11
Areas of Reinforcing Bars
Total Areas of Bars (in.
2
)
Bar
Size
Number of Bars
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
No. 3 0.11 0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77 0.88 0.99 1.10
No. 4 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
No. 5 0.31 0.62 0.93 1.24 1.55 1.86 2.17 2.48 2.79 3.10
No. 6 0.44 0.88 1.32 1.76 2.20 2.64 3.08 3.52 3.96 4.40
No. 7 0.60 1.20 1.80 2.40 3.00 3.60 4.20 4.80 5.40 6.00
No. 8 0.79 1.58 2.37 3.16 3.95 4.74 5.53 6.32 7.11 7.90
No. 9 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
No. 10 1.27 2.54 3.81 5.08 6.35 7.62 8.89 10.16 11.43 12.70
No. 11 1.56 3.12 4.68 6.24 7.80 9.36 10.92 12.48 14.04 15.60
Areas of Bars per Foot Width of Slab (in.
2
/ft)
Bar
Size
Bar Spacing (in.)
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. 3 0.22 0.19 0.17 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07
No. 4 0.40 0.34 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13
No. 5 0.62 0.53 0.46 0.41 0.37 0.34 0.31 0.29 0.27 0.25 0.23 0.22 0.21
No. 6 0.88 0.75 0.66 0.59 0.53 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.29
No. 7 1.20 1.03 0.90 0.80 0.72 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.42 0.40
No. 8 1.58 1.35 1.18 1.05 0.95 0.86 0.79 0.73 0.68 0.63 0.59 0.56 0.53
No. 9 2.00 1.71 1.50 1.33 1.20 1.09 1.00 0.92 0.86 0.80 0.75 0.71 0.67
No. 10 2.54 2.18 1.91 1.69 1.52 1.39 1.27 1.17 1.09 1.02 0.95 0.90 0.85
No. 11 3.12 2.67 2.34 2.08 1.87 1.70 1.56 1.44 1.34 1.25 1.17 1.10 1.04
Positive
Moment
Negative
Moment
Shear
"
n,2
"
n,1
d 1.2"
n,2 "
n,2
Prismatic members
"
n,2
ntegral with
Support
Simple
Support
14
2
1 , n u
w "
16
2
2 , n u
w "
11
2
2 , n u
w "
24
2
1 , n u
w "
10
*
2
,avg n u
w "
11
2
,avg n u
w "
11
2
2 , n u
w "
10
*
2
2 , n u
w "
0
Spandrel
Support
Column
Support
16
2
1 , n u
w "
2
1 , n
u
w "
2
2 , n
u
w "
2
2 , n
u
w "
2
2 , n
u
w "
2
15 . 1
1 , n
u
w "
2
15 . 1
2 , n
u
w "
9
2
n u
w "
2
2 , 1 ,
,
n n
avg n
" "
"
(2 spans)
(8.3.3)
Note A
12
2
1 , n u
w "
12
2
,avg n u
w "
12
2
,avg n u
w "
12
2
2 , n u
w "
12
* *
2
2 , n
u
w "
0
Note A: Applicable to slabs with spans
d
10 It
and beams where the ratio oI the sum oI
column stiIIness to beam stiIIness ~ 8 at
each end oI the span.
Two or more spans
Uniformly distributed load w
u
(L/D d3)
10
2
2 , n u
w "
(Ior beams)
*
**
DESIGN AID J.12
Approximate Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Continuous Beams
and Oneway Slabs
8.3.3
DESIGN AID J.13
Variation of I with Net Tensile Strain in Extreme Tension Steel
W
H and
W
G F /
Grade 60 Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel
9.3.2
0.65
0.75
Spiral
Other
Compressioncontrolled
0.002 H
W
I
Transition Tensioncontrolled
0.002)(50) ( 0.75 H I
W
0.90
Spiral:
(5/3)] ) / 0.15[(1/ 0.75 I
W
G F
Other:
(5/3)] ) / 0.25[(1/ 0.65 I
W
G F
/3) 0.002)(250 ( 0.65 H I
W
F = 0.6G
W
H
W
= 0.002
0.003
G
W
0.005 H
W
F = 0.375G
W
H
W
= 0.005
0.003
G
W
DESIGN AID J.14
Simplified Calculation of
s
A Assuming TensionControlled Section and
Grade 60 Reinforcement
c
f (psi)
s
A (in.
2
)
3,000
d
M
u
84 . 3
4,000
d
M
u
00 . 4
5,000
d
M
u
10 . 4
u
M is in ftkips and d is in inches
In all cases,
d
M
A
u
s
4
= can be used.
Notes:
d
f
f
f
M
A
c
y
y
u
s
=
' 85 . 0
5 . 0
1
For all values of < 0.0125, the simplified A
s
equation is slightly conservative.
It is recommended to avoid > 0.0125 when using the simplified A
s
equation.
DESIGN AID J.15
1
Minimum Number of Reinforcing Bars Required in a Single Layer
10.6.4
Assumptions:
x Grade 60 reinforcement (
y
f = 60,000 psi)
x Clear cover to the tension reinforcement
c
c = 2 in.
x Calculated stress
s
f in reinforcement closest to the tension face at
service load = 40,000 psi
Bar
Size
Beam Width (in.)
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 42 48
No. 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 5 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 6 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 7 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 8 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 9 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 10 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
No. 11 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6
Minimum number of bars, n
mim
:
1
) 5 . 0 ( 2
s
d c b
n
b c w
min
where
s
c
s
f
c
f
s
000 , 40
12
5 . 2
000 , 40
15
1
Alsamsam, I.M. and Kamara, M. E. (2004). Simplified Design Reinforced Concrete Buildings of
Moderate Size and Heights, EB104, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL.
c c
c c b b
w w
1 1 1 1/ /2 2s s c cl le ea ar r
c c
c c
d
b
C Cl le ea ar r s sp pa ac ce e t t
d d
s s
c c
s s
r r = =
s s f fo or r N No o. . 3 3 s st ti ir rr ru up ps s
1 1s s f fo or r N No o. . 4 4 s st ti ir rr ru up ps s
1 1s s
d d
b b
1 1. .3 33 3( (m ma ax x. . a ag gg gr re eg ga at te e s si iz ze e) )
DESIGN AID J.16
1
Maximum Number of Reinforcing Bars Permitted in a Single Layer
7.6
Assumptions:
x Grade 60 reinforcement (
y
f = 60 ksi)
x Clear cover to the stirrups
s
c = 1.5 in.
x in. aggregate
x No. 3 stirrups are used for No. 5 and No. 6 longitudinal bars, and No. 4
stirrups are used for No. 7 and larger bars
Bar
Size
Beam Width (in.)
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 42 48
No. 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 21 25 29
No. 5 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 15 16 19 23 27
No. 6 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 18 22 25
No. 7 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 17 20 23
No. 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 19 22
No. 9 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 14 17 19
No. 10 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 15 17
No. 11 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 11 13 15
Maximum number of bars, n
max
:
1
space) (Clear
) ( 2
b
s s w
d
r d c b
n
max
1
Alsamsam, I.M. and Kamara, M. E. (2004). Simplified Design Reinforced Concrete Buildings of
Moderate Size and Heights, EB104, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL.
c c
c c b b
w w
1 1 1 1/ /2 2s s c cl le ea ar r
c c
c c
d
b
C Cl le ea ar r s sp pa ac ce e t t
d d
s s
c c
s s
r r = =
s s f fo or r N No o. . 3 3 s st ti ir rr ru up ps s
1 1s s f fo or r N No o. . 4 4 s st ti ir rr ru up ps s
1 1s s
d d
b b
1 1. .3 33 3( (m ma ax x. . a ag gg gr re eg ga at te e s si iz ze e) )
"
1
"
2
"
3
One end
continuous
5 . 18 /
1
" > h 21 /
2
" > h
Both ends
continuous
8 /
3
" > h
Cantilever
"
1
"
2
"
3
One end
continuous
24 /
1
" > h 28 /
2
" > h
Both ends
continuous
10 /
3
" > h
Cantilever
Solid
Oneway
Slabs
 Applicable to oneway construction not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be
damaged by large deflections.
 Values shown are applicable to members with normal weight concrete ( 145 =
c
w lbs/ft
3
) and Grade 60
reinforcement. For other conditions, modify the values as follows:
For structural lightweight having
c
w in the range 90120 lbs/ft
3
, multiply the values by
( ) . 09 . 1 005 . 0 65 . 1 >
c
w
For
y
f other than 60,000 psi, multiply the values by ( ). 000 , 100 / 4 . 0
y
f +
 For simplysupported members, minimum
=
slabs way  one ribbed or beams for 16 /
slabs way  one solid for 20 /
h
"
"
Beams or
Ribbed
Oneway
Slabs
DESIGN AID J.17
Minimum Thickness h for Beams and OneWay Slabs Unless Deflections are
Calculated
9.5.2
DESIGN AID J.18
Reinforcement Ratio
t
for TensionControlled Sections Assuming Grade 60
Reinforcement
c
f (psi)
t
when
t
=0.005
t
when
t
=0.004
3,000 0.01355 0.01548
4,000 0.01806 0.02064
5,000 0.02125 0.02429
Notes:
1. ( )b c f C
c 1
' 85 . 0 =
y s
f A T =
( )
y s c
f A b c f T C = =
1
' 85 . 0
a. When
t
=0.005, c/d
t
=3/8.
( )
y s t c
f A b d f =
8
3
' 85 . 0
1
y
c
t
s
t
f
f
bd
A
)
8
3
( 85 . 0
1
= =
b. When
t
=0.004, c/d
t
=3/7.
( )
y s t c
f A b d f =
7
3
' 85 . 0
1
y
c
t
s
t
f
f
bd
A
)
7
3
( 85 . 0
1
= =
2.
1
is determined according to 10.2.7.3.
DESIGN AID J.19
Simplified Calculation of
w
b Assuming Grade 60 Reinforcement and
max
= 5 . 0
c
f (psi)
w
b (in.)*
3,000
2
6 . 31
d
M
u
4,000
2
7 . 23
d
M
u
5,000
2
0 . 20
d
M
u
*
u
M is in ftkips and d is in inches
In general:
( )
2
1 1
2143 . 0 1
600 , 36
d f
M
b
c
u
w
=
where
max
= / ,
c
f is in psi, d is in inches and
u
M is in ftkips
and
003 . 0 004 . 0
003 . 0 85 . 0
1
+
=
y
c
max
f
f
(10.3.5)
1
s
f
h h =
+
+
+
2 4 4
3
6
12
length Span
1 2 1
1
1
1
s b b
h b
b
b
w w
w
w
e
1 e
b
2
s
1 w
b
2 w
b
2 e
b
+
+
+
+
2 4 2
16
4
length Span
2 1 3 1 2
2 2
s s b b b
h b b
w w w
w e
3 w
b
2
w
f
b
h h =
w
b
w e
b b 4
Isolated Tbeam
DESIGN AID J.110
Tbeam Construction
8.12
DESIGN AID J.111
Values of
c u s
V V V = (kips) as a Function of the Spacing, s*
s No. 3 Ustirrups No. 4 Ustirrups No. 5 Ustirrups
d/2 19.8 36.0 55.8
d/3 29.7 54.0 83.7
d/4 39.6 72.0 111.6
* Valid for Grade 60 ( 60 =
yt
f ksi) stirrups with 2 legs (double the tabulated values for
4 legs, etc.).
In general:
s
d f A
V
yt v
s
= (11.4.7.2)
where
yt
f used in design is limited to 60,000 psi, except for welded deformed wire
reinforcement, which is limited to 80,000 psi (11.4.2).
DESIGN AID J.112
Minimum Shear Reinforcement * /
,
s A
min v
c
f (psi)
s
A
min v,
in.
in.
2
500 , 4
w
b 00083 . 0
5,000
w
b 00088 . 0
* Valid for Grade 60 ( 60 =
yt
f ksi) shear reinforcement.
In general:
yt
w
yt
w
c
min v
f
b
f
b
f
s
A
50
75 . 0
,
= Eq. (1113)
where
yt
f used in design is limited to 60,000 psi, except for welded deformed wire
reinforcement, which is limited to 80,000 psi (11.4.2).
DESIGN AID J.113
Torsional Section Properties
Section* A
cp
p
cp
A
oh
p
h
Edge
b
w
h +b
e
h
f
2(h +b
w
+b
e
) x
1
y
1
2(x
1
+y
1
)
x
1
=b
w
 2c  d
s
y
1
=h  2c  d
s
Interior
b
w
(h  h
f
) +b
e
h
f
2(h +b
e
) x
1
y
1
2(x
1
+y
1
)
x
1
=b
w
 2c  d
s
y
1
=h  2c  d
s
Lshaped
b
1
h
1
+b
2
h
2
2(h
1
+h
2
+b
2
) x
1
y
1
+x
2
y
2
2(x
1
+x
2
+y
1
)
x
1
=b
1
 2c  d
s
y
1
=h
1
+h
2
 2c  d
s
x
2
=b
2
 b
1
y
2
=h
2
 2c  d
s
Inverted tee
b
1
h
1
+b
2
h
2
2(h
1
+h
2
+b
2
) x
1
y
1
+2x
2
y
2
2(x
1
+2x
2
+y
1
)
x
1
=b
1
 2c  d
s
y
1
=h
1
+h
2
 2c  d
s
x
2
=(b
2
 b
1
)/2
y
2
=h
2
 2c  d
s
* Notation: x
i
, y
i
=centertocenter dimension of closed rectangular stirrup
c =clear cover to closed rectangular stirrup(s)
d
s
=diameter of closed rectangular stirrup(s)
h
f
h
h
f
y
o
y
o
x
o
h
b
w
h
f
b
e
=b
w
+2(h  h
f
) b
w
+8h
f
h
b
w
h
f
b
e
=h  h
f
4h
f
x
1
y
1
y
1
x
1
b
1
y
1
b
1
h
1
h
2
b
2
y
1
y
2
x
1
x
2
h
1
h
2
b
2
y
2
b
1
x
1
x
2
y
1
Note: Neglect overhanging flanges in cases where
cp cp
p A /
2
calculated for a beam with
flanges is less than that computed for the same beam ignoring the flanges (11.5.1.1).
Gross Section
Cracked Transformed
Section
Cracked Moment of Inertia,
cr
I
2
3
) (
3
) (
kd d nA
kd b
I
s cr
+ =
where
B
dB
kd
1 1 2 +
=
2
2
3
) ( ) 1 (
) (
3
) (
d kd A n
kd d nA
kd b
I
s
s cr
+
+ =
where
( ) ( )
B
r r
d
d r
dB
kd
+ + +
+ +
=
1 1 1 2
2
continued next page
12 /
3
bh I
g
=
c s
E E n / =
) /(
s
nA b B =
) /( ) 1 (
s s
nA A n r =
b
A
s
A
s
b
d
n.a.
nA
s
kd
d
b
n.a.
b
A
s
DESIGN AID J.114
Moment of Inertia of Cracked Section Transformed to Concrete,
cr
I
h
h
nA
s
kd
d
(n 1)A
s
Gross Section
Cracked
Transformed
Section
Cracked Moment of Inertia,
cr
I
2
2
3
3
) (
2
) (
3
) (
12
) (
kd d nA
h
kd h b b
kd b
h b b
I
s
f
f w
w
f
w
cr
+
+
+
=
where
C
f f f h d C
kd
f
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 (
2
+ + + +
=
2 2
2
3
3
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
) (
3
) (
12
) (
d kd A n kd d nA
h
kd h b b
kd b
h b b
I
s s
f
f w
w
f
w
cr
+ +
+
+
=
where
C
f r f r d r f h d C
kd
f
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 2 (
2
+ + + + + + +
=
]} ) /[( ] ) [( 5 . 0 {
2 2
h b h b b h b h b b h y
w f w w
f
w t
+ + =
2 2 3 3
) 5 . 0 ( ) 5 . 0 ( ) ( 12 / 12 / ) ( h y h b y h h h b b h b h b b I
t w t f f w w
f
w g
+ + + =
c s
E E n / =
) /(
s w
nA b C =
) /( ) (
s w f
nA b b h f =
) /( ) 1 (
s s
nA A n r =
nA
s
kd
b
n.a.
d
b
A
s
h
f
b
w
A
s
nA
s
kd
d
b
n.a.
b
A
s
h
f
b
w
DESIGN AID J.114
Moment of Inertia of Cracked Section Transformed to Concrete,
cr
I
(continued)
h
h
y
t
d
(n 1)A
s
DESIGN AID J.115
Approximate Equation to Determine Immediate Deflection,
i , for Members
Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Loads
e c
a
i
I E
KM
48
5
2
=
where =
a
M net midspan moment or cantilever moment
= span length (8.9)
=
c
E modulus of elasticity of concrete (8.5.1)
=
c c
f w 33
5 . 1
for values of
c
w between 90 and 155 pcf
=
c
w unit weight of concrete
=
e
I effective moment of inertia (see Flowchart A.15.1)
= K constant that depends on the span condition
Span Condition K
Cantilever* 2.0
Simple 1.0
Continuous
* *
) / ( 2 . 0 2 . 1
a o
M M
* Deflection due to rotation at supports not included
** 8 /
2
w M
o
= (simple span moment at midspan)
DESIGN AID J.21
Conditions for Analysis by the Direct Design Method
13.6.1
For a panel with beams between supports on all sides, Eq. (132) must also be satisIied:
0 . 5 2 . 0
2
1 2
2
2 1
s
o
o
s
"
"
f
f
where
s cs
b cb
f
I E
I E
= o Eq. (133)
=
c
E modulus oI elasticity oI concrete (8.5.1)
c c
f w ' 33
5 . 1
Ior values oI
c
w between 90 and 155 pcI
=
s b
I I , moment oI inertia oI beam and slab, respectively (see Design Aid J.25)
Page 1 of 11
DESIGN AID J.22
Definitions of Column Strip and Middle Strip
13.2
Middle strip
Middle strip
"
1
Column strip
Minimum of "
1
/4 or ("
2
)
A
/4
Minimum of "
1
/4 or ("
2
)
B
/4
("
2
)
A
("
2
)
B
Page 2 of 11
DESIGN AID J.23
Definition of Clear Span,
n
"
13.6.2.5
1
"
1
65 . 0 " " >
n
0.89h
h
0.93h
h
h
h
h
h
Page 3 of 11
DESIGN AID J.24
Design Moment Coefficients used with the Direct Design Method
13.6.3 13.6.6
Flat Plate or Flat Slab
Flat Plate or Flat Slab with Spandrel Beams
See Design Aid J 26 for determination of
t

Page 4 of 11
DESIGN AID J.24
Design Moment Coefficients used with the Direct Design Method
13.6.3 13.6.6
(continued)
Flat Plate or Flat Slab with End Span Integral with Wall
Flat Plate or Flat Slab with End Span Simply Supported on Wall
Page 5 of 11
DESIGN AID J.24
Design Moment Coefficients used with the Direct Design Method
13.6.3 13.6.6
(continued)
TwoWay BeamSupported Slab
Notes:
 M
o
is deIined per 13.6.2
See Design Aids J 25 and J 26 for determination of
f
o and
t
 respectively
Page 6 of 11
DESIGN AID J.25
Effective Beam and Slab Sections for Computation of Stiffness Ratio
f
o
C C
"
2
h
a
b
b
eff
= b + 2(a h) s b + 8h
Beam, I
b
Slab, I
s
"
2
h
a
b
Beam, I
b
Slab, I
s
CL
beff = b + (a h) s b + 4h
Interior Beam Edge Beam
s cs
b cb
f
I E
I E
= o Eq. (133)
=
c
E modulus oI elasticity oI concrete (8.5.1)
c c
f w ' 33
5 . 1
Ior values oI
c
w between 90 and 155 pcI
3
2
12
1
h I
s
" =
2
3
2
3
2 12
1
2
) ( ) (
12
1

.

\

+ +

.

\

+ =
b eff eff b b
y
h
a h b h b
h a
y h a b h a b I
where
( )
) (
2 2
2
h a b h b
h a
b h
a h b
y
eff
eff
b
+
+ 
.

\

=
Page 7 of 11
DESIGN AID J.26
Computation of Torsional Stiffness Factor,
t
 , for T and LSections
C C
"
2
h
a
b
b
eff
= b + 2(a h) s b + 8h
Interior Beam
Case A
3
63 . 0 1 2
3
63 . 0 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
y x
y
x
y x
y
x
C
A


.

\

+


.

\

=
Case B
3
63 . 0 1
3
63 . 0 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
y x
y
x
y x
y
x
C
B


.

\

+


.

\

=
= C maximum oI
A
C and
B
C
s cs
cb
t
I E
C E
2
=  Eq. (135)
where 12 /
3
2
h I
s
" = and
c c
f w E ' = 33
5 . 1
Ior values oI
c
w between 90 and 155 pcI (8.5.1)
x
2
x
1
y
1
y
2
y
2
x
2
x
1
y
1
y
2
Page 8 of 11
"
2
h
a
b
CL
beff = b + (a h) s b + 4h
DESIGN AID J.26
Computation of Torsional Stiffness Factor,
t
 , for T and LSections
(continued)
Edge Beam
Case A
3
63 . 0 1
3
63 . 0 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
y x
y
x
y x
y
x
C
A


.

\

+


.

\

=
Case B
3
63 . 0 1
3
63 . 0 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
y x
y
x
y x
y
x
C
B


.

\

+


.

\

=
= C maximum oI
A
C and
B
C
s cs
cb
t
I E
C E
2
=  Eq. (135)
where 12 /
3
2
h I
s
" = and
c c
f w E ' = 33
5 . 1
Ior values oI
c
w between 90 and 155 pcI (8.5.1)
x
2
x
1
y
1
y
2
x
2
x
1
y
1
y
2
Page 9 of 11
DESIGN AID J.27
Moment Distribution Constants for SlabBeam Members without Drop Panels*
1 1
/ "
N
c
2 2
/ "
N
c
StiIIness Factor,
NF
k
Carryover Factor,
NF
C
Fixedend Moment
CoeIIicient,
NF
m
0.10
0.10 4.18 0.51 0.0847
0.20 4.36 0.52 0.0860
0.30 4.53 0.54 0.0872
0.40 4.70 0.55 0.0882
0.20
0.10 4.35 0.52 0.0857
0.20 4.72 0.54 0.0880
0.30 5.11 0.56 0.0901
0.40 5.51 0.58 0.0921
0.30
0.10 4.49 0.53 0.0863
0.20 5.05 0.56 0.0893
0.30 5.69 0.59 0.0923
0.40 6.41 0.61 0.0951
0.40
0.10 4.61 0.53 0.0866
0.20 5.35 0.56 0.0901
0.30 6.25 0.60 0.0936
0.40 7.37 0.64 0.0971
Slabbeam stiIIness
1
/ "
sb cs NF sb
I E k K =
Fixedend moment
2
1 2
" "
u FN
q m FEM =
* Applicable where (1)
1 1 F N
c c = and
2 2 F N
c c = and (2) a uniIormly distributed load
u
q
acts over the entire span length. See PCA Notes on ACI 31811 Ior other cases, including
constants Ior members with drop panels.
1
"
2
"
2 N
c
1 N
c
2 F
c
1 F
c
Page 10 of 11
DESIGN AID J.28
Stiffness and CarryOver Factors for Columns*
c
H " /
StiIIness Factor,
AB
k
Carryover Factor,
AB
C
1.05 4.52 0.54
1.10 5.09 0.57
1.15 5.71 0.60
1.20 6.38 0.62
1.25 7.11 0.65
1.30 7.89 0.67
1.35 8.73 0.69
1.40 9.63 0.71
1.45 10.60 0.73
1.50 11.62 0.74
Column stiIIness:
( )
( )
=
=
c c cc BA
BA
c
c c cc AB
AB
c
I E k K
I E k K
"
"
/
/
* See PCA Notes on ACI 31811 Ior other cases, including Iactors Ior members with drop
panels and column capitals.
H
A
B
c
"
Page 11 of 11