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# 12

M
5 WL2
Sa=-=
z
4Z

## In order to have a workable set of pipe-span tables or to

find an allowable span that will require a minimum of
at Sh/2. This eliminates the need for checking the sum of
(Sh = allowable stress at maximum temperature, ASA
Code B31.1 and B31.3.)
The formula used to determine the maximum spans in
the tables (Tables 12-1 through 12-9) is a mean between a
uniformly loaded beam simply supported at both ends and
a uniformly loaded beam with both ends fixed. This mean
formula most nearly depicts the conditions actually existing in a refinery. (See Figure 12-1.)
By inspection, if the two moment diagrams in Figure
12-1 are superimposed, the point of the maximum bending moment will still be at mid-span.

or

## Maximum allowable pipe deflection between supports

must not exceed 1 in. or 1/2 the nominal pipe diameter.
whichever is the smaller. This is the basic piping practice:
however, it is subject to compliance with the customer's
specification.
The formula used to determine the deflections in Tables
12-1 through 12-9 is a mean between a uniformly loaded
beam simply supported at both ends and a uniformly
loaded beam with both ends fixed. (See Figure 12-2.)
In order to maintain homogeneous units, " Lh must be in
in. and "W" must be in lbs/ in ., however, for ease of handling we wish to have " L" in ft and "W" in lb/ft, which
we must now convert to inch units. The preceding equation becomes:

+ -wu)
(wu
8
24

A safety factor of 1.25 is required because of the discrepancy between theoretical assumption and the actual
field situation.
5WU
48

## In order to maintain homogeneous units, "L" must be in

lb/in.; however, for ease of handling we wish to have " L"
in feet and "W" in lb/ft, which we must now convert to
inch units. Thus the preceding equation becomes:

swv

M = -48

## Pipe-Span Deflection Limits

Mean = M = 112 -

wv 5
M=--X12
4

~ ~0.8 Z f,

""

5WU
4

WL4
13.5WL4
= -- =
128EI
EI

13.5WU
EI
(Text continued on page 320

314

## Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables

Fixed Ends

Simply Supported

a~:=:~~~-L.~IIIII ~
___. :___. . .,___~ - .~

-.

.,.>

_j_ !---~..,.....--- . . - -

>

..LL.---~~--,.
>

L
2

Shear

_j_

,I

Moment

Fixed Ends

Simply Supported

V = WL

V = WL
2

Mmax =

2
WL2

WL2

24

Figure 12-1 . Diagram showing how stress limits are determined by figuring the
mean between a uniformly loaded beam supported at both ends and a uniformly
loaded beam with both ends fixed .

Fixed Ends

Simply Supported

~ 1 = 5WL

.:12 =

384EI
Mean:

~1

+ ~2
2

WL4
384EI

3WL4
384EI

Figure 12-2. Diagram showing how deflection limits are determined by figuring
the mean between a uniformly loaded beam supported at both ends and a uniformly loaded beam with both ends fixed .

315

## Piping Stress Handbook

316

Table 12-1
Piping Spans Based on the Following Carbon Steel Materials: Seamless A53 Gr. A, A106 Gr. A, API
SL Gr. A; Welded A53 Gr. B, API SL Gr. B, A1 55 C55 Class 2
201"F-600"F with Commodity
(f,
6,175 psi)

(f, = 7,650 psi)

Pipe
Size

3/4"
I

1-1 /2 "
2"
2'

3"
4"
6"
B'
10"
10"
12"
12"
i4'
14"
.!.'

! tl"
18
18"
20"

SCH.

80
80
80
40
8U
40
40
40
40
20
_40

20
STD .
JO
STD.
10
SJ!J.
10
STD.
10

Maximum
Span

17 ' - 6"
20 -0"
24 ' -0"
26' -0'
2~ -6"
31 -6.
34 -6"
4U - 6"
4~ - 0"
45 -0"
49 -6
47 - 0"
!lZ -0"
47 -6"
53 -6'
48 -6'
5~' - 0
49 - 6"
5b - b'

50 -6"

Recommended
Span

Defl .

1-13 16"*
1- 131 '16"*
1-13, '16"*
1-3, I" *
*
1-~
-3 4" *
1-4 '16" ..
1-l rz *
1- '16" ...
8" *

-- ( IJ'

- 3 '16"
- 1/4"

*
*
*

..

-1/4" *
/8"
-1/B" *
13/16"
- 1/16" ..
3 4.

12' -0"
14 -6"
19' -0"
23 -0"
23'-0
27 -6'
31 -0"
3/ -0"
41 -6"
44 ' -0"
4l>' -:-0'
45 ' -6"
44 ' -0"
46 -b"
51 -0"
46 ' -6"

Defl.

3/8"
1/ 2'
l/4"
I"

26'-6
29 -6"
J5 - 0"
39 ' - 6"
39 ' -C

1"
l"

~. -

j_

40 -c
45 -6

1"
1"
1{8

1" ..
3/4"

47 -6"
55 - 6"
47' -6 '

14' -0"
15 -b'
19 -6"
21 - 0"

E-

1
1"

53 ':'tl'

Maximum
Span

11 /1 6"
1"

~8

4!.

## Weight of Water, Minimum Insulation

Recommended
Span

Defl.

7/8" *
7/8" *
1"
7/8'

11 ' -0"
13 -6 '
18 -0'
20 -0"

..

__]

1"
1"
/ I!'

'8"
8'
jf~

5 '8"
1 / 16"

-b'

';)f.l!"

4b'-6"
42 -6"
48 -0'
43 - 6"
49 -6"
..'!_4 ' - 0'

3/4"
1/2"
3 ' 4'
1 ( 2"
5/ 8"
l ' 2'

25 ' -6"
27 -6'
33 -0"
39 -o
36 ' -6"
40 -b'
56 -6 "
43 -0"
37 - 6"
44' -0"
38 ' -0"
45 -0"
39 -6'

Defl.

3/8"
1/2 "
3/4'
3/ 4'
/ 8'
1/ 8"
3/ 4"
3/ 4"
7/B"
9/16"
/16'
1/16'
11/16"
7/ 16"
~/ 8"

3/ 8"
9/16'
3/ 8"

4~--6 "

1!2''

41'-D"

3/ 8"

!I
Exceeds maximu m deflec tion.

## Courtesy of Power Piping Company.

Table 12-2
Piping Spans Based on the Following Stainless Steel Pipe Materials: Seamless A3 12 TP316, A312
TP317, A430 FP316H , A376 TP317
201 " F-600 F with Commodity
(f, = 8.550 PSI)

(f,
9,375 psl)

Pipe
Size

SCH.

Maximum
Span

Defl.

Recommended
Span

Defl.

..

Maximum
Span

Recommended
Span

De fl.

..
1"

..
*

..

Defl .

7/ 8"

## Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables

Table 12-3
Piping Spans Based on the Following Stainless Steel Pipe Materials: Seamless A213 TP304L, A312
TP304L, A376 TP304, A430 FP304H
" 200" F with Water, No Insulation
(f, = 7,650 psi)

Pipe
Size SCH.

Maximum
Span

Defl.

Recommended
Span

## 201"F-600F with Commodity

(f, = 5,800 p si)

Defl.

Maximum
Span

Defl.

## Weight of Water, Minimum Insulation

Recommended
Span

Defl.

----------~----------------~--------------------~--------------------~------------

2-1!16"
2-1 /16' 1

12'-0"
14 1 -0"

14' -0

11

22 ' -6"

3/8"

l/2 11

3/4"
1"

15'-0"11

3/4" *
7/8 11 *

20' -0"

13/16"

12'-6"

l8 ' -6

7/B" *
15/16"

11 /16"

10' - 6"

13' -0"

17 1 -6"
14' - 0"
20' - 0"
21 I -6"

10"

12''
12"

14 11

## Courtesy of Power Piping Company.

Table 12-4
Piping Spans Based on the Following Stainless Steel Pipe Materials: Seamless A213 TP304L, A312
TP304L
~ 200"F

## with Water, No Insulation

(f, = 7,650 p si)

Pipe
Size

SCH.

Maximum
Span

Defl.

(f, = 4,500 psi)

Recommended
Span
Defl.

Maximum
Span

Defl.

Recommended
Span

Defl.

317

## Piping Stress Handbook

318

Table 12-5
Piping Spans Based on the Following Nickel Pipe Material: Seamless B161 Annealed
i!:200"F with Water, No Insulation
(1,
4 ,000 psi)

(f, 1,000 psi)

Pipe
Size
3/4"
1"
1-1 /2"

2
3"
4"
b''
8"
10"
10"
12'
12"
14"
_li''
1b'
16"
18"
_II!"
20'

20"
24"
4'
30"

SCH.
80
80
80
40
80
40
'10
40
40
20
40
20

Maximum
Span
12 '-0"
13 -6"
6 -0"
17 -b'
18 -0"
21 -6"
2~

STD

10
10
STD

10

:SID
10
20
10
2L
55

10'0"
12 -6"
15 -6"
lb' -b'
16 -6"

1/2"
1/2"
1/2"
1/Z'

/2"
'2"

~~

-IJ'

I(>"

28' -0"
3 -6"
3 -6"
34 -b'
32 -b'
..
31

16'
/8"
5 '16"

-,

j,

__:,_1_0

Recommended
Span

Defl.

--

_3
}"
3
33'-6"
!::>' - o
_39' -6"
35' -b"
40'-6"
36'-6"
_42_ -_u
37 -6"

-b'

_2_2 -0
2b' ~o
29' -6"
29' - 6"
_3~ -b'
3 1 ~o
34 - 6"
31 -6"
~:, - 6
32 -6'
36'-6"
33' - 0"
_38 -0
34' ~o
39' - 0
35' -0"
40' -0
Jb ' - 0.

r'_l!''

lb"
/8"
3/8"
~

4
16"
4"
'I(>"

/4"
5/16"
3.'16"
/4'
3/16"

Maximum
Span

Deft.
3 8"
1.'2"
1.12"
ljZ_
112"
'2"
lb'
' I(>'

8"
5/16"
~{8'

!l/lb'
3, 8"
5/16"
_318
1/4"
5 '16"
1 14"
' If)

114'
5/16'
3/16"
'4'
3/ l b'

10'-0"
12 -0"
15 - 0"
_16 ~o
17 -0"
20' -o
2J' -0
21 -0"
37'-0"
38'-0"
33 -o
31 -!)'
35 ' -0"
32 -0"
!b' -0'
33' -o
17 -6'
34' -0"
;sa -6'
34' ~6'
39 ' -6"
35 -6"
4

37 -0"

Recommended
Span

Dell.

9' - 6"
11 - 6.
_14 - 0"
1:, -o
16 -0"
~ -6'
22 :U"
26 -o
28 -0'
28 -0'
3 1 - o"
29 - 0"
33 ' - 0'
30 -0"
34 -()'
31 -0"
35 - 6"
J2 -0"
37 -ll'
33 -o
38 - 0"
34 - 0"
39 ' - o
35' -o

3/8"
3/8'
7/16
lf8'

7!16"
lb'
I~

3/ B'
3/8"
5/16"
3/B'
_I 14'
318 "
14"
' 16
14"
'16 "
1.14"
:l/ 1b'
114'
114"
3 '16"
14'
16"

De fl.
3/8"
3/8"
If 6"

6"
16"
6'
8"
3 8'
5/16"
3 8'
I ' 4"
3 8"
1 14 '
' 16'
1 14"
5 '16"
1 14 ..

' If>'
lf4'
1 14 ..
3 16"
14''
1b"

## Courtesy of Power Piping Company.

Table 12-6
Piping Spans Based on the Following Aluminum Pipe Material: Seamless B241 Gr. 3003 H112
<: 200"F with Water, No Insulation
(f, .. 4,000 psi)

Pipe
Size
3/ 4"
1
1-1 /2"
2
3"
4"

6''
8"
IU'

10
12"
12"

12'-0"
13 -0"
15' -6"

7 16"

11 ' - 0"

16"
/8"

15'~'

5 ' I(>'
18"
~ '16"
lb'
' 4"
14"
lb'
14"
1 'll'
3 16
1 18"
6"

13' -0"
15' -0"
15' -o
16' -6'
18' -6"

80
80
!0
I{)_

17 -0"
18 -6"
2u - u
23 -o
25' -0"

0
40
40
40
20
40
20

STO
IU

14"
16"
b'

STO

I_!!'

()

8"
20"
20"

10

24"
30 II

Recommended
Span

Maximum
Span

1_4'

24"

Dell.

SCH.

IU

TD

TO
l

10
20

5S

(f, = 1,750 psi)

23'~

27 -0"
24 -o
28 -0'
24' -0"
8 -6"
~~~ '

8 -(>'
~4 ' -6"
29 -0"
Z:> -b'
29 -(>'
25' -0"
_29 -6"
25 I -0II

.~

18"
Ill'

zu-

3 8"
7.'16"
3/8"

:,/If>"
3/8"
5 '16"
lb'

22 -0"
24' -0"
zz_ -6
25' -0"
23' -0"
25 -U"
23' - 0"

Maximum
Span

Dell.

2
2!l
23 ~5 - 0"

114"
1 14"
'!_b_'

1/4"
1 13"
18
liB"
8
Ill'

'16"
18"

~~~ -

8
' 16"
118"

~5

6' -6"
8 -0"
10 - 0"
10 ' -b"
11 -6"
13 -0"
14 -b'
II' -0'
18 -6"
J7 -b'
20 ' - 6"
18' -0"
21 -u
18'-0"
-6"
-b'

:_1)_"

-0"
25 -0"
I
24 -0

6"
/8"
II

1/8"
I 8"
118"
I 8
1 18"
Ill'
Ill'
I 8

16"
6
16"
16"
' lb"
'16"

~0"

-6"
22'-0"
~~

~4

Dell.

-u

_2_2_' ~
19' -0'
23'-0"
19 I -6 II

5"

6"
b'
,fl"

6'
'16"
1/16 II

Recommended
Span
6'-6"
7 -6"
9 ' -6"
10' -u
1 -0"
3 -0"
14' -u
16 -0
17 -6"
1b' -b'
19 -6'
17 -0"
2ll 17 -0"
0 -6"
-b'
~I -0
I B ' -0"
21 -6"
Ill ~

18 - (}''_
22' -0'
18 I -6 II

Dell.
1 8"
I 18 "
1 18"
8"
1 18'
1 8'
Ill'
r'_l!''

'16'
'16"
1 16"
'16"
16"
I ' l b'
'16'
lb'
II_(>'
I ' lb'

'16"
'16"
lb'
')_(>'

16"
II

## Allowable Pipe Span Formulas and Tables

Table 12-7
Piping Spans Based on the Following Aluminum Pipe Material: Seamless 8241 Gr. 6061 T6
201 ' F-400"F with Commodity :a Weight of Water, Minimum Insulation
(f, = 2,000 p si)

## ;;. 200"F with Water, No Insulation

(f, = 3,000 p si)

Pipe
Size

SCH.

Maximum
Span

Recommended
Span

Defl.

Defl.

Maximum
Span

Recommended
Span

Defl.

9'-6"

3/4"

3 8"

1/ ..

11' -6"
14' -0 11
14' -0"
18' -6"
20' -6"
24'-0"

3"

Defl.

1!2"

7/ l6"
l/2"

1/2"
7/16"
3/8"
1/4"
3/8' 1

8"

1011
10"

~~::

## Courtesy of Power Piping Company.

Table 128
Piping Spans Based on the Following Aluminum Pipe Materials: Seamless 8210, 8234, and 8235
Gr. 6061 T4, 8241 Gr. 3003 H18
200" F with Water, No Insulation

(f, 2 950 psi)

Pipe
Size

3/4"

1"

J-1/2"
2::
3"
4"

SCH.

80
80

~~

40
40
40
40

2o

40
20
STD

nolO

Maximum
Span

17'-0"
19'-0"

n::~::
26 -6"
1

28'-6"
32 1 -6"

35'-6"
33:-0"
38 -6"
33 1 -6"11
39 ' -6
34'-6"

~~: =~::

Defl.

Recommended
Span
Defl.

1-3/4" *
1-3/4" *

3/8"
1/2"

9'-0"

11'-0 11

n:=z::

15 ' -6 11
18' -0"
20'-0"
23'-6 11
25' -0 11

l-1/4" *
1-3/16"*
1"

15/16"

9/1611
3/4
1/2 "

Maximum
Span

~~: =~::

24'-6"
28'-6"
24'-6"

11

~k~::

Recommended
Span

Defl.

5/16"
3/8"

s-6"

7/16"
3/S"

5/16"

14'-6"
17 ' -0"
19' -0 11
22'-0"
23'-6"

3/16"
174"
3/16 11

23'-011
27'-0 11
25'-0"

~~a::
3;8"

5/16''

m~

m~~~

10' -6"

g:=~::

~2:-f
6II

g:=z::

20

1::4''

24"

20

30"

~s

41'-6"
35'-0"
_11_<:: -0"
3~'

- b'

5/ 16"
3/8"
7!16"
5/16"
7/16"
3/ 8"

3;8"

5!16"
5/16"
~/4 "

/16"
3/16"
1/ 4"
1/2"
1/4 11
3/16"
/ 4"

-6

20 11

Defl.

1/ 8"

7/l!)'

40'-0"
33 '-6"
'I_D -0"

1/4"

33 ' -Q'

1/2 11
~/lb'

3/B"3/16"
3/8
1/8

30'-6"
26 -0"
31 -0
26 -b'

3 16"
8"
3 16"

I (8"

28'-0"
24 -0"
28 ' -0"
l4 -b'

3/1 6"
1/B"
3/16"
_1/8'

319

320

## Piping Stress Handbook

Table 12-9
Piping Spans Based on the Following Red Brass Pipe Material: Seamless 8 43
201"F-600"F with Commodity = Weight of Water, Minimum Insulation
(f,
4,000 psi)

~ 200" F

(f, = 1,500 psi)

Pipe
Size

1 2"

SCH.

2
ST!Y

l ~'

14"
16"

T6"

18'
18
0"
20
24 II

24
30"
11

STO
10

10
STD

lU
20
10

20
5\$

Maximum
Span

--0.
36 -6"
33 -6'
37 -6"
34 -6'
38 -b'
35 ' -0"
39 -6'
3~ - 6
40 6"
36 I -6 II
1

42 1 -0"11
37 -6

Defl.

71

1/2"
3/8"
1/2
3/8'
7/16"
5/16
7/16"
5/16"
3/8'
1/4 II
3/8 11

1/411

Recommended
Span

Maximum
Span

Defl.

1 -0
34 - 6"
31 - 6"

112"
3, 8"

1 - 611
17 - 6
16 - 0'

:t~ -~

ICl

1!1 -

32 - 6"
32 -6"
33 38 - 0"
36 -0
39 :__U'
35 I -0II
40 I -011

36 1 -011

3 8"
7 ' 16"

~'Jil''

7,' 16
5,' 16"
3 8"
1/4 II

3/8

11

1/4 11

J Jb'

1 '16"
ib'

1b -6'
18 - 6"
17' -0"
I~

Recommended
Span

Defl.

-0

' 16"

1!1 -U"

'16'

16 -0"

'!ll

18 1 -6"

17 -0"
-6"

'!6

17 -0"
1!1'_ :Q_"
17 I -6 II
20 1 -6"

_!_!)_~
1~ -0'

_1_!1 -b'

Defl.

6"
16"
1/16"
1 '16"

-, T6"
'16'
'16"

Hi,_

' 16"
1 16 '

J b -6'

II

19 -0"
17 I -0II

Hl6'
~
1/16 II

l/16"
1/16"

20 1 -0"
17 1 -6 11

1/ 16"

1/16"

## where Ss = Longitudinal bending stress, psi

= Maximum deflection, in.
w = Weight of pipe, including commodity and
insulation if any, lb/ft
L = Length of span, ft
E = Hot modulus of elasticity of pipe, psi
I = Moment of inertia of pipe, in.4
z = Section modulus of pipe, in. 3
fs = Unit stress = Sh/2, psi . Sh per ASA Code
B31.3
To solve for an allowable pipe span with a known deflection, use the following formula:

L=~

Tables 12-10 through 12-12 can be used to calculate
The wind pressure (P) in lb/ft2 on a flat surface normal
to the direction the wind for any given velocity (V) in
miles/hr is given quite accurately by the formula
P = 0.004V2
Table 12-11 gives the pressure per square foot on a flat
surface normal to the direction of the wind for different
velocities as calculated by the preceding formula.
The design wind pressure at the location of a given
pipeline should be applied to the projected area of the out-

W = (P) (Cs) (D)
144

where P

c.
W

## Design wind pressure, lb/ft2

Shape factor (See Table 12-12)
Outside diameter of pipe (or insulation),
in.
Wind load (lb/in) pounds per linear foot of
pipe

## The design wind pressure depends on the location of the

vessel or stack. The U .S.A. Standard Building Code Requirements for Minimum Design Loads, in Buildings and
Other Structures, A58.1-1972, and the Uniform Building
Code include a table showing wind pressure at various
heights, and a map where these values apply.
More tables have been developed according to wind velocity in miles/hr, wind pressure lb/ft2 , with reference to a
pipe outside diameter. These tables are very useful for
computer data input to model uniform wind load on piping.

Table 12-12
Shape Factors

Table 12-10
Official Designations of Winds
Designation

Calm
Light wind
Gentle wind
Moderate wind
Fresh wind
Strong wind
Gale
Whole gale
Hurricane

Less than 1
l to 7
8 to 12
13 to 18
19 to 24
25 to 38
39 to 54
55 to 75
Above 75

Surface

General Use

Cylinder

## Towers, stacks, drums, tanks,

exchangers, piping, etc.
Piers for towers and drums
Tanks
Open signs
Solid signs
Closed buildings, framing, and
com. parts
Frames, open-type structure

Octagon
Sphere
Flat

Prism

## * Beaufort Wind Scale, U.S. Weather Bureau.

Table 12-11
Pressure per Sq Ft on a Flat Surface Normal to the
Direction of the Wind
Velocity
(miles/hr!

Pressure
(lb/ft2)

Corresponding
To

10
20
30
40
50
60
80
100

0 .4
1.6
3.6
6.4
10.0
14.4
25.6
40.0

Gentle wind
Fresh wind
Strong wind
Gale
Gale
Whole gale
Hurricane
Violent hurricanes

321

Shape
Factor

0.6
0.80
0.60
1.60
1.40
1.30
1.60 Open plan
0.80 Sec. plan
0.00 Other
plan

322

Table 12-13

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

61

71

80

86

93

100

106

112

117

2.375

.14

.19

. 24

.29

.H

.39

.4 4

. 49

. 54

3.50

.21

. 29

.36

43

.Sl

.58

.65

72

.eo

4.00

.25

.33

.41

.so

.58

.66

.74

.83

.91

. 37

46

56

.65

75

84

. 93

1.03

Pressi
lb/ft
Wind

Velocity
Hiles/ RR

4.500
5.563

.46

. 57

. 69

.81

.92

1.04

1.15

1 . 27

6 . 625

.41

.55

. 68

.82

96

1.10

1.23

1.38

1.51

8.625

. 53

.71

. 89

1.07

1.25

1.44

1.61

1. 79

1.97

10.750

.67

. 89

1.11

1.34

1. 56

l . 79

2.01

2.39

1.46

12.7 50

7 9 1.06

1.32

1.59

1.85

2 . 12

1.38

2.65

2. 92

14

.87 1.16

1.45

l. 75

2. 04

2 . 33

2.61

2. 91

3.20

2 . 99

3 . 33

3.66
4.12

16

1.00 1.33

1.66

2.00

2.33

2.67

18

1.12 1.49

1.87

2 . 25

2.62

3 .00

3.36

3.74

20

1.25 1.66

2.08

2.50

2 . 91

3. 34

3. 74

4 . 16

4.58

22

1.37 1. 83

2.28

2.75

3 . 20

3.67

4.11

4 . 58

5 . 04

24

1.50 1.99

2.49

3.00

3 . 45

4 . 00

4.48

4 .99

5.45

26

1.62 2.16

2.70

3.25

3.79

4.34

4.86

5.45

5.95
6.41

28

1. 75 2.33

2.91

3.50

4.08

4 .67

5.23

5. 83

30

1.87 2.49

3.12

3. 75

4 .37

5.01

5.61

6.25

6 . 87

32

2.00 2.66

3.32

4.00

4. 66

5.34

5.98

6.66

7.33

34

2. 12

2.83

3 . 53

4.25

4.95

5 . 67

6.35

7.08

7.78

36

2.25

2.99

3.74

4.50

5 . 24

6.01

6 . 73

7 . 49

8.24

38

2.37

3.16

3.95

4. 75

5.54

6.34

7.10

7 .91

8 . 70

40

2.50

3.33

4.16

5.00

5.83

6.68

7. 48

8. 33

9 .16

42

2.62

3.49

4. 36

5 . 25

6.12

7.01

7.85

8.74

9.62

44

2 . 75

3.66

4 .57

5.5 0

6.41

7.34

8.22

9.16 10.08

46

2.87

3.83

4.78

5.75

6.70

7,68

8 . 60

9.58 10 . 53
9.99 10.99

48

3.00

3 .99

4.99

6.00

6.99

8 . 01

8.97

50

3 .12

4.16

5.20

6.25

7.29

8 . 35

9 . 35

10 . 41 11 . 45

52

3.25

4.33

5.40

6.50

7.58

8.68

9.72

10 . 83 11 . 91

54

3 . 37

4.49

5.61

6 . 75

7.87

9.01 10 . 09

11.24 12.37

56

3.50

4 . 66

5.82

7.00

8 . 16

9 . 35 10.47

11 . 66 12 . 82

58

3 . 62

4.83

6 . 03

7 .25

8 . 45

9.68 10 . 84

12. 08 1 3.28

60

3.75

4.99

6.24

7.50

8 . 74

10.02 11 . 22

12.49 13.74

62

3 . 87

5.16

6.44

7.75

9.03

10 .3 5 11.59

12. 91 14.20

64

4 . 00

5.33

6.65

.008

9.33

10.68 11.96

13.33 14.66

66

4.12

5.49

6 . 86

8.25

9 . 62

11.02 12 .34

Table 12-13

r~n~~
Wind
Velocity
Miles/ HR

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

122

127

132

137

141

146

150

154

158

2.375

. 59

.64

.69

.7 4

79

.84

.89

. 94

. 98

3. 50

87

.94

1.02

1.09

1.16

1.23

1.31

1.38

1.45

4 . 00

1.00

1.08

1.16

1.25

1.33

1.41

1.50

1.58

1.66

4.500

1.12

1.21

1.31

1.40

1.49

1.59

1.68

1. 78

1.87

6.525

1.65

1. 79

1.93

2 .07

2.20

2.34

2.48

2.62

2. 76

a:

8.625

2.15

2 . 33

2.51

2.69

2.87

3.05

3.32

3.41

3.59

"'....X

10.750

2.68

2.91

3.13

3.35

3.58

3 . so

4.03

4.25

4.47

12 .70

3.18

3.45

3 .71

3.99

4.24

4.51

4.78

5 . 02

5.31

"'

14

3.50

3. 79

4.08

4.37

.4 .66

4 . 95

5.25

5.54

5.83

"'
Q
Q

."'"'
"'

16

4. 00

4.33

4.66

5.00

5.33

5 .66

6.00

~.33

6.66

18

4. 50

4.87

5.25

5 .6 2

5 . 99

6.37

6.75

7.12

7.50

20

5.00

5.41

5.83

6.25

6 .66

7.08

7.50

7.91

8.33

22

5.50

5.95

6.41

6.87

7.33

1. 79

8.25

8. 70

9.16

24

6 . 00

6.49

7.00

7 . 50

7.99

8.49

9.00

9 . 49

10.00

26

6.50

7 . 048

7.54

8 . 12

8.66

9 . 20

9.75

10.29

10 . 83
11.66

28

7.00

7.58

8.16

8.75

9 .33

9.91

10.50

11 . 08

30

7.50

8.12

8. 75

9.37

9.99

10.62

11.25

11.87

12. 50

32

8 .oo

8.66

9.33

10 .00

10.66

11.33

12.00

12.66

13.33

34

8.50

9.20

9.91

10.62

11.33

12.03

12.75

13.45

14.16

36

9.00

9 . 74

10.50

11.25

11 . 99

12 .74

13 .5

14.24

15 . 00

39

9.50

10.29

11.08

11.87

12.66

13.45

14.25

15.04

15.83

40

10 .0

10.83

11.66

12.50

1 3.3

14.1

14 .oo

15.83

16 . 66

42

10.5

11.37

12.25

13 . 1 2

13.99

14 .87

15.75

16.62

17 .so

44

11.0

11.91

12.83

1 3.75

14.66

15.58

16.5

17.41

18.33

46

u .s

12.45

13.41

14.37

15.33

15.28

17.25

18.20

19.16

45

12 . 0

12 . 994 14.00

15 . 00

15.99

16.99

18 . 00

18.99

20.00

50

12 . 5

13.54

14.58

15.62

16 . 66

17.70

18.75

19.79

20.83

52

13.0

14.08

15 .16

16 .2 5

17.33

18.41

19.50

20.58

21 .66

54

13 .5

14 . 62

15.75

16.87

17.99

19.12

20.25

21.37

22.50

56

14 . 0

15.16

16.33

17.50

18 . 66

19.82

21.00

22 .16

23.22

58

14.5

15.70

16.91

18 . 12

19 . 33

20 .53

21.75

22.95

24.16

60

15 . 0

16.24

17.50

18 . 75

19.99

21 . 24

22.50

23.74

25.00

62

15.5

16.78

18.08

19.37

20.66

21.95

23 .25

24.53

25 . 83

64

16.0

17.33

18.66

20 .00

21.33

22 . 66

24.00

25.33

26 . 66

17.87

19 .25

20.62

21.99

23.27

24 . 75

26.12

27 .50

66

15.5

323