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Android Development Tutorial

Android Development Tutorial

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Published by: Nandkumar Khachane on Aug 06, 2013
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  • 1.1. Android Operation System
  • 1.2. Google Play
  • 1.3. Security and permissions
  • 2.1. Activity
  • 2.2. Views and ViewGroups
  • 2.3. Intents
  • 2.4. Services
  • 2.5. ContentProvider
  • 2.6. BroadcastReceiver
  • 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
  • 2.8. Other
  • 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
  • 3.3. How to develop Android Applications
  • 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml
  • 4.2. R.java and Resources
  • 4.3. Assets
  • 4.4. Activities and Layouts
  • 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files
  • 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle
  • 4.7. Configuration Change
  • 4.8. Context
  • 5.1. Eclipse
  • 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK
  • 5.4. Manually install Android SDK
  • 5.5. Install a specific Android version
  • 5.6.1. As of Android 4.0
  • 5.6.2. Prior to Android 4.0
  • 6.1. What is the Android Emulator?
  • 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD
  • 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts
  • 6.4. Performance
  • 6.5. Hardware button
  • 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device
  • 8.1. Clean Project
  • 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)
  • 8.3. LogCat
  • 8.4. Emulator does not start
  • 8.5. Timeout during deployment
  • 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage
  • 8.7. Debug Certificate expired
  • 8.8. Error message for @override
  • 8.9. Missing Imports
  • 8.10. Eclipse Tips
  • 9.1. API version, package and application name
  • 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings
  • 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials
  • 10.1. Create Project
  • 10.2. Two faces of things
  • 10.3. Create attributes
  • 10.4. Add UI Elements
  • 10.5. Edit UI properties
  • 10.6. Code your application
  • 10.7. Start Project
  • 11. Starting an deployed application
  • 12.1. Definition of menu entries
  • 12.2. Action bar tabs
  • 12.3. Context menus
  • 13.1. Project
  • 14. Preferences
  • 15.1. Using preferences
  • 15.2. Run
  • 16.1. Available Layout Manager
  • 16.2. LinearLayout
  • 16.3. RelativeLayout
  • 16.4. Gridlayout
  • 16.5. ScrollView
  • 17. Tutorial: ScrollView
  • 18.1. Overview
  • 18.2. Example
  • 19.1. Using device independent pixel
  • 19.2. Using resource qualifiers
  • 20.1. Overview
  • 20.2. When to use Fragments
  • 21.1. Overview
  • 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode
  • 21.4. Create Fragment classes
  • 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode
  • 21.6. Activities
  • 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server
  • 22.2. LogCat View
  • 22.3. File explorer
  • 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb
  • 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet
  • 24. Deploy your application on a real device
  • 25. Thank you
  • 26. Questions and Discussion
  • 27.1. Source Code
  • 27.2. Android Resources
  • 27.3. vogella Resources

Android Development Tutorial



Tutorials Trainings Books Social

Android Development Tutorial

Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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dex file contains only once reference of this String. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user. If a Java object lies within a different package. e.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .android. android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name.apk (Android Package) file.dex file and the resources of an Android project.action. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language. are packed into an .dex file. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications.apk file) will be created and deployed. AndroidManifest. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format. 4. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (.vogella.dex file. versionCode must be an integer. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. The resulting .MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.android.1. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.3.com/apk/res/android" package="de.g.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging.intent.intent. it must be declared with the full qualified package name. the . For example if the same String is found in different class files. either within Eclipse or via the command line. <?xml version="1.category. the images and XML files. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. The .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. Android Application Architecture 4. 3.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.vogella. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the . Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file.xml.

An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. strings. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. You can for example define values. icons.action. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. menus. e. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. layouts or animations via XML files. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View.intent. colors. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts.category. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue.g. For example to access a String with the R.4.vogella. 4. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout.yourString)) method.vogella.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. icons or pictures.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment.string. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data. This file specifies the ViewGroups.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. if you roll-out a new version of your application.intent.temperature package. 4.string. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de.MAIN" ). you would use the getString(R. R. If you create a new resource.Android Development Tutorial http://www.android.3. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method .id. Views.2. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties.yourString ID.java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned. The category definition category android:name="android.java via the Eclipse ADT tools.yourvalue). R. R. 4. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project.de/articles/Android/article. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

called if the Activity is re-started.5. 5. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() .1. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() .content. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition.7. Context also provides access to Android Services. <activity android:name=". The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods.8. if a so called "configuration change" happens. e. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This is required to install the Android Development Tools. can be used to initialize fields 4. for example your layout files.de/articles/Android/article. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE.called if the Activity is stopped. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. you can refer to it via @color/your_id. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() .ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4. Context The class android. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files. You can also mix both approaches.always called if the Activity ends.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.g. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context.6. because of an incoming call. For example. e.g. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial.xml. you could access it via @string/hello. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity.Context provides the connections to the Android system. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. 4. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. Installation 5. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. the Location Service. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. 4. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign.

google.com/android/eclipse/. After the new Android development components are installed. if you are using a different flavor of Linux. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command. 5.3.de/articles/Android/article. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.

vogella. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks".de/articles/Android/article.4. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. The download contains a zip file.g. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. e. which you can extract to any place in your file system. 5. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences. Avoid using spaces in the path name.5. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

5. e. As of Android 4.g. To connect the sources with the android.0.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available.jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx".vogella. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . restart Eclipse. As of Android 4. 15 for the Android 4.1.de/articles/Android/article. right click on your android. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons".6.6. 5. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK". Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages. xx is the API level of Android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Android Source Code The following step is optional.3) version of the SDK and press "Install". After the installation completes. Type in the source directory name and press OK.3 version.0.jar file in your Android project.

Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. F8 Turns network on / off.3. due to some initial setup. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator. 6. You can define several devices with different configurations. Prior to Android 4. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel.2. 6.update".5. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer. the size of the SD card. If you want to create such an AVD. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator.de/articles/Android/article. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. most notable the Google Maps application.source.4. More details can be found on the project website. as for example HVGA. Nice for demos. which provide the Android Source code code.com/svn/trunk/source/com.6. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device. Starting a new emulator is very slow. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. the screen resolution and other relevant settings.1.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false".eclipse. e. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system.Android Development Tutorial http://www. which is very slow. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. 6.2. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster.vogella. Android virtual device .ide. 6. Google vrs.g. 6.android. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD.Emulator 6. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications.googlecode. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. Hardware button Android 4.

Enter the following.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.vogella. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New".de/articles/Android/article. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. Unable to open class file R. 8. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator.java. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems.. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Project .2.de/articles/Android/article. At the end press the button "Create AVD".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. To test if your setup is correct.. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1. 3.1. select your device and press "Start". go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. After (a long time) your AVD starts. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices".vogella. 8. Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should. To solve any of these errors.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 8.

3. 8. 8. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. 8.de/articles/Android/article.vogella. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. Alternative you can set the the data partition size. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences.5.6. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button. To open this view. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.Android Development Tutorial http://www. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value.4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.

0. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4.8. If you receive an error message for @override.de/articles/Android/article.7.keystore" file.vogella.6" in the drop-down box. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book.3. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save.6.9. change the Java compiler level to Java 1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. 8. try the recommended version.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.g. 8. Higher version usually should also work.android" under Linux and delete the "debug. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. API Level 15. 9. API version. ". select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1.10. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1. Conventions for the tutorials 9. e. To do this right-click on the project.g. but if you face issues. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .6. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". 8. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD. Lower version of the Android API might also work.1. e.

Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace.example.vogella.vogella. for example in layout files. 9.android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de.test". Search for "vogella" for find this example. Enter the following. 9. Your first Android project 10. The Application name. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do. will not be predefined.Android Development Tutorial http://www.2. 10.1. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example.android.temperature". which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. others just give you the task to do.3. Choose a name you like.vogella.

Android Development Tutorial http://www. 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish". This should create the following directory structure.

For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. 10.3. 10. e.g. and directly via XML. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.Android Development Tutorial http://www.g.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code.2. in two ways: via a rich editor. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed.xml".vogella.de/articles/Android/article. for strings or colors. e. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). strings and UI's.

Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. <?xml version="1. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code.vogella. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Add also the following "String" attributes. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view.de/articles/Android/article. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Table 1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value.4.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. Switch to "main. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. The result should look like the following. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. From the Palette section Form Widgets.vogella. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Hello!” in the layout. from the “Palette” view.android.de/articles/Android/article. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout.Android Development Tutorial http://www. drag a Button object onto the layout. Then.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.

Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Open your file "main. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property.5.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click.de/articles/Android/article. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. Switch to the XML tab called "main. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML.

radio1). Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button. android. android. Change your code in ConvertActivity.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout.getText().android. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text.id.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode. setContentView(R. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. if (text.temperature. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created.id.editText1).xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained. Switch to the "main.widget.View.Bundle. android. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.view. <?xml version="1. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.widget.main).id.getId()) { case R.id.app. text = (EditText) findViewById(R. android. android.vogella.vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10.Activity.6.widget.os. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.android.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.de/articles/Android/article.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .java to the following.Android Development Tutorial http://www.layout.RadioButton. import import import import import import android. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. package de.EditText.Toast.radio0).

The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.32) * 5 / 9).valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))).getText().html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return. right click on it. select your project. fahrenheitButton.parseFloat(text. and select Run-As → Android Application.setChecked(false).vogella. } float inputValue = Float. } break. If you press the Home button you can also select your application. Be patient.setChecked(true).setChecked(true). if (celsiusButton.isChecked()) { text. select your conversion and press the button. celsiusButton. } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. fahrenheitButton. } else { text. Start Project To start the Android Application.setText(String .toString()).Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article.setChecked(false). Type in a number. 11. You should get the following result. celsiusButton.setText(String . } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . } } 10. the emulator starts up very slowly.7. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))). 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select.vogella.1. Menus and Action Bar 12. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu.de/articles/Android/article. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . navigation modes. and other interactive items.

In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage.R.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.android.g.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". startActivity(intent). A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences.2. break.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. You can also add an action to this icon.home. 13.vogella.android. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.de/articles/Android/article.class).FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). EditText provides context options to select text. Change the "main.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . etc.id. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available.3.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this.1.id. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method. intent. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program. OverviewActivity. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view). If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. 12. 12. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method. e. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once. The Android platform may also add options to your View. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.addFlags(Intent. Create a project called "de.R. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android.

This will create a new file "mainmenu. This defines the entries in your menu. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project.vogella. Select the option "Menu".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project.xml" and press the button "Finish". unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. Maintain the following value. If that happens. you can open this editor manually. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor.de/articles/Android/article. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file.Android Development Tutorial http://www. enter as File "mainmenu. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. Press Add and select "Item". We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available.

android. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings.layout.de/articles/Android/article.view.vogella.Bundle. inflater. android.view.MenuItem. import import import import import import android. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there.Menu.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. menu).onCreate(savedInstanceState).LENGTH_SHORT). return true. Toast. android. android. "Just a test". public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.view. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().inflate(R.vogella.makeText(this.widget. package de. setContentView(R.mainmenu. } } Run your application. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu.show().main). android.Toast.MenuInflater.Activity.app.menu. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.Android Development Tutorial http://www.android.os.socialapp. return true.

de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. Create an Android XML resource "preferences.commit().vogella. edit.getString("username". Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . "n/a"). Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes. We will use them in the next chapter. String username = preferences.putString("username". 14.social".android. 15. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager. Editor edit = preferences. Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen". edit.edit(). Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de. Preferences are stored as key values.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).vogella. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). "new_value_for_user"). Tutorial: Preferences 15. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods.1. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents.

add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".g. the inputMethod. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. e.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article.vogella. Press Add.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor.

OnClickListener.widget. android.onCreate(savedInstanceState).android.vogella.android. package de. android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity.SharedPreferences. android.PreferenceActivity.view.vogella. "n/a").widget.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R. import android.view.xml.Bundle.content. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Menu.xml" file.Bundle. "n/a"). // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.View.Toast.Button02).SharedPreferences. password). The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code. } }).MenuItem. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android.getString("username". This Activity will load the "preference.app.MenuInflater.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).getString("password". @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.vogella.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.View.id. android.view.os. setContentView(R. String password = preferences.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue().Android Development Tutorial http://www.id. android.xml" and the tab "Application". Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.de/articles/Android/article.Button01). android. showPrefs(username. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences. import import import import import import import import import import import import android.onCreate(savedInstanceState).Editor.layout.Button. android.main).socialapp. android.os. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.socialapp. addPreferencesFromResource(R.preference. import android.content.preferences). buttonChangePreferences.view. button. android.view.Activity. To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". Select "AndroidManifest. android.PreferenceManager. package de.preference.

Run Run your application.length() . String username = preferences.menu.1.putString("username".inflate(R. If you press the second button the username should be reversed. "Enter your user credentials.class).2. edit. buffer.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity.id.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username. for (int i = username. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.show(). // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). } return true. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. i--) { buffer.this.append(username. // Some feedback to the user Toast.toString()). We give a little feedback Toast.LENGTH_LONG). } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.makeText(OverviewActivity. MyPreferencesActivity. @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). "n/a").this. String password){ Toast.getString("username". return true.this.getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R.mainmenu. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences".makeText(OverviewActivity. menu).edit(). } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.".vogella.makeText( OverviewActivity. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . i >= 0.LENGTH_LONG).de/articles/Android/article.charAt(i)). } edit. } 15. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. break. inflater. "Reverted string sequence of user name. Toast. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password.show().show().this.Android Development Tutorial http://www.commit().LENGTH_LONG).". // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. startActivity(i). Toast. Toast.

LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. As of Android 4. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views.vogella. Android supports different default layout managers. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other. RelativeLayout and GridLayout. This allows for complex layouts.2. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. 16.android. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute.de/articles/Android/article.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.3. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes. FrameLayout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. <?xml version="1. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16.1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. horizontal is the default value.Android Development Tutorial http://www. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component.

0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.android. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. and cells.0.Android Development Tutorial http://www.android. one column.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. <?xml version="1.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. 17. e. Create the following layout and class. columns.de/articles/Android/article.g.4. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.vogella.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . If not specified GridLayout uses defaults.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. 16.5.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows.vogella.

os.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder. Styling 18.main).TextView02). for (int i=0.layout.android.vogella.Bundle.Android Development Tutorial http://www. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements.onCreate(savedInstanceState).1.TextView. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android.2. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications. import import import import android. String s="". TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.vogella. android. } view.setText(s). 18.view. i++) { s += "vogella. 18. i < 100.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.de/articles/Android/article.widget.de ". setContentView(R. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place.id.View. Example The following "styles. Activitities or Views. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.Activity.app.scrollview.

density.5f). public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. dp refers to the base line of an Android device. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file.getDisplayMetrics(). Android will automatically scale it. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch).g.vogella. You can use "dp" in your resources. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). Fragments 20. Supporting different screen sizes 19. depending on the device. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. The base class for Fragments is android. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. 19. e. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp.app. like ListFragment or DialogFragment.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements.g.2. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. so that it always occupies the same physical space. // Convert the dps to pixels. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density.Android Development Tutorial http://www. For special purposes you can also use more special classes. layout files. 240dpi) device. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed.Fragment.de/articles/Android/article. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). If you specify the size in "dp". e.1. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). } 19. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices.1. 20. Here you can inflate an layout. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped.

Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. When you need to switch Fragments. If the user touches an item in the list. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. findFragmentById(R. 21..g. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item.1.e. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. e.update(. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager().detail_frag). the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. i. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager. For example. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. This is similar to the portrait mode. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. Fragments Tutorial 21. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names.2. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity.. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. 20. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation.de/articles/Android/article. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments.id. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity.vogella. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. This is not limited to tablets. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. If the detailed fragment is there. use the same activity for handsets.). But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier.

This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments.onCreate(savedInstanceState).android.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.vogella.vogella.view.fragments. "Linux".vogella.ArrayAdapter. "WebOS".xml". <?xml version="1.xml" file.widget. "Windows7". String[] values = new String[] { "Android".android.fragments.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21. First create the following file called "details. package de.vogella.android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. android. android.vogella.View.fragments. "WindowsMobile". android. import import import import import android. "iPhone". 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android. 21. "OS/2" }. <?xml version="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.3. Create the ListFragment class.DetailFragment" > <!-.content. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.4.android. "Ubuntu".ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.android.os.app.widget.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main. This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.Intent.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.ListView.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.de/articles/Android/article. public class ListFragment extends android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes. "Blackberry". "Max OS X".Bundle.

View.detailFragment).e("Test". android. view. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().android. Android would check the "layout" folder. return view.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).putExtra("value". android.view. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity(). public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.setText(item).onCreate(savedInstanceState).Fragment. } } } Create the DetailFragment class.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .widget. intent. int position. View v.util. <?xml version="1.getApplicationContext(). In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. import import import import import import import android.detailsText). DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() . startActivity(intent).Log.vogella.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.details. ViewGroup container. android.layout.android.id.inflate(R.findFragmentById(R. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l.isInLayout()) { fragment.LayoutInflater. container. false).vogella. item).fragments.view.ViewGroup. if (fragment != null && fragment. Only if we would not have a "main.TextView. } } 21.setText(item).Bundle. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter().Android Development Tutorial http://www.view.de/articles/Android/article. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater. Therefore create the following "main.findViewById(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).getItem(position). "hello").id. package de.xml" file in "layout-port". android.class).app. For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. android. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android.5. Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main.os. Log. DetailActivity.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port".

getString("value").html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.details_activity_layout). // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.Bundle. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .android. <?xml version="1.Configuration. import import import import android.vogella.os.Activity.content. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources().main).getConfiguration().vogella. import android.android.id.layout.setText(s).DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21. package de.android.orientation == Configuration. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode. return.vogella. android.fragments.fragments.onCreate(savedInstanceState).ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout.android.res.6. Bundle extras = getIntent(). view.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish(). setContentView(R. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.xml" layout file.widget.android. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.fragments. package de. but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder.vogella.Activity.TextView.layout.app. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified. import android. } } 21.getExtras().com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. android.vogella. } setContentView(R.os.app.de/articles/Android/article. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState). android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.7. if (extras != null) { String s = extras.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.fragments. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.Bundle.detailsText). Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.

DDMS .3. 22.out. DDMS perspective and important views 22. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments. 22.print() statements) via the LogCat view. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.1. 22.2.vogella.de/articles/Android/article. 23. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". e. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. etc. mkdir. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device.Android Development Tutorial http://www. For example to change the power settings of your phone. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. use the command "quit" or "exit".de/articles/Android/article. To exit the console session. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. ls. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. incoming call. etc. change the network "stability". Open a shell.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. e. This allows you to simulate certain things. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24.3. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". set your current geocodes.vogella. Select in the settings Applications > Development.2.g.g. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". adb uninstall <packagename> 23. rm. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. then enable USB debugging. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device.

25. 27. Questions and Discussion Before posting questions.1. please see the vogella FAQ. Links and Literature 27.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27.de Google Group.vogella. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you. select "Manual" selection and select your device.vogella. To select your phone.de/articles/Android/article. select the "Run Configurations". Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .2. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www.

3.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.de/articles/Android/article. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.

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