fundamentally inspired by the social and economic developments already being witnessed in Europe B) had far-reaching effects on social and economic life C) were mainly confned to social life and improved the efficiency of the feudal social ord er D) initially resulted from a revision of the traditional arts of war that had depended on the use of cannons and frearms E) greatly reduced all the political and legal powers that English sovereigns had traditionally enjoyed and used

4.

lt is clear from the passage that, due to developments in cloth-making in Tudor England, ----. A) most farming lands were turned into grazing felds for the sheep B) English merchants began to look for new markets in order to export more goods C) rural people gave up farming and migrated to London in search of employment D) the economic prosperity of the people increased enormously E) many cities, including London, competed with each other for economic prosperity

5.

On the basis of the passage, one can state that, during the Tudor period, England ----. A) earned large amounts of revenue from its Exports B) took little interest in the affairs of continental Europe C) experienced a long process of social and economic transformatian D) emerged as a major sheep-raising country in Euro pe E) remained totally indifferent to the economic and political changes in Europe

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6. 10.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

8.

cevaplayn z.

One understands from the passage that, before the mid-nineteenth century, ----. A) steel production had been costly and did not amount to much quantity B) the "second" industrial revolution had spread all over Europe C) Germany and Britain had been in ferce competition in developing shipbuilding technologies D) Germany and the US collaborated against Britain for research in chemistry E) the manufacturing industry in Europe had benefted a great deal from new Technologies

In the last third of the 19th century, new Technologies transformed the face of manufacturing in Europe, leading to new levels of economic growth and complex realignments among industry, labour and national governments. Like Europe's frst industrial revolution , which began in the Iate 18th century and centred on coal , steam and iron, this "second" industrial revolution relied on innovation in three key areas: steel , electricity, and chemicals. For instance, steel , which was harder, stronger and more malleable than iron , had long been used as a construction material. But until the mid-nineteenth century, producing steel cheaply and in large quantities was impossible. That changed between the 1850s and 1870s, as new and different processes for refining and mass-producing alloy steel revolutionized the metallurgical industry. Although iron did not disappear overnight, it was soon edipsed by soaring steel production . So, steel began to be used for various purposes. In Britain , for example, shipbuilders made a quick and profitable switch to steel construction , and thus kept their lead in the industry. Germany and the US, however, dominated the rest of the steel industry. By 1901 , Germany was producing al most half as much steel as Britain and was able to build a massive national and industrial infrastructure. 6. lt is stated in the passage that, in the Iate nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ----. A) the steel industry in Europe surpassed all the other industries, including those of electricity and chemicals B) governments in Britain and Germany took severe measures to prevent radical labour movements C) the US produced so much steel that it began to manipulate the world steel market D) Britain's use of steel in the shipbuilding industry strengthened its dominant position in this sector E) the use of iron and steel as construction materials was wholly confned to shipbuilding 7. According to the passage, the first industrial revolution ----. A) caused so much labour unrest in Europe that the steel industry did not develop adequately B) came into being during the later decades of the eighteenth century C) originally began in Britain and, then, spread to Germany and other European countries D) led to the manufacture of a wide variety of goods, ranging from construction materials to chemicals E) did not last long , since it did not lead to the development of new Technologies

9.

According to the passage, in the second half of the nineteenth century, the metallurgical industry underwent a radical transformatian --

--.

A) although some countries , like Germany and the US, were stili using obsolete methods of production B) due to Germany's lead in the development of new steel production technologies C) because Britain 's shipbuilders had discovered new ways to build bigger but less expensive ships D) when alloy steel began to be refned and massproduced through the introduction of innovative processes E) owing to new discoveries and technological prograss in the felds of electricity and chemistry

10. lt is suggested in the passage that, in the nineteenth century, innovative developments
in the areas of steel, electricity, and chemicals

A) led to a lasting rivalry in shipping between Germany and Britain B) turned Germany into the strongest and most prosperous country in Europe C) brought about the "second" industrial revolution D) greatly contributed to the improvement of Britain's infrastructure E) became the main concern of national governments in Europe

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11. 12.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplaynz.

12. lt is pointed out in the passage that not every politician in Britain ----. A) supported the British government's decision to tax the American colonists against their will B) believed that the French would dare to invade the American colonies C) agreed that "the Boston Tea Party'' jeopardized trade with the colonies D) was convinced that the British forces in America were strong enough to defeat the colonists E) was of the opinion that the American colonists would ever dream of independence

In 1764, there was a serious quarrel over taxation between the British government and its colonies in America. The British government continued to think of the colonists as British subjects. In 1700, there had been only 200.000 colonists, but by 1770 this number rose to 2. 5 million. Obviously, such large numbers needed to be dealt with carefully. Some American colonists decided that it was not lawful for the British government to tax them without their agreement. Political opinion in Britain was divided. Some felt that the tax was fair because the money would be used to pay for the defence of the American colonies against French attack. But several important politicians agreed with the colonists that there should be "no taxation without representation". Hence, in 1773, at the port of Boston, a group of colonists threw a shipload of tea into the sea rather than pay tax on it. The event became known as "the Boston Tea Party''. The British government responded by closing the port. But the colonists then decided to prevent British goods from entering America until the port was opened again. The colonists' action was regarded as a rebellion, and the British government decided to defeat it by force . Thus, the American War of lndependence got underway. The war lasted from 1775 until 1783. The British government had no respect for the colonists' fighting ability. The result was a disastrous defeat for the British forces . At the end of the war, Britain lost all the American colonies except Canada.

13. lt is stated in the passage that, within a period of almost three quarters of a century, ----. A) Britain and France got into a fierce competition in order to colonize a very large part of America B) Britain lost the war against the American colonies and had to grant their independence C) Canada grew demographically well ahead of the other American colonies D) Britain's trade with the American colonies reached a level well above all expectations E) the population of the American colonies increased to more than ten times the original Number

11. lt is clear from the passage that, since the American colonists were not represented in the British Parliament, ----. A) some politicians argued that Boston should be exempted from all kinds of taxation B) they refused to pay the tax required of them by the British government C) it was much easier for them to start a war of independence against Britain D) they did not have a standing army and, therefore, were unable to defeat the British forces E) they were not subject to the laws of Britain and felt free to take action against Britain

14. One understands from the passage that, because of the tax crisis, ----. A) the American colonists imposed sanctions on British goods B) the port of Boston was closed for over half a century C) Britain took urgent precautions in order to increase its military capacity in America D) the import of tea into the American colonies came under the British monopoly E) France expressed its willingness to aid the American colonies against Britain

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15. lt is stressed in the passage that, for the British government, ----. A) the port of Boston was of vital political importance for relations with the American colonies B) the political representation of the American colonies was fully dependent on their payment of taxes C) France's political aims in America had to be countered by the colonies themselves D) the people living in the American colonies were always considered to be British subjects E) a defence agreement with the American colonies had to be reached urgently against France 17. lt is pointed out in the passage that, although in its lower course the Mississippi looks quiet and harmless, ----. A) most people believe that it may one day overflow its banks B) the people living along it are not aware of this C) actually it has caused much devastation D) pepple have always been indifferent to the threats it poses E) in its upper course it is extremely violent and destructive

16.

20.

sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

18. In the passage, attention is drawn to the fact that the Mississippi's waters can best be controlled ----. A) if environmental measures are taken around its northern sources B) so long as its northern sources are definitely
identifed

The Mississippi is one of the world's great continental rivers, like the Amazon in South America, the Congo in Africa, or the Volga in Europe. lts waters are gathered from two-thirds of the US and, together with the Missouri, which is its chief western branch; the Mississippi flows some 6.400 kilometres from its northern sources in the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, which makes it one of the world's longest waterways. The Mississippi has been called the "father of waters". Through all its lower course , it wanders along, appearing lazy and harmless. But people who know the river are not deceived by its benign appearance, for they have had many bitter struggles with its floods. They have had to learn that nothing is to be gained by fighting against the rages of the mighty stream. To control it, Americans have had to accept some of the river's own terms and to undertake the patient work of conserving and rebuilding soil, grasslands and forests, far back where the waters begin to gather.

C) provided that Americans know how to struggle with them D) only if the people living along its course are evacuated E) in the same way that the world 's other big rivers have been controlled

19. One understands from the passage that the Mississippi ----. A) has far more branches for the gathering of its waters than the Congo in Africa and the Volga in Europe B) differs from the Amazon in South America and the other continental rivers in the world largely because its waters are much shallower C) is far more navigable than the other continental rivers in the world and, therefore, becomes a commercially proftable waterway in the US D) flows so fast throughout its course that, despite the long distance, it does not take long for its waters to get to the Gulf of Mexico E) cuts across the US from the Rocky Mountains in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the South

16. lt is clear from the passage that the sources of the Mississippi's waters ---. A) are so limited that the river seldom causes flooding along its banks B) are not as manyas those of other continental rivers in the world C) need to be conserved to protect the river from environmental pollution D) are spread over a great part of the US E) cannot be ascertained, since the Rocky Mountains have not been explored fully

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20. lt is suggested in the passage that the American people ----. A) have in the end learned how to get along with the Mississippi B) always boast of having the world's longest river in their country C) have a very strong sense of the environment and, therefore, conserve their forests D) think that, without the Missouri, the Mississippi would have been just a mere stream E) regard the Mississippi as "the father of waters" because it is fully navigable 22. According to the passage, the discovery of Earthlike settings in other parts of the universe ----. A) is defnitely out of question, since the universe is extremely vast B) would no longer make the Earth seem like the only planet with life on it C) seems possible, but it would be very costly and dangerous to attempt it D) has been an obsession for scientists ever since the time of Copernicus E) was what Galileo was primarily interestad in the early seventeenth century

23. lt is pointed out in the passage that, in recent years, ----. 21. 25.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

The Copemican revolution began over 500 years ago with the realization that the Earth was not the centre of the universe, but we stili await its grand fnale : the anticipated discovery of life elsewhere. Where else might we find life? The vast scale of the universe makes it virtually certain that there are other Earthlike settings. In our own solar system, Mars's distance from the Sun makes it sufficiently Earth-like; so, especially with increasing evidence for occasional liquid water, many are looking there for the frst signs of extraterrestrial life. Recently, however, a new cantender has emerged, and surprisingly it is from the cold outer solar system: it is Jupiter's moon Europa. As one of the tour satellites of Jupiter, discovered by Galileo in 1610, Europa is now believed to have water in a liquid state, even though it is so far from the Sun. Thus , the possibility of liquid water on Europa has opened the door to speculation about life on this satellite of Jupiter.

A) some scientists have come to regard Copernicus's contribution to astronomy as negligible B) scientists have come to understand the reasons for Galileo's discovery of Europa C) astronomers have focused on an in-depth study of the outer solar system D) there has been much controversy about the geological features of Mars E) it has been suggested that Jupiter's moon Europa may have liquid water on it

24. lt is stated in the passage that currently Mars

--.

A) has been established as the only planet with a vast amount of water under its surface B) is being fully explored because, as a planet, it is so close to the Earth C) has been partially studied , and so it stil maintains its mystery as a planet D) has been the main focus of the scientific search for extraterrestrial life E) and Europa provide a great deal of evidence for a better understanding of the sol ar system

21. One clearly understands from the passage that, until Copernicus in the sixteenth century

25. According to the passage, it is hoped that ---. A) the amount of liquid water on Mars will be sufficient for life on the planet B) in the future only Europa will become man's new home in the universe C) one day Earth-like life will be discovered outside our own planet D) living beings will be found on one of Jupiter's satellites E) the search for extraterrestrial life in the universe will never be disrupted

A) Mars had generally been regarded as the planet with life on it B) the search for life elsewhere in the solar system had been tutile C) it had been commonly believed that the centre of the universe was the Earth D) there had been many attempts to understand the outer solar system E) the planets in the solar system had all been discovered and studied

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TEST lll
1- 5.
sorular aadaki

3. paraya gre
cevaplaynz.

lt is clear from the passage that, with his view of the universe, Aristarchus ----. A) opened the way for the study of astronomy as a science B) was only repeating the traditional Greek idea C) did not differ from other Hellenistic astronomers D) had much influence on his contemporaries E) made an unprecedented breakthrough in Astronomy

The major sciences of the Hellenistic Age were astronomy, mathematics, geography, medicine, and physics. The most renowned of the early Hellenistic astronomers was Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 B.C.), sametimes called the "Hellenistic Copernicus. " His primary accomplishment was his deduction that the Earth and the other planets revolve araund the Sun . This view was not accepted by his successors because it conflicted with the teachings of Aristotle and also with the Greek conviction that humanity, and therefore the Earth, must be at the centre of the universe. Later, in the second century A.D. , Aristarchus's fame was overshadowed by that of Ptolemy of Alexandria. Although Ptolemy made few original discoveries, he systematized the works of others. His principal writing, The Almagest, based on the view that all heavenly bodies revolve araund the Earth, was handed down to medieval Europe as the dassic summary of ancient astronomy.

4.

lt is pointed out in the passage that the Greeks ---. A) regarded the Earth as the centre of the universe B) were extremely influenced by Aristarchus's ideas C) were not fully familiar with the teachings of Aristotle D) completely ruled out whatever Ptolemy said about the universe E) knew how the planets revolved araund the Sun

1.

According to the passage, it was Ptolemy of Alexandria who ----. A) adequately summarized in his Almagest Aristarchus's ideas on astronomy B) was greatly inspired by Aristarchus's heliocentric view of the universe C) fundamentally shaped the European understanding of astronomy for the Middle Age s D) frst studied and explained in The Almagest the movements of all the planets E) contributed extensively to the development of astronomy as a science

2.

One gathers from the passage that, in the Hellenistic Age, ----. A) Aristotle's writings and the works of other philosophers were edited and published B) astronomy was the science which received the most attention C) all astronomers held the same views about the Sun and the planets D) astronomy was just one of several sciences to be studied seriously E) it was commonly accepted that Aristarchus's ideas had mainly derived from Aristotle

5.

One understands from the passage that Aristarchus's reputation as an astronomer

A) can be attributed to Copernicus's study of his work B) never lost its significance in the Middle Ages C) began to grow only after the second century A.D. D) became widespread through Ptolemy's famous work The Almagest E) has been acknowledged as correct by modern astronomers

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6. 10.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

7.

cevaplayn z.

lt is stressed in the passage that the Berlin Wall ----.


A) had been built by the East German government in order to prevent any access to West Berlin B) not only divided East and West, but also, more importantly, symbolized the Cold War and the lron Curtain of C) signified both the powerlessness Honecker's government and the failure of his economic policies D) would have been demolished even if East Germany had retained communism E) gave rise to a great many ideological controversies between East and West Germany

The most significant political change in eastern Europe during the Iate 1980s was the collapse of communism in East Germany and the unification of East and West Germany. Although long considered the most prosperous of the Soviet satellite countries, East Germany suffered from severe economic stagnation and environmental degradation . Waves of East Germans registered their discontent with worsening conditions by massive illegal emigration to the West. This exodus together with evidence of widespread official corruption led to the resignation of East Germany's long-time, hard-line premier, Erich Honecker. His successor, Egon Krenz, promised reforms, but he was nevertheless faced with continuing protests and continuing mass emigration . In the end , on 4 November 1989, the government, in a move that acknowledged its powerlessness to hold its citizens captive, opened its border with Czechoslovakia. This move effectively freed East Germans to travel to the West. In a matter of days, the Berlin Wall, wh ich had been the embodiment of the Cold War, the lron Curtain, and the division of East from West, was demolished by groups of ordinary citizens. Jubilant crowds from both sides walked through the gaping holes that now permitted men, women, and children to take the few steps that symbolized the return to freedom and a chance for national unity.

8.

According to the passage, with the collapse of the Berlin Wall, ----.
A) the Soviet satellite countries were exposed to Western ideas B) East and West Germany signed a treaty of reunification C) the economic prosperity of East Germany continued to increase D) the East Germans took up their fight against political corruption E) the East German people were, as it were, finally freed from captivity

6.

As pointed out in the passage, in the Iate 1980s, -- .


A) Haneeker and Krenz were fully committed to the ultimate unification of East and West Germany B) East Germany began to enjoy so much prosperity that the other Soviet satellite states became envious of its economic success C) the East German government, already corrupt and disliked by the people, was no longer able to prevent mass emigration to the West D) Haneeker introduced extremely austere economic measures in order to improve worsening conditions and get rid of corruption E) East Germany adopted a policy of cooperation with West Germany so that the effects of the Cold W ar could be eliminated

9.

-- -.

lt is stated in the passage that East Germany

A) made various attempts to fight corruption in the government, but failed B) had continually tried to be re-unified with West Germany before the fall of the Berlin W all C) had never regarded communism as an acceptable regime until the 1980s D) faced extremely severe economic and environmental problems in the 1980s E) had a considerable economic and political influence on other east European countries

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10. lt is made clear in the passage that Honecker's resignation from the government 12. As pointed out in the passage, the new states in eastern Europe, created in accordance with the Versailles treaty, ----. A) became the source of many problems in Europe and caused much disillusionment B) were protected by the Allied powers against a possible German invasion C) formed an alliance in order to resist Germany's territorial demands D) maintained their independence until the start of World War ll E) did their best to be on good terms with Germany and so pursued a pro-German policy

---.

A) led to a serious political erisis in the country, which was fnally resolved by the intervention of his successor Egon Krenz B) was inevitable because he had failed to carry out the retorms urgently needed to improve the economy and the environment C) was required by his successor Egon Krenz, who was far more popular with the people and took the necessary precautions to stop illegal emigration D) was demanded because, without having consulted his colleagues, he had opened East Germany's border with Czechoslovakia E) took place as a result of widespread offcial corruption and the massive illegal emigration to the West of the people of East German 11. 15.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre 13. According to the passage, in the face of the Allied naval blockade, ----. A) Germany openly refused to reach any political compromise with the Allied powers B) the German government gave up its demands for the annexation of the east European countries C) the newly-created east European countries soon began to disregard each other's boundaries D) the German people strongly opposed Woodrow Wilson's principle of selfdetermination E) Germany had no other choice but to agree to the severe conditions dictated by the Allies

cevaplaynz.

The causes of World W ar ll were rooted in the peace settlement at Versailles in 1919-1920. The peace had created as many problems as it had solved. The senior Allied heads of state yielded to demands that involved annexing German territory and creating new states out of the eastern European empires. In doing so , the peacemakers created fresh bitterness and conflict. The Versailles treaty and its champions , such as US President Woodrow Wilson , proclaimed the principle of self-determination for the peoples of eastern and southern Europe. Yet the new states created by the treaty crossed ethnic boundaries, involved political compromises , and frustrated many of the expectations they had raised . The unsteady new boundaries would be redrawn by force in the 1930s. The Allied powers also kept up the naval blackade against Germany after the e nd of World W ar . This forced the new German government to accept harsh terms that deprived Germany of its political power in Europe. The blackade and its consequences created grievances that made the German people feel angry and completely humiliated . 11. lt is argued in the passage that the Versailles treaty, signed after World War 1, ----. A) went into effect soon after the Allied naval blackade against Germany had been lifted B) did not take into consideration Woodrow Wilson's principle of self-determination C) enabled Germany to regain its territories in eastern Europe and become militarily strong again D) was a total failure, since it ultimately led to WorldWar ll E) was accepted with great jubilation by the German government and people

14. lt is clear from the passage that, contrary to Allied expectations, ----. A) the Germans were able to overcome the grievances caused by the naval blockade B) the peace deal made at Versailles brought about new hostilities and conflicts C) Germany's political power in Europe became further strengthened by the Versailles treaty D) President Wilson was worried about the political future of the new states in eastern Europe E) Germany and the new east European states soon realized they had much in common and established good relationships

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15. Clearly, the passage ----. A) is a comprehensive assessment of the impact that the Allied naval blockade of Germany had on the Versailles treaty 16. As one understands from the passage, the term "the lndustrial Revolution" ----. A) was only used during the frst half of the nineteenth century and has since been

B) is a detailed account of how Germany


prepared itself economically and politically for WorldWar ll C) focuses directly on the problems that faced the new east European states created after WorldWar D) is a detailed study of the European importance and consequences of Woodrow Wilson's principle of self-determination E) summarizes the developments in Europe in the aftermath of the Versailles treaty B) C)

replaced by new terms, such as "the fossil


fuel age" was invented after the lndustrial Revolution was completed always signified the process of urbanization in Europe, which was closely linked with the migratian of rural people to major cities was frst invented by a group of European social thinkers who recognized that huge changes were occurring in the economic world essentially referred to the use of steam power in industry, but has today lost its original meaning completely

D)

E)

16.

20.

sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplaynz.

The French Revolution transformed the political and diplematic landscape of Europe suddenly and dramatically. The transformatian of industry came more gradually. By the 1830s or 1840s, however, writers and social thinkers in Europe were increasingly aware of unexpected and extraord inary changes in their economic world. They began to speak of an "industrial revolution ," one that seemed to parallel the revolution in politics. The term has stayed with us. The lndustrial Revolution spanned the hundred years after 1780. lt represented the frst breakthrough from an agricultural and overwhelmingly rural economy to one characterized by large-scale manufacturing, more capital-intensive enterprises, and urbanization. lt involved new sources of energy and power, faster transportation , mechanization , higher productivity, and new ways of organizing human labour. lt triggered social changes with revolutionary consequences for the West and its relationship with the world. Of all these changes, perhaps the most important one was to be seen in energy. Over the space of two or three generations, a society and an economy that had traditionally drawn on water, wind, and wood for most of its energy needs came to depend on steam engines and coal. In other words , the lndustrial Revolution brought the beginnings of "the fossil fuel age."

17. As pointed out in the passage, compared with lndustrial the French Revolution, the Revolution -- A) was so sudden and unexpected that there emerged a desperate need for new sources of energy and more workers B) had no impact at all on the social changes which took place in Europe in the Iate eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries C) had so much influence on European politics in the nineteenth century that governments had to revise their development plans D) was primarily concerned with social welfare and forced many countries in Europe to introduce new benefts for workers E) was a process of industrial, economic, and social transformatian in Europe, which covered a hundred years beginning with the Iate eighteenth century

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18. One learns from the passage that, with the lndustrial Revolution, ----.
A) a great deal of improvement was made in transportation so that goods could be carried in large quantities all over the world B) the usual energy resources , such as wind, water, and wood, began to be used far more efficiently in order to meet growing energy needs C) the traditional rural economy was replaced by a capital-based economy of mass production andlabour D) economic affairs came to dominate politics and diplamatic relations in Europe so much that governments adopted policies for more cooperation with each other E) agriculture in Europe was fully modernized and , consequently, much higher productivity was achieved

21.

25.

sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

19. lt is clear from the passage that coal-fired steam power ----.
A) had not been used as a primary source of energy before the lndustrial Revolution B) was only used as a source of energy for industry in the 1830s and 1840s C) quickly lost its importance for industry after the advantages of fossil fuels became apparent D) was not regarded as a feasible source of energy during the lndustrial Revolution E) played a minimal role in the transport of goods during the lndustrial Revolution

The Renaissance originated in ltaly for several reasons. The most fundamental reason was that ltaly in the later Middle Ages was the most advanced urban society in all of Europe. Unlike aristocrats North of the Alps, ltalian aristocrats customarily lived in urban centres rather than in rural castles and consequently became fully involved in urban public affairs. Moreover, since the ltalian aristocracy built its palaces in the cities, the aristocratic class was less sharply set off from the class of rich merchants than in other European countries. Hence, whereas in France or Germany most aristocrats lived on the ineome from their lands while rich town dwellers, called bourgeois in French, gained their living from trade, in ltaly so many town-dwelling aristocrats engaged in banking or mercantile enterprises, and so many rich mercantile families imitated the manners of the aristocracy that, by the fourteenth and ffteenth centuries , the aristocracy and upper bourgeoisie were becoming virtually indistinguishable. For instance, the noted Florentine family of the Medici, which had emerged as a family of physicians (as the name suggests), made its fortune in banking and commerce, and rose into the aristocracy in the fifteenth century. Obviously, social mobility as such brought about a great demand for education in the skills of reading and counting necessary to become a successful merchant, but the richest and most prominent families sought above all to fnd teachers who would impart to their sons the knowledge and skills necessary in politics and public life.

20. As can be seen clearly, the passage ----.


A) explains how the lndustrial Revolution transformed the landscape of European politics and relations B) gives a detailed account of the ways in which the French Revolution differs from the lndustrial Revolution C) extensively outlines the role which various sources of energy equally played in the lndustrial Revolution D) mainly deals with the meaning and the economic and social consequences of the lndustrial Revolution E) discusses in depth the political and economic causes of both the French Revolution and the lndustrial Revolution

21. lt is suggested in the passage that, in the period before the Renaissance, ----.
A) the aristocrats in Europe were indifferent to the quality of education offered at schools B) the Medici of Florence had been a poor mercantile family with no skills in politics C) France and Germany had many more aristocratic families than ltaly D) European banking was completely monopolized by the rich town-dwellers of France E) no other European country had an urban society as advanced as that of ltaly

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22. According to the passage, unlike their French or German counterparts, ----. A) medieval ltalian aristocrats lived in cities and mixed with the general public B) ltalian merchants in the Renaissance period were also engaged in trade north of the Alps C) distinguished ltalian families wished their sons to become successful merchants D) the Medici were actively involved in the politics and diplamatic relations of their time E) the ltalian upper bourgeoisie were strongly opposed to social mobility 25. lt is clear from the passage that banking and trade----. A) contributed a great deal to social mobility in ltaly in the later Middle Ages B) were far more advanced in France and Germany than in ltaly during the Renaissance C) were major enterprises that medieval ltalian aristocrats chose to ignore D) frst emerged in medieval ltaly, but were more professionally practised north of the Alps E) had much impact on the development of education throughout medieval Europe

23. lt is pointed out in the passage that wealthy medieval ltalian merchant families ----. A) deliberately avoided any involvement in the political affairs of their cities B) disliked urban centres and preferred to live in their castles built in rural areas C) never took an interest in the political activities of the aristocracy D) were greatly influenced in their habits and way of life by urban aristocrats E) were far more enterprising in trade than their French and German rivals

24. According to the passage, it was in ltaly that -

--.

A) what the French called bourgeois had the monopoly on banking B) merchants and aristocrats were clearly set ap art C) banking developed much faster than trade D) most aristocrats wanted their sons to learn only the skills associated with politics E) the rise of the Renaissance frst took place

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TEST IV
1. 5.
sorular aadaki

4. paraya gre

lt is clear from the passage that, among primitive societies, it is generally believed that a man's name ----. A) should be constantly repeated

cevaplayn z.

In many primitive communities there is a taboo on mentioning a man's name except in certain special circumstances, because his name is believed to contain within it something of himself, which would be lost and wasted if his name were uttered without frst taking special precautions. This belief about words is widespread. Among the more primitive and the uneducated, it is universal. A remarkably matter-offact practical application of it occurs even in the present day in the Tibetan prayer-wheel. If, thinks the Tibetan peasant, a prayer uttered once does some good, then the same prayer uttered many times will do more good. Therefore, since he assumes that the efficacy lies in the prayer as an entity in itself, he writes it raund the rim of a wheel, and then frugally employs the water of a mountain stream to turn it all day long, instead of wastefully em playing his own lungs and lips to say it again and again. 1. In this passage, the author points out that ----. A) most societies in the world taday are stili very primitive B) in primitive societies, words are often felt to embody the idea they express C) the unsophisticated are no less intelligent than the sophisticated D) Tibetan peasants should not be regarded as primitive E) the Tibetan peasant does not really believe that the prayer-wheel can do any good 2. As we understand from the passage, an underlying belief behind the Tibetan prayerwheel is that ----. A) for a prayer to be answered, it must be repeated many times B) man can achieve nothing without the help of stronger powers C) man is powerless against the forces of evil D) human effort can achieve almost anything E) the forces of nature must never be opposed 3. The author uses the example of the Tibetan prayer-wheel to ----. A) show that all religions are fundamentally al ike B) demonstrate how unrealistic primitive peoples are C) illustrate just how powerful words are felt to be in primitive societies D) show how inventive primitive peoples are E) show how unique the natives of Tibet are

B) has a wholesome effect upon his life


C) will bring calamity to those who use it D) should only be spoken under appropriate circumstances E) is of little importance as it is so rarely used 5. We can conclude from the passage that the Tibetan peasan ----. A) is not tolerant of the religious beliefs of others B) bears no resemblance to other primitive peasants C) never calls any member of his family by name D) is not deeply religious and does not treat his religion seriously E) - though primitive - has a very practical attitude towards life 6. 1O.
sorular aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

Thomas Edison began conducting experiments during his childhood. To start with, there were hundreds of unsuccessful experiments but Edison eventually invented and patented 2,500 items, including the electric lamp and phonograph. He was determined to "give laughter and light" to people, but, until he actually managed to do so, most people ridiculed him. W ithout losing hope, Edison attempted over 1,000 unsuccessful experiments in his efforts to make an electric lamp. When people told him he was wasting his time, energy, and money for nothing, Edison exclaimed, "For nothing! Every time 1 make an experiment, 1 get new results. Failures are stepping stones to success." Determined to give people electric lamps, Edison said he'd meet his goal by early 1880. In October, 1879, he created his frst electric lamp, and in so doing, received much praise. People realized that Edison's invention was not affected by rain or wind, remaining constant through bad weather. Just as he had hoped, Edison provided people with lig ht and laughter. 6. As we understand from the passage, Edison conducted many unsuccessful experimental trials, - --. A) most of which were very expensive and got him into fnancial difficulties B) but the list of his patental inventions is a long one C) most of which were related to the phonograph D) but the people who knew him encouraged him to keep on trying E) and on many occasions he felt his experiments were pointless

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7. lt is clear from the passage that, o nce Edison had invented the electric lamp, ----.
A) he lost interest in carrying out experiments B) he admitted that at one point he had very nearly given up the project C) he wasn't at all interested in what people felt about it D) people were particularly impressed by the fact that wind and rain had no damaging effect on it E) he felt discouraged because he had failed to meet the goal he had set himself for the completion of his invention

11.

15.

sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

8.

As we understand from the passage, with the phrase, "Failures are stepping stones to success", Edison meant that ----.
A) one should forget one's failures as soon as possible B) one cannot be successful every time C) success and failure are both a matter of chance D) there are two kinds of failure : those that lead to success and those that don't E) the knowledge and experience that one gains from failure contributes to success

Questions of education are frequently discussed as if they bore no relation to the social system in which and for which the education is carried on. This is one of the most comman reasons for the unsatisfactoriness of the answers. lt is only within a particular social system that a system of education has any meaning. If education today seems to deteriorate, if it seems to become more and more chaotic and meaningless, it is primarily because we have no settled and satisfactory arrangement of society, and because we have both vague and diverse opinions about the kind of society we want. Education is a subject which cannot be discussed in a void : our questions raise other questions, social , economic, fnanc i al, and political. And the bearings are on more ultimate problems even than these: to know what we want in education, we must know what we want in general, we must derive our theory of education from our philosophy of life.

11. The main point made in the passage is that education, ----.
A) should be isolated from fnancial issues B) is becoming more and more meaningless C) will improve when the political and economic situation improves D) must be related to the social and political background in which it occurs E) will naturally evolve in accordance with the process of history

9.

According to the passage, when Edison was working on an invention, he ----.


A) was keen to pass on to others the knowledge he was accumulating B) was very secretive about what he was doing C) was not discouraged by the possibility of failure D) avoided friends and detractors alike E) felt embarrassed by periods of no progress

12. According to the writer, the present-day unsatisfactory and ineffectual state of education ----. 10. lt is clear from the passage that, when Edison was working on the electric lamp, ----.
A) he worked slowly because he was disheartened B) he knew for certain that he would attain success very quickly C) no one felt that an electric lamp was in any way desirable D) he was hindered by rain and bad weather in general E) people didn 't believe that it was possible at all A) can be regarded as a passing phase, and no action need be taken B) is a result of the disordered state of society and the fact that society does not know what it wants C) offers no real cause for concern D) has provoked a great deal of useful discussion about how it relates to the social system E) is receiving a great deal of much-needed attention

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13. The point is made in the passage that each and every system of education ----. A) needs to be tailor-made to fit the specific social system for which it is designed

16.

20.

sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

cevaplayn z.

The distinction between "journalism" and "literature" is quite futile, unless we are drawing such a violent

B) will inevitably have shortcomings or faults


C) should be constantly updated D) should be designed on the basis of educational theory, not on the opinions of society at large E) has a great deal in comman with every other system of education

contrast as that between Gibbon's History and today's


paper; and such a contrast itself is too violent to have meaning. You cannot, that is, draw any useful distinction between journalism and literature merely on a scale of literary values , as a difference between the well-written and the supremely wellwritten: a second-rate novel is not journalism, but it certainly is not literature. The term "journalism" has deteriorated , so let us try to recall it to its more permanent sense . To my thinking, the most accurate as well as most comprehensive definition of the term is to be obtained through considering the type of mind, concerned with writing what all would concede to be the best journalism. There's a type of mind, and 1 have a very close sympathy with it, which can only turn to writing , or only produce its best writing, under the pressure of an immediate occasion ; and it is this type of mind which 1 propose to treat as the journalist's. The underlying causes may differ: the cause may be an ardent preoccupation with affairs of the day, or it may be (as with myself) laziness requiring an immediate stimulus, or a habit formed by early necessity of earning smail sums quickly. lt is not so much that the journalist works on different material from that of other writers, as that he works from a different, no less and often more honourable, motive.

14. In this passage, the author aims to make us think about not only what we want from education, but also about ----.

A) how harmful is the effect it is having on society B) how far we are prepared to support it C) to what extent we have ourselves benefted from it D) whether it really is deteriorating at a great speed E) what we want from life

16. In this passage, the writer asserts that ----.


A) literature is far more valuable than journalism B) the difference between literature and journalism bears little relation to literary qualities C) he has all the qualities of a journalist D) the best stimulus for a journalist is the need for money E) one must be ardently concerned with the events of each day if one wants to be a journalist
defne

17. The writer prefers to

journalism ----.

15. The attitude of the author towards education is ----. A) B) C) D) E) negative and disinterested angry and pessimistic critica! and constructive encouraging and hopeful scornful and destructive

A) through a close study of violently centrasting examples B) while disregarding literary qualities C) by looking at the type of mind that produces good journalism D) after frst drawing up a scale of literary values E) in a way that will help journalism to recover the respect it formerly enjoyed

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18. lt is clear from the passage that the writer ---A) regards journalism as second-rate literature B) is very critica! of the motives of the journalist C) thinks one can best come to an understanding of journalism by centrasting it with literature D) is far more interested in literature than in journalism E) feels great respect for good journalism productive to the end . Leonardo , on the other hand, lived sixty-seven years, and left behind just a dozen paintings. And only a half of these are incontrovertibly one hundred per cent by him. In contrast, Rembrandt painted hundreds of paintings , 57 of himself alone; van Gogh created nine hundred paintings in a period of nine years. So how can we put Leonardo at the very pinnacle? The answer is really quite simple: his dozen or so paintings include the Number One and the Number Two most famous paintings in the history of art - The La st Supper and Mo na Lisa. 21. The passage geniuses" - --. is about "transformative

19. The point is made in the passage that the journalist does his best writing when ----. A) events in his own life have stimulated him B) there is no pressure upon him C) he is closely involved in the affairs of the time D) under an obligation to do so E) he can choose his own material 20. According to the passage, what characterizes the work of the journalist is ----. A) not the thing he writes about but why he writes about it B) the non-literary style of the writing C) the every-day nature of the material he chooses D) the desire to stimulate people to action E) his obsession for accuracy

A) as they have affected the world of literature and science B) but the author feels that the way the public opinion ranks them is faulty C) and the massive changes they have brought to the world D) and instances of them are given in several
felds

E) and the times in which they lived and produced

22. With the sentence, "Honest debate can start at Number Two", the writer is really saying

21.

25.

sorular

aadaki

paraya

gre

----.

cevaplayn z.

Leonardo da Vinci is a member of a very smail class of "transformative geniuses, " not ordinary or common geniuses, who have contributed abundantly to their fields, but rather the ones who have created or defined entire felds . In literature, no one asks, 'Who was the greatest writer?" Honest debate can start at Number Two . Shakespeare, the consensus choice as greatest writer, is a member of this class of transformative geniuses. Similarly, lsaac Newton is recognized as the greatest among scientists and mathematicians; Ludwig van Beethoven, and possibly Bach and Mozart, are the transformative geniuses among composers. The most recent transformative genius the world has seen may have been Albert Einstein, a scientist like Newton - and Time Magazine' s "Man of the Century" for the 20th century. In ranking artists, one can start the debate at Number Three - a rank for which Raphael and Rembrandt are candidates , or perhaps one of the great French lmpressionists, or the 20th century's most famous artist, Picasso. The ranks of Number One and Number Two, however, are reserved for Leonardo and Michelangelo, taken in either order. These two are far above all other artists. Michelangelo lived a very long lifetime of eighty-nine years, and was

A) one cannot expect popular opinion to judge fairly B) people don't always give their honest opinions C) Shakespeare doesn't deserve his position at the head of the list D) the relative merits of writers are very controversial E) the re can be no doubt about Number 1; that' s definitely Shakespeare's place

23. According to the passage, when it comes to ranking artists, ----. A) van Gogh comes very high on the list as a result of the great number of his paintings B) at least six artists have a claim to top place C) it is either Leonardo or Michelangelo who is Number One D) the third place defnitely goes to Raphael E) 20th-century ones come low on the list

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24. We learn from the passage that, although Leonardo left the world only a dozen or so paintings, ----.
A) these include the world's two best-known paintings B) they are all of remarkably high quality C) he actually painted a great many more D) he knew they would keep his name alive to the end of civilization E) they rightly earned him the undisputed position of the world's Number One artist

25. lt is clear from the passage that Michelangelo

----.

A) richly deserves his Number One position as the best of the artists B) was a far more productive artist than Leonardo C) had a profound influence upon the next generatian of painters D) was jealous of the fame of Leonardo and strove to excel him E) has only been recognized as a great artist in recent times

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TEST V
1. 5.
sorular aadaki

2. paraya gre

lt is clear from the passage that the fall of Berlin in 1945 to the Allies and the Soviet Union----. A) resulted from the establishment of the socalled "iron curtain" between East and West Germany B) was one of a series of political crises, the most serious ofwhich was the one in 1961 C) followed the division of Germany into East and West D) clearly represented the final defeat and collapse of Nazi Germany E) completely undermined Nazi Germany's political and military ambitions to conquer Euro pe

cevaplayn z.

Today, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, in which the Soviet Union demanded that Western powers cut their ties with Berlin, may be the most forgolten erisis in the annals of the Cold War. Even most Berliners who lived through the event remember little about it. Yet this erisis over Berlin brought America and the Soviet Union, the two superpowers of the post-World War ll period, close to war. In fact, since the very end of World War ll, Berlin had been the centrepiece of a struggle between these two superpowers. lt was here that World War ll ended in 1945 when, following the occupation and defeat of Nazi Germany by the allied armies of the United States, Britain, and France from the west, and the Soviet Union from the east, the city had been captured and divided into the separate zones of East and West Berlin. Soon afterwards Germany had itself split into East and West, and the border between the two had become the dividing line (the so-called "iron curtain") between Sovietcontrolled Eastern Europe and free, capitalist Western Europe. Thus, situated behind this iron curtain and stuck a hundred miles inside Eastern territory, West Berlin was claimed, protected and supplied by the Western powers. In 1948, Stalin imposed a blockade, cutting West Berlin off from its Western suppliers. The United States responded with an airlift, keeping the zone alive for more than 300 days before Allied access was restored.

3.

In the passage, the writer points out that, paradoxically, ----. A) even if America did not want the Soviet Union to capture Berlin completely, it acted fast and moved into West Berlin B) since the Allies and the Soviet Union fought in World War ll against Nazi Germany, in fact they cooperated in many respects, including the capture of Berlin C) although the 1961 Berlin erisis almost led to a military confrontation between America and the Soviet Union, for most residents of Berlin today it has lost its significance D) despite their alliance during World War ll , the United States, Britain and France each had conflicting policies towards Nazi Germany E) while Berliners experienced many hardships under the Soviet occupation of their city, they did not show any resistance

4. 1. As one learns from the passage, West Berlin -

The point is made in the passage that, during the early decades of the Cold W ar, ----. A) the United States and its allies were totally indifferent to the political implications of the socalled "iron-curtain" B) the United States and the Soviet Union were locked in political conflict over Berlin C) the Soviet Union followed a policy of peace and friendship towards the United States and its allies D) Berliners regarded the Allied and Soviet occupation of their city as a relief from the Nazi regime E) the United States and the Soviet Union reached an agreement on the question of how Germany was to be divided

---.

A) received so much American aid during the Cold War that its people enjoyed a comfortable life B) was recognized by the Soviet Union during the Cold W ar asa separate American territory C) was, during the Cold War, far more prosperous and secure than East Berlin D) made an alliance during the Cold War with the United States against a possible Soviet invasion E) was able to survive the Soviet blockade in 1948 through relief provided by the United States

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5. As it is clear from the passage, in the aftermath of World W ar ll, ----. A) Europe was no langer an undivided continent, with Eastern Europe falling under Soviet rule B) the American presence throughout Europe rapidly increased and was strengthened to keep the Soviets under control C) the Eastern European countries willingly joined the Soviet Union and began to enjoy great economic prosperity D) the security of Berlin became so urgent that the western powers took a number of measures to protect it against an invasion E) while the Allied armies left Germany, the Soviet army remained in the country, continuing its occupation 7. As can be understood from the passage, the writer ----. A) points out that Narva is an attractive and wellknown centre for tourism in Estonia B) deseribes the hardships which the Baltic countries endured under the Russians in the eighteenth century C) stresses how the Russian expansion in the Baltics in the 1720s was prevented by Austria and Prussia D) draws a centrast between the present-day romantic appearance of Narva and its historic significance E) compares Riga with Narva and concludes that the Latvian capital is historically more important

6.

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Narva is a quiet northeastern Estonian town bathed in sea breezes. Though smail , with a population of just over 72,000, it occupies a large place in Russian history. lt was here in 1700 that, by attacking the Swedes, who were then in control of much of the Baltic coast, Russia launched its final campaign in a centuries-long quest to become a European power. The battle ended in defeat for the Russians, but the war did not; by 1721 Russia had conquered the Baltic territories as far southwest as Riga, the capital of present-day Latvia , and had built a new capital, Saint Petersburg , on the Gulf of Finland . Later in that century, Russia, through a partition agreement with Austria and Prussia, gained control of the rest of the Baltics, and would retain them until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 .

8.

As one learns from the passage, it was before 1721 that ----. A) the Russians re-captured Riga from the Swedes and made it the capital of Latvia B) Russia reached an agreement with Austria and Prussia for the partition of the whole Baltic region C) Russia became a major European power which completely dominated the Baltics D) the Swedes and the Russians agreed on their respective control of the Baltic territories E) the city of Saint Petersburg was founded by the Russians on the Gulf of Finland

6.

According to the passage, conquest of the Baltics ----.

the

Russian

A) forced both Austria and Prussia to give up their centuries-old claims on the Baltic territories and sign a treaty B) was finalized in the eighteenth century partly through war and partly through a multi-lateral treaty C) included only the region between Narva in northeastern Estonia and Saint Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland D) was several times resisted by the Swedes, whom the Russians were unable to defeat and drive out of the region E) involved a very long war with the Swedes on the one hand, and with Austria and Prussia on the other

9.

lt is pointed out in the passage that ----. A) Russian possession of the Baltic territories lasted until the Iate twentieth century B) Prussian control of the Baltic territories lasted throughout the eighteenth century and after C) no European power in the eighteenth century was concerned about the Russian invasion of the Baltics D) the Swedes and the Russians were constantly at war with each other for the possession of the Baltics E) the Russian conquest of the Baltic territories has always been a controversial issue in Russian history

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10. lt is clear from the passage that Russia's invasion of the Baltics in the early eighteenth century ----. A) put at risk the centuries-long good relations which she had maintained with other European powers B) was a thorough military campaign which lasted for many decades and failed to achieve its aims C) signified the final stage of her efforts towards becoming a European power that had gone on for centuries D) increased enormously the importance of both Narva and Riga as major military centres in the region E) so alarmed other European powers that they immediately made an alliance among themselves 11. According to the passage, Helen Dunmore's novel The Siege is mainly the story of ----. A) how the children of Leningrad in particular suffered extreme hardship when the Germans besieged the city in 1941 B) the famous actress Marina Petrovna, who was living in retirement when the Germans besieged Leningrad in 1941 C) the strong armed resistance that the people of Leningrad put up against the Germans when the city was besieged D) how a young artist, Anna Levin, struggled hard with her family to survive during the German siege of Leningrad in 1941 E) the romantic relationship between the actress Marina Petrovna and the writer Abraham Levin , who was a political activist

12. lt is emphasized in the passage that the novel

--.

11.

15.

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Set in 1941 in Leningrad , Helen Dunmore's novel The Siege opens with deceptively gentle scenes of Chekhovian melancholy. After the death of her mother, 23-year-old Anna Levin, the protagonist, gives up her artistic studies to look after her 5-yearold brother and her politically suspect father Abraham , who, as a writer, has fallen out of favour with Stalin's cultural police. So she jumps at the chance to make a drawing of the retired actress Marina Petrovna, with whom Anna's father might once have had a romantic relationship. But Anna's worries about art and romance are soon swept away as the Germans besiege her native city. At this point, Dunmore's novel transforms abruptly as well , shifting from a romantic narrative into a study of survival under most extreme hardships. Anna's abundant artistic creativity is put to use providing food and fuel for her helpless family, and her drawing skills are called on to sketch a neighbour's starved baby so that the grieving mother might remember her lost child. lndeed, the novel presents a striking contrast between the gentle display of human emotions and the rude dietates of survival under the most inh uman circumstances.

A) never loses its romantic tone, even though some of the scenes deseribed can be very depressing and upsetting B) shows how Helen Dunmore differs from the Russian writer Chekhov in her detailed portrayal of characters C) is not only a narrative of romantic scenes, but also the depiction of a cruel reality in which human survival was almost impossible D) primarily focuses on the complexity of human emotions and tries to demonstrate this through the depiction of a wide range of characters number of E) is embedded with a inconsistencies as regards style and characterization , which make Dunmore's literary creativity rather superfcial

13. lt is clear from the passage that Anna's study of art----. A) was supported by her father, who, as a political writer, often wrote against the cultural policies of Stalin 's regime B) was interrupted as , following her mother's death, she had to take care of her family C) was carried out under the most favourable circumstances , and her fame as a promising young artist soon spread throughout Leningrad D) was a great achievement for her, despite the fact that her artistic creativity had not been recognized at first E) took so long that, in the end , she gave it up to join the people of Leningrad in their defence of the city against the Germans

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14. lt is pointed out in the passage that, when the German siege of Leningrad began, ----. A) Anna's concern about her own artistic future was totally wiped out 16. As one finds out from the passage, it would be wrong to maintain that ----. A) many of the immigrants to Britain came from lndia and the other colonies

B) Anna's father Abraham 's love affair with


Marina Petrovna came to an end C) Anna had already become famous because of her portrait of the actress Marina Petrovna D) Stalin's cultural palice arrested Abraham because of his subversive ideas E) the inhabitants made various arrangements to overcome the serious shortage of food and fuel in the city 15. In the passage, the writer draws attention to the fact that, in Leningrad under siege, Anna -

B) Africans arrived in Britain for the

frst

time in

the twentieth century C) European colonial rule in Africa ended in the po.st-World W ar ll period D) Britain was occupied and ruled by the Romans E) the domestic staff of the wealthy in Britain often included Africans and lndians 17. lt is pointed out in the passage that the black communities living in some British port towns in the early years of the nineteenth century

.....

A) offered care to the mothers who lost their children because of the terrible food shortage B) was especially worried about the fate of children , most of whom starved to death C) helped many people to put up with the most extreme hardships of life D) seriously devoted herself to a study of Chekhov's literary works E) used her artistic capacity not only to support her family but alsoto represent human 16. 20.
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A) were not always treated in a friendly way by the white population B) consisted solely of sailors who came mainly from Britain 's colonies in Africa C) were completely constituted by merchants who were involved in overseas trade with lndia D) were made up of travellers from Africa and lndia, who visited Britain for various reasons E) were essentially formed by colonial immigrants from Africa as well as lndia 18. lt is stressed in the passage that Britain ----. A) was the only colonial power in Europe that objected to the practice of slavery B) was faced soan after World War ll with an enormous influx of immigrants C) had already passessed a large community of Africans under Roman rule D) began to receive huge numbers of colonial immigrants from the 1960s onwards of E) always welcomed large numbers immigrants from its colonies in Africa and elsewhere 19. As stated in the passage, many of the immigrants that arrived in Europe after World War ll----. A) were actually fleeing from the slave labour invariably practised in the colonies B) constituted smail minorities that became the target of white native hatred C) were the relatives of the former colonial slaves D) were interested in service positions and, hence, were mostly employed as servants E) were in fact the descendants of the slaves especially in lndia

paraya

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Following World War ll , European countries largely gave up their colonial possessions and, by the 1950s and 1960s, had already begun to receive growing numbers of immigrants from their former colonies. In many instances, these included the descendants of the slaves in the colonies , who had been forced to work. In this respect, Britain isa case in point. Though in smail numbers, Africans and lndians had come to Britain long before the tens of thousands who came as colonial immigrants in the 1960s and thereafter. The frst Africans who came to Britain were probably soldiers during the Roman possession of that country in antiquity. In modern times , especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries , African and lndian princes and scholars visited Britain. Others coming to Britain were in service positions; for instance, in the eighteenth century, black African and lndian young men were fashionable as servants in the homes of the wealthy. Africans and lndians also came to Britain as sailors and traders, and port towns, such as London, Glasgow, Bristol, Cardiff and Liverpool, developed smail black populations in the early nineteenth century, some of which persisted into the twentieth century. Relations between these populations and the native white population were varied , historians citing instances both of hostility and solidarity.

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20. lt is pointed out in the passage that, in the past, ---A) Africans and lndians preferred Britain to other European countries for settlement and employment B) Britain passessed the largest and most densely populated colonies throughout the world C) the European countries rivalled Britain both in trade and in the colonization of Africa D) the European colonial powers, including Britain, refused to accept immigrants from their colonies E) among the early colonial visitors to Britain were students and members of the native nobility from Africa and lndia 22. One understands from the passage that NASA

A) and scientists have conflicting research objectives about the moon B) has already developed a multi-purpose research programme for the moon C) always consults the scientific community, but seldom takes its advice into consideration D) is planning to send robots to the moon before it sends astronauts E) has been indifferent to various recommendations made by scientists 23. As is clear from the passage, NASA's purpose in consulting scientists is to ----. A) make sure that its programmes for lunar data analysis are supported by them B) learn whether the moon has water deposited as ice under its poles C) find out about the kind of research which is primarily im portant for lu nar exploration D) encourage them to focus their attention on a full study of the Aitken basin E) give them the opportunity to discuss their research results about the moon 24. According to the passage, one of the recommendations made by the scientific community concerns ----. A) the scientific specification of the locations where robots or astronauts can land B) the problems related to the working of the robots orbiting the moon or landing on the surface C) the analysis of the rock samples that will be taken from the Aitken basin D) the tasks that will be performed by the astronauts when they explore the moon's South poJe E) the question of how NASA can beneft from the results obtained from lunar explorations 25. lt is clearly stated astronauts ----. in the passage that

21.

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A couple of months ago NASA asked the scientific community what kinds of research it should conduct when it returns humans to the moon. In doing so , NASA wanted prioritized research objectives for the robotic orbiters and landers that will be used primarily for reconnaissance purposes prior to later explorations by astronauts of the lunar surface. Recommendations made by scientists varied greatly, but they can be summarized. The top priority that scientists have recommended is the development of programmes for lunar data analysis. Next is the exploration of the moon's south pole, which is called "the Aitken basin," an impact scar mostly on the moon's back side. Then comes an instrument network for probing the interior of the moon , and this is followed by rock sample returns , scientifcally selected landing sites , and analysis of any icy polar deposits.

21. From the research recommendations summarized in the passage, it b