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Tomography1234.pdf

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C. A.

Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 1
Tomography
• Many medical imaging systems can only measure projec-
tions through an object with density f(x, y).
– Projections must be collected at every angle θ and dis-
placement r.
– Forward projections p
θ
(r) are known as a Radon trans-
form.
p (r)
θ
θ
x
y
r
• Objective: reverse this process to form the original image
f(x, y).
– Fourier Slice Theorem is the basis of inverse
– Inverse can be computed using convolution back pro-
jection (CBP)
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 2
Medical Imaging Modalities
• Anatomical Imaging Modalities
– Chest X-ray
– Computed Tomography (CT)
– Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
• Functional Imaging Modalities
– Signal Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT)
– Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
– Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 3
Multislice Helical Scan CT
• Multislice CT has a cone-beam structure
X-ray Source
Detector Array
Path of Helical Scan
Plane of Desired
Image Reconstruction
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 4
Example: CT Scan
• Gantry rotates under fiberglass
cover
• 3D helical/multislice/fan beam
scan
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 5
Photon Attenuation
X−Ray Source
x
0
Y
Material with density u(x)
T
λ
Pin Hole Columnator
x
x - depth into material measured in cm
Y
x
- Number of photons at depth x
λ
x
= E[Y
x
]
Number of photons is a Poisson random variable
P{Y
x
= k} =
e
−λ
x
λ
k
x
k!
.
• As photons pass through material, they are absorbed.
• The rate of absorption is proportional to the number of
photons and the density of the material.
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 6
Differential Equation for Photon Attenuation
X−Ray Source
x
0
Y
Material with density u(x)
T
λ
Pin Hole Columnator
x
The attenuation of photons obeys the following equation

x
dx
= −µ(x)λ
x
where µ(x) is the density in units of cm
−1
.
• The solution to this equation is given by
λ
x
= λ
0
e

_
x
0
µ(t)dt
• So we see that
_
x
0
µ(t)dt = −log
_
λ
x
λ
0
_
≈ −log
_
Y
x
λ
0
_
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 7
Estimate of the Projection Integral
X−Ray Source
x
0
Y
Material with density u(x)
T
λ
Pin Hole Columnator
x
A commonly used estimate of the projection integral is
_
T
0
µ(t)dt

= −log
_
Y
T
λ
0
_
where:
λ
0
is the dosage
Y
T
is the photon count at the detector
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 8
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Detector i
Detector i
- detection rate A
ij
- emission rate
j
x
j
x
E[y
i
] =

j
A
ij
x
j
• Subject is injected with radio-active tracer
• Gamma rays travel in opposite directions
• When two detectors detect a photon simultaneously, we
know that an event has occurred along the line connecting
detectors.
• A ring of detectors can be used to measure all angles and
displacements
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 9
Example: PET/CT Scan
• Generally low space/time resolu-
tion
• Little anatomical detail ⇒couple
with CT
• Can detect disease
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 10
Coordinate Rotation
• Define the counter-clockwise rotation matrix
A
θ
=
_
cos(θ) −sin(θ)
sin(θ) cos(θ)
_
• Define the new coordinate system (r, z)
_
x
y
_
= A
θ
_
r
z
_
• Geometric interpretation
y
x
θ
r
z
• Inverse transformation
_
r
z
_
= A
−θ
_
x
y
_
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 11
Integration Along Projections
• Consider the function f(x, y).
x
y
f(x,y)
• We compute projections by integrating along z for each r.
y
x
θ
r
z
• The projection integral for each r and θ is given by
p
θ
(r) =
_

−∞
f
_
A
θ
_
r
z
__
dz
=
_

−∞
f (r cos(θ) −z sin(θ), r sin(θ) + z cos(θ)) dz
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 12
The Radon Transform
• The Radon transform of the function f(x, y) is defined as
p
θ
(r) =
_

−∞
f (r cos(θ) −z sin(θ), r sin(θ) + z cos(θ)) dz
• The geometric interpretation is
p (r)
θ
θ
x
y
r
f(x,y)
Notice that the projection corresponding to r = 0 goes
through the point (x, y) = (0, 0).
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 13
The Fourier Slice Theorem
• Let
P
θ
(ρ) = CTFT {p
θ
(r)}
F(u, v) = CSFT {f(x, y)}
Then
P
θ
(ρ) = F(ρ cos(θ), ρ sin(θ))
• P
θ
(ρ) is F(u, v) in polar coordinates!
θ
ρ
u
v
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 14
Proof of the Fourier Slice Theorem
• By definition
p
θ
(r) =
_

−∞
f
_
A
θ
_
r
z
__
dz
• The CTFT of p
θ
(r) is then given by
P
θ
(ρ) =
_

−∞
p
θ
(r)e
−j2πρr
dr
=
_

−∞
_
_

−∞
f
_
A
θ
_
r
z
__
dz
_
e
−j2πρr
dr
=
_

−∞
_

−∞
f
_
A
θ
_
r
z
__
e
−j2πρr
dzdr
• We next make the change of variables
_
r
z
_
= A
−θ
_
x
y
_
.
Notice that the Jacobian is |A
θ
| = 1, and that r = x cos(θ)+
y sin(θ). This results in
P
θ
(ρ) =
_

−∞
_

−∞
f (x, y) e
−j2πρ[x cos(θ)+y sin(θ)]
dxdy
=
_

−∞
_

−∞
f (x, y) e
−j2π[xρ cos(θ)+yρ sin(θ)]
dxdy
= F(ρ cos(θ), ρ sin(θ))
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 15
Alternative Proof of the Fourier Slice Theorem
• First let θ = 0, then
p
0
(r) =
_

−∞
f(r, y) dy
Then
P
0
(ρ) =
_

−∞
p
0
(r)e
−2πjrρ
dr
=
_

−∞
_
_

−∞
f(r, y) dy
_
e
−2πjrρ
dr
=
_

−∞
_

−∞
f(r, y)e
−2πj(rρ+y0)
dr dy
= F(ρ, 0)
• By rotation property of CSFT, it must hold for any θ.
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 16
Inverse Radon Transform
• Physical systems measure p
θ
(r).
• From these, we compute P
θ
(ρ) = CTFT{p
θ
(r)}.
θ
v
u
at each angle
Transformed Projection
• Next we take an inverse CSFT to form f(x, y).
Problem: This requires polar to rectagular conversion.
Solution: Convolution backprojection
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 17
Convolution Back Projection (CBP)
Algorithm
• In order to compute the inverse CSFT of F(u, v) in polar
coordinates, we must use the Jacobian of the polar coor-
dinate transformation.
du dv = |ρ|dθ dρ
• This results in the expression
f(x, y) =
_

−∞
_

−∞
F(u, v)e
2πj(xu+yv)
dudv
=
_

−∞
_
π
0
P
θ
(ρ)e
2πj(xρ cos(θ)+yρ sin(θ))
|ρ|dθ dρ
=
_
π
0
_
_

−∞
|ρ|P
θ
(ρ)e
2πjρ(x cos(θ)+y sin(θ))

_
. ¸¸ .
g
θ
(x cos(θ)+y sin(θ))

• Then g(t) is given by
g
θ
(t) =
_

−∞
|ρ|P
θ
(ρ)e
2πjρt

= CTFT
−1
{|ρ|P
θ
(ρ)}
= h(t) ∗ p
θ
(r)
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 18
where h(t) = CTFT
−1
{|ρ|}, and
f(x, y) =
_
π
0
g
θ
(x cos(θ) + y sin(θ)) dθ
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 19
Summary of CBP Algorithm
1. Measure projections p
θ
(r).
2. Filter the projections g
θ
(r) = h(r) ∗ p
θ
(r).
3. Back project filtered projections
f(x, y) =
_
π
0
g
θ
(x cos(θ) + y sin(θ)) dθ
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 20
A Closer Look at Projection Filter
1. At each angle, projections are filtered.
g
θ
(r) = h(r) ∗ p
θ
(r)
2. The frequency response of the filter is given by
H(ρ) = |ρ|
3. But real filters must be bandlimited to |ρ| ≤ f
c
for some
cut-off frequency f
c
.
H( ) = | | ρ ρ
fc −fc
ρ
So
H(ρ) = f
c
[rect (f/(2f
c
)) −Λ (f/f
c
)]
h(r) = f
2
c
_
2sinc(t2f
c
) −sinc
2
(tf
c
)
¸
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 21
A Closer Look at Back Projection
• Back Projection function is
f(x, y) =
_
π
0
b
θ
(x, y) dθ
where
b
θ
(x, y) = g
θ
(x cos(θ) + y sin(θ))
• Consider the set of points (x, y) such that
r = x cos(θ) + y sin(θ)
This set looks like
x
setofpoints
alongasingle
backprojection
q
y
r
• Along this line b
θ
(x, y) = g
θ
(r).
C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 22
Back Projection Continued
• For each angle θ back projection is constant along lines of
angle θ and takes on value g
θ
(r).
x
setofpoints
alongasingle
backprojection
q
y
g
(
r
)
q
r
0
r
• Complete back projection is formed by integrating (sum-
ming) back projections for angles ranging from 0 to π.
f(x, y) =
_
π
0
b
θ
(x, y) dθ

π
M
M−1

m=0
b

M
(x, y)
• Back projection “smears” values of g(r) back over image,
and then adds smeared images for each angle.

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