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# Chapter19 DCElectricalCircuits

TopicsinChapter19
EMFandTerminalVoltage ResistorsinSeriesandParallel KirchhoffsRules EMFsinSeriesandParallel;ChargingaBattery CircuitswithCapacitorsinSeriesandinParallel RCCircuitsResistorandCapacitorinSeries

EMFandTerminalVoltage
Electriccircuitneedsbatteryorgeneratorto producecurrentthesearecalledsourcesofemf. ABatteryisanearlyconstantvoltagesource, butdoeshaveasmallinternalresistance,which reducestheactualvoltagefromtheidealemf:

EMFandTerminalVoltage
Thisresistancebehavesasthoughitwerein serieswiththeemf.

ResistorsinSeriesandinParallel
Aseriesconnectionhasasinglepathfromthe battery,througheachcircuitelementinturn, thenbacktothebattery.

ResistorsinSeries
Thecurrentthrougheachresistorisidentical;but thevoltageacrosseachdependsonitsresistance. Thesumofthevoltagedropsacrosstheresistors equalsthebatteryvoltage.

=IReqequivalentresistance

ResistorsinParallel
Aparallelconnectionsplitsthecurrent;the voltageacrosseachresistoristhesame:

ResistorsinParallel
Thetotalcurrentisthesumofthecurrents flowingthrougheachresistor. TheVoltageacrosseachisthesame.

KirchhoffsRules
Somecircuitscannotbebrokendownintoseries andparallelconnections.Thesesituationsareabit morecomplicatedbutfollowcertainrules.

KirchhoffsRules
TheJunctionrule:Thesumofcurrentsenteringa junctionequalsthesumofthecurrentsleavingit.
JunctionEqforpt.a) gives

I3=I1+I2
Otherpts.giveeither thesameequation,or aretrivial. Getn1differentEq fornjunctions

KirchhoffsRules
Looprule:Thesumof thechangesinpotential (orV)arounda closedloopiszero.
Req=400+290=690 I=V/Req=12/690=0.0174A Vab=IR1=0.0174x400=6.96V Vbc=IR2=0.0174x290=5.04V TheLoopRulegivestheEq. VIR IR =0

KirchhoffsRules
ProblemSolving:UseofKirchhoffsRules 2. Labeleachcurrent(youcanguessdirections). 3. Identifyunknowns. 4. Applyjunctionandlooprules;youneedas manyindependentequationsasthereare unknowns. 5. Solvetheequations,beingcarefulwithsigns. 6. Ifthesolutiongivesacurrentasminus,this simplymeansyourdirectionguesswaswrong.

EMFsinSeries
EMFsinseriesinthesamedirection:thetotal voltageisthesumoftheseparatevoltages

EMFsinSeries:ChargingaBattery
EMFsinseries,oppositedirection:totalvoltageis thedifference,butthelowervoltagebatterygets chargedascurrentflows.

EMFsinParallel
ConnectingEMFsinparallelissensibleonlyifthe voltagesarethesame;thisarrangementcanoften producemorecurrentthanasingleemf.

CircuitsContainingCapacitors: CapacitorsinParallel
Capacitorsinparallelwill havethesamevoltage acrosseachone: Totalchargeadds,and

CapacitorsinSeries

CapacitorsinSeries

RCCircuits: ResistorandCapacitorinSeries
Whentheswitchisclosed,thecapacitorwillbegin tocharge.WhenfullychargedQo=C

and = 0 .

RCCircuits: ResistorandCapacitorinSeries
Thevoltageacrossthecapacitorincreaseswithtime asanexponentialapproachtotheappliedemf.

ChargefollowsasimilarcurvesinceQ=CV

Thesecurveshavea characteristictimeconstant

RCCircuitsDischargeofaCapacitor
Ifanisolatedchargedcapacitorisconnectedacross aresistor,itdischargeswiththesametimeconstant. e 1~3/8isagood
approximationto get quickly

SummaryofChapter19
Asourceofemftransformsenergyfromsome otherformtoelectricalenergy Abatteryisasourceofemfinserieswithan internalresistance Forresistors inSeries orinparallel

SummaryofChapter19
OhmsLawcanbeappliedtosimpleresistance networksusingReq.Formorecomplicatedcircuits itisnecessarytoapplyamorecomplicatedsetof rulestotheanalysisofcurrentflow. Kirchhoffsrules: 1. sumofcurrentsenteringajunctionequals sumofcurrentsleavingit 2. totalpotentialdifferencearoundclosed loopiszero

SummaryofChapter19
Capacitorsinparallel:

Capacitorsinseries:

RCcircuithasacharacteristictimeconstant: