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Practical 3 Aim Materials Apparatus Procedure: 1. Using a measuring cylinder, pour 200 cm3 of water into a copper can.

2. Place the copper can on a tripod stand. 3. Measure and record the initial temperature of the water. 4. Place a windshield as shown in Figure 3 5. Pour 50 cm3 of kerosene into a spirit lamp and record the mass of the lamp and its contents. 6. Put the lamp under the copper can as shown in Figure 3 and immediately light up the wick of the lamp. 7. Stir the water throughout the experiment. 8. Put off the flame when the temperature of the water increases by 30oC. Record the highest temperature reached by the water. 9. Immediately, weigh and record the mass of the lamp and its contents. 10. Repeat steps 1 to 9 using wax (candle). 11. Repeat step 1 to 9 using LPG. : To determine the fuel values for kerosene, LPG and wax : Kerosene, LPG (Laboratory gas) and wax (candle) : Copper can, tripod stand, thermometer (0-100)oC, 100 cm3 measuring cylinder, spirit lamps, electronic balance, pipe-clay triangle, windshield, wooden block.

Figure 3: To determine the fuel values for kerosene, LPG and wax

Results:

Initial temperature of water (oC) : Highest temperature of water (oC) : Increase in the temperature (oC) :.. Mass of lamp before burning (g): Mass of lamp after burning (g): Mass of kerosene burnt (g):.

Questions:

1. State the six factors that affect the selection of a fuel to be used in industries. (6m) 2. If you are given wax, kerosene and LPG, which one would you choose to use for your camping trip for cooking your meals? Explain. (4m) 3. If a LPG contains only butane and propane, write equations for the combustion of these two hydrocarbons. (2m) 4. Explain why the fuel values obtained are less than the theoretical values. (3m)

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