• • • • • • • Definitions History (In India) Features Objectives Functions Structure Problems

• Development of modern industry, especially in the Western countries, can be traced back to the 18th century. Industrial development in India on Western lines, however commenced from the middle of the 19th century. The first organised Trade Union in India named as the Madras Labour Union was formed in the year 1918. Since then a large number of unions sprang up in almost all the industrial centres of the country. Similarly, entrepreneurs also formed their organisations to protect their interests .

or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business.DEFINATION • Trade Unions are the groups set-up with the aim of trying to create fairness and job security in a workplace. whether temporary or permanent. and includes any federation of two or more trade unions. former primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between workman and workmen or between employers. .1926 has define a trade union as: “Any combination. • Section 2(h) of the Trade Union Act.

III. political and social-of its members. It achieves its objectives through collective action and group effort. II. It includes federations of trade unions also. IV. The dominant interest with which a union is concerned is. It is an organisation formed by employees or workers. . It is a permanent body and not a casual or temporary one. however. It is formed on a continuous basis. V.Features of trade unions: I. economic. It is formed to protect and promote all kinds of interests –economic.

They also campaign for laws and policies which will benefit working people. By joining together with other workers. Their purpose is to protect and improve people's pay and conditions of employment. represents journalists. the National Union of Journalists (NUJ). UNISON and the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU) represent people working in a range of different occupations and industries in the public and private sectors. Trade unions exist because an individual worker has very little power to influence decisions that are made about his or her job. and the Union for Finance Staff (UNIFI) is made up of people who do different jobs in the financial sector. Often this is because unions have merged with other unions so that they can increase their membership and their influence. All sorts of jobs and industries are covered by trade unions. Other unions include a mixture of people in different jobs and sectors. as its name suggests. Some unions represent people who do a particular job or work in a specific industry .What are trade unions? • • Trade unions are organisations that represent people at work. The biggest unions in Britain . • • . there is more chance of having a voice and influence.the GMB.for example.

There are other benefits people get from being members of trade unions.What do unions do? • The main service a union provides for its members is negotiation and representation. • Negotiation • Representation • Information and advice • Member services .

There may be a difference of opinion between management and union members. People who work in organisations where unions are recognised are better paid and are less likely to be made redundant than people who work in organisations where unions are not recognised. 'Negotiation' is about finding a solution to these differences. . In these organisations. In many workplaces there is a formal agreement between the union and the company which states that the union has the right to negotiate with the employer. Pay. holidays and changes to working practices are the sorts of issues that are negotiated. This process is also known as 'collective bargaining'. working hours. The union finds out the members' views and relays these views to management. unions are said to be 'recognised' for 'collective bargaining' purposes.Negotiation Negotiation is where union representatives discuss with management issues which affect people working in an organisation.

Representation Trade unions also represent individual members when they have a problem at work. Most cases that go to industrial tribunals are about pay. If the problem cannot be resolved amicably. They are made up of people outside the workplace who listen to the employer's and the employee's point of view and then make a judgement about the case. Normally this is to help people get financial compensation for workrelated injuries or to assist people who have to take their employer to court . redundancy or discrimination at work. unfair dismissal. he or she can ask the union representative to help sort out the difficulty with the manager or employer. Unions also offer their members legal representation. If an employee feels they are being unfairly treated. the matter may go to an industrial tribunal. Industrial tribunals make sure that employment laws are properly adhered to by employees and employers. People can ask their union to represent them at industrial tribunals.

how much pay you will get if you go on maternity leave.Information and advice Unions have a wealth of information which is useful to people at work. and how you can obtain training at work. They can advise on a range of issues like how much holiday you are entitled to each year. .

Some of the older unions offer financial help to their members when they are sick or unemployed .One of the earliest functions of trade unions was to look after members who hit hard times. These include: Education and training . insurance and loans from unions. Legal assistance .Most unions run training courses for their members on employment rights. Some unions also help members who have left school with little education by offering courses on basic skills and courses leading to professional qualifications.Member services During the last ten years.People can get discounts on mortgages. Welfare benefits . some unions give help with personal matters. Financial discounts . like housing.As well as offering legal advice on employment issues. wills and debt. trade unions have increased the range of services they offer their members. health and safety and other issues.

© Photolibrary Group • The Advisory. Employers lose income because of interruptions to production or services. It could mean an over time ban. a work-to-rule or a strike. Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) is often used to help find a solution to a dispute which is acceptable to both sides. • Industrial action takes different forms. In these cases the union may decide to take industrial action. Both sides have a lot to lose. . Employees lose their salaries and may find that their jobs are at risk. • A strike is only called as a last resort. There are strict laws which unions have to follow when they take industrial action. Occasionally disagreements do occur and the two sides cannot agree.What is the role of trade unions in industrial disputes? • Most 'collective bargaining' takes place quietly and agreements are quickly reached by the union and the employer. • Usually employers and employees will go to some lengths to avoid the costs of strike action to both groups. Strikes are often in the news but are rare.

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OBJECTIVES • • • • • • • • Better Wages Better Working conditions Bonus Resist unsuitable schemes Secure welfare Project Interest of workers Social welfare Organisational gowth and stablilty .

FUNCTIONS • Militant • Fraternal •Intra-mural activities •Extra-mural activitie •Political activities. .

Why do workers join unions • • • • • • Greater Bargaining Power Makes their voice heard Minimise discrimination Sense of security Sense of Participation Sense of Belongingness .

Reasons Why Employees Join Unions • • • • • • • • • Protection Social pressure Compulsion Political beliefs Solidarity Tradition Pay and conditions Communication Health and safety .

CRITICISM OF TRADE UNION BY EMPLOYERS • • • • • Lack of education May not welcome change Strick on Illogical basis Creation of Artificical scanity of labour Undue demands relating to wages .

Type of Union Description / Example Craft of skills To represent skilled workers e. Musicians union Union (MU) Industrial unions To represent the members of one particular industry e.g. Fire Brigades Union (FBU) Unions which recruit workers from all types of industries and with any level or range of skills e. National Union of Teachers (NUT) .g. Amicus – the Manufacturing Science and Finance Union (MSF) General unions White-collar unions Represent office workers e.g.g.

Another way of clasification: 1. Reformist Unions • Business Unions • Friendly Unions 2. Revolutionary unions • Political unions • Anarchist unions .

STRUCTURE OF TRADE UNIONS • • • • Plant level Federations Local level Federations Regional Level Federations National Level Federations .

Unions structure diagram • Union Members • Shop Stewards (Union Representatives) • Branches District and Regional Offices • National Office .

these are usually staffed by full time union officials.who are elected by members of the union to represent them to management • Branches . Unions are normally modelled on the following structure: • Members . At the top of the organisation there is usually a General Secretary and a National Executive Committee. .sometimes called union representatives . elected by the union's members.• Trade unions are democratic organisations which are accountable to their members for their policies and actions.which support union members in different organisations locally. There is usually a branch secretary who is elected by local members • District and/or regional offices .the union's headquarters which offers support to union members and negotiates or campaigns for improvements to their working conditions. These are people who are paid to offer advice and support to union members locally • A national office .people who pay a subscription to belong to a union • Shop stewards .

The Act gives protection to registered trade unions in certain cases against civil and criminal action. Any seven or more members of a trade union by submitting their names to the registrar of trade unions and otherwise complying with the provisions of the Act with respect to registration may apply for the registration of the Trade Union under the Trade Unions Act. 1926 provides for the registration of the Trade Unions with the Registrars of Trade Unions of their territory.TRADE UNIONS ACT 1926 • Trade Unions Act. .

Article on role of organized labour and trade unions in economic liberalization • PWTUC .Major trade union • Hind Mazdoor Sabha .Trade union international of public and allied employees .History.• AIBOC . aims.Professional Workers Trade Union Centre of India • Trade Union India .All India State Government Employees Federation • Center of Indian Trade Unions .All India Bank Officers Confederation • AISGEF .Membership. objectives and activities • NCOA .National Confederation of Officer's Association of Central Publid Sector Undertakings • Organized Labour . objectives and trade union situation • Indian National Trade Union Congress .

The HMS was organised with a view to keeping its members free from any political or other outside interference. It is considered as the second largest union in India. The Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS). The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC).Four important central organisations of workers in India are 1. It was formed in Calcutta by the socialists who neither approved INTUC nor AITUC. Every union affiliated to INTUC has to submit its dispute to arbitration after exhausting other means of settlement of disputes. This union serves as the labour forum of Communist Party of India at present. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). 2. 3. . The Congress Party and the top congress leaders formed the INTUC like Nehru and Patel were associated with it.

4. . The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC). Those persons who were dissident socialist formed it. It functions mainly in Kerala and West Bengal. 5. Centre for Indian Trade Unions (CITU). The Marxists separated from the AITUC in May 1970 and formed the CITU.

there are four other central trade union organisations.In addition to the above. They are: • Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) • National Labour Organisation (NLO) • National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU) • Trade Union Congress Committee .

PROBLEMS AND WEAKNESS OF TRADE UNIONS • • • • • • Uneven growth Limited membership Multiplicity of unions Outside leadership Financial problems Indifferent attitude of workers .

It may be collected by direct debit from a bank account. negotiation. . protection and other services from their union. deducted directly from wages or paid in cash or by cheque to a union representative or full time official. Some unions reduce the fees for unemployed members.How are trade unions financed? • Each trade union member pays a subscription. members receive the benefits of representation. The amount varies from union to union and is normally set at different levels according to the amount people earn. • In exchange. It is usually between £5 and £8 a month. • People pay their subscription fees in different ways.

the 'New Unionism' project aimed to boost Trade Union membership. television commercials and leaflets as part of high profile recruitment campaigns. in temporary jobs or in small organisations where in the past union membership has not been very high. . Some are using adverts in newspapers and magazines. Most people find out about the union by talking to colleagues at the workplace and then make direct contact with the union. Some employers and personnel officers tell employees about the union when they start working for the organisation. Begun in 1998.How do trade unions recruit their members? Different unions cover different jobs and industries. The project set up new union roles of Academy Organisers who were trained intensively for 12 months in order to work as specialist union organisers. Unions are stepping up their efforts to attract new members.five years on. especially in newly-emerging industries and amongst members of the population who have been under-represented traditionally in the trade unions. People are recruited to unions in different ways. Research was carried out by Cardiff Business School in 2003 into the project's effectiveness. The target for these efforts is often people who work part time. Others are contacted by the union representative who gives them information about the union and tells them how to join. People are able to join the most appropriate union for their job or sector. the resulting report is The Organising Academy .

estimated from the Labour Force Survey. . In 1979 13.How has trade union membership changed in recent years? • In 2003. was 7. A comparison of membership data for the period 1992-2003 can be seen on the ONS Web site.42 million.3 million people were members of trade unions and the proportion of employees who were union members stood at 55%. These are the overall figures but union membership varies enormously by industry and by the types of jobs that people do.1%. • Trade union membership has declined over the last two decades. union membership in Britain. The proportion of all employees who were union members was 29.

. There are several reasons for this fall in membership.the previous Conservative government introduced laws which make it more difficult for unions to operate and keep their members. including: •a dramatic fall in the number of jobs in manufacturing industries where union membership was traditionally high •larger numbers of unemployed people •a fall in traditional full time employment and an increase in part time and temporary workers who are less likely to join unions •an increase in the proportion of the workforce employed by small companies where it is often difficult for unions to organise •hostile legislation . .Trade unions negotiate pay and conditions for people in a wide range of occupations.

There is also evidence that the decline in union membership is beginning to slow up. More and more people are turning to trade unions because they want the protection they can provide .Organising for Growth' and many unions are stepping up their efforts to recruit in new industries and jobs. The TUC has launched a major recruitment drive called 'New Unionism . trade union membership is still quite high and many people are employed in workplaces where unions are recognised by management for negotiating pay and conditions of employment.However.

SUGGESTIONS FOR HEALTHY GROWTH OF UNIONS • • • • • One Union Per Industry Paid Union Officials Development of Internal Leadership Recognition of Trade Unions Improved Financial condition .