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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

ITU/BDTArab Regional Workshopon 4GWirelessSystems


LTETechnology

Session3:LTEOverview DesignTargets andMultipleAccessTechnologies


Speakers Date M.Lazhar BELHOUCHET M HakimEBDELLI M. 27 29January 2010

LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

Agenda
Standardization MotivationforLTE LTEperformancerequirements LTEchallenges LTE/SAEKeyFeatures LTEtechnology basics AirInterfaceProtocols

LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

Standardization
LTEisthelateststandardinthemobilenetworktechnology previously yrealizedtheGSM/EDGE / andUMTS/HSxPA / treethatp networktechnologiesthatnowaccountforover85%ofall mobilesubscribers.LTEwillensure3GPPscompetitiveedge overothercellulartechnologies. 3GPPworkontheEvolutionofthe3GMobileSystemstarted inNovember2004. 2004 SpecificationsscheduledfinalizedbytheendofDecember 2009. Currently,standardizationinprogressintheformofRel9and Rel10.
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LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

MotivationforLTE
Needforhigherdataratesandgreaterspectralefficiency
CanbeachievedwithHSDPA/HSUPA / and/ornewairinterfacedefinedby3GPPLTE

NeedforPacketSwitchedoptimizedsystem
EvolveUMTStowardspacketonlysystem

Needforhighqualityofservices
Useoflicensedfrequenciestoguaranteequalityofservices Alwaysonexperience(reducecontrolplanelatencysignificantly) Reduce R d round dtrip t i delay d l

Needforcheaperinfrastructure
Simplifyarchitecture, architecture reducenumberofnetworkelements
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LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTEperformancerequirements
DataRate:
Instantaneousdownlinkp peakdatarateof100Mbit/s / ina20MHz downlinkspectrum(i.e.5bit/s/Hz) Instantaneousuplinkpeakdatarateof50Mbit/sina20MHzuplink spectrum(i.e. (i e 2.5 2 5bit/s/Hz)

Cellrange
5km optimalsize 30kmsizeswithreasonableperformance upto100kmcellsizessupportedwithacceptableperformance

Cellcapacity
upto200activeuserspercell(5MHz)(i.e.,200activedataclients)
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LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTEperformancerequirements Cont.
Mobility
Optimized p forlowmobility(0 y( 15km/h) / )butsupports pp high g speed p

Latency
userplane<5ms controlplane<50ms

Improvedspectrumefficiency Improvedbroadcasting IPoptimized Scalablebandwidthof20,15,10,5,3and1.4MHz Coexistencewithlegacystandards


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LTEOverview

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ThewaytoLTE:3main3Glimitations
1.Themaximumbitratesstillarefactorof20andmorebehindthe y like802.11nand802.16e/m. / currentstateofthesystems 2.Thelatencyofuserplanetraffic(UMTS:>30ms)andofresource assignmentprocedures(UMTS:>100 100ms)istoobigtohandletraffic withhighbitratevarianceefficiently. 3.The 3 TheterminalcomplexityforWCDMAorMCCDMAsystemsisquite high,makingequipmentexpensive,resultinginpoorperforming implementationsofreceiversandinhibitingtheimplementationof otherperformanceenhancements. www.cert.nat.tn

LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTEOverview DesignTargets andMultipleAccessTechnologies

LTECHALLENGES
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LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

WhataretheLTEchallenges?
The Users expectation Best price, transparent flat rate F ll I Full Internet t t Multimedia ..leads to the operators challenges reduce cost per bit provide id hi high hd data t rate t provide low latency

User experience will have an impact on ARPU


Latency

Price per Mbyte has to be reduced to remain profitable

Throughput

Cost per MByte

HSPA

LTE

HSPA

LTE UMTS HSPA I-HSPA LTE

LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

ComparisonofThroughputandLatency
Peak data rates around 300Mbps/80 Mbps Low latency 10-20 ms
Enhanced consumer experience: drives subscriber uptake allow for new applications provide additional revenue streams
Latency (Rountrip delay) delay)*
GSM/ EDGE Downlink Uplink HSPA Rel6 R l6 HSPAevo (Rel8) LTE
min max Evolved HSPA (Rel. 7/8, 2x2 MIMO) LTE 2x20 MHz (2x2 MIMO) LTE 2x20 MHz (4x4 MIMO)

350 300 250

Max. peak data rate

Mbps

200 150 100 50 0


HSPA R6

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200 ms

DSL ( (~20-50 ms, , depending p g on operator) p ) * Server near RAN

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ScalableBandwidth

Scalable bandwidth
of 1.4 20 MHz

Easy to E t introduce i t d on any f frequency band: b d Frequency Refarming (Cost efficient deployment on lower frequency q y bands supported) pp )

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LTEOverview

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IncreasedSpectralEfficiency

2.0 18 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 04 0.4 0.2 0.0

Allcasesassume2antennaterminalreception HSPAR7,WiMAXandLTEassume2antennaBTStransmission(2x2 MIMO)


Downlink Uplink

bps/Hz/ /cell

ITU contribution from WiMAX Forum shows downlink 1.3 and uplink 0.8 bps/Hz/cell

HSPA R6 12

HSPA R6 +

HSPA R7

WiMAX

LTE R8

Reference: - HSPA R6 and LTE R8 from 3GPP R1-071960 - HSPA R6 equalizer from 3GPP R1-063335 - HSPA R7 and WiMAX from NSN/Nokia simulations

LTEOverview

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ReducedNetworkComplexity
Flat, scalable IP based architecture Flat Architecture: 2 nodes architecture IP based Interfaces

Flat, IP based architecture


Access Flat networks are characterized by fewer network elements, lower latency, greater flexibility and lower operation p cost
Evolved Node B GateWay

Core

Control

MM E

IM S

HLR/H SS

I t Internet t

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LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTEOverview DesignTargets andMultipleAccessTechnologies

LTE/SAEKEYFEATURES
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LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTE/SAEKeyFeatures Overview
EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) / SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) / LTE ( Long Term Evolution ) EUTRAN ( Evolved UTRAN ) EPC ( Evolved Packet Core )

IP Network

IP Network

IP Network OFDMA/SC-FDMA MIMO ( beam-forming/ spatial multiplexing) HARQ Scalable bandwidth


(1.4, 3, 5, 10, .. 20 MHz)

Evolved E l d Node N d B / No RNC IP Transport Layer UL/DL resource scheduling QoS Aware Self Configuration

PS Domain only, No CS Domain IP Transport Layer QoS Aware 3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) Prepared for Non-3GPP Access

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LTEOverview

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LTE/SAEKeyFeatures
EvolvedNodeB
NoRNCisprovidedanymore TheevolvedNodeBstakeoverallradiomanagementfunctionality. Thiswillmakeradiomanagementfasterandhopefullythenetwork architecturesimpler

IPtransportlayer
EUTRANexclusively yusesIPastransport p layer y

UL/DLresourcescheduling
InUMTSphysicalresourcesareeithersharedordedicated EvolvedNodeBhandlesallphysicalresourceviaaschedulerand assignsthemdynamicallytousersandchannels Thisprovidesgreaterflexibilitythantheoldersystem
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LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTE/SAEKeyFeatures Cont.
FrequencyDomain Scheduling:
Frequencydomain schedulingusesthose resourceblocks bl k that th tare notfaded NotpossibleinCDMA basedsystem
Carrier bandwidth Resource block

Transmit on those resource blocks that are not faded


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LTEOverview

Frequency

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTE/SAEKeyFeatures Cont.
HARQ
HybridAutomaticRetransmission onreQuest HARQhasalreadybeenusedfor HSDPAandHSUPA. HARQespeciallyincreasesthe performance(delayand throughput) g p )forcelledge g users. HARQsimplyimplementsa retransmissionprotocolonlayer 1/2thatallowstosend retransmittedblockswithdifferent codingthanthe1st one.
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LTEOverview HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

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LTE/SAEKeyFeatures Cont.
QoS awareness
Theschedulermusthandleanddistinguish g differentq quality yofservice classes OtherwiserealtimeserviceswouldnotbepossibleviaEUTRAN Thesystemprovidesthepossibilityfordifferentiatedservice

Selfconfiguration
C Currently tl under d investigation i ti ti PossibilitytoletEvolvedNodeBsconfigurethemselves

Itwillnotcompletelysubstitutethemanualconfigurationand optimization. www.cert.nat.tn

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LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTE/SAEKeyFeatures Cont.
PacketSwitchedDomainonly
Nocircuitswitcheddomainisprovided IfCSapplicationsarerequired,theymustbeimplemented viaIP

Non3GPPaccess
Th TheEPCwill illb beprepared dalso l to t b beused db bynon3GPP accessnetworks(e.g.LAN,WLAN,WiMAX,etc.) Thiswillprovidetrueconvergenceofdifferentpacketradio accesssystem
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LTEOverview

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ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTE/SAEKeyFeatures Cont.
MIMO
MultipleInputMultipleOutput LTEwillsupportMIMOasanoption, Itdescribesthepossibilitytohavemultipletransmitterand receiverantennasinasystem. UptofourantennascanbeusedbyasingleLTEcell(gain: spatialmultiplexing) MIMOisconsideredtobethecoretechnologytoincrease spectralefficiency. www.cert.nat.tn

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LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTEOverview DesignTargets andMultipleAccessTechnologies

LTETECHNOLOGYBASICS
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LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

LTEkeyparameters
FrequencyRange Channel b d id h bandwidth, 1Resource Block=180kHz UMTSFDDbandsandUMTSTDDbands 1.4MHz 3MHz 5MHz 10MHz 15MHz 20MHz

6RB Modulation Schemes MultipleAccess MIMO technology PeakDataRate

15RB

25RB

50RB

75RB

100RB

DL:OFDMA(OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess) UL:SCFDMA(SingleCarrierFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess) DL:OFDMA(OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess) UL:SCFDMA(SingleCarrierFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess) DL:WidechoiceofMIMOconfigurationoptionsfortransmitdiversity,spatial multiplexing,andcyclicdelaydiversity(max.4antennasatbasestationandhandset) UL M UL: Multi ltiusercollaborative ll b ti MIMO DL:150Mbps(UEcategory4,2x2MIMO,20MHz)300Mbps(UEcategory5,4x4 MIMO,20MHz) UL:75Mbps p (20 ( MHz) )

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LTEOverview DesignTargets andMultipleAccessTechnologies

OFDM/OFDMA/SCFDMA
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LTEOverview

ITU/BDTArabRegionalWorkshopon4GWirelessSystems Tunisia2010

OFDM:OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiCarrier
LTEusesOFDMfortheDL thatis,fromthebasestationto q forspectrum p theterminal.OFDMmeetstheLTErequirement flexibilityandenablescostefficientsolutionsforverywide carrierswithhighpeakrates. ThebasicLTEdownlinkphysicalresourcecanbeseenasa timefrequencygrid.Inthefrequencydomain,thespacing b t between th thesubcarriers, b i f, f is i 15kHz. 15kH In I addition, dditi the th OFDM symboldurationtimeis1/f +cyclicprefix.Thecyclicprefixis usedtomaintainorthogonality betweenthesubcarrierseven foratimedispersiveradiochannel. QPSK, ,16QAM Q or64QAM. Q OneresourceelementcarriesQ
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LTEOverview

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OFDM Cont.
Single Carrier Transmission O th Orthogonal lF Frequency Division Di i i M Multiplexing lti l i

OFDM signal generation is based on Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) operation on transmitter side. side On receiver side side, an FFT operation will be used used.
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PulseshapingandSpectrum
Twocharacteristicsare importantforaSignal:
Thetimedomain presentation:
Ithelpsrecognizehow longthesymbollastson air
Fourier Transform Th ti The time d domain i presentation t ti

Thefrequencydomain presentation:
tounderstandthe requiredspectrumin termsofbandwidth
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The frequency q y domain p presentation


LTEOverview

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TherectangularPulse
Itisoneofthemostsimpletimedomainpulses. Itsimplyjumpsattimet=0toitsmaximumamplitudeand afterthepulsedurationTsjustgoesbackto0.
amplitude Ts

fs =

1 Ts

FT
Frequency Domain

Time Ti Domain
time

IFT
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LTEOverview

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MultiPathPropagationandInterSymbolInterference

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LTEOverview

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MultiPathPropagationandInterSymbolInterference
Thecancellationofintersymbolinterferencemakesmorecomplexthe hardwaredesignofthereceivers. InWCDMAforinstancetheRAKEreceiverrequiresahugeamountofDSP capacity. Oneofthegoalsoffutureradiosystemsistosimplifyreceiverdesign. design Intersymbolinterferenceoriginatingfromthepulseformitselfissimply avoidedbystartingthenextpulseonlyafterthepreviousonefinished completely, l l therefore h f introducing d aGuard dPeriod d(Tg) ( )after f the h Pulse. l Thereisnointersymbolinterferencebetweensymbolsaslongasthe multip pathdelay yspread p (e.g. ( g delay ydifferencebetweenfirstandlast detectablepath)islessthantheguardperioddurationTg.

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LTEOverview

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Multi-Path Propagation p g and the Guard Period


2 1

Time Domain

TSYMBOL

Tg Guard Period (GP)

1 TSYMBOL 2

time Guard Period (GP) TSYMBOL ti time Guard Period (GP) time

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LTEOverview

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Multi-Path Propagation and the Guard Period


1 2 3

TSYM when the delay p of the spread multi-path environment is greater than the guard period duration (Tg), then we encounter inter-symbol interference (ISI) 1

Tg

time 2 time 3 time 4 time

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LTEOverview

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ReuseoftheGuardPeriod
ThereisthepossibilitytousethelosttransmissiontimeduringtheGuardPeriod byrepeatingpartofthesymbolduringthisperiod. This h isachieved h d b byf filling ll the h guard dperiod dwith heither h oneorboth b hof fthe h following f ll twosolutions:CyclicPrefic (CP)andCyclicSufix (CS). CP:Thecyclicprefixisfillingthefinalpartoftheguardperiod.Itsimplyconsistsof thelastpartofthefollowingsymbol.CyclicprefixesareusedbyallmodernOFDM systemsandtheirsizesrangefrom1/4to1/32ofasymbolperiod. CS:Thecyclicsuffixfillstheinitialpartoftheguardperiodanditissimply occupiedbythebeginningpartoftheprevioussymbol.

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LTEOverview

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CyclicPrefix
Inmulti l path hpropagation environmentsthedelayed versionsofthesignalarrivewith atimeoffset,sothatthestartof thesymboloftheearliestpath fallsinthecyclic y prefixes p ofthe delayedsymbols. AstheCPissimplyarepetitionof theendofthesymbolthisisnota intersymbolinterferenceandcan beeasilycompensatedbythe f ll i decoding following d di b based don discreteFouriertransform.

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LTEOverview

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LimitationsoftheSingleCarrierModulation
Usingasingleradiofrequencycarrierwithrectangularpulseshapinghasamajordrawback: Thecyclicprefixdurationisfixedbythemaximumexpecteddelayspreadoverthemultipath propagationmodelsforthesystem.

delaymax = TCP

Thesymboldurationcanbemadeassmallasthecyclicprefixsize,butthenonlyonehalfof th ti the timei isused dfor f data d t transmission, t i i the th other th half h lfis i for f the th cyclic li prefix, fi providing idi avery lowefficiency(E) TSYMBOL E= TSYMBOL + TCP Alsoshortersymboldurationmeanabroaderspectrumbandwidth(fS)tobeusedfora carrier. 1 1 fS = = TS TSYMBOL + TCP Toincreaseefficiencythesymboldurationmustbemadelonger, longer butthenthesymbolrateis reduced.

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Multi-Carrier Multi Carrier Modulation


Subcarriers Guard Bands

011

001

011

100

101

001

011

101

Slow Data Serial-to-Parallel Fast Data Converter

frequency

011001011100101001011101

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LTEOverview

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Multi-Carrier Modulation Cont.


Thecenterfrequenciesmustbespacedsothatinterferencebetweendifferent carriers,knownasAdjacentCarrierInterferenceACI, isminimized;butnottoomuch spacedasthetotalbandwidthwillbewasted. Eachcarrierusesanupperandlowerguardbandtoprotectitselffromitsadjacent carriers.Nevertheless,therewillalwaysbesomeinterferencebetweentheadjacent carriers. fsubcarrier fsub-used b d

f0

f1

f2

f3

fN

ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference


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LTEOverview

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OFDM:OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiCarrier
Forthe h rectangular l pulse l there h is abetteroptionpossibleanditis eveneasiertoimplement. Wemustjustnoticethatthe spectrumofarectangularpulses showsnullpointsexactlyat integermultiplesofthe frequencygivenbythesymbol duration. duration Theonlyexceptionisthecenter frequency(peakpower)
Single carrier

f/fs
fs fs fs fs fs fs fs fs fs fs fs fs

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LTEOverview

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OFDM:OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiCarrier
ThusOFDMsimply Th i l places l the h nextcarrier i exactly l in i the h first fi null llpoint i of fthe h previousone. Withthiswedontneedanypulseshaping. B Between OFDMcarriers i using i the h Orthogonal Subcarriers: it samesymboldurationTs, means that at the noguardbandsarerequired. f
s

subcarriers center frequencies, there is no Adjacent Carrier Interefence ( (ACI) )

Two carriers

f/fs
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LTEOverview

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Spectrum Overlapping of multiple OFDM carriers


f n = f 0 + nf
s

= f0 + n

1 Ts

n = K 1 , 0 ,1 , 2 . K

f0

f1

f2

f3

f4

No ACI (Adjacent Carrier Interference)


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LTEOverview

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OFDM:OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiCarrier
OFDMallowsatightpackingofsmallcarrier calledthesubcarriers intoagivenfrequencyband.

Power Den P nsity

Po ower Dens sity

Saved Bandwidth

Frequency (f/fs)

Frequency (f/fs)

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LTEOverview

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TheOFDMSignal

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LTEOverview

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OFDMandMultipleAccess
Uptoherewehaveonlydiscussedsimplepointto pointorbroadcastOFDM. Nowwehavetoanalyzehowtohandleaccessof multipleuserssimultaneouslytothesystem, system each oneusingOFDM. OFDMcanbe b combined bi dwith ithseveral ldifferent diff t methodstohandlemultiusersystems:
Plain l OFDM TimeDivisionMultipleAccessviaOFDM
OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccessOFDMA
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LTEOverview

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PlainOFDM
PlainOFDM: NormalOFDM hasnobuiltinmultiple accessmechanism. mechanism Thisissuitableforbroadcast systemslikeDVBT/Hwhich transmitonly ybroadcastand multicastsignalsanddonot reallyneedanuplink feedbackchannel(although suchsystemsexisttoo).
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LTEOverview

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TimeDivisionMultipleAccessviaOFDM
Time i Division i i i Multiple l i l Accessvia i OFDM:Thesimplestmodeltoimplement multipleaccesshandlingisbyputtinga ti multiplexing time lti l i ontop t of fOFDM. OFDM Thedisadvantageofthissimple mechanismis,thateveryusergetsthe sameamount tof fcapacity it ( (subcarriers) b i ) anditisthusratherdifficultto implementflexible(highandlow)bitrate services. services Furthermoreitisnearlyimpossibleto handlehighlyvariabletraffic(e.g.web t ffi )efficiently traffic) ffi i tl without ith ttoo t much h higherlayersignalingandtheresulting delayandsignalingoverhead.
1 UE 1 45
LTEOverview

UE 2

UE 3

common info

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OrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccessOFDMA
The h basic b i idea id is i toassign i subcarriers b i to usersbasedontheirbitrateservices. Withthisapproachitisquiteeasyto h dl high handle hi hand dlow l bitrate t users simultaneouslyinasinglesystem. Butstillitisdifficulttorunhighlyvariable trafficefficiently efficiently. Thesolutiontothisproblemistoassign toasingleuserssocalledresource blocks orschedulingblocks. Suchblockissimplyasetofsome subcarriersoversometime. Asingleusercanthenuseoneormore Resourceblocks.
1 UE 1 2 46 UE 2 3 UE 3 common info
LTEOverview Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access OFDMA

time ... 1 1 1 . . . 1 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 . . RB . 1 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 . . . 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 . . . 3 3 3 2 2 2 . . . ... ... ...

subc carrier

... ... 3 ... 3 ... 3 ...

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DifferencebetweenOFDMandOFDMA
OFDMallocatesusersintime domainonly y OFDMAallocatesusersintime andfrequency q ydomain

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SCFDMA
SCFDMA:SingleCarrierFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess SCFDMAisanewhybridmodulationschemethatcleverlycombinesthe lowPARofsinglecarriersystemswiththemultipathresistanceand flexiblesubcarrierfrequencyallocationofferedbyOFDM. SCFDMAsolvesthisproblembygroupingtogethertheresourceblocksin suchawaythatreducestheneedforlinearity,andsopowerconsumption, inthepoweramplifier.AlowPAPRalsoimprovescoverageandthecell edgeperformance performance. SCFDMAsignalprocessinghassomesimilaritieswithOFDMAsignal processing,soparameterizationofDLandULcanbeharmonized. SCFDMAisoneoptioninWiMAX(802.16d)anditisthemethodselected forLTEintheuplinkdirection.
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Comparaison ofCCDFofPAPRforIFDMA,LFDMAandOFDMA (a):QPSK (b):16QAM


localized mode (LFDMA) is used in LTE

IFDMA = Interleaved Interleaved FDMA FDMA = Distributed SC-FDMA LFDMA = Localized FDMA = Localized SC-FDMA 49

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HowdoesaSCFDMAsignallooklike?
SimilartoOFDMsignal,but
inOFDMA,eachsubcarrieronly ycarriesinformationrelatedtoonespecific p symbol, inSCFDMA,eachsubcarriercontainsinformationofALLtransmitted symbols. y

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ComparingOFDMA&SCFDMA

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LTEOverview

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LTEdownlink:conventionalOFDMA
LTEprovidesQPSK,16QAM, 64QAMasdownlink modulationschemes Cyclicprefixisusedasguard interval different interval, configurationspossible:
Normalcyclicprefixwith5.2s (firstsymbol)/4.7s(other symbols) Extendedcyclicprefixwith16 16.7 7s
f0 f1 f2 f3 f4

15 kHz

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OFDMAtimefrequencymultiplexing

*TTI = transmission time interval ** For normal cyclic prefix duration


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spectrumflexibility
LTEphysicallayersupports anybandwidthfrom1.4 MHzto20MHzinstepsof 180kHz(resourceblock) CurrentLTEspecification supportsasubsetof6 differentsystem bandwidths AllUEsmustsupportthe maximumbandwidthof20 MHz
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Channel BW [MHz] Number of RBs

1.4 6

3 15

5 25

10 50

15 75

20 100

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BandwidthScalability
Scalable S l bl bandwidth b d idth1 1.4 4 20MHz MH using i different diff tnumber b of fsubcarriers b i LargebandwidthprovideshighdataratesSmallbandwidthallowssimpler spectrumreframing,e.g.450MHzand900MHz

Bandwidth
1.4 MHz 3.0 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz

Narrow Spectrum Reframing

High Data Rates

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LTEFrameStructure
LTEframesare10msecinduration.Theyare di id di divided into t 10subframes, bf each hsubframe bf being1.0mseclong.Eachsubframeisfurther dividedintotwoslots,eachof0.5msec duration.Slotsconsistofeither6or7ODFM symbols,dependingonwhetherthenormalor extendedcyclicprefixisemployed
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LTESlot
TheLTESlotcarries:
7symbols b l with hshort h cyclic l prefix f 6symbolswithlongprefix

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OFDMResourceBlockforLTE/EUTRAN
EUTRANcombines b OFDMsymbols b l in socalledresourceblocksRB. Asingle g resourceblockisalways y 12 consecutivesubcarriersduringone subframe (2slots,1ms):
12subcarriers*15kHz=180kHz

Itisthetaskoftheschedulertoassign resourceblockstophysicalchannels belongingtodifferentusersorfor generalsystemtasks. Asingle g cellmusthaveatleast6 resourceblocks(72subcarriers)and upto110arepossible(1320 subcarriers) subcarriers).
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LTEDLframestructuretype1(FDD),DL
# 00 # 01 # 02 # 03 # 04 # 05 # 06 # 07 # 08 # 09 # 10 # 11 # 12 # 13 # 14 # 15 # 16 # 17 # 18 # 19

1 slot = 0.5 ms 1 subframe = 1 ms

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LTEDLframestructuretype2(TDD)
1 subframe = 1 ms 1 slot = 0.5 ms
# 00 # 01 # 02 # 03 # 04 # 05 # 06 # 07 # 08 # 09 # 10 # 11 # 12 # 13 # 14 # 15 # 16 # 17 # 18 # 19

Special subframes containing: DwPTS: downlink pilot time slot UpPTS: uplink pilot time slot GP: guard period for TDD operation g Possible UL-DL configurations
ULDLconfig 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subframe number 2 3 4 5 6 U U U D S U D D D S U U U D D U U D D D U D D D D U U U D S

0 D D D D D D

1 S S S S S S

7 U U D D D U

8 U D D D D U

9 U D D D D D

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ModulationSchemesforLTE/EUTRAN
Each hOFDMsymbol b levenwithin h aresource blockcanhaveadifferentmodulation scheme. EUTRANdefinesthefollowingoptions: QPSK,16QAM,64QAM. Noteveryphysicalchannelwillbeallowedto useanymodulationscheme:Control channelstobeusingmainlyQPSK. Ingeneralitistheschedulerthatdecides whichformtousedependingoncarrier quality q yfeedbackinformationfromtheUE.
16QAM b0 b1b2b3 Im 1111

QPSK b0 b1 Im 01 00

11 10Re

Re 0000

64QAM b 0 b 1b 2b 3 b 4 b 5 Im

Re

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LTEOverview DesignTargets andMultipleAccessTechnologies

MIMO
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MultipleAntennaTechniques
MIMOemploysmultipletransmitandreceiveantennastosubstantially enhancetheairinterface. Itusesspacetimecodingofthesamedatastreammappedontomultiple transmitantennas,whichisanimprovementovertraditionalreception diversity yschemeswhereonly yasingle g transmitantennaisdeployed p y to extendthecoverageofthecell. MIMOprocessingalsoexploitsspatialmultiplexing,allowingdifferentdata streamstobetransmittedsimultaneouslyfromthedifferenttransmit antennas,toincreasetheenduserdatarateandcellcapacity. Inaddition,whenknowledgeoftheradiochannelisavailableatthe transmitter(e.g.viafeedbackinformationfromthereceiver),MIMOcan alsoimplementbeamformingtofurtherincreaseavailabledataratesand p efficiency y spectrum
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AdvancedAntennaTechniques
Singledatastream/user Beamforming
Coverage,longerbatterylife

SpatialDivisionMultipleAccess (SDMA)
Multipleusersinsameradioresource

Multipledatastream/userDiversity
Linkrobustness

Spatialmultiplexing
Spectralefficiency,highdataratesupport
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MIMO Beamforming
Enhancessignalreception throughdirectionalarraygain, whileindividualantennahas omnidirectionalgain Extendscellcoverage Suppressesinterferencein space p domain Enhancessystemcapacity Prolongsbatterylife Providesangularinformationfor g usertracking
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AIRINTERFACEPROTOCOLS
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RadioProtocolsArchitecture ItisquitesimilartotheWCDMAprotocol stack t kof fUMTS. UMTS Theprotocolstackdefinesthreelayers: thephysicallayer(layer1) data d li link kand daccessl layer(l (layer2) layer y 3( (hosting gtheAS, ,theNAScontrol protocolsaswellandtheapplicationlevel)
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RadioProtocolarchitecture Userplane
UE PDCP RLC MAC PHY eNB PDCP RLC MAC PHY

Headercompression(ROHC) InsequencedeliveryofupperlayerPDUs DuplicateeliminationoflowerlayerSDUs Cipheringforuser/controlplane Integrityprotectionforcontrolplane Timerbaseddiscard AM,UM,TM ARQ (Re)segmentationConcatenation Insequencedelivery Duplicatedetection SDUdiscard Reestablishment

Mappingbetweenlogicaland transportchannels (De)Multiplexing Schedulinginformationreporting HARQ Priorityhandling Transportformatselection


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Controlplaneprotocolstack
Broadcast/Paging RRCconnectionsetup RadioBearerControl Mobilityfunctions UEmeasurementcontrol

EPSbearermanagement Authentication ECM IDLEmobilityhandling ECM_IDLE PagingoriginationinECM_IDLE Securitycontrol

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PhysicalLayer
Itprovidesthebasicbittransmissionfunctionalityoverair. thephysicallayerisdrivenbyOFDMAinthedownlinkandSCFDMAinthe uplink. Physicalchannelsaredynamicallymappedtotheavailableresources (physicalresourceblocksandantennaports). ports) Tohigherlayersthephysicallayeroffersitsdatatransmissionfunctionality viatransportchannels. LikeinUMTSatransportchannelisablockorientedtransmissionservice withcertaincharacteristicsregardingbitrates,delay,collisionriskand reliability. y incontrastto3GWCDMAoreven2GGSMtherearenodedicated transportorphysicalchannelsanymore,asallresourcemappingis dynamicallydrivenbythescheduler. scheduler
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MediumAccessControl(MAC)
MACisthelowestlayer2protocol. Itsmainfunctionistodrivethetransportchannels. FromhigherlayersMACisfedwithlogicalchannelswhichareinoneto onecorrespondencewithradiobearers. EachlogicalchannelisgivenapriorityandMAChastomultiplexlogical channeldataontotransportchannels(demultiplexinginreception) FurtherfunctionsofMACwillbecollisionhandlingandexplicitUE identification. AnimportantfunctionfortheperformanceistheHARQfunctionality whichisofficialpartofMACandavailableforsometransportchannel types.

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RadioLinkControl(RLC)
ThereisaonetoonerelationshipbetweeneachRadioBearer andeachRLCinstance RLCcanenhancetheradiobearerwithARQ(Automatic RetransmissiononreQuest)usingsequencenumbereddata framesandstatusreportstotriggerretransmission. ThesecondfunctionalityofRLCisthesegmentationand reassemblythatdivideshigherlayerdataorconcatenates higherlayerdataintodatachunkssuitablefortransportover transportchannelswhichallowonlyacertainsetoftransport blocksizes.
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Layer3RadioProtocols
PDCP(PacketDataConvergenceProtocol)
EachradiobeareralsousesonePDCPinstance. PDCPisresponsibleforheadercompression(ROHC:RObustHeaderCompression;RFC 3095)andciphering/deciphering. ObviouslyheadercompressionmakessenseforIPdatagram's,butnotforsignaling. ThusthePDCPentitiesforsignalingradiobearerswillusuallydociphering/deciphering only.

RRC(RadioResourceControl)
RRCisthe h accessstratumspecific f control lprotocol lf forEUTRAN. Itwillprovidetherequiredmessagesforchannelmanagement,measurementcontrol andreporting,etc.

NASProtocols l
TheNASprotocolisrunningbetweenUEandMMEandthusmustbetransparently transferredviaEUTRAN. ItsitsontopofRRC,whichprovidestherequiredcarriermessagesforNAStransfer
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Layer1/2RadioProtocols Summary

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RRCProtocol

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LTEMBMSConcept
MBMS(MultimediaBroadcastMulticastServices)isanessentialrequirementfor LTE.ThesocalledEMBMSwillthereforebeanintegralpartofLTE. InLTE,MBMStransmissionsmaybe b performed f dassingle l cell lltransmissionoras multicelltransmission.Incaseofmulticelltransmissionthecellsandcontentare synchronizedtoenablefortheterminaltosoftcombinetheenergyfrommultiple t transmissions. i i Thesuperimposedsignallookslikemultipathtotheterminal.Thisconceptisalso knownasSingleFrequencyNetwork(SFN). TheEUTRANcanconfigurewhichcellsarepartofanSFNfortransmissionofan MBMSservice.TheMBMStrafficcansharethesamecarrierwiththeunicast traffic orbesentonaseparatecarrier. ForMBMStraffic,anextendedcyclicprefixisprovided.Incaseofsubframes carryingMBMSSFNdata,specificreferencesignalsareused.MBMSdataiscarried ontheMBMStrafficchannel(MTCH)aslogicalchannel.
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LTEvs WiMAX
BotharedesignedtomovedataratherthanvoiceandbothareIPnetworksbased onOFDMtechnology. WiMax isbased b donaIEEEstandard d d(802.16), ( ) and dlike l k that h other h popular l IEEEeffort, ff WiFi,itsanopenstandardthatwasdebatedbyalargecommunityofengineers beforegettingratified.ThelevelofopennessmeansWiMax equipmentisstandard and dth therefore f cheaper h to t buy. b Asforspeeds,LTEwillisfasterthanthecurrentgenerationofWiMax. However,LTEwilltaketimetorollout,withdeploymentsreachingmassadoption by2012.WiMax isoutnow,andmorenetworksshouldbeavailablelaterthisyear. Thecrucialdifferenceisthat,unlikeWiMAX,whichrequiresanewnetworktobe built,LTErunsonanevolutionoftheexistingUMTSinfrastructurealreadyusedby over80percentofmobilesubscribersglobally.Thismeansthateventhough developmentanddeploymentoftheLTEstandardmaylagMobileWiMAX,ithasa crucialincumbentadvantage.
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Summary
The3GPPLongTermEvolution(LTE)representsamajor gy advanceincellulartechnology. LTEisdesignedtomeetcarrierneedsforhighspeeddataand mediatransportaswellashighcapacityvoicesupportwell intothenextdecade. LTEiswellpositionedtomeettherequirementsofnext generationmobilenetworks.Itwillenableoperatorstooffer highperformance,massmarketmobilebroadbandservices, throughacombinationofhighbitratesandsystem throughput inboththeuplinkanddownlink withlow y latency.
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Summary Cont.
LTEinfrastructureisdesignedtobeassimpleaspossibleto p yandoperate, p ,through g flexibletechnology gythatcanbe deploy deployedinawidevarietyoffrequencybands. LTEoffersscalablebandwidths,fromfrom 1.4MHzupto 20MHz,togetherwithsupportforbothFDDpairedandTDD unpairedspectrum. TheLTESAEarchitecturereducesthenumberofnodes, supportsflexiblenetworkconfigurationsandprovidesahigh levelofserviceavailability. availability Furthermore,LTESAEwillinteroperatewithGSM, WCDMA/HSPA TDSCDMAandCDMA. WCDMA/HSPA, CDMA www.cert.nat.tn LTEOverview 79

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Summary Cont.
Technologies/Features OFDMAwith CP/SCFDMAwith CP Benefits + Equalizer simpler Scheduling time/frequency Better PAPR(SCFDMA) ISIsuppression(CP) + Higher bitrates Adaptative p modulation + Variable traffic Better capacity + Better response tochannel variation Higher bitrates Scheduling is needed Requirements

QPSK,16QAM,64QAM Canauxcommuns TTI=1ms

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Summary Cont.
Technologies/Features TTI=1ms Flatarchitecture AllIP MIMO Bandepassanteflexible(1 flexible(1.4 4 20 MHz) Universal frequency reuse (1/1) Benefits Better response tochannel + variation Higher bitrates + + Simpler Architecture Better latency Architecturesimpler p Convergence Scheduling g with priorities is needed

+ Higher bitrates + + Better spectral efficiency ICIC

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Thank you foryour Attention

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