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& Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB

3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16, 2009, S. J. Campos, SP, Brazil

**RECTANGULAR OFFSET STRIP-FIN HEAT EXCHANGER LUMPED PARAMETERS DYNAMIC MODEL
**

Miguel Henrique Teruel, miguel.teruel@embraer.com.br

EMBRAER, Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brasil ITA, Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brasil

**Celso Yukio Nakashima, celso.nakashima@embraer.com.br
**

EMBRAER, Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brasil

**Pedro Paglione, paglione@ita.br
**

ITA, Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brasil

Abstract. This paper presents a lumped parameters model for predicting the temperature dynamics of heat exchanger core, as the out temperature dynamics of both the hot and cold flows. Fin and core’s geometry are used in empirical correlations for providing mass flow and thermal resistances to the model. Keywords: strip-fin, heat exchanger, dynamic mode, lumped 1. INTRODUCTION There are several types of compact heat exchanger, but the offset strip-fin has been the most widely used fin geometry for industries that require lightweight high-performance exchangers, due to its high heat transfer relative to heat exchanger volume, an important characteristic when considering the often reduced space available for its positioning.

Figure 1. One layer of an offset strip-fin Due to the complex nature of the flow in this type of heat exchanger, empirical correlations have been developed for over 60 years now, with the first friction factor and Colburn modulus data being presented by (Norris and Spofford, 1942) for 3 offset surfaces. Since this date, this correlations have been constantly updated, and as reported by (Shah and Sekulic, 2003), the most comprehensive correlations available at this date were provided by (Manglik and Bergles, 1990). Based on the correlation for the friction factor, the mass flow through each line can be obtained, and using the correlation for the Colburn modulus and the mass flow, a model is proposed for representing all thermal resistances, and an equivalent thermal resistance from the fluid to the core is obtained. The development for the mass flow calculation is presented in Section 2, and for the thermal resistance in Section 3. The dynamic model is then presented in section 4, where previously obtained results will be joining additional developments for calculating the heat exchanger’s core temperature, and finally, the outflow temperature of the both the cold and hot lines. 2. EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS The once “state-of-the-art” (Shah and Webb, 1983) empirical correlations for predicting Colburn modulus and friction factors provided by (Wieting, 1975), as many other correlations, were replaced by those provided (Manglik and Bergles, 1990). As the authors state: “the few empirical correlations that are available inadequately describe the trends in the data and lack a logical theoretical basis” (Manglik and Bergles, 1990). These correlations predict the

ଽଷ ሺߜሻ. 1987). extending the understanding of (London and Shah. Campos. Figure 2 presents a frontal view of the offset strip-fin view. Eq.1. and the fin parameters. ࢽ ൌ /: Ratio.6243ሺܴ݁ሻି.ଵ଼ହ ሺߜሻ.ଷହଷ ሺߛሻି. SP. 2003). laminar flow region: ݂ ൌ 9.଼ଶ ሺߛሻି. and.8699ሺܴ݁ሻି.ଶଽଽଷ ሺߙሻି. a4: Power-law coefficients. l: Fin length. (1) provides this hydraulic diameter definition. which will be referenced throughout this paper: Figure 2. Re: Reynolds number. J.ସଶଶ ሺߙሻି. turbulent flow region: ݂ ൌ 1. 1990) also provide a new definition of hydraulic diameter (Dh). Mass Flow The correlation that (Manglik and Bergles.ଶହଽ For Re ≥ Re* + 1000. 1990) have obtained for the friction factor is in the form of a power-law of the type presented in Eq. since the j factor takes into account variations in the Prandtl number (Pr). which considers the mean flow velocity – instead of maximum velocity as in (Joshi and Webb. Brazil experimental data of 18 test cores within ± 20% for 120 ≤ Re ≤ 104. (2). ݂ ൌ ܭଵ ሺܴ݁ሻଵ ሺߙሻଶ ሺߜሻଷ ሺߛሻସ • • • • • K1. they should be valid for 0. t: Fin thickness.2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng.5 < Pr < 15 (Shah and Sekulic. ܦ ൌ ଶሺ௦ାା௧ሻା௧௦ ସ௦ (1) 2. ࢾ ൌ /: Ratio. ࢻ ൌ /: Aspect ratio. Geometric parameters of the offset strip-fin • • • • s: Transverse spacing (free flow width). h: Free flow height. & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. (2) For Re ≤ Re*. a1. S. 2009. (Manglik and Bergles. 1968) and (Joshi and Webb. a2. who considers only vertical edges.ଶସଶଷ (4) (3) . 1987) – and also accounts for both the vertical and lateral fin edges. a3. even though obtained for air.

A: Total free flow area. 5. Campos. as presented in Eq. and to convert the mean fluid velocity into mass flow. fluid density.2. from (Joshi and Webb.2.2 for calculating the convection thermal resistance. which we are meant to obtain. S. : Fluid density.2. (7): ݂ൌ ∆ మ ଶ ఘ௨ ଵ (6) • • • • ݑ ൌ • • ఘ ሶ ∆: Pressure loss in the heat exchanger. : Mean fluid velocity. : Total length in the direction of the flow.1. hydraulic diameter. J. ܲݎ • • ଶൗ ଷ (11) j: Colburn modulus.1 Convection Coefficient The Colburn modulus is defined as: ݆ ൌ ܵݐ. and then used in Section 2. . we have Eq. Thermal Resistance Now that the necessary calculations for the mass flow have been provided. we are required to use the definition of the average Fanning friction factor. Brazil Re* is defined as presented in Eq. SP.2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng. obtaining then Eq. (6) by Eq. that provides the mass flow as a function of the remaining elements of the friction power-law. (6). (7) ሶ : Mass flow.ହ ିଵ ൨ (5) For converting the friction factor into mass flow. using Eq. the heat transfer coefficient is determined from an empirical equation in Section 2. 2009.ଶଷ ቀቁ ௧ .2. Isolating the mass flow again.328 ቀ ோ ቁ ି. First. 2. (9): ݉ ሶ ൌ ܣට • భ ோ ೌభ ఈ ೌమ ఋ ೌయ ఊೌర ଶ ଵ ఘ∆ ൌ ܣඨ భ ቀ ሶ ವ ೌభ ೌమ ೌయ ೌర ቁ ఈ ఋ ఊ ഋಲ ଵ ఘ∆ ଶ (9) µ : Fluid viscosity. (8): ݉ ሶ ൌ ܣට ଶ ଵ ఘ∆ (8) Since the friction factor is dependent on the Reynolds number. which in turn depends on the mass flow. length in the flow direction and the pressure differential in the heat exchanger. & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. St: Stanton number.ହ଼ ܦ ݐ 1. Replacing the mean velocity in Eq. (7) and isolating the mass flow. it is required to replace the general form of the correlation of Eq. ݉ ሶ ൌ ܣ భ ఓ షೌభ ఈ ೌమ ఋ ೌయ ఊೌర ଶ ଵ ఘ∆ ሺభషೌభሻ ൨ ଵൗ ሺଶାଵሻ (10) 2. 1987): ܴ݁ כൌ 257 ቀ ቁ ଵ. (2) in the mass flow of formulae of Eq. we have Eq. we are able to fully develop the equations for the thermal resistance. The later section also presents conduction thermal resistance and equivalent resistance model. (10). (8).

ଵଷ ሺߜሻ. (16) (15) Figure 3.଼ For Re ≥ Re*. SP. & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. laminar flow region: ݆ ൌ 0. (14). Using the dimensionless numbers definitions: ܵ ݐൌ ܰݑ ܴ݁. so the Colburn modulus is simply calculated and fed to Eq.2435ሺܴ݁ሻି. Brazil • Pr: Prandtl number.6522ሺܴ݁ሻି. Eq.ଵଷଷ 2. isolating the convection coefficient: ܿ ߤ ݄ ൌ ݆. a thermal circuit is built. µ : Fluid viscosity.ଵଽହହ ሺߛሻି. turbulent flow region: ݆ ൌ 0. S.2 Equivalent Thermal Resistance Heat transfer will occur in the fin through five different types of resistances. (11) using Eq. (14). (12). Eq. cp: Fluid specific heat at constant pressure. Rearranging Eq. This resistances model both convection (using the heat transfer coefficient calculated previously) and conduction.2.ଵହସଵ ሺߜሻ. as presented in Figure 3. ܲݎ ݄. and an equivalent thermal resistance is calculated.ସଷሺߙሻି.2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng.ଵସଽଽ ሺߛሻି.ହସଷሺߙሻି. (16) presents the (Manglik and Bergles. 2009. (13) and Eq. ܦ ܭ (12) (13) ܰ ݑൌ ܲ ݎൌ • • • • ܿ ߤ ܭ (13) he: Convection heat transfer coefficient. ܴ݁. (15) and Eq. Campos. Fin thermal resistances . 1990)’s correlation for the laminar and turbulent regions: For Re ≤ Re*. J. Kf: Fluid thermal conductivity. ቆ ቇ ܭ ଵൗ ଷ ܭ ܦ (14) For the convection coefficient it is not necessary to manipulate the correlation. After defining the equations for each resistance.

Resistances R2 and R5* are presented in Figure 3 for illustration purposes only. Kn: Fin thermal conductivity. 2006). Campos. with a corrected length (Lc) half of the total fin height. Rd: Conduction resistance. J. These are: ܴଵ ൌ ܴଷ ൌ 1 ݏൌ ݄ ܰ ݈ݏ ݄ ܰ 2 ݈ 2 ݐ 1 (17) ݐ ൗ2 ݐ ൌ ܴସ ൌ ݏ ܭ ܰ 2 ܮ 2. in this model. ݈. both fins are combined through a parallel representation. Brazil • • • • • R1: Convection from fluid to plate/fin base. R2: Convection from fluid to fin projection. Kp: Plate thermal conductivity. ܭ ܰ ܮݏ 2 • • • Nf: Total number of fins in the line (cold or hot). The other three resistances can be obtained directly from the model presented in Figure 2. & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. An additional model will be used for calculating this resistances. R3: Conduction through fin base. with a behavior very well known from literature. ܮ (21) . Therefore. Figure 4 presents this model and its parameters. it is possible to partition this fin into two equal parts. the following equations are required: ܮ ൌ ݄ 2 (20) ܣ ൌ 2. the real zshaped fin will be replaced by a T-shaped fin. the total equivalent fin resistance will be a combination of the convection and conduction resistances. ݐ ൌ ݏ ܭ ܰ 2 ܮ ܭ ܰ ݈ݏ 2 (18) (19) The vertical edge can be rearranged for applying a model proposed in (Incropera. • • Figure 4.2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng. Since the top of the fin. Fin thermal resistances Rv: Convection resistance. SP. R4: Conduction through half the plate thickness. is adiabatic. S. For this model. The decision to partition this fin is will require that later. R5*: Conduction through fin projection. In this model. 2009.

The last part is the model itself is models the heat exchange between the cold and hot fluids to/from the core mass. 3. Equivalent thermal circuit The equivalent thermal resistance from the fluid temperature to the mean pre-cooler mass temperature is: ܴ ܴଵ ܴହ ܴଷ ቁ ܴଵ ܴଵ ܴହ ൌ ܴସ ܴଵ ܴହ ܴଷ ܴଵ ܴଵ ܴହ ቀ (26) This equivalent resistance should be calculated for the cold and the hot side. Ra: ܴ ൌ 1 ݄. Campos. it is possible to define the half-fin thermal resistance. 2009. Brazil ݉ൌඨ ߝ ൌ ݄. as are the thermal resistances. Ra. . & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. ݈. core mass and cold fluid control volume. the basis of the model have been developed. and the dynamics of the temperature in this core. ݐ (22) (23) • • • • ݄݊ܽݐሺ݉ܮ ሻ ݉ܮ Lc: Corrected length Af: Heat exchanging surfaces m: Efficiency parameter ߝ : Fin efficiency Using this parameters. SP. S. as they model the heat transfer from each of this fluids to the heat exchanger mass. J. R5. DYNAMIC MODEL Until this point. and a total fin thermal resistance. a parallel combination of the fin thermal resistance. ܴ ܴ 1 1 ൌ ൌ ܴ ܴ 2 2 ݄. the mass flow can be calculated based on the heat exchanger geometry.2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng. ሺ݈ ݐ ሻ ܭ. 2. ܰ ܣ ߝ (24) ܴ . we are ready for creating an equivalent thermal circuit for the heat transfer through the fin. ܰ ܣ ߝ ܴହ ൌ ܴ //ܴ ൌ (25) With all the resistances defined. Figure 4. Figure 5 presents the representation of this model with three main parts: hot fluid control volume.

ത െ ܶ ሻሿ ൌ ݉ ሶ ܥ ሾܶ െ ሺ2. which is not dependant on the fluid outlet temperature. Proceeding to the core mass energy dynamics. (30) and (31) present the mean cold and hot fluid temperatures as a function of the mean core mass temperature and known parameters. Tho: Hot outlet temperature. to be obtained only as a function of the inlet temperatures of the fluids. suitable for use in the core mass dynamics equation. J. Thi: Hot inlet temperature. and therefore the core mass temperature. ܴ . since it allows the heat transfer. such as mass flow and equivalent thermal resistances (Rh and Rc). ݉ ሶ . (27) yields Eq. (28): ݉ ሶ ܥ ሺܶ െ ܶ ሻ ൌ ത ൌ ܶ ܶ ܶ 2 1 ത െܶ തெ ሻ ሺܶ ܴ (27) (28) The use of mean temperatures is of great importance in this model. Campos. ௗாೌ : Energy accumulated in the core mass. yielding Eq.c: Heat transferred from the core mass to the cold fluid. Core Heat Exchange Model • • • • • • • • • ݉ ሶ : Hot mass flow. qh. 2009. For avoiding unnecessary repetition. (27). but analog results can be obtained for the cold line (which will be presented at the end). (30): ത ൌ ܶ തெ ܶ (31) Eq. Representation of the heat is lost by the hot fluid due to the contact with the surface of the core mass is presented at Eq. ݉ ሶ . It should be noted here that all developments are based on mean temperature. SP.2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng. ܿ ሺܶ െ ܶ 1 2. Tco: Cold outlet temperature. & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. S.CM: Heat transferred from the hot fluid to the core mass. ܿ ሺܶ െ ܶ 1 2. ܴ . Tci: Cold inlet temperature. (29). ݉ ሶ . ܶ ത ൌ ܶ തெ ܶ 1 ത െܶ തெ ሻ ሺܶ ܴ (29) തெ ሻ 2. ܴ . in Eq. which is to be determined. ܿ (30) The same development can be performed for the cold line. qCM. (28) and replacing into Eq. which can then be rearranged for calculating the mean hot temperature. as defined in Eq. (30). ݉ ሶ : Cold mass flow. Brazil Figure 5. the following developments will be presented for the hot line. ܿ തெ ሻ 2. ௗ௧ This model now needs to be represented in a fashion suitable for use in a numerical simulation. it is defined as: . Isolating the hot outlet temperature in Eq. ݉ ሶ . It is required an expression for the mean hot temperature. ܴ .

. A. L. John Wiley and Sons. D. and the hot outflow temperature is then obtained using Eq. A. L. “Compact and Enhanced Heat Exchangers”. 489-496. . ܴ . M. (28) and (30). Spofford. (31) into Eq. R. ܴ . Journal Heat Transfer. CONCLUSION The model presented in this paper provides a simple solution. which would require the presence of many derivatives for observing the temperature distribution through width and height of the outflow. R. ܿ 2. for obtaining the derivative as a function only of fluid inlet temperature and the mean temperature of the core mass. vol. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Campos. RESPONSIBILITY NOTICE The authors are the only responsible for the material included in this paper. Hemisphere. ܿ. Shah. “Offset rectangular plate-fin surfaces – heat transfer and flow friction characteristics”. vol.. where only an approximated mean temperature provides enough information. E. ܿ (35) Integrating Eq. using only one derivative. ܴ . A. vol. H. Transactions of ASME. 90. ܿ തெ ݀ܧ ݀ܶ ൌ ݉ . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Embraer and ITA for the support during the development of this work. 1968. The drawback of the choice of a simple solution is the loss of more complex behaviors of the heat exchange. A. ݉ ሶ .2009 Brazilian Symposium on Aerospace Eng. such behaviors are not required for applications under which this model would be used. ݉ ሶ . the core mass temperature becomes available. such as stratification.. 1987. The result is presented in Eq.. Webb. ݉ ሶ . through the replacement of correlations and the equivalent thermal resistance circuits. ݉ ሶ . 440-441. (35): (34) തெ 2. F. “Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer”. “Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design”. R. Eq. However. for representing the behavior of a heat exchanger of complex geometry. J. 1942. 123-149. R. ܴ . even though important. K. the steps described here could be followed for developing representations of other geometries as well. (35) in time. Even though developed for an offset strip-fin geometry.. W. 64. ܿ ݀ܧ തெ ሻ തெ ሻ ሺܶ െ ܶ ሺܶ െ ܶ ൌ ݀ݐ 1 2. K. Norris.. pp.. Washington. New York. Shah.. 2009. ܿ. pp. REFERENCES Incropera. 2006.. 69-84.. 1990. After some manipulation. & Applications Copyright © 2009 by AAB 3rd CTA-DLR Workshop on Data Analysis & Flight Control September 14-16. Sekulic. Webb. ܿ 1 2. ൌ ݀ݐ ܴ ܴ ܴ ܴ (32) It is now required to replace Eq. R.. R. K. R. 97.. 8. 6. “The Thermal-Hydraulic Design of the Rectangular Offset-Strip-Fin Compact Heat Exchanger”. ݉ ሶ .ெ 1 2. the energy derivative should be replaced by the temperature derivative. Shah. vol. (33) presents the result: 2. 218-228. M. H. 1983. Manglik. P. (34). Hemisphere Publishing. ݉ ሶ . London.. Joshi. pp. R.. S. using Eq. ܿ 2. 1975. ܿ ݀ܶ 1 തெ ሻ തெ ሻ ሺܶ െ ܶ ሺܶ െ ܶ ൌ ቈ ݀ݐ ݉ . Heat Exchangers Theory and Practice. ݉ ሶ . Brazil ݀ܧ 1 1 1 1 ത െܶ ത ሻ െ ሺܶ ത െܶ ത ሻ ൌ ത െܶ ത ሻ ሺܶ ത െܶ ത ሻ ሺܶ ሺܶ ൌ ݍ. 7. “High-performance fins for heat transfer”. Wieting. Bergles. Compact Heat Exchangers.ெ ݀ݐ ݀ݐ (33) In the last step. “Heat transfer and friction in the offset strip-fin heat exchanger”. 488-490. (30) and Eq. pp. “Empirical Correlations for Heat Transfer and Flow Friction Characteristics of Rectangular Offset-fin Plate-fin Heat Exchangers”. ܿ 1 2.ெ െ ݍெ. (32). P. ASME Journal of Engineering for Power. ݉ ሶ . 30. 5. 2003. John Wiley and Sons. L. SP.

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