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Android Development Tutorial

Android Development Tutorial

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Published by: Nandkumar Khachane on Aug 06, 2013
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  • 1.1. Android Operation System
  • 1.2. Google Play
  • 1.3. Security and permissions
  • 2.1. Activity
  • 2.2. Views and ViewGroups
  • 2.3. Intents
  • 2.4. Services
  • 2.5. ContentProvider
  • 2.6. BroadcastReceiver
  • 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
  • 2.8. Other
  • 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
  • 3.3. How to develop Android Applications
  • 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml
  • 4.2. R.java and Resources
  • 4.3. Assets
  • 4.4. Activities and Layouts
  • 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files
  • 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle
  • 4.7. Configuration Change
  • 4.8. Context
  • 5.1. Eclipse
  • 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK
  • 5.4. Manually install Android SDK
  • 5.5. Install a specific Android version
  • 5.6.1. As of Android 4.0
  • 5.6.2. Prior to Android 4.0
  • 6.1. What is the Android Emulator?
  • 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD
  • 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts
  • 6.4. Performance
  • 6.5. Hardware button
  • 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device
  • 8.1. Clean Project
  • 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)
  • 8.3. LogCat
  • 8.4. Emulator does not start
  • 8.5. Timeout during deployment
  • 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage
  • 8.7. Debug Certificate expired
  • 8.8. Error message for @override
  • 8.9. Missing Imports
  • 8.10. Eclipse Tips
  • 9.1. API version, package and application name
  • 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings
  • 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials
  • 10.1. Create Project
  • 10.2. Two faces of things
  • 10.3. Create attributes
  • 10.4. Add UI Elements
  • 10.5. Edit UI properties
  • 10.6. Code your application
  • 10.7. Start Project
  • 11. Starting an deployed application
  • 12.1. Definition of menu entries
  • 12.2. Action bar tabs
  • 12.3. Context menus
  • 13.1. Project
  • 14. Preferences
  • 15.1. Using preferences
  • 15.2. Run
  • 16.1. Available Layout Manager
  • 16.2. LinearLayout
  • 16.3. RelativeLayout
  • 16.4. Gridlayout
  • 16.5. ScrollView
  • 17. Tutorial: ScrollView
  • 18.1. Overview
  • 18.2. Example
  • 19.1. Using device independent pixel
  • 19.2. Using resource qualifiers
  • 20.1. Overview
  • 20.2. When to use Fragments
  • 21.1. Overview
  • 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode
  • 21.4. Create Fragment classes
  • 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode
  • 21.6. Activities
  • 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server
  • 22.2. LogCat View
  • 22.3. File explorer
  • 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb
  • 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet
  • 24. Deploy your application on a real device
  • 25. Thank you
  • 26. Questions and Discussion
  • 27.1. Source Code
  • 27.2. Android Resources
  • 27.3. vogella Resources

Android Development Tutorial



Tutorials Trainings Books Social

Android Development Tutorial

Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. the .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=". versionCode must be an integer.dex file.com/apk/res/android" package="de. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. either within Eclipse or via the command line. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest.dex file and the resources of an Android project.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed . <?xml version="1.category.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android.intent.de/articles/Android/article. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . If a Java object lies within a different package. AndroidManifest. The .Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.action. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file.intent.apk (Android Package) file. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language. 4.android. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications. the images and XML files. For example if the same String is found in different class files. The resulting . It must also contain the required permissions for the application.dex file. e.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool.3. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package.g.vogella.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging.1. are packed into an .dex file contains only once reference of this String. 3.vogella. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .xml. Android Application Architecture 4. it must be declared with the full qualified package name.apk file) will be created and deployed. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name.android. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

vogella.id.android. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files.action.yourvalue).yourString ID.string. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources.Android Development Tutorial http://www.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project.3. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name.java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute.4. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method . This file specifies the ViewGroups. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. you would use the getString(R. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one.category. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. R.temperature package. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions.MAIN" ). strings. if you roll-out a new version of your application. 4.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. 4.yourString)) method. e. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. If you create a new resource.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment. colors. 4. Views. icons. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. For example to access a String with the R. The category definition category android:name="android. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. layouts or animations via XML files. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de. R.de/articles/Android/article. R. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.string.2. icons or pictures. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue. menus.vogella.java via the Eclipse ADT tools. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform.intent. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android.g.intent. You can for example define values. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources.

called if the Activity is stopped. you could access it via @string/hello. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. 4. Installation 5. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse.g. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse. 5. you can refer to it via @color/your_id.de/articles/Android/article. Context also provides access to Android Services. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices.xml. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest.content. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . you can refer to other resources via the @ sign. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted.5. <activity android:name=". This is required to install the Android Development Tools. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context.1. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() . You can also mix both approaches. 4.g. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally).7. Context The class android. e. because of an incoming call.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4.called if the Activity is re-started.Context provides the connections to the Android system. It is the interface to global information about the application environment.vogella. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. the Location Service. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application. for example your layout files.8.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . e. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. For example.6. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. can be used to initialize fields 4. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle.always called if the Activity ends. if a so called "configuration change" happens.

3. After the new Android development components are installed. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . if you are using a different flavor of Linux. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK.de/articles/Android/article.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. 5.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.google. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.com/android/eclipse/.

Avoid using spaces in the path name.de/articles/Android/article. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically.vogella. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks". which you can extract to any place in your file system. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences.5. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. The download contains a zip file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.g.4. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. 5. e.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

After the installation completes. As of Android 4. restart Eclipse. 15 for the Android 4. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK".6. 5. 5.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.0. right click on your android.jar file in your Android project. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx".vogella. Type in the source directory name and press OK. xx is the API level of Android. Android Source Code The following step is optional. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages.3) version of the SDK and press "Install".0 the Android development tools provides also the source code.jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". As of Android 4.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available.0.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.6. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4.g. To connect the sources with the android.3 version.1. e.

Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false". 6. 6.update". 6. due to some initial setup. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots.ide.eclipse. Android virtual device .0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.3. as for example HVGA. You can define several devices with different configurations. the size of the SD card. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications.android. most notable the Google Maps application.g.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device.1. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's.source. 6. which is very slow. Hardware button Android 4. which provide the Android Source code code. Prior to Android 4.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD.2. Starting a new emulator is very slow. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. F8 Turns network on / off.Emulator 6. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. the screen resolution and other relevant settings.googlecode. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run.2.com/svn/trunk/source/com. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator. Nice for demos. 6.6. e. If you want to create such an AVD. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD.4. More details can be found on the project website.de/articles/Android/article. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's.5. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. Google vrs. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator.

Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New".de/articles/Android/article.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Enter the following. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

To test if your setup is correct. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1.1.java. select your device and press "Start".de/articles/Android/article. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. 8. Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb).Android Development Tutorial http://www. Unable to open class file R. Project . Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. 3. To solve any of these errors.2. You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator.vogella. After (a long time) your AVD starts. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots.. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. 8.. 8. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. At the end press the button "Create AVD".

6. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button.Android Development Tutorial http://www. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name. 8. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems.4.5.vogella. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. To open this view.de/articles/Android/article.3. Alternative you can set the the data partition size. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. 8. 8.

Please use this version for all tutorials in this book. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages. ".7. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". Lower version of the Android API might also work.8.de/articles/Android/article. If you receive an error message for @override. To do this right-click on the project. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Higher version usually should also work. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse.keystore" file. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4.6.10. Conventions for the tutorials 9.android" under Linux and delete the "debug. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1. API version.3. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD.1. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. try the recommended version. API Level 15.6.6" in the drop-down box. e. e. change the Java compiler level to Java 1.0. but if you face issues.g.vogella. 8. 9. 8. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save.9.Android Development Tutorial http://www.g. 8.

Search for "vogella" for find this example. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard.vogella.temperature". 9. Choose a name you like.android. 9. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de.3. The Application name.vogella. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. 10. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples.test". will not be predefined. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de.de/articles/Android/article. for example in layout files.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do.2. Enter the following. others just give you the task to do.example.1.android. Your first Android project 10. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example.

17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This should create the following directory structure.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish".de/articles/Android/article.

18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.g.Android Development Tutorial http://www. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().de/articles/Android/article.g. strings and UI's. and directly via XML.xml". For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. e.3. in two ways: via a rich editor. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code.vogella.2. for strings or colors. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts. 10. e.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. 10.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value.4. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. Add also the following "String" attributes. Table 1. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . <?xml version="1. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article.vogella. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10.

Switch to "main. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Hello!” in the layout. The result should look like the following.vogella. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World.de/articles/Android/article. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following. drag a Button object onto the layout. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Then.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. from the “Palette” view. From the Palette section Form Widgets. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. <?xml version="1.

But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button.de/articles/Android/article. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Switch to the XML tab called "main. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML.vogella. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed.5.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10. Open your file "main.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu.

java to the following.main).android.widget.temperature.widget.radio0).de/articles/Android/article.6.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained. if (text. Change your code in ConvertActivity.view.radio1). Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button.EditText.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Switch to the "main. package de.RadioButton.id. setContentView(R.id. android. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout. android. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background.editText1).widget.Toast. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.vogella.id.id. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text. <?xml version="1. android.Bundle.View. android.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . text = (EditText) findViewById(R.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.getText(). android.vogella.android.getId()) { case R.onCreate(savedInstanceState).com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. import import import import import import android.layout. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.os.Activity.app. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created.

} // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32.setChecked(true). } else { text.setChecked(false). right click on it. } } 10. the emulator starts up very slowly.setText(String .setChecked(true). celsiusButton. You should get the following result. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))). } float inputValue = Float.7.parseFloat(text. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . celsiusButton. and select Run-As → Android Application. select your project. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return.getText(). If you press the Home button you can also select your application.32) * 5 / 9). } break.isChecked()) { text.toString()). Type in a number.setText(String .valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). 11. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . fahrenheitButton.de/articles/Android/article.setChecked(false). if (celsiusButton. select your conversion and press the button. fahrenheitButton. Be patient.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Start Project To start the Android Application.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application.de/articles/Android/article. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.vogella. navigation modes. and other interactive items. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

The Android platform may also add options to your View.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this.class). e. 12. Change the "main.R. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application. 13. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.vogella.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once. You can also add an action to this icon.de/articles/Android/article. etc. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). startActivity(intent).android.android. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.vogella. Create a project called "de. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences.id. 12.R.g.id.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity".addFlags(Intent. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method. intent. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method.2.1.home. break. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program. EditText provides context options to select text. OverviewActivity. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.Android Development Tutorial http://www.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view).3.

unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. Select the option "Menu".xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project.xml" and press the button "Finish". 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This defines the entries in your menu.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file. you can open this editor manually. This will create a new file "mainmenu. If that happens.vogella. Maintain the following value.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. Press Add and select "Item". enter as File "mainmenu. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available.de/articles/Android/article.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there.vogella. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.view.Activity. android. package de. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them. menu).main). In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called. return true.widget. android.makeText(this.os. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu.socialapp.show().app.de/articles/Android/article. setContentView(R.MenuInflater. android. "Just a test". 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Bundle.onCreate(savedInstanceState).MenuItem.inflate(R.Menu. return true.view. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). android.layout. Toast. } } Run your application.view.Toast.mainmenu. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.android. import import import import import import android. inflater.vogella.menu. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.LENGTH_SHORT). If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.

Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de. We will use them in the next chapter. edit. Editor edit = preferences. Preferences are stored as key values.vogella. Tutorial: Preferences 15.social". This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). String username = preferences. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. "n/a").Android Development Tutorial http://www. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.commit(). edit. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen".1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active.vogella.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). 14. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.putString("username". Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. Create an Android XML resource "preferences. "new_value_for_user").getString("username". Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent.android. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences.de/articles/Android/article.edit(). Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. 15. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes.

g.vogella. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. e. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor. Press Add.Android Development Tutorial http://www. the inputMethod. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".de/articles/Android/article.

import android. import import import import import import import import import import import import android. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.preferences). // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.layout. android. showPrefs(username.view.id. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences. android.xml" file. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android.xml" and the tab "Application".onCreate(savedInstanceState).os.widget. android.socialapp.Editor.id. android.socialapp.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.Bundle.Bundle.app.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity.View. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.xml.preference.PreferenceManager. android. package de.view.preference. package de.de/articles/Android/article. Select "AndroidManifest.view.android.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.os. android. android. setContentView(R. password). } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .content.Activity.content.getString("password".vogella.Menu. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.vogella.vogella. } }).main).onCreate(savedInstanceState).widget.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).MenuItem.SharedPreferences. To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity".Android Development Tutorial http://www.OnClickListener.MenuInflater. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.getString("username". This Activity will load the "preference.View.android. buttonChangePreferences.view.SharedPreferences. "n/a"). "n/a").setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue().Button01).Button02). String password = preferences.PreferenceActivity. android. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.view. button.Toast. addPreferencesFromResource(R. import android. android.Button. android.

The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button.inflate(R.show(). for (int i = username. startActivity(i).getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . String username = preferences.LENGTH_LONG). } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity.length() .menu.commit().getString("username".this.id.makeText(OverviewActivity. Run Run your application. "Enter your user credentials. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer().class). If you press the second button the username should be reversed. buffer. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user.". i--) { buffer.charAt(i)). inflater.this. // Some feedback to the user Toast.1.LENGTH_LONG). "n/a"). } edit.2.show(). String password){ Toast.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username. @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().LENGTH_LONG). Toast. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries.putString("username". "Reverted string sequence of user name. edit. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences. menu). } 15.show().makeText( OverviewActivity.de/articles/Android/article.toString()). We give a little feedback Toast.this. i >= 0.". Toast.append(username.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Toast. break. MyPreferencesActivity.makeText(OverviewActivity. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences. return true. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity.mainmenu.vogella.edit(). } return true.this.

<?xml version="1.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other.2.vogella. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. horizontal is the default value.3. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true.android.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes.1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . RelativeLayout and GridLayout.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Android supports different default layout managers. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. As of Android 4. This allows for complex layouts. FrameLayout. 16.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.

vogella. Create the following layout and class. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults. and cells. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen.0.g.android.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. one column.de/articles/Android/article. e.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.vogella.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView".4. 17.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. columns. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de.5. <?xml version="1. 16.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.2. android.Bundle.vogella.app. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. Activitities or Views.setText(s).widget.de/articles/Android/article.os.view.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files.Activity. 18.View. android.1.TextView02). You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements. android. 18. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. Example The following "styles.de ".xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder. i < 100. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } view.main).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de. for (int i=0.TextView. import import import import android. setContentView(R.android.onCreate(savedInstanceState). i++) { s += "vogella.id. Styling 18.layout.scrollview. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications. String s="".vogella.

The base class for Fragments is android.2.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements.density. For special purposes you can also use more special classes. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. You can use "dp" in your resources.g. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions.Android Development Tutorial http://www. On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx.Fragment. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). e. 20. If you specify the size in "dp". Fragments 20. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch). based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. like ListFragment or DialogFragment. 240dpi) device. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. // Convert the dps to pixels. } 19. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). Here you can inflate an layout. Android will automatically scale it. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density.getDisplayMetrics(). If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 19. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter).1. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. depending on the device.de/articles/Android/article.g. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. Supporting different screen sizes 19. dp refers to the base line of an Android device.1.app. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. e. so that it always occupies the same physical space.5f).vogella. layout files.

If the user touches an item in the list. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset.detail_frag).Android Development Tutorial http://www. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. If the detailed fragment is there. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. findFragmentById(R.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item.id. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. For example.vogella. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity.update(. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. This is not limited to tablets. When you need to switch Fragments. 20. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button. Fragments Tutorial 21.). but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity.e. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode.g.. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager.2. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. This is similar to the portrait mode. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments.de/articles/Android/article. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). use the same activity for handsets.. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. e.1. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. i. 21. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices.

"WindowsMobile". String[] values = new String[] { "Android".onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).3.fragments.View.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. "Linux". public class ListFragment extends android.vogella.xml". "Blackberry". } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. <?xml version="1. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes. <?xml version="1. First create the following file called "details. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.android.android.Intent.Android Development Tutorial http://www.4.vogella.android.content. "Max OS X".xml" file. "Ubuntu".vogella. "iPhone".onCreate(savedInstanceState).android.DetailFragment" > <!-.android. Create the ListFragment class. android.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.fragments. package de. import import import import import android.app. android.ListView.view. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments. android. "Windows7".de/articles/Android/article.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.os.widget. 21.vogella.vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main.Bundle.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. "OS/2" }. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder.fragments.ArrayAdapter. "WebOS".com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.widget.android. This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.

View v.view.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).id.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity().getItem(position). ViewGroup container.android. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.class).Log. android.findViewById(R.isInLayout()) { fragment.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Log.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.vogella. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. intent.e("Test".5.detailFragment). container. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() .TextView.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port". false).inflate(R.de/articles/Android/article. android. if (fragment != null && fragment. Only if we would not have a "main. Android would check the "layout" folder.android. package de. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. <?xml version="1. Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).id.Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" file in "layout-port".util.detailsText). For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.widget.findFragmentById(R.Bundle. Therefore create the following "main.view. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l.ViewGroup.putExtra("value". In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter().Fragment. view.vogella.view. import import import import import import import android.layout. return view. android. "hello").LayoutInflater. android.View.app.getApplicationContext(). } } 21. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView(). int position. } } } Create the DetailFragment class.os.fragments. startActivity(intent). item). } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater.details.setText(item). android.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.setText(item). android. DetailActivity.

android.xml" layout file.TextView. android. <?xml version="1. setContentView(R.android.app.fragments. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.main).Android Development Tutorial http://www.widget. if (extras != null) { String s = extras.7. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. package de.Activity. android.layout.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout.fragments.setText(s).res. Bundle extras = getIntent().getConfiguration(). This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode.vogella.android. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources().content.vogella. import android.android. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.Bundle. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.layout.getExtras().detailsText).fragments.os.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.onCreate(savedInstanceState). package de.details_activity_layout).os. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Bundle. import import import import android.getString("value"). } } 21.android. } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified. view. return.6.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.onCreate(savedInstanceState).vogella.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish(). } setContentView(R.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.orientation == Configuration.app.vogella.fragments. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . import android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.Activity.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder. but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder.Configuration. android.

22. 22. LogCat View You can see the log (including System.1. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments.2. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.print() statements) via the LogCat view. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 22.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program.de/articles/Android/article.vogella. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 23. DDMS perspective and important views 22. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.out. DDMS .3.

Open a shell. then enable USB debugging. etc. incoming call. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell.3. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". For example to change the power settings of your phone.de/articles/Android/article. This allows you to simulate certain things. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. To exit the console session. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24.2. etc. e. change the network "stability". Select in the settings Applications > Development. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. adb uninstall <packagename> 23. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". set your current geocodes. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . ls. rm.vogella. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. use the command "quit" or "exit".Android Development Tutorial http://www. mkdir.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device.g. e.g. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device.

vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone.de/articles/Android/article. select "Manual" selection and select your device.de Google Group.vogella. 25. Links and Literature 27. 27. select the "Run Configurations".2.Android Development Tutorial http://www. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. please see the vogella FAQ. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Questions and Discussion Before posting questions.1. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. To select your phone.

3. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.

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