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Vr Intro Ayyangar-Sreenivasa Iyengar

Vr Intro Ayyangar-Sreenivasa Iyengar

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Nice tales into Ramayana.An Antique document about an ever lovely epic
Nice tales into Ramayana.An Antique document about an ever lovely epic

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THE

Ramayana
OF

*

-

Valmeeki

RENDERED INTO ENGLISH

WITH EXHAUSTIVE NOTES
BY

(.

^
S.

^reenivasa

jHv$oiu$ar,

B. A.,

LECTURER
P
G. COLLEGE, TRICHINGj,

Balakanda and

N

MADRAS:
M. K. PEES8, A. L. T. PRKS8

AND GUARDIAN

PBE8S.

*

>
i*t

1910.

%
,

Copyright ftpfiglwtd.

3

[ JJf JB^/to Reserved

PREFACE
The Ramayana of Valmeeki is a most unique work. The Aryans are the oldest race on earth and the most
*

advanced
epic.

;

and the Ramayana

is

their

first

and grandest

The Eddas
Germany,
Inferno, the

of Scandinavia, the Niebelungen Lied of the Iliad of Homer, the Enead of Virgil, the

Purgatorio,

and the Paradiso

of Dante,

the

Nama
of

Paradise Lost of Milton, the Lusiad of Camcens, the Shah of Firdausi are Epics and no more the Ramayana
;

Valmeeki
If

is

an Epic

and much more.

it is

the

any work can clam} to be the Bible of the Hindus, Ramayana of Valmeeki.

Professor MacDonell, the latest writer on Samskritha
Literature, says
"
:

The Epic
As

contains the following verse foretelling

its

everlasting fame
*

long as moynfain ranges stand

rivers flow upon the earth, So long will this Ramayana Survive upon the lips of men.

And

This prophecy has been perhaps even more abundantly No profulfilled than the well-known prediction of Horace.
duct of Sanskrit Literature has enjoyed a greater popularity Its in India down to the present day than the Ramayana.
story furnishes the subject of many other Sanskrit poems as well as plays and still delights, from the lips* of reciters, of the Indian people, as at the the hearts of the

myriads

11

PREFACE
Benares.
It

great annual Rama-festival held at

has

been
all, it

translated

into

many

Indian vernaculars.

Above

inspired the greatest poet of medieval

Hindustan, Tulasi

Ram
of

Das, to compose in Hindi his version of the epic entitled Chant Manas, which, with its ideal standard of

virtue

and

purity,

is

a

kind of Bible to a hundred millions
Sanskrit
Literature,

the

people of Northern India."

p. 317.
It is

So much
a fact

for the version.

personal observation of the elders of our country, that witnesses swear upon a copy of the Ramayana in the law-courts. Any one called upon
the
to

within

" pay an unjust debt contents himself with saying, I will let him take it if he place the money upon the Ramayana dares." In private life, the expression, " I swear by the
,

Ramayana/'

is

an inviolable oath
lent

I

know

instances where

sums
leaf

of

money were

upon no other security than a palm
too precious a Talisman

manuscript

of the

Ramayana

to lose

When

a

man
him

on earth and

raise

yearns for a son to continue his line to the Mansions of the Blessed, the
it

Elders advise him to read the Ramayana or hear
or at least the

recited,

Sundarakanda

When
mend
it

a

man
mar

has
his

some
life,

great issue at stake that will either

or

he
a

reads the Sundarakanda or hears

expounded.

When

is very ill, past medical help, the old people about him " Read the Sundarakanda in the house with one voice, say

man

and Maruthi

bring him back to life and health an evil spirit troubles sore a man or a woman, the beards wag their wise heads and oracularly exclaim,
will

"

When
grey"

Ah

f

the Sundarakanda never

"

fails

When

any one desires

to

know

the result of a contemplated project, he desires a child to open a page of the Sundarakanda and decides by

the nature of the subject dealt with therein. (Here is a I was or asked two ago, case in point. A year by a young man to advise him whether he should marry or lead a life

no other is range of Samskntha literature regarded by the Hindus in the same light Karma-kanda is accessible only to tesimal Ramayana few. his health shattered. up my Ramayana lo ! and open And the first line that met my my eye was Kumbhakarna-siro bhathi Kundala-lamkntam " mahaili. to give I him was child an answer I a day or two When asked alone. got himself Alas within a year life place in his house was vacant his short meteoric life was his over . The infini- a very an Brahmanas the Purohiths who and they too know not its are making a living out of it meaning. mind darkened and gloomy by the vision ot his future. quite against my self. married . managed to avoid giving him an answer. and bright. its splendour heightened by the ear- rings he wore. And he. The Smnthib . they are for hard-headed are logicianb or calm-minded philosophers. his public a failure. as the nay. to took it. but recite it parrot-like. Death was a welcome deliverer to him and an old mother and a child-wife are left to mourn his untimely end. lay that could I plainly sec that his inclinations too his way. . the Mahabharatha. I promised later. could urge f nothing half- against it health was good. the Upamshads. The severed head of Kumbhakarna shone high and huge in the heavens. taking ! my silence his for consent. Puranas. The Karma-kanda work in the vast of the Vedas. the the Smnthis.lit <fc single blessedness. The Upamshads are not minority of the . his worldly position I and prospects high and sceptical Ah me better was myself I So. his His communicate the result to had made people everything I ready marriage." I had poor for not the heart to the man. for the men of the world .

nay. the river-ghauts. known Rakshasas. unpopularity The Bhagavad-geetha enjoys a unique for. their acts. religious histories. words and deeds in the light " And this Ideal Man is the Hero of of their Karma ? the Epic. for . and the rest-houses for the travellers are chosen in his house. for a work that gives a man everything he holds dear and valuable in this world and leads him to the Feet of the Almighty Father. the and all created things shdDl passe swift-coursing way and be as . men and monkeys. it brings on strife. shall nobler subject for your poem than Sree Ramachandra. the records is of short or long. the soul of righteousness. the Mathas of Sanyasms. are but world-records. Seetha. Valmeeki the Nothing that relates to any of the actors in that great world-drama shall 'escape thy all-seeing eye Rama. the perfect embodiment of all that is good and great and the " What Director of men's thoughts. or consciously prove other than true/' Such was the power of clear vision and clear speech conferred on the poet by the Demiurge. house and home. their very thoughts. The Puranas But. The Lord and it of Mercy has come down among men time incidental of oft . tune for the purpose . gods and Lakshmana. he who reads or studies it is weaned away from wife and child. the Divine Hero. give me the Ramayana of Valmeeki. "The cloud-capped livers mouritains. and the Puranas contain But. " only biography we have of the Ramayana Supreme One. friends and km. dissensions and misforthe temple of the Gods.IV but Rules of daily life. their words. the Ancient of Days. Nothing that comes out of your mouth. wealth and power and seeks the Path of Renunciation. otherwise. or secret. The Bharatha is not a very auspino devout Hindu would allow it to be read in cious work .

poets. statesmen professors of music and dancing. . concourses . astrologers. of kingly form and mien. did these boys recite it in streets. linguists. musical experts. in sacred groves and And Rama invited to the asthe expounders of in sembly the the theologians. phonologists. and the Poet are the most perfect one can conceive. geographers. Rare and singers are they and of mighty spiritual energy withal" this encomium was from him who is Incarnate ' Wisdom. knowledge and experience. Brahmanas grown grey ritualists.s "And the ' poem Listen they recite. astronomers. What of audience did they sing warriors. any It The Hero. to ''Large . sacred histories. . Behold these young ascetics. deeds and fame were fresh in the hearts of men. logicians. was sung before himself. But. many a land they travelled and sang oft many an Thus many a time and crowded halls and broad sacrificial grounds literati. politicians. philosophers. written. when It his was composed when the Hero was yet upon earth. "Mark you the radiant glory that plays around them Liker gods than men ' ! . but we to it" was not sung to sweet music Who were ? The they that conveyed the message to the hearts of men very sous of the Divine Hero.Through audience. And as long as the record of Rama's life holds sway over the hearts of men.taught. grammarians. . . rhetoricians. Brahmanas and sages and saints to . how wonderful such was It suggestivencss estimate of the lay. in its ///. painters ." This is the boon of immortality the poem shall enjoy. so long shall you sit by me in my This is the eternity of fame that comes highest heaven/' to the singer as his " guerdon the Epic. your noble song shall outlive them and never fade from the hearts of men.

it. . hermits. sages. A rare and noble epic this. vocal or instrumental and charming to finished according to the best canons of the ." to all who read And. over them and pervaded their frame and e\ery sense and faculty of theirs " strange.. the Ramavana of honeyed beautifully verses and faultless diction. saints. farmers. . come the model for all future poets . And and such the marvellous power of their an indescribable sense of bhs^ gradually stole song. overpowering and almost painful . begun and the most first the exacting critic cannot praise it too highly kind and an unapproachable ideal for all time to best of of its . mystic symbol of the Absolute the Gayathn the Vedas are the paraphrase is an exposition of the Pranava in the is . or listen to length of years and prosperity. and move among old times and scenes long gone by. letter of the Gayathn begins a thousand ot its stanzas.. adapted to music.vi PREFACE minstrels. What was " the ettect produced on the hearers ? such the pcrlectness of expression and delicacy of execution. the Veelas the Pranava. marvellously have ye sung But what works into " a raises Ramayana from ' the sphere oi literary priceless mighty repository ' of the wisdom enshrined The sacred monosyllable. . Gayathn and the Ramayana is but the amplification Each of the Vedic mysteries and lurmshes the key thereto. ascetics . in its intensity What was of verse live ' the cutical estimate ot the audience ' "What charming musK what And then. the giver oi health and happiness. that the hearers followed them with their hearts and ears that . the vividness of sweetness and melody narration ' We seem to . art. hear . sculptors. kings. the thrice-distilled Essence surest the Holy Scriptures it. . physiognomists." merchant^. proficients as ye are in cverv style of music. of the .

it is not a record of . the Between ISO.") 1H10. published the text of the hrst h\o kandas and In 1S4<>. text oi the first two kandas In 1 *. every cycle with but slight modifications that m . . the complete text printed edi- was lithographed at Bombav. and in tion ot the same appeared at Calcutta (r) ISfjO. incidents occurred during a certain cycle it is a symbolical account of cosmic events that come about Rama. poem must of an\ one world-asset it find a in town. Knshnacharya of Kumbakonam. T. R. beautifully and perfectly of the 1 illustrated in the ptuate or public. woids and deeds Ramavana ) characters (vide lyJ^^JMLJlon The Aims of Life is It not a .?). Tlie Rental recension Ch< Sardinia. in everx village and Tin (a).PREFACE \ Vll The p^em to the is aught author bv based upon the hymns of the Rig-veda Narada For. Madras Presidency. a The South Indian retention While in the first two recensions are in Devanagan. Ravana and the other characteis in the Epu and real characters k( a mystery " within of are arcJietvpes a mvsterv The numerous Inner Meanings the Ramasana (vide Introduction) amph not bear out the above remarks of There but is IN one relation hie. Sehlegel brought <mt an edition oi the a halt Carey and Marshman. Seetha. when Mr. philanthiopic missionaries of Serampore. helped Gorressio to bring of it m (b) 1S(57 The Renare^ mention. this exists This uas characters or in the Telugu the Grantha west and to the other parts of India until unknown to the ll)0r>.

Kausikas and the disciple of Sathakopa. tesa appeared to The Lord Venkalay him in a dream one night while he His shrine on the Serpent Mount and commanded him to write a commentary on the Ramayana and in devout obedience to the Divine call. etc. another Meanwhile. the most scholarly and the is the most commentary on the Sacred Epic. Siromam. with the commentaries of Govmda- ing a fine edition of raja. printing and get-up. albeit his zealous Vaishnavite spirit surges up now and then in a hiauthoritative at Siya and the Saivites.Vlil PREFACE conferred a great boon upon the literary world by publishit in Devanagari (1905). type. most comprehensive. Priceless gems of traditional . Goymdaraja and extracts from Thilaka. the silk -cloth. many a rare and priceless information in- now. his . he undertook asleep in front of . the pearl necklace. " an He names ornament to Bhooshana kanda furnishes a variety of it work the Ramayana" and each the Ramayana. Commentators 1. Subramanya Sastry. Teeka-siromam of and Madras has now accessible only in Devanagari). Kathaka. the tiara and the crest-gem. Vishamapada-vivnthi. It shows a considerable improvement in the matter of paper. K. place Ramanujeeya. Mr. Govindaraja. the beauty-mark between the He is of the eye-brows. when completed. Sathyadharma-theertheeya. It Munibhavaprakasika before the world accessible till will. Ramanuja. Raja Sastry almost finished another edition of the same (1907). Pena-vachchan-Pillai. The earliest Grantha edition was published in Madras in 1891 by Mr. the anklets. It the task and right manfully has he performed it. supplementing the above commentaries with that of Thilaka (till Mahesa-theertha. edition of Mr Knshnacharya of has begun beautiful his text (1911) with the commentary Theertheeya. the girdle. Thanisloki.

contains a single alteration. opinions of various great to give. commented upon only by Govindaraja the Devanagan edition with the comword for of Rama-panditha. exists only in . but It may be the that work of the latter. have not been able to find out the author of the commentary so named. Ramato the in world southern being printed He Devanagan characters at Calcutta and Bombay. by Rama-panditha was of in his Thilaka. But. 2. more I Kathaka. uncompromising esoteric Adwaithin. In fact. Rama-panditha a thorough-going. Khara. Rama-pan ditha. the gloss of Mahesatheertha M tried in vain to word.PREFACE pretations IX and oral instructions are embedded in his monube the the mental work. being in Northern India. savor 4. without I have explain or reconcile this enigma. except have but written down men and have have tried to nothing of explain my own where I the inner meaning of the remarks made by Viradha. the criticises from and quotes Ramayana-thathvamakes no reference to deepika and the Kathaka. of Rama-panditha than of Theertha. which the extracts quoted in the Thilaka. the (outside yana-thilaka. but. In the Grantha is edition of the Ramayana. the Adwaithic tenor of the arguments and the frequent criticisms of Kathaka. Mahesa-theertha. " He I declares himself his to pupil of Narayana-theertha and has named work Rama- yana-thathva-deepika. in the Grantha was not available to him characters. Vali and Ravana ". criticised 3. and Theertha might his have in studied it in the South and written is commentary at the Devana- gan. he copies out the commentary of He quotes Teeka-siromam and is Govindaraja bodily. the Uthtnarakanda and Theertha mentary . His commentary. Govindaraja. the accessible only one India). and jeers mercilessly Theertha's interpretations.

it. and form the cram-book of the professional expounder of the Rarnayana. Schlegel gave to the world a Latin version of the first Kanda and a part of the second. Knshna-Samahvaya or as he more popularly Pillay. as most of exhaustively. He ary he chances to write now and then. is known by his Tamil cognomen. Gorresio published an Italian rendering of the work It was followed by the French translation of Hippolyte Fauche's. Mr. Pena-vachchan the author of It is not a regular commentary upon the Ramayana. of He is not to be confounded with the famous Founder is the Visishtadwaitha School of Philosophy. with quaint idioms and curious twists of language. which are much admired by the people of the South. his Tamil works are. and deals with the subject It is written in the Manipravala. was the first to translate the . Sree Vedantha-desika. It selects the incident of Vibheeshana seeking refuge with typical illustration (Vibheeshana-saranagathi) as a of the key-rote of the Ramayana the Rama doctrine of Surrender to the Lord. In the year 1846. Translations in 1870. Griffith. The Serampore Missionaries . Thanislokt. What comment- Ramanuja. It is written a curious combination of Samskntha and in Manipravala Tamil. PREFACE confines himself mainly to a di#cussion of the various readings of the text. 7. is not very valuable. 6. the most prominent personage after Sree Ramanuja. Abhaya-pradana-sara. is the author of this treatise. Principal of the Benares College.X 5. He selects certain oft-quoted stanzas and writes short essays upon them. Many of the explanations are far-fetched and wire-drawn and reveal a spirit of Vaishnavite sectarianism. were the first to but they proceeded give the Ramayana an English garb no further than two Kandas and a half.

he has used is the one pub- lished differs commentary of Rama-panditha. nidified and over-laid by the accretions of ages as to be almost unrecognisable. G. usages and traditions of the time of ferred. Ramayana profound suggestiveness will and no to it. being within the Rama are hinted at or left to be in- the poem was sung 8. word-for-word rendering do the barest justice manners. his rendering is completely wide a list of the maik. " same Then why go over the ground and inflict upon the public another translation of the Ramayana English prose?" 1 Mr. I request of any impartial scholar venture to think that his translation conveys not spirit. . . As is explained in the lies in its Introduction. the latest translation of Valmeeki's immortal epic into English prose is that of Manmathanath Dutt. customs. the greatness . Dutt has translated but the text of Valmeeki .. altered. m and that almost too literally . Even such of the above as have lived down to our times are so utterly changed. A. 4. Many incidents.PREFACE xi Ramayana into English verse (187074). of the original Even supposing it is that it is a faultless rendering of not all that is required. Calcutta (1894). which the South Indian Grantha text in readfrom widely of stanzas and chapters. he has not placed before the information contained in the readers the priceless gems I of commentaries. the swing. M. think. knowledge of the persons to whom but to the modern world they are a sealed book. But. is all I A careful comparison of his rendering with mine of Samskntha). 2. the 5. of the literal 7. and the number IK ings with the 3 More of all often than once. to a Westerner the beauty. (It is neither useful nor graceful to make such instances. the force and the grandeur a faultless text. The text that.

Hence the in11. place in doings parcel Valmeeki's poem. Ramayana useful. it recapitulations is and other literary frail rapids through which translation craft. neither more nor less. but Every one of the eighteen Puranas. of Valmeeki. The same incident is variously related in various places. relates the coming down of the Lord as Sree Rama. 12. religious and secular. the Adhyathma Ramayana and the Ananda Ramayana. 10. be recited. as also the with great divergences of detail while the Padmapurana narrates the life and doings of Sree Rama in a former Kalpa. Innumerable poems and incidents greatly. Mahabharatha. other authoritative work. has to be laid under contribution to bring home to the minds of the readers a fair and adequate idea of the message that was conveyed to humanity by Valmeeki. Only twenty chapters were allowed to be sung a day. not read. to The poem was numerable repititions. not very easy to steer our of The whole range Samskntha literature. and to an ever-changing audience. The Adbhutha Ramayana and the Vasishtha Ramayana deal at great length with certain incidents in the life of Rama as are not touched upon by Valmeeki while . the of Ananda Ramayana devotes Rama after he was crowned plays founded eight Kandas at to the history Ayodhya.Xll 9. which differs very much in the main from the Ramayana . in thus of no use it that more mischievous than gives an incomplete and la many places a distorted . upon Valmeeki's epic modify its but base themselves on some Purana or Many a story that we have heard from fires the lips of our elders when we lay around roaring during long to as part and have come and we which regard nights wintry of finds no life of the and Rama. is A bare translation of the text of the nay.

With those teachers the Ramayana was not an ordinary epic. I The which I have follow- ed myself. It is to him what the Bible was to . were. It was something higher. reconciliation and rounding off. a new rule period in the critical texts. the Grand Old Man of the Orientalist School opines " When I was enabled to collate copies which came thus : from the south of India. above all this. to the Disciple by word of mouth.PREFACE xiii view of the subject. Over and there are many priceless teachings about the find Inner Mysteries of the Ramayana which written books. the most important.which I have often expressed of the great value of Southern Mss. and which have asked my fellow-translators . practically inaccessible except to the Tamil-speaking races of India. received fresh The study of Grantha and other southern confirmation Mss. and are entirely unknown to the a large literature on the subject. non-Tamil-speaking world. treatment of Sanskrit I believe. no place in They form part of the instructions that the Guru gives 13. the Catholic world of the Medieval Ages the clergy as it . is And of these. The Divya-prabandhas and their numerous commentaries are all in the quaint archaic Tamil style known as Mampravala. that of Govindaraja. amplification. only the Initiated. Then again. grander and more sacred. there is the never-ending discussion about the method of translation to be followed. the Alwars from Sree Sathakopa downwards. the opinion. will inaugurate. MaxMuller. interpretation. It is to the commentaries that we have to turn for explanation. could read and expound it. not even an Ithihasa. have taken up the study of the Ramayana of as a special Valmeeki branch of the Vedantha and have left behind them original and explanatory. It was an Upadesa-Grantha a Book of Initiation and no true Vaishnava may read it unless he has been initiated by his Guru into its mysteries. The saints of the Dravida country.

worked at the Veda. a rugged but faithful translation seems to us useful than a smooth but misleading one. whenever a choice has to be made between what is not quite faithful and what is not quite English. has viz. the idiom rather than the of the translation. have. namely. literal translation may convey an entirely wrong meanliteral It is " ing. but every translator knows that in many cases a general. more However. slating while on if a character or paraphrasing instead of tranthe other. they would suggest translations which are not For the purpose we have but also idiomatic. and if some of our critics have been offended by certain unidiomatic expressions occurring in our translations. I who have dope . been adhered to in this new volume atoo. to avoid giving to our translations We too modern . without hesitation. to surrenaccuracy apI der. on the one hand. his Translation of the Upamshads. not them- Part 13 explain to those " selves It is difficult to who have that. that we shall always be most grateful if only in faithful. all I can say is. we cannot retain expressions which. Introduction to II.Xiv PREPACK to follow. p. of having occasionally not been impossible to argue these questions in enough. we have of laid ourselves open to another kind censure also. While that I in my to translation of the Veda in the remarks have make in the course of my shall frequently differ from other scholars. know that all true scholars have proved of this. yet we find it so difficult to lay hold of a whole chain of connected thought and to discover expressions that will not throw a wrong shade on the original features of the ancient words of the Veda. literally rendered in English or any modern tongue. how it is though we may understand almost every word. would have an air of quamtness or absurdity totally foreign to the intention of the ancient poets. view. commentary.

PREFACE
their best

XV

and who have done what they have done in a truly scholarlike, that is in a humble spirit, it would be unpleasant, even were it possible within the limits assigned,
to criticise every opinion that has

been put forward on the
of certain

meaning
cate

of certain

words or on the construction
I

verses of the Veda.

prefer as

much

as possible to vindi-

my own

translation, instead of

tions of other scholars,

examining the transla" whether Indian or European.
the 26th

From the
In

Preface to his translation of the Rig-veda Samhitha.
letter

his

to

me

of

of

January

1892,

referring to
as

my proposal to

translate the

Markandeya Purana

one
"

of the
I

Sacred Books of the East, he writes

shall place your letter before the Chancellor and Delegates of the Press, and I hope they may accept your

proposal.

If

you would send me
I

translation, clearly written,

shall
in

specimen of your be glad to examine it,
the
Bibliotheca

a

and compare
I

it

with the text

Iinlua.

have a Mss. of the Markandeya-punma. Possibly the palm leaf Mss. in Grantha letters would supply you with a better
text than that printed in the Ribliotheca

Indica"
'

But, Mrs. Besant,

in

her Introduction to

The Laws

of

Manu, in the Light of Theosophy. M. A./ takes a different view
"

By Bhagavan Das,

explanatory statement should be made as to the method of conveying to the modern reader the thought of
the ancient writer.

One

The European

Orientalist, with

admir-

able scrupulosity and tireless patience, works

away labon" accurate

busly with dictionary and grammar

to give an

and scholarly translation he is striving to interpret.
as
'

"

of the

foreign language
else can

What

he do

?

which But the

Result, compared with the Original, is like the dead pressed specimen of the botanist beside the breathing Even I, with my poor knowliving flower of the garden.

ledge of Samsknt,

know

the joy of contacting the pulsing

XVI
virile scriptures in their

PREFACE

own

tongue, and the inexpressible

dulness and dreariness of their scholarly renderings into English. But our lecturer is a Hindu, who from childhood
in the atmosphere of the elder days he heard the old stories before he could read, sung by when he is tired now, he grand-mother, aunt, and pandit

upwards has lived

;

;

finds his recreation in chanting over the well-loved stanzas of an Ancient Purana, crooning them softly as a lullaby to

a

weaned mind

;

to

him the

'

'

well-constructed language
;

(Samsknt) is the mother-tongue, not a foreign language he knows its shades of meaning, its wide connotations, its
traditional glosses clustering
its

round words and sentences,

content as dtawn out by great commentators. Hence, when he wishes to share its treasures with those whose

birthright they are not,

he pours out

these?

meanings

in

their richness of content, gives

them
of

as they

speak to the

heart of the Hindu, not to the brain of the European.
close

and accurate knowledge

child's play for

him

to

His Samsknt would make it give "an accurate and scholarly tranhe has preferred to give the
specimens.
to

slation" of every quotation;

living flowers rather
in the pride of their

the dried

Orientalists,

mastery of
of

'dead' language, will very

likely scoff at the rendering

one

whom

it

is

a living

but has lived
are given.

and familar tongue, who has not mastered Samsknt as a man, in it from an infant For these, the originals

But

for those

who want

to

touch the throbbing
of the

body
full

rather than learn the
of India's

names

bones

of the

skeleton

Ancient wisdom, for those these free and renderings are given. And I believe that they will be

welcomed and enjoyed."
The
best test of

a translation

is

that

it

must not at
'

all

\appear to be a translation. Some hold that a translation 'must be a guide to the text, a crib as it were, enable and should any one ignorant of the original language
'

PREFACE
to.

XVII

master
is

it

easily

and sooner.

I

believe that a

transla-

tion

meant

the ideas

to convey to a foreigner the thoughts, and the heart of the writer it is not to
;

dictionary translation and a

be a

and
literal

grammar combined.
are contradictory terms

A
;

faithful

no word-

for-word,

wooden rendering can
;

be

any

other thing

and no good translation can be literal. two races think alike; the same thought, the same fact
than faithless
quires to

No
re-

be clothed

in different words, in different expres-

sions to reach the

mind of the

hearer.

A

translation should

be
the
'

faithful not to the words, not to the constructions, not to

grammar

of the original, so

much

as to the

Kavi-hndaya,

accuracy have rendered the translations of the Orientalists perfectly useless. Useless to those ignorant of Samskntha, in that it
places before
life

the heart of the poet.'

Curious notions

of literary

them

strange thoughts and

foreign

modes

of
it,

and speech
they

not as

in an English garb, but not as they speak understand it useless to the people
;

iO

whose

literature

they belong,

m

that the translators are

foreigners.

They have no sympathy with
the
or

the

writer,

or

with

people whose thoughts they subject attempt to place before the world. They bring to the work a prejudiced heart, a cold hyper-critical intellect, and an
with the
iconoclastic pen. Everything that they cannot understand, everything that they cannot reconcile with their precon-

ceived notions of

men and

things, of

God and
at

the Universe,
it,

they throw overboard, without a glance
the jester.

without a

pang, just as the grave-digger cast aside the skull of

Yonck

They

fix

the correct readings

judgment over the commentators who

they sit in dread were born in and
;
;

breathed the very atmosphere of the poet and of his nation they give the right meaning of words they formulate the
;

canons

of
3

interpretation

;

they judge

of

the stage of

mental. of the beast or of the people ary. political.Xviil PREFACE progress the people might have attained in the material civilisation. < like ' the Atharva-veda. from its medical books like to give Vagbhata. moral. for in . in Ritualistic Manuals a Book of Psalmody like of the Sama-veda. sacred epics like Ramayana and you the life the Mahabharatha nay. a com. spoken or done. Susrutha and Charaka late ! . from its philosophical works like the Vedantha literature. made-up. lame accounts of That is their Time is that . nothing is historical to them except own years. and wonderful to re- they find history in treatises too their upon logic like Tarka- sangraha. They fit every event in of march the of life a non-christian nation . mto their before their chosen people. literindustrial. I like. they are psycho- metrical adepts. They are very wise men the Orientalists . they profess and thoughts of a nation from its grammar like the Maha-bhashya. religious as if they were the operate very They ficial Maker would of the objects for they in upon. They would seek like historic finds in moral text-books the Smnthis. a thighbone. economic. own there was no civilisation superior to there was nothing good or noble. Place any thing before them.000 their Eternity. in in Rig-veda. Sacri- search like history a Book of hymns the the like Yajur-veda. in mathematical works like the Leelavathi and the Beejaganitha insignificant ! ! Nothing is trivial. too humble. a book the Rimes and Charms. their history physical. the last 2. historical omnivorous. too appetite is for them . a tooth. the Lord's Elect. if would give anything to know what they might feel an orthodox Brahmana or a Charvaka Atheist were to . or a piece of stone and they will spin you an interminable yarn of the man. came the world. a rag. to their Procrustean bed of Biblical their chronology .

based mostly think of such a the upon the unhealthy fumes of his imagination and preHow would the English nation like to have its judices ? history written. of his literary infallibility if he should take it for granted that his race is the chosen one. reconciliations and judgments ex-cathedra. of his unerring keenness. their if life. their faith. Scriptures he professes he should never have come across the real Sacred Books of the East if he should have come into to further reveal if . from Masson's British from from Barnard Smith's Arithmetic. bishops embellished to boot. unprincipled renegades to the faith of their fathers if he should not even dream of access to the higher classes. joys. with original commentaries. their acts. from Abbott's Shakesof < 1 Book ' '. that his reiigion is the only . their virtues. from mouldering skeletons. from Jevon's Logic. their sorrows. their words. say. Now what would the orthodox prosperity and power.XIX place before the English Christian reading world an English version of the Hebrew Bible if he should have the . contact only with the lowest strata of the nation or with . English Christian or the devout version Bishops of and Arch- Holy Bible. additional advantage of only a nodding acquaintance with the language the . . 5000 years hence. if he should never have revealed set his eye on people whose . their vices. ' ' pearian Grammar. Philosophy. from Webster's Dicand industrial. from stray coins. medical. Todhunter's Algebra and Geometry. from moss-covered pieces of stone and architecture. their homes. remarks. that Ins people are destined to march for ever in the forefront of civilisation. tionary. true one and that the others are false. their and their sceptism he should be imbued with a supremely high notion of his omniscience. from its scientific. from its 'Book of Common Prayer/ from its from the Paradise Lost of Milton. . Psalmody from the Holy Living of Taylor.

" pillars. My 1 ' and I quote it for the benefit of those who have not come across that book. what particular dress he affected. whether he was tall or short. than more importance how a man lived and worked among when and where he was born and died. dark or fair. Griffith ilk or original critical estimates like those of Weber & the Orientalist Iconoclasts. millions. And yet more important still it is to me what a man thought and wiote.. where rot the bones of men and events of the Dead tions They have played sad havoc with the fair tradiour forefathers. a teetotaller or no. the development or ' of a nation's before 'historical finds' valuable discoveries'. Your Orientalists Heaven me from the brood. that placed ideas before facts and ijian of and heart theories. What about your coins and inscriptions. ! those human Past. Western historians depict glowing colors to and sneering language how Mahommad of Ghazni destroyed the idol of Somanatha but Weber & Co. so shall he reap. . of ghouls that haunt the charnel houses of Antiquity. a flesh-eater or a vegetarian. the dry bones of History ? To me it is of care I far his fellows.fcfc mechanical a forgotten treatises. and so on. when he wrote such and such a book. essay shatter to pieces the faith of Well. your and mounds. as he soweth opinion of the whole class and of their Indian parasites is the same as what I expressed in the Preface to my " Life and Teachings of Sree Ramanuja. Many a young promise they have turned away to . Mischief enough they have done. than save how he lived and died. where he was at a particular date. nation buried and the other decaying rubbish^ of under the mounds of the the true Arya feels Past? That is exactly like how when he reads and their Co. in translations that of Max-Muller. their guide here and there hope hereafter. single or married.

The History of Samskntha Literature by Messrs. One more extract. In conduct. And holy secrets of this microcosm. Gladly would Sir I exchange shiploads this of them for one Edwin Arnold. I time from The Zanoni' of Lytton and " circle have done. Book I. of Valmeeki or the Puranas of Vyasa. the humblest fisherman on yonder sea. young Englishman. of the individual . Or in the dark dissolving human heart. the noblest revolution it has known. naro. who believes in the miracles of San GenTo the sentiLuther. All our virtues. under Heaven's will. all our laws. . doom. may be a better man than for ments Luther the mind of Modern Europe is indebted Our opinions. is at present more authoritative m the eyes of the school ! boys than the Ramayana . jest. are the angel part of us our acts. Chapters. Alas The History of India by the Reverend Dr. not from deeds." my Well do they " fit in with the lines of Tennyson. which are sentiments. His acts arc limited and momentary his sentiments may pervade the universe. the eaithly". Julian had the virtues of a Christian. of . nations on the earth. the vices of a Pagan. Those monstrous males that carve the hvinj? hound. Sinclair. In conduct. Dabbling a shameless hand with shameful Encarnah/e their spirits " Jhc Pnticc^ . reconverted thousands to Paganism those of Constantine helped. where his bray betrays the animal withYou will find no such antiquarian twaddle in book. paths uncongenial. And ciam him with the fragments of the grave.PfcEFACfc XXI in the skin. and inspire generations till tne day of . are drawn from books and maxims. and Con- The sentiments of Julian stantine. to bow to Christianity the . The conduct can affect but a small beyond himself the permanent good or evil that he works to others lies rather in the sentiments he can dittuse.

Now. a mould their life here and hereafter. religious or Translations are quoted and the originals are secular. etc. that he should have been brought up in and saturated with the atmosphere of those amongst whom the Ramayana is recited and listened to with profound faith and devotion and to whom As torical it is not a bare literary sacred Book. and of that to which he means to convey his mesbut never one of alien faith.^is word upon the writings of the Aryans. by a Brahmana. date. decried or are unknown.fcfcli PftEFACfe Weber. we are in the Iron Age. Verily. it is all the more imperative that the Translator should possess the additional qualification of a thorough knowledge ot the Tamil religious literature of the Dravidian School of Vaishnavism. Western speculation about the hisits value the of Ramayana. the contem- porary poet < mention its the or critical posteriority its biography of the otherwise to the Maha- bharatha. one that can to the cobwebs of of work but a living reality. about Rama being a the type of the husband- man and such-like Seetha symbol of agriculture being run riot. by one that has faith in the virtues and manhood of his people. Monier Williams. I have Orientalist twaddle and my . being of the spread of a Zodiacal allegory or an account the conquering Aryans into the South of India. by one that combines wisdom and philanthropy of his forein himself a deep and comprehensive knowledge of the literature and traditions of his country. it. I hold that the sacred books of the Hindus ought to be translated by a Hindu. Muller. Max the last I hold that any History of India worth reading ought to be written by a true-hearted Hindu. in the case of the Ramayana of Valmeeki. MacDonell. in the ever downward cycle of the Kahyuga. nor a follower of Chrissage tianity without Christy nor an apostate seeking to curry favour with the ruling race and the leaders of Western thought. in the fathers.

those long reigns of kings. should record them alone and not dry facts and dates. farther than 2. and the method of the connexion it is well to understand. certainly It is XXlil not creditable to them History of or is to their authors. an open secret is how written. honestly and huge libraries are . I The Boer war within the memory most of of it. to deserves reputation of being "Philosophy teaching by example ". His . its And History. those battles.000 years do not run back. filled to overflowing with the records of that The Aryans. can but afford to preserve their highest and most valuable thoughts. the Ramayana or to any other Hindu Purana " Now. teaching example. events that actually took place ? The best answer I could make is in the words of the lecturer on the Bhagavad Her remarks apply equally well to Geetha. Besant. as we believe. periods. in the Bhagavad-Geetha there are two quite obvious meanings. Indians as well as Europeans are apt to shrink from the idea of historical truths being conveyed in much of the sacred literature those enormous . specially modern days when western thought so much swaying and coloring the eastern mind. already small period. is Now. us. into " is That forms their History and is mextncbly woven That morality and philosophy and no other. His plan. existed as a separate race on this planet for over 5 millions of year$. but. in First. Mrs. surely huge and bloody ? they are is all simple allegory. the historical. who have. history of western nations The speaking.PREFACE o\yn opinion. distinct and yet closely connected the one with the other. they are not his- tory. is But what history and what is allegory History the working out of the plan of the Logos. have seen three diametrically different versions The most important elements of a man's life or of a nation's are their thoughts." by Philosophy Is the Ramayana historically true ? Is it a record of their religion.

XXIV

PREFACE
for
;

and history is also evolving humanity the story of the evolution of a World Logos, who will That is rule over some world-system of the future.

scheme

history, the

life-story of

an evolving Logos in the working

And when we say alleout of the plan of the ruling Logos. a smaller we history, a lesser history, the only mean gory, salient points of which, reflexions of the larger history, are
repeated in the life-story of each individual Jivatma, each individual embodied spirit, History, seen from the true
standpoint, is the plan of the ruling Logos for the evolution all planes and visible of a future Logos, manifested

m

on the and
it is

physical,

and therefore

full

of profoundest

interest

profoundest meaning. sometimes called that which comes
that

full of

The

inner meaning, as home to the hearts
is

of

you and me,

which

is

called the allegory,

the

perennial meaning, repeated over and over again in each In the one, individual, and is really the same in miniature.

Iswara lives in His world, with the future Logos and the world for his body, in the other, He lives in the individual
in

man, with the Jeevatma and its vehicles both are the one life and the one

for

His body. But, lord, and he who

understands either, understands the twain. None, save the wise, can read the page of history with eyes that see; none,
save the wise, can trace in their own unfolding the mighty unfolding of the system in which a future Logos Himself
is

the Jeevatma and that ruling Logos
as

is

the

Supreme

Self;

the reflection of the greater, inasmuch as the history of the evolving individual is but a poor faint copy of the evolving of the future Logos,
is

and inasmuch

the lesser

therefore in the

scriptures

there

is

even

what we

call a
self-

double meaning
evolving,

that history

which

shows a greater

and the inner
lesser
for

allegorical

meaning

that tells of the

unfolding of the
either

Selves.

We

cannot afford to lose
richness
of the

meaning,

something

of the

PREFACE
treasure will thus escape us
;

XXV

and

clearly in

mind

that

it is

and you must have steadily no superstition of the ancients,
no
fancy
of

no dream

ignorant generations of far-off antiquity, that saw in the little lives of men reflections of the great Life that has the Universe
for
its

of the

forefathers,

the

expression.

Nor should you
catch,

wonder, not be perthat unfolding
scale, are

plexed

when you

now and
that,
;

again, in

picture,

glimpses
is

of things

on a smaller

familiar in your

own evolving and instead of thinking that a myth cloudy something which grows out of the history of a far-off individual, exaggerated and enlarged,
a
as
is

the

modern

fancy, learn that

what you
of

truth, the reality, the

mighty unfolding
of a

myth is the the supreme Life
call
;

which causes

the

shaping

Universe

and

that
is

what
only

you

call history,

the story, the story of individuals,
of that unfolding
it is

a poor faint copy
likeness, learn that

When
is

you see the

not the
is

great that

moulded by
the mighly.

the small

;

it is

the minute that

the reflexion

off

you can take it great Unveiling, that makes you understand the meaning and the purpose of human history, and thus enables you to scan, with eyes that see,
so, in

And

as history

;

reading the and then it

Bhagavad-Geetha,
the

is

the panorama of the great unfolding of events in nation after He who thus reads the nation, and in race after race.

Geetha
crash
of

m

human

history

can stand unshaken amid the

breaking

worlds.

And you

can also read

it

for

individual helping and encouraging and enlightas an ening, allegory, the story of the unfolding spirit within And I have purposed this morning, to take yourselves.

your own

two meanings as our special study, and to show how the Geetha as history is the Great Unveiling, the drawing away of the veil that covers the real scheme which history works out on the physical plane for it was that which rethese
;

moved

the delusion of Arjuna and

made

hijn fible to

do

his

XXVI

PREFACE
at

duty

Kurukshetra.
seek
its

And

then, turning
as
it

from that vaster
of teaching

plane, to

meaning

touches the individual un-

folding of the spirit,
for
for
us,

we
is

shall see

what that has

what that means
as

for us of individual illumination;

just

history

true,

so

is

allegory true.

As the

shall see, was and the preparation for the India of the future, so also is that true which is elsewhere written in the " I am the Teacher and the Mind is Mahabharatha my

history, as

we

the preparation for the India of

the present,

.

"

pupil.

From

that standpoint

we

shall see Sree

Krishna

as the Jagath-guru, the world-Guru, and Arjuna as the Mind, the Lower Manas, taught by the Teacher. And thus we may learn to understand its meaning for ourselves in

our

own

little

cycle of

human
is

growth.
a worldgreat
at

Now, an Avathara
system, appearing
crisis of evolution.

the Iswara, the Logos of

in

some physical form The Avathara decends
phrase; 'decends
1

some

unveils
is

self

would be

a

truer
as in

Himwhen we

think of the

Supreme

the

all-pervasive Life
is it

though far-off, when truly He is which we live to the outer eye
;

only

a
is

Avathara

coming down an J descending and such an Sree Krishna. He comes as the Logos of the

system, veiling Himself in
as

human

form, so

t.iat

He may,

man, outwardly shape the course of history with mighty power, as no lesser force might avail to shape it. But the Avathara is also the Iswara of the human Spirit,
the Logos of the
spirit,

the

Supreme

Self,

the self of

whom

the individual
is

an amsa. Avathara then a portion the Iswara of our system; the Avathara also, is the Iswara of the human spirit and as we see him in these two
spirit is
;

presentments, understand.

the

light

shines

out

and we begin

to

Let us take the historical drama, the setting of the great
teaching.

India had passed through a long cycle of great-

of prosperity. Fitness. it had again grown up strong and vigorous. feebler Parasu Rama. the successive Asramas the stages of life. had been proclaimed through the lips of the Not only a religion. That day had passed. were marked in the castes. . in the long life of the individual. thus marvellously mam planned. and teaches an infant civilisation Kingship that guides. but also a polity. Not only a religion and a polity. for a nation. but also the lines shaping of the individual life on the wisest . able to reach the ryot in his field.PREFACE n^ss. and a conflict had taken place. Thus perfectly thought out. able metaphysician religion. Units on the Study of Bhagavad-Gedhdi pp. the world-model. Right Order. in his to teach the philosopher and the secluded study. A religion. In that part of her story. to show what might be done where Wisdom ruled and Love inspired. reproduced the Asramas through which a man passed between birth and death. Others had come. in the individual lite. That was its function. 6 12. an economic and social order. The word spoken out by that ancient model was the word Dharma Duty. a. Rama of the axe. land as the model XXVI I Sree Ramachandra has ruled over the of the Divine shapes. world-embracing Rishis of this hr-t offshoot of the Race. this first offshoot of the great It Aryan Race had settled in the northern parts of India had there served as the model. many to rule and guide. planned by the wisdom of a Maim. ruled at first by that Manu himself. the successive Varnas. The great Kshathnya caste had been cut down almost to the root by the Avathara. Into that India the new manifestation came. this infant civilisation was given to the race as a world-model. embracing the and heights depths of human thought. and each in its caste-life of the embodied Jeevathma principles.

no Nor yet that thou art mortalnay. Am not thyself in converse with thyself. coins and inscriptions. my son. Hall of Knowledge. For nothing worthy proving can be proven. Thou tanst not piove that thou art body alone. owning no world outside the perception of his unerring senses. ' Break into ' Thens and Whcns the Eteinal ' Now This double seeming of the single world " ' doubt and cased in the impenetrable armour of disbelief.XXViii PREFACE The Ramayana not a romance. Nor canst thou piove that thou ait both in one Thou canst not prove thou art immoital. And seern to flicker past thro sun and shade. and dates. who speak with thee. Thou canst not prove that 1. Tho'we. Tennyson's Ancient Sage young man. as Pleasure leads. She feels the Sun is hid but for a night . who * creep fiom thought to thought.' She sees the Best that glimmers thro' the Worst. who wants to prove everything by the touchstone of /us reason before he would deign to To the sceptic. Or short. or Fain But with the Nameless is nor Day nor Houi 1 . or long. Nor yet dibproven . the Guardians of Humanity select only such best suited to their purpose and tives that stand as eternal as are weave around them narra- To I the would 44 man of facts recommend the advice given by to the rationalistic symbols oi cosmic processes. the Nameless. thin minds. The days and hours are ever glancing by. . It is of Valmeeki " is a romance and 1 ' it ^ is a truth for those who can comprehend of the those who cannot. I say with the " Thou canst not prove O my son. whereforethou be wise. Nor canst thou prove the world thou mo vest in. And cling to Faith beyond the foims of Faitb 1 She reels not in the storm of waving words. Noi canst thou prove that thou art spirit alone. allow a place in his that it . Cleave ever to the sunnier side of doubt. it. and an extravagance for Out of the vast mass of events in the history world. She brightens at the dash of 'Yes' and 'No.

PREFACE
She spies the summer thro* the winter bud, She tastes the fruit before the blossom falls,

xxix

She hears the lark within the songless egg, She finds the fountain where they wail 'd 'Mirage'

'

"

But, to
tive

him who would
to the

pierce thro' the exoteric narra-

down

bed-rock of Truth, out of which bubbles

ever the Waters of Immortality and Omniscience, to who would feel the heart-throb of Valmeeki, to him

him

who

would understand the mystery and its sublime purpose, I say
:

of the Divine Incarnation

"

If

them wouldst hear the Nameless, and will dive

fnto the Temple-cave of thine

own

self,

There brooding by the central altar, thou Mayst haply learn the Nameless hath a voice,

By which thou
As
if

wilt abide,
tho'

if

thou be wise,

thou knewest,

thou canst not

know

,

For Knowledge is the swallow on the lake That sees and stus> the surface shadow there,
But never yet hath dipt into the abysm,

The Abysm of all Abysms, beneath, within The blue of sky and sea, the green of earth, And in the million millionth of a gram Which cleft and cleft again for ever more,

And ever vanishing, never vanishes, Tome, my son, more mystic than myself, Or even than the Nameless is to me And when thou sendest thy free soul thro'

heaven,
"

Nor understandest bound nor boundlessnesas, Thou seest the Nameless of the hundred names.

For, saith the Lord.
birth

"He who

thus knoweth

my

divine

and action in its essence, having abandoned the body, cometh not into birth again, but cometh unto me, O,
Arjuna!
I

"Geetha
in

IV, 9.
best to

have tried

my

be

faithful to the
it

original in
I

word and

sentiment

wherever

was

possible.
that

have

tried to place before his readers the thought

underlay

the words of the poet. I have tried to preserve, as far as I could, the force, the beauty and the spirit of the Ramayana,
that
it

may

arouse

m the hearts of the readers the same

senti-

ments, passions and feelings that well up in the hearts of a

XXX

PREFACE
it

Hindu audience, when
was
tators

listens

to

its

recital.

incorporated into the translation
necessary,

of

the

text,

hpve wherever it

I

Govmdaraja
;

the explanations other and the

and the

comments of authoritative commen-

where they differed or supplemented one have another, given the essence of their opinions in the form of Notes. I have drawn from all available sources
but,
I

Hindi version of Thulasi Das, the Prakrith of Hemachandracharya, the Vedas, the Smnthis, the Puranas, the Darsanas, in fact, the whole range of
of

information,

the

Samskntha and other literature,
I

as far as

was accessible

to

me.

know

that

English of

any one who undertakes the translation into such colossal works as the Ramayana or the
at his disposal a large

Mahabharatha must have
I

and

well-re-

presented library; nor the influence to possess it. to render my heart-felt thanks,

know

also that

I

have neither the means
I

But,
full

take this opportunity
all

such as have helped
disposal,

me

and over-flowing, to by placing their books at

my

more Kumbakonam.

especially to the
I

Brahma Vidya Lodge,
I

T.S.

know

that this enterprise requires a large that

initial

outlay of capital

and

have

it

not

Babu Pratap

Chandra Roy, the brave translator of the Mahabharatha, appealed and with success to the various Governments of Mr. Manmath Nath Dutt, the India, Europe, and America first translator of the Ramayana into English prose, was
;

favoured with the royal support of His Highness the Maharaja of Travancore, to whom he dedicated his work.

But my mainstay and support is Sree Ramathandra, whose greatness and glory I humbly endeavour to bring home to the hearts of the millions in the East and in the West. To Him I dedicate, in all humility and reverence, my unworthy production to Him, to Seetha, to Lakshmana to Bharatha, to Sathrughna and last, not least, to Maruthi,
9

the Ideal

Rama-bhaktha.

In

their

never-failing grace

do

PREFACE
/ place
I

XXXI
this

my

trust

to

enable

me

to

carry on

work

to its

completion.

know, better than others, the shortcomings
disqualifications
;

of

my

work and of the numerous under to do my duty towards it
indulgence of
their advice

I

labour

and

I

humbly crave the

my

readers, their

sympathy, their support,

and

their

good thoughts.

C. R.

SRINIVASA AIYANGAR,

B.A.,

TRICHINOPOLY

INTRODUCTION I " : The Ramayana. represent the third. The last word." This expression that treat of Sri Rama naturally applicable to all works but custom and tradition have limiof Valmiki. used in a conven- Yaugika. derivative. meaning. the Brahma The Maha Bhashya and Rama." " The record of the life arid adventures ot Sri is . Rama. but etymologically understood. Sutras. Dasarathi. having etymological special which belongs to . Such names as Krishna belong to the first class . means "born in the mud other flowers such as the water-lily are not so called. " . is a type of the second Pankafa. of three kinds : Rudln. ted it to the grand epic Words are tional sense . The Bhagavad Gita. are by conventional usage and tradition understood to mean respectively. The Gita. It is confined by convention to the lotus alone. retaining that significa- tion it its and by etymology both an and Yaugika Rudha. expression Ramayana Many have sung ' ' Even ' so the of the Life Rarna/ but convention restricts it by pre-eminence to the immortal epic of Valmiki alone. the lotus. . The Brahama Sutras of Vedavyasa. the Maha Bhashya of Patanjah and Rama the son of Dasaratha. . the son of Dasaratha.

Valmiki abode and endowed him with the Open Eye of the The sage saw with clear the present. of Days. In course of time.. the Daityas (the Lords of Darkness) and the Nagas (Dragons of wisdom) would not rest until their and Kings booner. I. nether worlds resounded with the holy chant. The Devas (Angels of Light) would have it in their bright homes on high. and listened entranced of to the shower^ heart-compelling strains heavenly flowers rained on the heads of the blessed singers. The Original.II < . ' Brahma. Hymns was the form in which the teaching was Later on. mable head in their bright aerial cars . stanzas Adb. Brahma sung of stanzas this the life of Rama in a poem of 100 crores of his and taught G. One came down even unto where vision into the past. Hot was the discussion between the excited Brahma the Creator. A R. and the record thereof was given to the world in the form of a grand poem of 100 crores of A. the holy sages received the inestigift and continued to recite the epic in their hermitCountless bands of the Shining Ones gathered overages. it to Narada and the other Rishis world Bala Kanda. Yatra Kanda I. Vedic imparted. but the Sages of the earth would have parted with their lives mants . Manohara Kanda 17. G in Jus preface to 'Notes on It Bala Kanda' contains 9 lakhs of cantos. and the future. R Manohara Kanda I. Siva the Destroyer tried in clai- vain . the Four-faced Seer. Then began a mighty struggle among the denizens of the other worlds as to who should have exclusive possession of the sacred epic. /?. R.. and shouts of joy and acclamation rent the skies. R. the Ancient sent down Narada to instruct Valmiki in the mysteries of Divine wisdom. 1)00 lakhs of chapters and 100 crores of stanzas A.

in the end. and indivisible. Siva requested that they might be his portion.047 stanzas . What how they are to be utilised can best be learnt from the Science that treats of them (The Mantra Thus proceeding. who. Brahma the Creator begged hard of his father . Plaksha. Sesha. Thereafter. Saka. the Con- Vishnu. two letters remained undivided Sastra). They laid the case before Ocean him and besought a way out of the difficulty. that they expressed. was the Lord of the Kailasa and for all for the Robe the of Glory . Ratna. they averred. From Garuda came the the mighty Mantra to these mantras are and mortals of this the knowledge of Earth. upon. Salmah and Jambu. to whisper it into the right ear of those who exchange their mortal tenements . The Holy Name reverently received by time he abides at the holy Kasi (Benares). the Serpent of Eternity. and it takes them over safely through to tossing waves of material existence on the shores of the Regions of Light. and Garuda. were all entitled to it. Where47. 33 crores. Vishnu cut the Gordian knot by dividing the huge work equally and impartially among the three claimants. Krouncha. the portion of the Earth was further divided among the seven spheres thereof Pushkara. Lakshmi shared her knowledge with the Angels on high. Maha. Each secured to itself but 4 remained indivisible. 33 lakhs. 33 thousands.to arbitrate . Kusa. gently lulled by the throbbing waves of the of milk. they and the ambitious aspirants along with them proceeded by common consent to where the Lord Vishnu lay reclined on the folds of the Serpent of Eternity. o33 stan/as and 10 letters formed the portion of each. Lakshmi. Bird were initiated by the Lord into the three divine the sort of mighty Mantras (Spells) built up of the last 10 letters above mentioned.619. Sesha instructed the Dragons and the Asuras in the Nether worlds.

Name and Form . All them them and behind beyond Name and Form but. nine Varshas. These are the Great Truths. so. it is not. Later on. but for It. all shall pass away and change . aching heart on the banks of the swift-flowing Sarasvati knew . Kuru.291. . but Being and Not-Being are the Kosmic Ultimates / else remain. He sat with an But.to be allowed " I to receive it. But the letter Sri that remained. he took what fell to the Bharata Varsha as its share of the Original Ramayana and based upon it Hence name Veda-Vyasa. Bhadraswa. the great Illusion cast upon the Supreme One like a mist. Narada learnt them from him. that is which manifests not as the Self. Kimpurusha and Bharata. Know thou the above and you know Me". his He that adjusts or arranges the Vedas'. was before thjs Universe began and no other. / remain. Hari. That which itself presents itself not as Truth. the his soul Upapuranas.005 stanzas each and a seven- Hiranmaya. verily that Maya. The Supreme is the Life and Light of the Universe like . ' the 17 Puranas. The Great Elements permeate all like a pall of darkness. and the Maha Bharata. the Lord took form as Veda-Vyasa. warp and woof but the Manifested and the Unmamfested live in Me and move and have their being. the Kaliyuga will see the Brahmanas dull of intellect and shortlived. Further. received 5. into he divided the one eternal Veda (Divine Wisdom) many branches (Sakhas) to suit their varied capacities. Ramyaka. of the The that inhabitants Pushkara nine Dweepa divided equally their share between it . Ketumala. not peace nor serenity. compose but the the two Varshas (continents) Varshas of our Jambu Dweepa Ilavrita. was held in common by the ' ' lettered mantra. Later on.

instructed him in the mysteries of the Self as contained in the four stanzas that constituted the Heart of all Wisdom. and Brahma signified his glad approval thereof" VII. R. of yore in to 60 lakhs . that embodies any Ramayana.. I. Yatra Kanda II. Prosody.19. or truth. /?. Vaisampayana has preserved 24. social. VII. HI. the numerous excluded. Astrology. religious philosophical. themselves selves with 14 while we on this mortal earth were blessed but with the remaining lakh. in as much he has come out of ant-hill." i. Vedic The Mahabharata Vyasa sung he Angels kept it has a similar mystery ol rs own. <Thc Singer.' the Valmeeka (the ant-hill). 30 of which 15 .. 96. Know this mighty sage as Valmeeki. . Fathers appropriated the Rakshasas and the Yakshas had to content themthe . M. Brahma Kawariha Parana. the Lord of the Waters " Thus was V. the wisdom and fullness of peace. JO. Veda-Vyasa assimilat- when Narada came unto him and ed it and embodied child of his mature famous Sn Bhagavatha. of stanzas. but owes its A.R. glossaries. 1. But.' is Maharshi Valmeeki epic. it for us. of "I am the tenth son in descent)" of (or the 10th sung the Ramayana by the mighty son K 99 Varuna V. Astronomy. there exists a compendium of episodes the same in 150 stanzas and it is called the Anukramamka.000 stanzas make up the work. origin to the same. it m his The great sages. the Fashioner of the worlds. Phonetics. Varuna. that later on gave to the world the various standard works on the Science of words.B. The name means held to be the composer of the He who sprang out of the ' ' Said Brahma. the Rules of Ritual and the drew their materials from the Original and there is not an episode. . moral.

ii. sides. I. right" said he to himself "in fellow the of what he had. was later on known Valmeeki. P. as Riksha.l. VII.through the countless years.) . Ill. of Indra. Once upon a time. the son of Varuna and brother of Bhrigu Bh. the Gods hailed him as the son of Varuna.. He came of of the line of Bhrigu. there lived on the shores of lake Pampa. M. 7.. VII. He abides in II. Riksha as the line of Bhrigu. while an immense ant-hill arose on all Later on. the Lord of the Waters. Journeying through the pathless woods that covered the banks of the Godaat him and was hunter sprang vari. V. Sankha by name. sent . but let me lay . 7111.l. The iron heart of the hunter " I did grew soft towards him. Yuga held the office of Veda-Vyasa in the V. He is 24th Chatur iii. iv. and stood upon them while the forest solitudes resounded with his screams of agony. down heavy rains. the son of Varuna. the son of Prachetas of the line Bhrigu R. on V. His ornaments. 94. a fierce-eyed not the long in transferring to himself the clothes. the water the pitiless rays beat down upon the head of poor Sankha red-hot sand burnt his tender feet to the very bone. R. which dissolved the strange tenement coming out of it. R. B. pot and even the leathern unfortunate Brahmana. It is but in the poor depriving of my duty and hereditary calling. trees and shrubs sprang around him. the world v. a Brahmana.. All Varuna. He of is the same V. V. Go. completely concealing him from view. 1 (Go. 3. He 1. sandals of the It was midsummer and the sun was high in the heavens. as Valmeeki. IV. He folded the rags that the cruel mercies of the hunter leftd him . R.

the hunter busied himself in providing his late victim with Brahmana plunged into its welcome midday prayers. when he is in most need of li. . Outraged in everything Kantimayee yet she was most husband remained loyal to her unworthy assiduous in attending to the comforts of the man and that a woman holds dear and sacred. in whose witching smiles he lived. lived There by name In Sala town clan of Sri Vatsa. a model of wifely virtues and whole-hearted devotion but. My tongue cleaves to my mouth from dire ? thirst." ray of pity illuminated the dark recesses of the hunter's heart. his thirst at the chequered past" said Sankha. and the depths." The hunter was curiously affected with ! Verily. " Sankha was profuse in his gratitude " May all good go with you into some good karma of a past life that put of making a present of a pair of sandals to a poor wayfarer and that. Meanwhile. performed his ship to the Gods. Is this a place to dilate upon old-world stories Take me to some A cool shady spot where I may rest my poor limbs.t>x some small merit by giving him my old sandals. that he installed in his home a harlot. he so forgot himself. and roots Sankha partook limpid lake . . Now will I reveal unto you some ghmpes of your fruits . " Good sir May I know what merit I have laid by in a former birth ? " " Alas " the fierce sun almost melts my poor replied Sankha. ! ! brains. . " of old a Brahmana. offered due wor- sweet of them. Stambha. the wayward heart of the man turned away from her and . the Fathers and the Sages. of the he abode and with him his beautiful wife Kantimayee. and then quenched sought the tree shade of a hunter where the followed hospitable leafy " him. Gently he led Sankha to the cool waters of a lake hard by. it is your head the idea the prophetic words of the Brahmana. his manhood and the duty he owed to a lady and his wife.

content love. I lent has broken and pierced my heart. I placed the harlot in the sacred seat of the wedded wife of deserving . Never did the . maiden is ever at your service. supremely could thereby win back her husband's Years passed away thus and the wretch suffered the torments of Hell even before he reached it. I Cruel were my words to The Holy Books tell us. ly made his days and nights one long The woman who owned him body and soul. My treatment of you was simply abominable." But Kantimayee lifted hands of " Lord of my heart Your handappeal to him and cried. that the husband who wrings the heart of his loyal wife is doomed to the miserable lot of a eunuch for ten lives and seven the finger of scorn will ever . rejoiced to see the pure hands of my life's partner serve all meekly. " ly I stand alone in the world and helpless I have wilful- any help from you destroyed every chance or sympathy. in the shape of . He came to know it and in his bitterness of his heart called down the deadliest curses upon the head of the betrayer and upon himself that so basely abused his wife's loyalty and love. slightest shadow of resentment darken my heart against you. she she anticipated their least wishes. Now. do I not know that I only pay back what I owed in my former birtu ? I made my bed and I must he upon it. a cruel disease that agony. And when was a dutiful wife for As known to be otherwise than loyal and loving to her lord?" . what you say of my cheerless life. the unclean animal I had taken to my heart. She is yours to command now and ever. quiet- robbed him of what wealth he had and sought another and more congenial companion of her pleasures. the reed on which ! service that my poor self can render Strange it is that you should feel shame-faced to ask it of me. you and crueller my behaviour. You shall not lack for any sympathy or point at him.* his paramour if .

Forthwith she sped to her parents and got from them the wherewithal to provide for his wants and necessities. he eagerly drained it at a gulp. welcome and flash entertain the Rishi Devala. weary limbs and placed a seat for him. and expired biting off She sold her ornaments and wood with it. . him with the very best her humble abode The water that washed his feet she took to afforded. unconsciously though. At last. am is sure that he will relieve of your cruel disease. a ray pity. a of something noble to crossed your dark heart and induced you relieve my . She washed his scorch- ed his feet with cool water. The wheel of Karma has turned and he is now a hunter the natural foe of the birds of the air and the beasts at the of the forests gade Brahmana. set fire to the same and lay by unworthy She his side in sweet content and supreme peace of heart. Thus she played upon his intense selfishness and unconsciously persuaded him to welcome the sage. took her place in the House of Glory. her husband and said " This is A very potent medicine and entertained fails not whereat. jewellery. One hot day in June. fanned when he had rested a while. Devala the sage crossed the hospitality. he so-minded'. bought fragrant husband upon it. the disease ate into his vitals and he became . to Since sented. when man terrible convulsions poor Kantimayee. You are no other than Your partnei in iniquity and of is that is rene- now born you con- among the hunters your wife. " delirious with pain to force she it procured some medicine the and was trying was seized with finger of into his mouth. placed her But the dominating tendency of his life asserted itself last moment and of the harlot was his last thought. ' threshhold of the humble to Kantimayee turned pair and requested her husband and said I if This holy man you is a master physician.

You died in your bed I upon and now you the hard earth is your only bed. from me the details of your former life. hunter to his next ucted him the eyes of the in the right way of spending the holy month of The hunter. But do us a slight favour. do you not will take Go home and put to your wife You share with me question ? Well . gave back to his benefactor the articles of which he had dispossessed him and saw him safely out of the dark woods. the On the banks life it sage. the flesh of slain beasts. to his life The unexpected turn thus given austerities was productive of very favourable results.10 sufferings and make a gift to me of your old shoes. birth. smiled in pity and said. he was brought up by the rude hunters He mated with a woman and took to their ways of living of the lower classes and had many children of foot-pads. chanced to pass through the Our Brahmana hunter promptly held them up. now you . TJie holy water that washed the feet of the sage has purified your unclean spirit and you have been privileged to hear . it was over. In your last moments live you bit off the finger of your faithful wife. insti Nay." The Holy Ones please yourself. spent long years of severe of a beautiful lake When . Nay. ' and children the following the gains of my calling. and my young ones. will reveal to what will befall you hereafter. Knnu." He opened Vaisakha. the Seven Sages gams. " Reverend Sirs! None pass this way without paying it but duty that I owe my wife is me toll. My good man. A Brahmana by birth. now supremely repentant. through her. So " I transfer of everything valuable request you to make a you have. his essence streamed through his eyes a serpent swallowed and the quondam hunter took birth in its womb. the travellers He and organized a gang lived waylaid upon his ill-gotten One day. doubtless to you a share of the retribution natural such a . forest.

his nature The holy presence of the Sages purified and brought out its nobler instincts So. But." No other Then they took friend is a Brahmana behoves us to "Our poor but he has chosen to degrade himself and lead a hunter's life. clearly explain to himself what they were after. do something for the effect of the all-potent Name him. But such a simple request did not deserve to be refused. why. So he went home and put the question to his wife and children. and went back upon the noble to belong by gamut of crime. remain here. the entire Brahmanas. you cannot receive it as it is. back he sped to where his strange visitors were." ! no better weapon to fight his past unto them and said. . right to But. we shall reverse it for Meditate upon it with you. Tears of repentance and grief streamed down his rugged face as he clasped ! their feet and exclaimed I in despair. the very idea is supremely absurd. And now I take my refuge in Extend the shadow of your protection over your mercy. "My good man They called him in We instruct you the mystery of a very powerful mantra. he seeks refuge of us and it . your heart ^ncj soul. as to a share of the results your crimes." The hunter was dazed with surprise at this outburst of frank selfishness. (l blind have been till now I a life of Lords of Compassion cruelty and iniquity traditions of the did I lead. Yet. He can have evil. even until you come back with their answer " and they bound themselves thereto The hunter could not by the most solemn oaths. . cruelty I life of lawlessness will and as 1 lead. I have run through me. day and night. till we come back/' . helper have I. But they laughed in his face and "Are you gone mad? Who can deny that we have a a share of your earnings of ? cried.11 Fear not. whom birth. but we . Let us try upon him of Sri Rama. council among themselves. as you have a long course of purification to go through.

Bhngu and Valmeeki were Varuna Bh. A second time were you born when you came yonder ant-hill. Ad. The world and all it held slipped away from his consciousness.12 They then whispered into his ears the syllables Mara and stood a vanished from his sight. 10. 6 Bhav. II. of You are stood face to face with the Great Mystery.253. You ! out into the living world called they out from the ant-hill. the sons of Charsham and /F. 94). R. The Sages were as good as their word.000 (V. 14. tends only to so Govindaraja's commentary exBut. P. birth to Him whose life he sung. The stanzas. Innumerable of years since the poem was versions of it would naturally have . where he sat. Many thousands of years passed over his head. lost in profound meditation. 7 cantos are divided into 500 chapters and 24. it thus : It is many thousands $ung. " Come and he came hands on his head in sweet blessing and said. . a large ant-hill. Thus did Valmeeki narrate the events of his former A R. to meditate staff where they in all earnestness. III. " Holy One The Name of the Lord has consumed your past sins. in all sin- upon the mighty spell. The Number of Stanzas. . . The Sages laid their . Kajya Kanda. many The commentator explains 1. R. " have owt our equal. His various bodies were gradually purified of everything gross and material and shone in But there rose around him their splendour and radiance. They came back to where their hunter-disciple sat. VI. 10. The world " shall know you hence as Valmeeki (Son of the Ant-Hill). VII. that in course of time concealed him from view. The hunter planted his moment ago and sat down there cerity. the actual number is 24.

in But.000 Mahayugas. as it stands. he spent a night $-30 the hermitage of . he was obliged to exceed the more especially as it was sung and not written. V.000 stanzas 3. in his Lexicon that portion. the carelessness of the later copyists might have also contributed to this irregularity.000 it. I. We ought to take not of it that 24. Returning to at Ayodhya. but Amara Simha. and ruled Satrughna went to Mathura. the South Indian edition Grantha characters commented upon by Govmdaraja contains. ignoring the fractional Even so. The work would fall short of The Day it A Manvantara is has it 1/14 of Brahma comprises 1. R. 24. comprises 71 Mahayugas. 2. 4. It may be that . epic in limit. it. Valmeeki set himself to sing the but. 4.ar^en . is the lowest limit. killed Lavana m fair fi&ht for over twelve years in his town. the odd stanzas being ignored. When was it sitng $ Valmeeki composed this epic before Sri Rama celebra- Ravana and his brood had been wiped out. 24 is the nearest total number in thou- sands. V ted his horse-sacrifice.

in rhythm. VII. This that happiness here hereafter for ever. The Epic. Santi III. the World-histories (Puranas). It must be taken as it is and must be obeyed to the very letter." (Vedas). evil. no altering it. V. " This secures to we should do us that we should and not. and the sacred Epics (Kavyas) give us such knowledge. 39 VI. one of Every in if we but get at to their us is the same faculty of go develop Right Discrimination but. aright . I. if the letters are misplaced .14 when he heard V. Heart-Doctrine. these there a difference in the process. say Fan/n. You may in a Mantra and replace it by not take out the word Agm its synonym. Rama. and lift Twilight of to son Dasaratha. . us in is misery now and not so. R. 4. So Valmeeki must have composed it when Rama held sway at Ayodhya and had put Sita away from himself." its place. . . intonation or accent. or onjitted. in that come down on Parva earth as Sri M. the load of sin and sorrow from her shoulders. Now. 71. no questioning it. and that of no light kind " If a Mantra be not rendered will come out of it. criminative knowledge is extremely desirable and useful to all that make the journey of life. B. and begged to be taught the sacred song. This is good for one no that such disdenies Now. the results fail to appear ^nd the fool woulc) . " When the Tretayuga draws to its close and its successor the Dwapara takes I Ages. There is the Holy Writ is almost kingly in its authority. Why ? The results predicated would not come about nay. " the grand epic sung " by Kusa and Lava* Whom shall I give chanced feet that the royal and it so twins Kusa and Lava touched his it to thought Valmeeki . The Holy Writ plunges us that . R.

three. Even so. a slight change of accent and intonation made it to bring ! into existence one at who was killed We for it by Indra.histories adopt a milder tone. to This grief another chose the path of wickedness and came and misery now and beyond. Follow the Right and keep away from the Path of UnBut." Sruti. study the Holy Writ ty or philosophic fitness." . they obtain what they want and very often more. lived in and happiness here and hereafter. it abounds in excellences it has a beauty Rightly has been named "The child of the poet's heart. But. more pleasant way The Epic deals with but. all this is primarily based on an unrearighteousness soned desire for happiness and fear of evil. lips none the less. the epics carry a meaning on their surface but. No one sits down to argue the throne orders of a general on the battle field or of a king on his he does not analyse it. there runs an under current of deep . and once found. It not the nature of women to wear their hearts on their . flawless in every all its way own.15 have drawn down death upon himself. thought and instruction. examine its legality. Even so. morali. but offer friendly advice. the question in a different way. . ." clude that is Thus we are led to con- Rama should be our ideal and not Ravana. Hence. Now. This the is ot learning the Rules of Life. and every commandment bring forth evil. may will not present . is is source of joy. Behold Thwashta sought to create one who could slay Indra. understand the results of each but we dare not disobev them . They " This one did not. command right the World. veil ot through the words into Loveis of literature seek to pierce that which lies beneath it the heart of the poet. with care learn from it what to do and what to avoid. the epic is the best a perennial teacher of the A all it perfect Epic .

and their connotations.16 tive There are three varieties of it. The philosophers hold words were assigned their respective significance by the Divine Being. Champu (narrative prose Man has to hand countless materials that go to build up his Palace of Happiness. hints make up its of personal excellences. The words (narrative represented . . Words fall into three clsses Vachaka. distil for objects and Fire brings out the sweetness of us their essences even so the Pakas. The Vyangya comes arranged in to light when the words order have been their grammatical . the by Raghuvamsa like and the Bhojachampu. chief amongst . meanings. The Gadya Kavya (narraprose) of which Kadamban is the type. These are the ingre- dients that heighten the beauty of the Epic. poetry). the soft bed on it.which arc a hundred. valour and the like. even so the Epic. likewise their represents the connotation as laid and down in lexicons. and have is it expressed their natural meaning apart from the above and renders it more graceful and charming. Dhvani is another name for it. form its body . Lakshaka The Vachya authoritative Vyanjaka. the various Modes of composition. fortitude. Simile. There are numerous Figures of Speech. From 'Slesha (the . Hyperbole to adorn it gaily . These do not belie the name given them of Alanrkara (ornamentation). and the other attributes and ennoble varieties of diction are its Kaisiki which it reclines at ease. the Padya Kavya poetry). Vaidarbhi generic and the other modes of style are its graceful motions. is its these life . bravery. The Lakshya seeks an allied and derivative signification where the first fails to be that the primal appropriate. the Heart Doctrine breath of and the other Figures of Speech serve puns. innuendos and the other inferred list Metaphor. The harmonious arrangement of words is known as the Sayya.

the graces even while we Nahkera Paka (the Cocoanut) You have to painfully remove its hard rind. there are 24 Gunas (attributes) that go to make up the character of the Epic. difficult word-joinings.painting the Wonderful. this excellent choice of words is Vaidarbhi long compounds. effort to make piece charms us with its manifold sweet juice so. KaiMki Pathos. the Humourous picturing to us the Heroic and the Dreadful. of four kinds. the words and the sense aptly render This is the varying emotions.s compounds characterise it Panchali a Vntti (Style)- happy combination of the above. Even so. you have to chew it soft before you enjoy its refreshing juice. These are to be found in the arrangement of the words themselves. reflecting the higher emotions of Love and A rabhati and the Serene Satvati . Sayya tions the words must be so arranged that their rela- might not be far-fetched. harsh in it. get at the nut and even then. the Epic does not . much read it. break through the shell. Draksha Paka Grape) yield The grape its requires not . Bharati wherein the Terrible and the Repulsive find a voice. letters and find no place Gaudt long and tedious and harsh letter. The nobility and grandeur of composition gives (the it a beauty and charm to the emotions of the heart. Paka: unripe fruits are wrapped up m straw or othersoft wise subjected to the influence of heat to make them and mellow. to Gathi (the way). Reeh (Diction): divided into.17 pun).

love-making. seasons. gambling. "An Epic brings us fame. "Who will say that the study of noble Epics destroys not the dark brood of sin and evil in us ? does it not Whom . mountains. of wedding. Chitra'is another name for it. birth a son. wisdom . battles and the happy times of the hero have each a chapter or more devoted to them. carousals. councils of state. and the like. military expeditions. sports. in . but the meanings. The metres used in them at are its sweet to the close. Towns. but puts fyou veritable the Labours of Hercules before it rewards through easily surrender itself to you. the ocean. The grape melts to crack Between these the Ksheera (the your mouth the cocoanut is hard are found the Madhu (the Honey) Milk). is Such a work a source of joy to us in this world and in the other. the Dhvani is The Epic Superior essentially conspi- cuous and graces the words and their natural significance." it ever counsels us aright like a Kavya Prakasa. of Valmeeki is its best exponent. aquatic pangs of separation.the Kadali (the Plantain). ates while the the natural mesfmng preponderThe Epic Middling Dhvani peeps in now and then. ear. Various feelings and emotions that sway the human heart find perfect expression. Each chapter vanes and the Ramayana the metre This is the Epic Perfect . The Epic Inferior has no Dhvani to boast superficial graces of words and their natural 1 of. it keeps our feet from the Path . moonlight. sunrise* pleasant recreations m charming groves. The chapters are not long and tedious. it needs but be studied to charm true love.18 you in all its beauty. wealth and worldly of Evil .

crest-jewel. aloft in gredtness it grandeur but the Tree of Plenty (Kalpaka) makes of and more charming and graceful Figures and Modes do beautify the Epic." Rudra Bhatta." Sahitya Meemamsa. 11 His very name drives Darkness. The Hero ennobles Bhamahacharya The Mount Mem towers . lives for ever in the hearts its of men. One laid should learn the Holy Writ and then alone proceed Rules of Life It to inquire into the nature of the various down lences. only because the Lord Sree Krishna forms central figure The Science ference that of Reasoning finds it a place in the life of the Great One. sets itself to bring home It is to our hearts the Divine attributes and excelSelf. Such a one must be sung of the Epic. The The Maha Bharata and hero. the wise pay great . The Science of Ritual is also useful in this first way. so begins the teaching. therein . The Hero's noble 11 word-gems that shine for hold together the poet's tune around the necks of the lovers of literature. Else. since affords analogical evidence is and in- the Lord the instrumental and material cause of the universe. and gathers round us the sweet Angels of good. Style. Diction.19 char t m Whom ? does it not save from the wiles of wrong?'' the KtngBhoja* The Maha Kavya of 9 Grand Epic. compels no heed to them. away from us the Things by it. ut the perfect Hero is its An Epic owes Udbhatatharya its life and fame attributes all to its noble Hero. poet may be modest of speech and his attainbut his choice of a Hero ments of no very high order of the most the attention fastidious King Bhoja.'' (t Speech. the hand-maiden of the Royal Science of .

' leads ijs to Supreme One by holding up for our venera- and ideal His countless perfections. Brahman ? Though some passages deny any absence of attributes to It. the Supreme One. II. Of a truth. 17. . R. even for a while. nay. his very self scorns him. in so far as they contribute to human minds the glory of the Great One. He is the noblest of the noble. The Ramayana of Valmeeki is the oldest Epic . Hence. the vile . and he alone enjoys the supreme valour are his . it is poems that come not The Hero Fame and his heart . Sciences and Worldhistories find a place in the we can yet postulate that the estimation of the Wise and to unfold attain deathless fame. in the world and of it bids fair to rule the hearts of men of to the very end Time." world throws him out as a thing peculiarly V. the feet of the tion the Science of the Absolute. that the Absolute has Q. The Monistshold no attri? How then can the Science deal with the same How and then can Vedanta profess to expound to us the nature attributes of A . imperfection is It in Its condiattributes we of Or. hath not drunk of the beauty of Rama's presence. it is He who sung ? throned aloft in the Temple Fame. he upon whom the benign glances of Rama have not rested. forth all the Aims of Life he next round him centre the chief events in him shine heroic qualities. His Name dispels the Things of Gloom and Darkness and Evil. is the Hero of his immortal poem.20 The Vedanta. predicate perfection. All "He who excellences find their perfect expression in him. And why Sree Rama. butes. but a waste of time and labour to study up to the above level. tioned and manifested aspect. good that the poem holds out- .

9. beauty. simplicity and unassumingnesi. me knowj ledge of his time (V. of the and the how. but would at once devote himself to relieve it. whenever the mood make he boasts of them and of himon him. to not. R. His knowledge of is others see things enable him to R 31 and hear and feel . self. Of fierce deeds. 2). 1). Joy and sorrow. to perfection. its profundity. when. noon-day sun. R. almost intuitive. in pain or grief. II.IL I 2). of' all A perfect knowledge and mastery II. a marvel- lous perception. than any other ruler of 4. 8. should captivate the hearts of the beholders. Dhiroddhata. or beast. The Heroic is emotions dominate (2) him. to the Great Law (I^R. : High birth (V. the where. His natural adorned 3. He is remarkable by the almost bare man utter absence of self. in himself the following 1). 10. 7. anger and his grief have move him power when even ken. II.21 t The Hero must exemplify 1. Divine origin R. Proud and jealous. He must men and hold his head higher other. should bow to no His munificence and generosity must quite overthose that seek him. Supreme The Hero is of 1. even as though it was 2. lay Deep is heart! ovei whelming emotions beyond would He would not see any one. The grandeur like the of his presence must illuminate the world. of human actions. he a man of impulses. t ] A heart ever wedded (V. A right adaptation of means to ends. though unadorned. even 6. He sees through the Eye of Wisdom and listens through the in Ear of Experience. j four kinds Dhirodatta. whelm 5.

arts of life The gentler and finer occupy his time and and a quiet is what he aims after. R. modifying causes. (3) Dhira Santa. all griefs touch him and for He has ever a smile its a The all. (2) 1. the Heroic. mentioned above. Brahmana as (4) Serene finds a rule. the Repulsive. Man loses himself in the experience of . till it developes into the any one of these. and (4) Sanchan : The minor emotions.) Anubtliava The witching glances of women. beauty. IV. intelligence. attention. the southern zephyr. 32 the in number. the Terrible. Humour. Wonder and strangely by each Sthayi Bhava. A The emotion happy life of Love is The Rasas (Emotions). Nine are the Rasas. the flowers. Pathos. the play of their /eye-brows. the moon(1) Vibhava the spring. . Quick to feel and ready to revenge. the joyous light. A modification of mental consciousness brought into existenqf through Youth. Vibhava and the like. dark waters of the human heart Man and woman is are moved other and this known as . Utter sympathy with others. Jhe Terrible characterises him. Of vanish. notes of birds and the like (V.22 what he likes. should nourish it and give it an independent existence as a Rasa. infinite patience. varying with everyone of the above emotions. the key-stone of his character. from Dispassion to Anxiety. But. and the like. Fear. Dhira He leaves the cares of state and its control to his sons or his ministers. the others should not dominate it Serenity. even to the (3) ^atvika extent of experiencing in himself their joys and sorrows. Lalita* expression in and a gentle word him and he is . flashes that play over the Love.

But. km is a fine picture of the Kabandha. Love and the other Emotions find apt and perfect expression. Indrajit. Wonderful past propriate belief are the deeds of battle and might of Ravana. Lakshmana's own deeds his of valour illustrate the Heroic m man. Love in its . Dasaratha pines his away of sorrow. If selected the above are in any way unsuited to the Hero-type or if the Hero and the Heroine are wanting in . The incident of Mareecha and his Fearful. The happily with her course of true love runs smooth here. Valour. . Others contend . Ravana and impious brood. Viradha and their fellow-monsters. her noble life. Some hold that the epic is titled The Fall of Ravana and that the Heroic is the master. apto themselves the Repulsive. the Terrible. Pathos. the Wonderful and the Serene ought to find a place in any narration of the life of the Hero. Kumbhakarna and the like embodies the Serene in and Saban. 1 emotion. while the others are but secondary. fine description of the miseries of sepa- The episode of Surpanakha is a fine touch of humour. or if the . love of the Heroine stands higher than that of the Hero or it animals. and touching. the other myriad aspects dominates the epic throughout emotions are but auxiliary.23 it. voice forth the Terrible. the reader may profitably consult is chief Dasa Rupaka and other works on Rhetoric). their savage grandeur and their unbounded might. supreme the son through folly. birds and savages form the subject of narration or description. In the Ramayana. m and then we have a rated lovers. it is a Perversion of Emotion. ^ (The above . the woman -saint. Ravana kidnaps her. Rama takes Seeta to wife and lives his father's capital for many years. having lost. of his heart. characterises the entire scene. varieties a very superficial mention of the but. with their cruelties. Love. mutual and perfect love .

consists to m the the proper discharge of duties that are consonant against the Right. Evolution the Jeeva has reached. authority. influence . that do not militate and that mark the stage of. Love is the master-passion that draws man and woman to one another. subject some famous Sabdamark of Veda- of the Past it should lead us to the realisation of Wealth. The Heroine. the Divine Incarnation tiates . VI. Ithihasa should take as . inculcates virtue. fame. Love and Beatitude" says the sthoma. power.work the Seetacharitra and its Grief forms the key-note of the whole. the Mahabharata the vyasa and the Samhita of Gargacharya. Her very name must Power to keep away evil and attract the Angels they are applicable be a Word of Poetics may be consulted). wealth and love the latter forms the Light on the Path Virtue of Perfection. while the others are complements. in so far of Light. Valmeeki divides his grand epic into the Purvakanda. and Sree Rama Uttarakanda. Wealth is the acquisition and the enjoyment of the goods and the like. where Vasishtha iniinto the Science of Brahman. Holy Books. She partakes to to a very great extent of as the excellent characteristics of the Hero. its "An episode Virtue. place. The Aims of Life. the heroine and her of innumera fuller description (For able varieties. The former the . of this world.24 that Valmeeki named his grand. are the The only World-records that come up to Ramayana of Valmeeki. Dasa Rupaka and other standard works on the women. narrating the life and adventures of Sree Rama.

almost ideal. and Seeta is the ideal wife for all time. no where finds more touching than in the relations of Rama/tLakshmana. and the fierce embattled hosts countless as the sands of nothing. and a for king's highest duty consists in seeing that they want nothing and are protected against every- thing that might mterfeie with the proper discharge of their noble trust. utilised the various incidents in his epic to exemplify word duty the workings of the above. A father's a law to the son. Brotherly love. she should ever share it with him. Valmeeki has is . is a warning not to be despised. Sages. . himself to the lonely woods. millions that owned his sway. wealth and valour far above the glory of a efforts of Visvamithra and the human. Rama passed his word to the saints of Dandaka and laid low Viradha. the superhuman humble reverence paid by Sree Rama. are as the possessor thereof turns away from the Path of Right to work evil upon the good and the wise and uproot the foundations of Law and Ravana and the Justice and the dreadful fate that overtook . in Ravana and the other workers of Kings and Emperors might. her [husband. Kabandha. Bharata. joy or sorrow. and the attitude of the youngers towards the expression eldest. evil. hermits. he may not stop to consider and Rama renounced. to discharge it to his very best is his right or wrong. the mighty empire that \\as his by right and exiled . Strength and power. pleasure or pain. and Satrughna to one another. and holy men form the life and soul of a people . are as nothing the pride of their power and the spiritual before Brahmana. the Divine king. A wife's place is ever by the side of Sunshine or ram. to the pure and the holy Ones are a lesson for all mankind. with a glad heart.25 s Now. pregnant with weal or woe. if ocean.

the Vasishtha Ramayana. all unjustly and her. feet True it is there are only some episodes in it that place our on the Path of Liberation but. Rama ever outweighs wealth in the estimatiop of gave up. Vibheeshana. the cruel words of his brother. in the frightful . as it is in its known. and his life was the forfeit. should ever bear fruit in us. with a joyful heart. the king- dom of the Ikshvakus and the wealth of the earth. manhood and at the feet of the imperious for it Kaikeyi. else. The Uttarakanda or .26 Virtue the good . the slave of Love paid with his life. and last offices Rama. exiled his noble son to the dreadful forests even in the prime of his youth . heavy of heart and sore of solitudes of . Rama yielded to the importunities of Seeta to chase the"golden deer and lost Vah deprived his brother of his wife. the Vulture-King. it is sweet poison. the various Paths that lead to It do not find a prominent place in it. better . Any service rendered to us. sore afflicted and pierced to the heart by foot. in hasty wrath. the mystery of Man. the Universe and the Absolute. . Ravana laid violent hands on Seeta anddoomed himself to destruction. consolation and help. defended Seeta with his life. be it the slightest. for he preserved Dandaka him the ornaments that Seeta threw down to him when she was spirited away by Ravana in return. Love should be ever in consonance with Virtue and Dasaratha laid his Law . the incarnation of the Divine. sought refuge with Rama length of life beyond that of mortals and unbounded sway over the Rakshasas of the world were his reward. rendered unto him the and passed him on to the Worlds of Light. even like the seed of the spreading banyan. deals with it The Poorvakanda was taught to the royal entirety. root and branch. when Rama wandered. Rama gave him back his wife and a kingdom along with her. Jatayu. Sugreeva offered him his friendship.

The spnitual teachings in the Ramayana are given by Valmeeki to Bharadwaja. Kandas of 32. they will not. sing- ing His glories. the Lord's look was far away. The Angels of Light and the Emancipated Souls thronged the Divine Presence. that and thereby reach His A poor wretch was feet. and the Science It is is of Self may not be properly expounded therein. "Ah me." The poor wretch was profuse ! in his thanks . Take tins boat of mine. of 24. A kind soul took pity on him and gave him a boat well-furnished. the ball of wax. and cross over to yonder bank swiftly and in safety. sat on His Throne Sree. to where His children groped in darkness on this mortal earth. he jumped into the But. they are swirled among the waves of Matter and are lost" And out of the depths of His infinite compassion towards those poor souls ever bound to the Wheel of Time. The Almighty Father highest heavens.000 stanzas.000 stanzas. saying. As the grains of gold in . It It is arranged into six is a monumental work by itself. hands in his on the banks of a torrent despair wringing is might dedicate them service roaring in its flood. Yet. class this among the minor VII. the last canto being divided into the Poorva arid the Uttara. He provided vehicles of to A manifestation to them. the sixth divided into six cantos further divided into the Poorva (Yuddha) and the Uttarakandas. when he was on . of Glory in the His consorts Boomi and Neela (Divine Energies) graced His side. But. they would not be saved. " My good man weep not. Its divine origin.27 youths Kusa and Lava . It is more popularly known as Gnana Vasishtha Ramayana and the Yoga Vasishtha Ramayana. alas ! boat and set her head the safe against the current. There are no grounds to Puranas. the pity of it! they are as well entitled to be in my presence as any of these but. as some have done.

Brahma. Even so. and He gave them His commandments The Vedas. " Poor things they have no means ! of following the Right and keeping away from the Wrong". Rama. They failed to construe the Holy Books its aright . Then. Dasaratha had gone through untold austerities to have the privilege of being His earthly father. he rid the earth of Lavana and of illustrated in his life the noble doctrine of absolute service to the Lord's Elect. exalt the righteous and to restore the Great Law. has he not promised to all beings. Then the Lord said to Himself. the children for whom His heart bled misused the means of salvation so mercifully furnished them and were engulfed in the Quicksands of Pleasure. purpose. As Bharata. Further. his children would not be saved. As Lakshmana. he killed Indra jit and lived out a life of sweet service to the Lord. they perverted reclaim his rebellious subjects by the might of his presence. He chose to come down from his Worlds of Light down to this like a they misunderstood it king who sets out to . and as Satrughna.' As Rama. it ever intent privi- upon the welfare of all beings. and Satrughna. Brahma and the bright Gods had sought his protection from the terrible Rakshasas that hung like a pall of darkness over the worlds. to where the river shattered itself to pieces over a sheer wall of rock and lost itself in the abyss below. he rid the worlds of Ravana and was a I " come down among you in type of filial duty. Bharata. better Lakshmana. he destroyed the wicked Gandharvas and made his life a touching lesson of supreme surrender to the Lord. The king sets the pace and his subjects do but follow him.26 side of the stream. Yet. his evil genius put it into his head to go along with the current. dark dull Earth and resolved to take birth as for. the Fashioner the Worlds. every cycle to lay low the wicked. Meanwhile. thought a duty and a lege to preserve for all time the grand Truths so taught . Example is than Precept.

the is Aims of Life. only the his bride on the threshold of to secure the an amplification.29 of stanzas and so lived. The Gayathn faint. life of Rama sung at great length by Brahma. though the quintessence of the Vedas. the Three the One in Three. Valmeeki. " Valmeeki received from Narada the sent his son Narada. The Pranava in One and to the universe the Triple Mystery. and of ." (Matsya Purana). mysteries when he kisses stands high in the heavens and when rises. is the Alpha and the Omeor the Word of Power. It dispelled for ever the doubts and questionings under which Valmeeki 's soul had been labouring. Of the 7 crores out germ The twice-born Brahmanas. to Now. recitation of his Holy Name. Meanwhile. It is of Words of which they evolved. that forms the key to the heart-doctrine of the Vedas (Go. shone brightest among the And to him so nobly qualified for the task. of Power. The Brahveil was lifted from the face of the Great Mystery. him the Open Eye of the Seer and the result ma gave . Parabrahman tne Absolute. He sung the Life of Sree Rama. // is an Exposition of the Gayathn. the symbol of Life and Light. it is the mightiest. purified by centuries of devout meditation upon Sree Rama. VIII. meditate upon its countless Kshathriyas and Vaisyas the Sun. wonderful K 33 behold ! in every thousand stanzas . he mortals. of the Word. was the grandest and the best epic poem in the worldeven Ramayana.'s Preface to his commentary upon the Ramayana). tries to convey ga. Brahma cast about for some pure and devoted soul through whom the message could be conveyed to the sons of men. in 100 crores Narada and the other sages of the Brahmaloka learnt it from him. when he means the is It west.

Hence.30 the Ramayana begin with one of the letters of the Gayathri. " ' The Inner Meaning. " Ramayana should. the Ramayana is something more than an epic poem something higher than a work of art. From whom does does it this universe derive its existence its ? In whom live and have being ? To whom does it . deal with the problems of Life and Being. IX. in conse- quence.' Ithihasas unlock the mysteries of The Puranas and the the Vedas" say the wise. .

The lotus came out and on it I was. the the course of the poem. the Rudras. to us. the Lord in strains of noble melody. in His Lord of the Universe. served " ? It it But what is Is Brahma. renunciation. Vasishtha and the other their knowledge Great Being shines resplend"This and power (I.31 go back when its purpose has been Parabrahman " (Taiththareeya Upamshad). Terror of Foes Thou the Refuge of all as ! .' (Sruthi). through Cause . reiterates the same Truth. Over the Great Waters Thou didst brood. . Thou didst ordain me as of Thy navel . the Wheel and the Mace The graceful folds of His vesture flashgraced His hands. 104. the Ancient ?" Rudra. I know the mystery of Rama. self all these Who is he that embodies in himmanifold excellences?" " Sree Rama" replies at " Narada. "The Brahmanas Darkness" (Purusha Sooktha). VII. lifts its voice on high. ant beyond illimitable too. 70). The whole universe was latent in Thee. the praises of the Gandharvas and the Apsarasas sang high do. more than once in poet touches upon this point " Meanwhile Maha Vishnu. "Brahma." (I. He a storm-cloud" lightning through " Lord of Might. the Gods. I. through immortal Tapas. the Great is One whose will sages here know " is it omnipotent. supreme ed is glory." Tapas alone can open our eye is the Great One. "In the beginning Thou wert later on I was begotten of Thee. the Destroyer forth the Vishnu. do. Brahma . V. the Presever ? Valmeeki's opening lines voice ot Days ? same query. R. art our sole Refuge" All creation do. Then He to His glory " . the Fashioner of Forms. 19). the Fashioner. the in praise of Him Sages. Causeless He is the came out of the Unmamfested. and Him alone " . for. unto himself them. know Him through the teachings of the 1 Vedas. And the end of the Poem. manifested The The Conch. 15.

the Unattainable Thou teachest by example the highest Law Thy Name is engraved on the face of Eternity Thou art the head and Thou art gentle foundation of knowledge and wisdom . 1). He is the Eternal Light and pervades all " . owns as her Lord." All (III. is Inconceivable His might. 15-22). " No limit do I see to the power of Him. the Unmanifested. whose hand lay * .<4 Then the Gods higher than the highest was the He that knew and the Sages mightier/' (I. the Brahma the Destroyer of . whom Seetha. it countless are His is " I have heard is say that Maha Vishnu higher thaa the highest." lovely as the fresh-blown petals (IV. . . He is : ed He is Time and Boundless Duration The Gods prayto Him for deliverance from Ravana. even as Mother Earth of . From the all- Unmanifested came Brahma. Thy the eyes are red-lotus. all-knowing and powerful. 75). and patient. Consciousness and " expression in Thou art the . One. of The source manifestations . Indra. 110). the child of Janaka. (V. . Him. . Form and Name. (II. Ancient of Days. Maha heavy upon the worlds Vishnu. Thou art the sole Thou art the balm that healeth Thou art fame Thou knowest all things great and small Thou art the model of filial duty Thou art the UnknowThou dost transcend the senses able. Eternal. 51). refuge of the miserable the wounds of sorrow . 38). . came down unto the Earth" (II. the three-eyed Rudra the lord of the Celestials. and the Lord of Time. the four-faced is He " The self -born . goal of the good. . Being. . excellences attain their perfect Bliss. and the Asuras of the Three Cities. . the Great Destroyer. the One. . dare not come between Rama and the object of his righteous wrath.

place his Besides. with a single horn matter . beyond the Mahat (the Great Element). position . There is none higher than He. Rudra had no reason to be angry he handed that he was consumed with wrath when had he no of that we read bow. great Yogi (Adept) is the Supreme Self. we Then. nor Non. . . He is beyond Darkness. He is Narayana of the Divine consort eternal the art Thou Narayana Mother Thou art omnipresent Thou art the Great Boar Thou art the slayer of the wicked. is the Lord Thou art and wisdom. " The But we need not one acquired by Thapas from A. Siva. middle or end. A." " Indra took countless forms through his power of illusion. Indra cause of the universe. worship in Agasthya's House of Gods nor was. He is the highest Self. " This and such like may well be the eternal. form as this Has He taken monkey and come down among us to work^our 54). read over Gods regarded Vishnu as take that it was his natural Siva. its The the slay of the universe and divine weapons grace His hands. Be-ness. . nor day. his inseparable partner. " (VI. He is the passage teaches us that Supreme and no other. 120). . . present and future. being. the mole. He . destruction ?" (V. other of name is His. Rudra. alone was. immortal and eternal. Q* "In the beginning was Hiranyagarbha " " Darkness was not. " Mahalakshmi is He is invincible.33 endtess and beyond thought and speech. Indra and every The above . Self and similar expressions do but denote Him and Brahma. the higher. he regarded . Q. On His is He broad breast shines Sreevathsa. " but but. past." Such Vedic texts lead us to conclude It that Brahma. support. without beginning. nor night Being was not. " .

we erect places of worship to enshrine the Gods we bow to . we read " Here do Gods. as the highest. whom we " Listen to me. whose grace lifted Jatayu to the Worlds of Light ? Hence. you That is how Brahma speaks of the Lord and he stands nearest to Him. 13). to Why that the ? render worship to him above Beings came down Rudra. Baga. VII. the Ramayana teaches us that Maha Vishnu is the supreme Brahman. be the hero of any epic. Gandharvas." (do. If its incidents to Rudra. speak to the thousands assembled here. This poem that sings of your life and deeds. is to the hearts of the first of its kind. None do I know that better deserves to .) A. 11. all. and not not that the Gods us. (HI. " Q. and others had their altars Kubera Soorya. mention along with them for. the Ramayana and Q. Besides. Indra. Vishnu.34 asan object of worship. object of worship to be placed on the same He is not an as the level Lord Vishnu . Not so . there to pay reverence to Paramasiva was not invited to partake of Moreover. does not . heavenly world. the passage refers to the Celestials of the to Brahma or Vishnu.) ever for. hear of be the Supreme One. while I perceive through his Holy Writ. how is it that we his worshipping the sun to strengthen himselt Rama against Ravana? . thya's temple* he would have found a place in AgasSalvation is in the hands of the Supreme and who is it but Sree Rama. 98. is the best and the grandest of One . It is but a waste of time and labour to apply . now and for " the are rest and support of all (do. Siddhas and Sages repair to offer their naturally find respects to Agasthya." Brahma. Agni. This epic that unfolds your countless excellences all. come down the offerings during the sacrifice of Daksha. else. Chandra. not take it of worship.

" Smite Ravana protection. This Supreme One. The manifested himself unto them m Divine Weapons graced his hands. He was ever armed and ever ready. He declared might and be the goal of all . the Balakanda teaches us that the Lord Vishnu A. n Q." This Vedic text is the key-note desirous in. burn him up" cried the Gods one and all. This is the first example we have of Surrender. Maha Vishnu (a) his infinite glory. end our of "He who brought into manifestation Brahma before He who imparted unto him the beginning and the all wisdom. that the highest duty lies m protecting those that seek . 1 "When is the Cause of the universe . as supreme Deity thereof. The Supreme Lord was anxiously awaiting the moment when the Gods would appeal to him for help and His glory was heightened as it were by the joy that the time had come for him to do good to them.35 you are in Rome do as the Romans do/ He was in the world of men. how is he realised ? A. Meanwhile. Supreme surrender to the Lord is the best means " to accomplish our desires. Him do I take refuge of Liberation. leads in the manifold excellences are brought Kishkindhakanda. (b) The episodes of Sunassepha and Thrisanku teach sore .I. in the Ayodhyakanda. . in the He appears is m his irresistible to Yuddhakanda. human and divine. the rest. the Aranyakanda. He . He appears as the Protector his children unto his House m . So. while his bright garments flashed as lightning from the heart of storm-clouds" (VR. He who illuminates our intellect and soul. of Valmeeki's poem. the Lord of the Worlds. This explains his discipleship under Visvamithra. and should behave as such. knowledge. 15). His home to us in the Sundarakanda.

as he desired to bring about his restoration to the throne of Ayodhya. an efficient Intercessor is a necessary element in Surrender. (d) The We We you are a crowned king in these lonely forests. and later on. to save you . praying Seetha to intercede for him. the Lord spared him. he entrusted his to Bharatha his sandals. at Ayodhya or a religious recluse You are our king everywhere and for ever. 1). Bharatha took refuge with Rama. But. " (c) Lakshmana clasped the feet of his brother and took refuge with him." (III. So. none that dared sat to take him in. the of it to fulfil Lord had come out his promise to the Devas . . with the Celestials and with the The three worlds held Sages. mode .18). the refuge of all. fulfilled the object which Bharatha sought at his hands. " (e) The Crow of black heart sought shelter with his father. to where of Rama and threw himself The Lord Compassion." (V. Back he came at his feet. out of the mercy of his heart. redeemed his promise to the Gods. " Until Rama grants my call prayer. Surrender is Ravana and never in vain. the king of the Gods. This is another of taking refuge clasping the feet of the deliverer. But. Ever seek the feet of Him who is ableand and you willing. (II. will not have asked in vain. So. I quit not this hermit- age.36 refuge with us. in). in pity at the and worse j yet. looked down His offence deserved cruel death suppliant. Residence within the domi. He annihilated brood. " care not whether entitled to your care and protection. but shall ever upon him in fasting and penance en. so.nionsof the Lord forms a claim upon his mercy and amounts to seeking refuge with him. 31). holy hermits of Dandaka took refuge with live within your dominions and are Rama saying. they turned him away.

know . So. spoke Thnjata. 93 . R. lift your appeal to his " Rama hands 32) .fear " and grief (Ib. So said Seetha. This advice of it Thara reveals to us yet another mode hands in humility and reverence. Verily. the Ideal man for. and the and the arm to free us from our sorrow and fear Ruler of the Waters was not one such. A.37 You have offended Sree tf) means of saving yourself . i So. let us lift our hands in humble V. I have cast behind me wife and through wealth and luxury. His sharp words pierced my heart and through. and sought refuge with Rama. V. " Ravana treated me as a vile slave and put me to (k) shame before all. 27). "A terrible doom hangs over the heads of the Rakshasas So. teaches ourselves of such obstacles as would Further stand in the on. this bore wonderassent thereto by their silence. But. our seeking refuge with Him. in that Seetha Hanuman. Would you save he embodies you not that in himself the Law ? They that seek refuge of him. we read that Rama Q. Thus entreaty to Seetha to intercede for us. for ever leave behind sorrow and pam. id. Vibheeshana. it saved them from the vengeance of appears that one can take refuge and extend the benefits to others. 21). the turning of the heart to the Lord amounts to taking refuge in him. us that we should rid way of who spoke the above. ful fruit. 17). IV. his efforts were in vain ? Our would-be saviour must have the heart . (Ib. but. " of clasping our (g) Ravana ! Have you a mind to live in peace and prosperity P Then." child. I to see no other Lakshmana and mercy. make yourself from a terrible death ? a friend of Sree Rama. 22). " spread the sacred grass on the sands of the ocean and lay upon them with folded hands and face turned towards the East (Ib. and the other Rakshasi-guards signified their Later on." (V. (i) and through Rama. VI." (Ib.

But> he was made to offer them to the sandals of Rama before he realised his wishes. they were rewarded first by his sweet presence and sweeter speech. Enough has been said to prove that Valmeeki regards the Doctrine of Refuge as the sole path that leads to Liberation. But. proof of his valour and humbled the pride of Ravana after . your humble servant am I. " (e) Sugreeva. the child of the Sun. He dawned upon their vision like the radiant moon. (a) The Gods sought refuge with the Lord from the is cruelties of Ravana. Rendering humble service to the Lord height of his joy. to render homage and sweet later on. Gan- dharvas. forest (d) The saints and sages that abode in the Dandaka claimed the protection of Rama from Rakshasas. day or night. only that he may be allowed to render him service. Apsarasas and Sages service to Him the death of " Brother mine . they took birth of Yakshas. at all times. Ravana came (b) ! waking or sleeping. (c) Bharatha prayed that Rama should come back to Ayodhya as its king. the Lord's protection extends even to those that accom- pany the suppliant. So. the delight of His presence. gave this signal . the*four accompanied him were saved along with him. in all places. and they poured out their hearts in fervent blessings. in all conditions of life is the supreme reward of Surrender. another Truth underlying the epic.38 (j) ministers that Vibheeshana sought shelter of Rama but. iii Service to the Lord in this direction . is the first fruits of our efforts This and then. and realises for us our utmost wishes here and hereafter. of the cruel But. in the lordly capital or in the lonely Lakshmana spoke so in the II. . woods." (Ib 31). and out best.

which the ocean-king was Vibheeshana. out of his infinite spared him wicked Asuras nay. he prayed compassion. not. seeks refuge must be conscious of his utter He should be denied shelter by inability to save himself. and prayed that the shaft may destroy what stood of way The Ruler of the Waters heeded not the command Rama but. against the to be saved. Now. when the scales fell from the eyes of Parasurama.39 which. . But. he must he taught feet for ever from the way of the wicked and to spare . ming him. the Ramayana is an Exposition of the Doctrine Surrender (Saranagathi Grantha). Rama one.' \Ib. of Hence. (f) The Crow besought him was done. . when he found that Rama's shaft was consu(h) . was the forfeit. Said Vibheeshana "I have put behind me Lanka. of his attaining Emancipation. must be omnipotent. every Further. My life.tdA 9)Both looked upon the humble Rama as service that they offered to the prime reward of seeking his protection. my centred in you. But. requested Sree Rama proud But Sree Rama was not Vibheeshana nor to imitate him. to turn his his eye his life and it His cry was not in vain. his of the fulfilment in prayers. The Lord's might and his wisdom were made manifest . the shaft was directed that harassed the ocean-king. . VI. my kingdom. Rama of the Axe came with a heart tall with pride and Sree Rama drew his shaft to his ear to destroy for ever fg) the hopes of the proud warrior. he recognised His Lord and Master in the . the ocean-king Sree Rama. 40). ." (Ib. There are no stringent conditions about this Doctrine of Refuge time. possessed not these essentials. But. Rama. He who the Saviour must be omniscient. my friends in it and all is my wealth. he flew back to the side of Rama. my friends. place. qualifications and the like.

40 in his breaking of the bow of Rudra in Parasurama. near his Throne the others of That our chief reward are but incidental. the rebellious ocean. service to the Lord comes in before the Glory. in the piercing of the bridge that he cast over humbling of the seven Sala trees and . Kumbhakarna and their followers. and by the way. He protected Visvamithra's sacrifice to from the Rakshasas that threatened destroy He saved the sages of the Dandakaranya from the nightHe gave refuge to the rangers that afflicted them sore. he took them along with him and gave them a place near his throne. in the . Devas who groaned under the iron heel of Ravana. not and lost his life. . who shows forth perfection such excellences as power. attainment is of a place . Sabari and Sugreeva it. great. compassion and goodness. . Indrajith. Thrice was she separated from her lord key-note of heart. when we take refuge in the Lord. These are proofs enough of the Lord's protective power. We can best realize our heart's fondest hopes only by taking refuge in the Lord. reflects his goodness. brings out the supreme compassion of his heart and its pathos. and were privileged to have before their eyes a living ideal of everything good and And when He went back to his abode on high. is and husband her character supreme compassion she is after the . The black-hearted crow owed his life Ravana had it to Seetha's intercession. His friendship towards Guha. the Lord's these attributes Intercessor (a) are essential to the own One who Now to be our. But yet. His behaviour when he was separated from Seetha. IV The Glorious 'is life of Seetha is how Valmeeki is has named great work. Those that had the good fortune to be born in his kingdom enjoyed the delight of his presence.

(c) (Ib. 31). mana would not hear of it. Lord. (76. me as your humble servitor.41 (6) Intercessor. " We are the sons of Dasarathha. " upon him. the Intercessor and said. IV. who interceded for him. vi Bharatha could not contain before the assembled audience. 17. Let him know it" (76. I pray you to advise me what is just " Lakshand proper in this contingency. VI. 18. . Lakshmana exemplilong I grand truth throughout his life of devotion. emphasize the relations between himself and Rama. " Lord of the Monkeys ! Bring Likewise.) Sugreeva himself sought refuge with Rama through the the Hanuman. we lose . 131)." (76.) accepted the suppliant thiough Sugreeva. We fied this are the servants of the Lord. 4). I take in my refuge Rama. So he was obliged rent". 82). II. It is perfectly consoService rendered to you will nant with Law and Justice. to install Bharatha as heir-appa- The above illustrates the truth that Bharatha. id. Rama " him unto me. The above teaches us to know that we should seek Lord's mercy only through an Intercessor or. benefit of it. all. " him (Ib." (Ib. of regarded himself as the property of the he liked. VI. realize for me the utmost hopes of my heart and it will go Accept far to aid to your work among men. for giving He condemned himself and wept aloud Vasishtha I and this kingdom do belong to Rama. said he. and Rama but wasted his words such pernicious advice. id. to do as . body and soul. and His excellences drew " me on to serve come next to Rama. " Vibheeshana took refuge with Rama through an The world knows me as Vibheeshana.

the king and the queen of the Immortals. vni The Supreme. and joyfully did he follow his master. He was the living exponent of the sublime Truth. no hand lift to save us from grief.42 vii Bharatha started from Ayodhya to pay a visit to his mother's brother and took with him Sathrughna. The insidious foes that work our ruin Love and Hate and their kin were kept by him under his foot . five the Means. . off the danger or the difficulty that overhangs us else. Surrender illustrate the Lakshmana The various the instances of of nature the The episodes of Bharatha. The the Doctrine of Jeevathma (Individual Self). nor its kith and kin could stand between it and its fate. Vibheeshana and . (/&. the Basic Truths of The Ramayana deeds of life is an authoritative ex- position of these. they failed him against (b) He that gives us birth can Rama. represent the Barriers IX The very Gods are no good to save us. (c) The crow its neither and insulted Seetha past forgiveness parents. nature of ideal Self. that the best that a man can do is to be at the absolute disposal of the Lord's Elect. II. the Individual Goal and the Barriers these are the Divine Wisdom. (d) Sons and brothers cannot ward . but. And Ravana and his km Means. 1). Vibheeshana and others in definiteness the Goal as embodied in the out bring service rendered to the Lord. in that the of Rama illuminate the typifies Brahman. Dasarathha had to be an impotent spectator of his son's misfortunes. Ravana boons and powers from Brahma and marvellous secured (a) Siva . the faultless.

refuge. of conduct are should . his all. Indrajith. and lead pie forth hence in triumph no other course befits his greatness and valour" said Seetha (Ib. 68. is confined by past It Karma within the its material vehicles.) Even when one is qualified . that we should seek doings in the capital of the Rakshasas to know of the nature of the Lord only through the Teacher. the hour strikes for him to he should patiently wait until throw off his mortal coil. the Individual Self. the wrath of their brother. brought or for the matter of that. and stand before the Lord. mightier than So. Seetha. Hanuman. xu Such noble Beings as Rama are to be our ideals now and for ever while Ravana and the like. the capital of Ravana. rests opens eye to the mysteries of with Him to dissolve this fleshly tabernacle and lead out the imprisoned self into the light of Liberation. from Rama . is but the group of vehicles that the Self uses. For. Indrajith and all the fierce-hearted Rakshasas do but typify Desire. Anger. will shatter this town to pieces with his fiery arrows. xi Rama. V. the rocks upon which we would wreck and which we . l( to receive the Lord's Grace. the Lord. Lanka. the Teacher.43 Kiunbhakarna could have saved Havana. etc. is the sense of I and Kumbhakarna is the sense of Mine. the bright exception. son. personifies Discriminative Knowledge. Greed. Vibheeshana. it is home to us that the Lord is our only Hanuman and his is a hint to us. Ravana. the terror of his foes.

in his maniThis is fested aspect. the mystery of the Absolute. the marriage of The Balakanda Seetha Matter . The Yuddhakan da tells us how Vibheeshana. This is the inner sense of the next word Charanam. how He 11 In the roaring loom of Time I play. and unmamfested aspect of Father or describes the Absolute. the connotation of the next word Narayanasya. through his mind and spirit. turned . of which Consciousness are the two poles.44 xiii . are object-les- The Kishkindha and Sundara kandas sons of the doctrine of Supreme Surrender to the Lord. This Mother. shines forth in his Garment of the universe. we learn that we should ever seek to dwell only where the Lord deigns to be. This is the next and the natural step that one should take. The Ayodhyakanda fections of narrates at great length. The next syllable when he has Saranam expresses for us the quintessence of this teaching. ' The Aranyakanda gives us a vivid and entrancing is This picture of the Lord's divine form and beauty. And weave for God the garment thou seest Him by " Goethe. by intense thought and meditation. 'He who broods over the waters. in that expounds the mysteries underlying the Two of it Truths. grasped. born and brought up in the most adverse surroundings. It represents for us the Supreme one as Narayana. and his ideal observance of all duties. yet. the Unmanifested and the Manifested. xiv The Ramayana must of daily of necessity form the subject it study and meditation. the Rama. From the account of the inhabitants of the thrice- blessed Kosala. Purusha is Prakrithi Parabhrahman Moolapraknthi expressed by the per- syllable Sreemath. treats Rama with in other words.

Nirvana. This is the its basic truth that underlies the Balakanda. The Uttarakanda gives us the key to the apparent contradictions in the nature of Ravana. the Robes of Splendour in which He manifests himself. that attracted unto 34 him the sages. that will make us Lords Time and Wisdom ? The Gayathri and the Ramayana is . is the Causeless Cause of the Universe. Consummation. His countless perfections and excellences form the theme of the Ayodhya and the Kishkindhakandas. his wide. gard Hanuman. his intense piety. the ascetics . voices forth the supreme mystery of Mukthi Liberation. Sugreeva and his monkey hosts and the happy dwellers in the dominions of Rama. Emancipation. The Lord Almighty. The other part of the Manthra or the Second Truth. were taken by him even unto where he Seetha. the saints.45 away from the path of the ungodly. but exoteric exposition. as the ravishing beauty of Rama. xv our life? of What Manthra shall we meditate upon all through What is the Word of Power. his deep erudition and his terrible acts . The next syllable Prapadye lays down So the how of it. the practical realization of far it. the actual Process. The divine form. ultimate motive of his life is laid bare for us why he abducted to humble service in His vinelabourers were Lord. while some of them remained on earth. took refuge in the Lord and received his reward. the knowledge. faithfully to discharge the trust placed in them by the Lord and work for the regeneration of that great orphan Humanity. Vibheeshana. the Veda Purusha. Jambavan. Beatitude. the Poorvakandas of the Ramayana. Those that rendered the those that abode in his Worlds of Light. call it what you like. is described to us in the Aranyakanda.

the Madhyamikas (Buddhist Nihilists) and the like. Dandaka.) are heart Turn thy refuted most effectively and conclusively by Rama. The ject of the Sun'darakanda. in the Universe. R. Govindara^eeya. It is a warning to all right-thinking men to keep away from the teach ings of the Charvakas (Materialists). 83. the ungodly. So. we should gradually wean ourselves away from the joys and sonows of worldly life and centre ourselves in the Eternal. xvi Shun those that would seek to destroy your faith and devotion to the Lord. the six parts of the Gayathn mantra set themselves to Now. Rama and Lakshmana were bound by the divine weapons. power. men of glory of the of Matter. is symbolised in the episodes that form the sub- and iron discipline. the Nagasthra and the Brahmasthra. away trom the atheist. VI. who would have no god but himself and no law but his will. R. Garments his far as it shines so through Lord. teach the same Truths. The Yuddhakanda imparts to us the means of reaching The Uttarakanda takes us to the Goal Mukthi. The arguments put into the mouths of Jabah (V. His Feet. xvn and difficulties. 109) and Lakshmana (V. II. aptly so named. The Beautiful. by force . The Divine Great are often beset with troubles men One had renounce his kingdom. Hence. we are exhorted not to place our trust on things transient and vain. friends and and exile himself to the frightful solitudes of relation. the materialist. The wife of his heart was taken away from him to by a Rakshasa.46 and the hermits stern self-control of the wild woods of Dandaka.

the Self is enveloped geneiated in Maya. Rama followed Visvamithra from Ayodhya to guard his sacrificial rite. ruler. at the word of Kaikeyee Buddhi in its Thamasic (dark) aspect. Him is to relieve the Earth of her burden in woe misery. who is Beness (Sat). the pure Anthah- Manas Mind. Dasarathha. attracted by the Self des- He broke the bow of troys the evil tendencies of the mind. the Self obtains mastery over the in Karmic Vasanas (affinities He exiles himself to the forests of . Swapna. Dandaka previous births). Siva the Self curbs the fleeting course of the mind. The Inner Meaning. at last into the house of fiesh. Dooshana and Thrisiras fall in battle with . The desire that of sprang in it. the first wave Self is the still calm spray waters The it. Rama puts down Rama of the Axe . waking consciousness. and Sathrughna in the Sushupthi. He kills the monster Viradha cends Seetha reside the rooting out of Pride. Rama. Lakshmana is the same its Self in Thnrecya state Self in the Jagrath. II Mahavishnu. Chiththa and Ahatnkara Feeling Egoism) dominated by the quality of Sathva. Harmony. Consciousness (Chith). leads the Self into Samsara (material existence). built up of the five ele- Soorpanakha Desire is deprived ears and and loses nose her assails him. His queen Kausalya is Buddhi Reason in its Sathvika aspect. is the shoreless ocean. and and of Bliss (Ananda). marries Seetha . . Buddhi Reason. the Thureeya Athma the mind. Individual the first is is thrown out in of The city of Ayodhya its the Akasa with- the heart. These are the various manifestations of the Self. ments and rests there after his long journey. Rama. is the karana (Composed of (beyond Jagrath.47 . Lakshmana and the Self desin a lowly cottage at Panchavati . of its sting. Rama slays Thataka the Rakshasee is . dreaming consciousness and Sushupthi consciousness in dreamless slumber). Bharatha in the Swapna. He . Khara. the son born to them.

Envy and Egoism. At Rama descends Akasa in the into is the waters of the heart unified with the Boundless Akasa. Mareecha lures Rama from his abode. on. He seeks the Self is endowed with friendship of Sugreeva . He comes across Hanu. Maya in its pure Egoism overpowers MayaKabandha. by the Gunas (Rhythm. of itself Later . rendered Egoism. the Self is freed from the bonds of . the deformed. the Consummation A. Mobility. in its last. . Vilasakanda . . Seetha aspect. the Self aid Ignorance. . Self. falls beneath the sword of Rama Grief and Sorrow are annihilated. Lust. and travel crowned king over the dominions of his ancestors. . Seetha passes the Linga (the subtle body). Maya. is Mukthi. . This III. the Sometime after. leave impure through through the fire association with passes of Purification. He takes her back to himself Sathvika aspect is eternally wedded to the . characterised Deha three .48 Rama Anger and Greed are destroyed. They Lanka back to Ayodhya from the consiousness in the Rama is subtle body back to the Akasa m the heart. to of the Valmeeki the Self parts is sent away . R. Maya Sarayu . Havana carries her off man the the Self has an overflow of pure devotion. Conscious- And this is the realization of the Self as ness and Bliss. he secures Self and Vibheeshana the as to render invincible. Indrajith and Ravana the Self triumphs over Conceit. through fire to vindicate its her purity. Right Discrimination. destroys alliance Vali is shot down by him the its . Seetha Self experiences Supreme Bliss. Rama slays in battle dire Kumbhakarna. and is laid low the Self shakes He is parted from itself off from the trammels of Delusion. . and Inertia). is the Self finds a of means to Lanka on the top Thnkoota. He so develops be causes a bridge to will thrown over the wide ocean cross the waves of Nescience. Beness. hermitage with Maya.

ministers and followers of The is Ravana are the modifications of the Rajasic and Thamasic installed as Consciousness. Vibheeshana is monarch of Lanka the pure Sathvicguna en- throned in the Upadhis. Nescience (Avidya) is the Asoka garden. The God back Janaki to it dhya Rama Self puts on its Robes can stand before the Throne. Hanuman . 100 Yojanas across. The pure Buddhic is aspect of the consciousness of the Jeevathma three Hanuman. Everything but the Supreme Self is dependent upon it like a woman. and gives Seetha the ring of a token the Tharaka Manthra (the Buddhi the Individual word of liberation). the Individual of Light. the Self bathes off in the cleansing waters of the Viraja and casts the Karmic affinities latent of Fire renders Sookshma . is the shoreless sea of Samsara. Lanka is but the Upadhi or Vehicle of the Jeevathma. Rama causes Seetha to be brought the Jeeva realises the Higher Consciousness. Ill The terised sea that separated Lanka from the mainland. on fire. Rama crosses over to Lanka in the might power the Jeeva within the Upadhi is blessed with a The fall of the Rakshasa brothers is vision of the Lord. as Sathva (Rhythm). The Jeeva must do away with the notion that he is dependent upon any other thing but the Lord Hanuman sets Lanka . initiates Thamas her Lord Self. . for the Kumbhakarna. unto him . Sareera. characby the consciousness of I and Mine. The griefs and tribulations of the Jeeva are laid before the Lord by the compassionate Buddhi (Pure Reason) Hanuman takes back to Rama the news of Seetha's . but the annihilation of the Rajasaand Thamasa Gunas. miserable of his state. Rajas (Mobility). Seetha travels back to Ayowith Rama in the aerial car Pushpaka. Ravana and Vibheeshana stand Gunas.49 The Inner Meaning. in which . . in (Inertia). She passes through in the fire .

the Visva. and the other Emotions. the Pragna in the Karana Sareera (the Causal body) . after ' f . the royal preserves of Sugreeva the various modifications of the Mind are controlled and stilled Rama and his forces cross the Ocean of Egoistic conciousncss (Anony- mous). From first the Beginning and the End letter A. Angada. and the leaders of the monkey host stand for Manas (Mind). From the Jeeva the third letter M. Hanuman and his fellows break . he From he is is the Jeeva in his Sthoola Sareera (Gross body). Sree Rama is enthroned at the capital of the Ikshvakus and Seetha by his side the Jeevathma becomes one with the Brahman. Grant thou this boon. the Supreme Brahman. down the honey- grove. she carries on the functions of Evolution. The Lord manifested himself unto him and said Brother Ask what thou wilt and it is thine. The monkeys themselves are the mental functions. the great yogm. arose Lakshmana. Matter). ' ! the souls that quit their fleshly vehicles on the . arose Sathrughna. IV The Pranava. he is The Ardhamathta (the prolongation of the sound). the Thaijasa the Jeeva in the Sookshm. arose Bharatha. Yagnavalkya. the mind-born son of Brahma. and saidi u Mahadeva meditated for countless ages and sought upon the holy name of Sree Rama him with a devout heart. is Srce Kama. Seetha is the Moolapiaknthi (Primal Through the force of the presence of Sree Rama. the Word. Chitta (Feeling). Prakrithi. that Lord the Supreme One. she is also styled Involution of the Kosrnos. its is of every thing. Sugreeva.i Sareera (Subtle body).' Mahadeva spake unto Sree Rama. the second letter U. Self sits . Preservation and As Pranava. The Inner Mcmvug.50 by the right hand of the Lord. approached Athn. .

He realises Beatitude Many . be they birds of the air.' And unto him replied the Lord. Unbounded Glory and Supreme Splendour. may be freed for ever from the trammels of material existence. He purifies those whom comes a great soul. so dear to me. across. The very Gods ever meditate upon him to secure Emancipation. be they men. are freed . their sins. be they the worms that painfully crawl on the earth. without exception. And I make Those liest to you. even the deadthat and this I do solemnly declare unto you receive from thee and from are invested Brahma my Six-lettered Manthra. of times. who is Absolute Consciousness. do sit by me for ever. He The following texts from the far-off Past do reveal the " are the manthr^s Associated with such same Truths. the merit of reciting the sacred Gayathn a hundred thousand times and the merit of reciting the Pranava millions . the whole body of the Ithihasas. . He exalts ten generations that go before him he " and ten that come after is him. with every power that they may desire they . He who daily He recites this holy Manthra is washed pure of all sins. They in whose right ears thou whisperest my Manthra when they depart from this life. all as a visible that meditate upon me and my Name from all of Power Those in that holy spot. and first letter of the mantra of Rama connotes Sree said. unto me. " "The Yagnavalkya called unto him Bharadwaja. shall verily come guarantee of the promise I do abide for all time in the Holy Kasi. the Puranas and the Rudra . and come unto me. be they beasts of the field. Rama himself. cross the ocean of Samsara (material existence). 'Brother! Those that quit their mortal coil in the spot sanctified by thy presence.51 banks of the Ganga and especially at Manikarnika. rites sacrificial of countless in merit accumulated the lays the merit of having recited a hundred thousand times.

it consumes to nothing all sins. Hence. conscious or un- no sins it conscious. . the . Koosmandas. Bhoothas. consciously commit. Kasi. Happiness here. penances and the sins that a all the severest mortifications cannot wipe gift of own weight in gold cannot condone these and much more does the holy Manthra annihilate.52 and the Beings are Ganapathi. during the month. The slaughter of animals wild and tame the sins of our accumulated past lives the of . Soorya. Vighnu. worshipped meditated upon. the sins that hardest off. The five Deadly Sins and the millions of lesser ones vanish before the might of this Manthra. plague. sm the slaying of Kshathnya . Prethas. or a Vaisya sm foul the sin of associating with the wicked. and the the like the the countless pilgrimages to the sacred spots of earth can- not wash away one's .' As a spark of fire in a mountain of cotton. like. sin of robbing a of holy Brahmana a Brahmana. a of his gold or gems the . Pisachas. waking. sleeping or slumber the sins consciously committed . know not famine. to confer and that most There are cannot destroy. the delights of the world of Gods. in dreamless in . Rakshasas and other Beings that inhabit the Bhuvarloka (the Middle world). during the day. the sins that we defiling our vows and observances incest or adultery . pestilence . the sin of of eating with them. and final Emancipation are the meed him who clings to it. Sakthi. during the fortnight. . the wise know it as 1 the Royal Manthra. Those lands in which Sree Rama is revered. of sleeping with them matricide sin of and the regicide wantonly parricide. . such holy sins that places as Kurukshethra. that one may commit during the year. Six-lettered Alone it has power this upon us the highest good Manthra easily. dare not approach where the holy Manthra is recited. but the manthra of Sree Rama is their Crown. Mahadeva. sins of tasting what is forbidden .

the Supreme Truth. the Rama Manthras dedicated to Siva or Vishnu. the most potent letters of either. are drawn out and go to make up the very in their line. the essence of all the Hence.' and the latter. and Immortality and denotes Supreme Bliss and Goodness. so in the germ of the R 36 Rama Manthra is . the Path of Emancipation. The same consonant without the vowel. shorn of its letter of power. It has not its equal. it denotes the Supreme Self. ( the realisation of Absolute Goodness. The next letter Ma is the Germ of Eternity. and the five-lettered Siva Manthra are the highest But. The Lord Mahadeva. Holy Name. The former. denotes the Brahman beyond all limitations. devoid of the single letter. As in a tiny seed of the banyan is contained the widespreading tree. V. it forms the subject of his deep meditation ever. And unto them said Hanuman. The Inner Meaning. knows in its entirety the grand mystery of the Holy Manthra for. signifies the descent of the Self-radiant One into Matter. means Not towards ' . The Lord . and he alone. the Self-radiant. even unto Him- self Ramathapim Upamshad. Manthra. Once upon a time. The first letter R is the Germ of Fire . and end He takes him " even unto Himself. his devotee length of years and happiness here life. It is the easiest grants at the passport of his to the grace of Sree Rama. yea. " Sree Rama is the Supreme Brahman. The next letter A stands for Maya. The union of the two making Ra.53 or sorrow. The eight-lettered Narayana . means Not towards the securing of the highest heavens. Sanaka and the other Eternal Virgins approached Hanuman and requested to be initiated in the mysteries of the holy Rama Manthra. the heart of them.' Manthra combines in itself. the Sachchidananda.

From the letter as Hanuman. known on earth as Sathrughna. The Inner Meaning." Ramarahasyopanishad. And beyond all.54 contained the whole Universe. here and Emancipation hereafter. known on earth as Lakshmana. yea. From the Bmdu arose the Discus on earth of the Lord. letter . Consciousthe Supreme ness. as the Effect in the Cause. is Seetha. Hence. it is not al- But. animate and inanimate. Truth. the Mahavakya and more practically grasps and assimilates the manifold mysteries embodied in this Sree Rama it Emancipation even here. VI. As . Absolute. Tht Inner Meaning. Pure. The letters forming her name connote Maya. in the corresponds to the syllable Thath Mahavakya (the Great Sentence) Ma stands for Thwam the union between the two is rendered by Asi. VII. From the Nada arose the Conch. doubt it not. Immortality. may higher than useful. attains not. is capable of conferring only Emanthe Manthra secures to us Happiness Rama while cipation. Besides. The Supreme Brahman is beyond > Maya. He is Eternal. the aspirant for Emancipation or the man of dispassion. Frojn the Kala rose Sesha. the letter A arose Brahma. Moolapraknthi. The Ra . Sree Rama. Unmamfested by nature. Doubt Manthra. the expression of Pranava. known on M arose Siva. known on earth as Bharatha. she sometimes Seetha is . is the Supreme One. From the letter U arose earth as Sugreeva. He who with profit to meditate upon it. The Chit (Consciousness) known on earth as Upendra. From Jambavan. Perfect Brahman Tharasaropanishad. the Mahavakya lowed to all to recite or to meditate while the Rama Manthra is upon the Mahavakya the common property of all. known beyond it. or he that has renounced the world to it work is for it.

Knyasakthi and Sakshath Sakthi (Will. is the Vedas . creepers. Power.55 manifests herself. She . medicinal leaves and the Waters of Immortality. apart from . She Preservation is on the the through the might of his and is Involution. is . she Sabda Brahman (the Logos. the Moon. of attributes Activity and Wisdom) are her prime aspects. the Word) . she nourishes the Gods. fruits. the Sun and the Fire. She is . her second Her the primal is Unmamfested form. Bhoo Devi and Neela Devi. (fallen Angels). through infi- and actions as the five Elements. dependent upon the Lord. his King Janaka found her the point of plough is sacnficiat ground. Though she her light presence. this is at manifestation. is energy that lies behind Evolution. the senses. as gods. exists Mahavishnu and She is identical with him. the Prana (Vital current). She She is all . . herbs. is sensed as the her first During the chant of the Holy Writ. the Divine Hierarchy She is Fame She is the Universe she is the Law. As the animate and the inanimate. yet she sheds universe. and made this while he was furrowing the her his daughter. she also titled Saunakeeya. Asuras. Through the Moon she and herbs flowers ahd of occult presides force over plants As the Kalpa tree. sages. She Prakrithi . as virtues. . the mind. Rakshasas (giants). Ichcha Sakthi. her visible symbol. Bhoothas (Elementals) Prethas (shades). known on manifestation. hind Goodness. Seetha in her eight-fold is manifestation of power As Pranava Prakrithi Moolapraknthi. Sree Devi manifests herself as the energy that lies be. She underlies all the manifested universe. and Pisachas (Nature nite modifications spirits). earth as Seetha third is . men. she is the Cause and the Effect. Ichcha Sakthi is again varied as Sree Devi.

including the seven islands and the seven oceans around them. She turns the Wheel Time. day. beings. is Kriya Sakshath is Sakthi (the Ewrgy) behind of the Lord inseparate from him. hours. transitory on its surface. months. lies Evolution.'Through the Sun she supports the Shining Ones by the cattle. by ever producing ever increasing the Food . by shedding light and life upon them. the water all and the rest. of weeks. Brahman. the wood and the stay and the support of the fourteen spheres. and inanimate the like. She is heat and cold in the plants and the trees of the forest she is the . Ncela Devi that is visible in the all thousand and one forces go to sustain air. half-years. fortnights. She is the Pranava. life-period of Brahma seconds. they Direct It illuminate. kalpas and parardhas. whose nature Sakthi. . minutes. From the Pranava springs forth the Tree of Knowledge (the Vedas). worlds She is the Frog. grass and fodder and all beings. with its branches of Action and Wisdom. the the fire. from its minutest point to the . From the mouth of Mahavishnu arises Nada (Sound). night. Fromj Bindu comes forth the Pranava. She is the Great Waters upon which one of her mystic symbols. seasons. fire latent in Thus. manvantaras. Through the Fire she makes thirst in all herselt felt as Beings . animate wind. She is Time. she is the face of hunger and the Gods into which are thrown the sacrificial offerings to them. years. Yugas. the symbol visible of Bhoo Devi is the Invisible Presence. From Nada arises Bindu (the Point). Sree Devi works out the Lord's will and comes forth as Sree and Lakshmi to sustain the universe.

The Sun Jaya and her sister Apsarasas wait upon her. the new moon and the umbrellas over her head. and the other world-processes. Under the spreading over . are the results of Bhoga Sakthi (psychic powers). of sages and of Gods. wave fans on either In front of her stand the Gods. The full moon. half moon hold snow-white fan her with Hladini and Maya chamaras (chowries). nine in number. Veera Sakthi. Amma and the rest. On all sides stand elephants. bathing her with vessels in the Waters of Immortality their tusks. Sankha. known rests in as Sree Vathsa. Sakthi (spiritual powers). is described thus.5? Preservation. treasures visible is Him during also known the as Yoga of Cow Chinthamam. service unto him in the shrining his images shape of raising temples and entherein. variety of entiated. Form. This extremely useful to those that seek the Lord interestedly and also to those that render or out of unalloyed devotion . symbolises the Ichcha Sakthi as It is it Pralaya (Involution). the Vedas and side. The Kalpa tree. Padma and the other of the Lord of Wealth. The Lotus spreads its graceful petals it and on it sits enthroned the four-armed Goddess of Valour. It is It is It about the infinite brings the Differentiated and the UndifferIt is Self-radiance. the Power that showers is It good. It is the inexhorable Law that rights Wrong. so that the devout might meditate upon him through the eight-fold path of Yoga. the Goddess of Valour. t from the gemmed The eight Yoga-Siddhis (occult powers). and the Moon illuminate the Hall of Audience. Plenty. are ranged on either side of her. the spiritual splendour of men. and Swadha. is It the heart of Serenity. fragrance of the Kalpaka tree shines the gem-encrusted throne. that feeds the Fathers. that nourishes the Gods. Swaha. Disintegration and Involution. . The dark mole on the left breast of Mahavishnu.

" what the second foot conveys to us. This is his second manifestation. in brief. Gayathri.58 the Sciences. aspect and try to realise His ultimate Brahman aspect alone. is the root of all. This is the Means to reach the Brahman. out of his grace. mind and turn inward towards his This the epitome of the tortuous. . They that strive after Liberation should meditate upon the Germ. He superimposed by Nescience upon the Supreme Self are asked to banish His we is the Cause. as the effect. of the .. is . And from her seat of power She rules the the universe. from which the Tree of the Universe sprang. in which man might more easily meditate upon him. He it can. matter Hence. Path of Action.. as the material cause of the universe in his Matter aspect. This is. is His Mayaviroopa the Ineffable Glory . and as the instrumental cause of the same in his Brahman aspect. The Inner meaning. whom the first Foot sets out to describe. The universe. It has three Padas (feet). Seethopantshad. VIII. " gies" He is that directs and controls our Self and its ener- what the third foot teaches. the roots . should meditate upon the Supreme Self in " I this aspect of Unbounded as (Form of Illusion). the Truth that underlies the first foot. text " The Golden Person who is visible in the heart of the Solar We Orb/' denotes the Primal Being. for the uplifting of the world. The Vedic Narayana. time and oft. The Gayathri Manthra is the seed yana. this Light meditate upon . longer and more .. Tree of Rama- Rama Raksha is the sprout the Vedas are the and Emancipation is the fruit of it. whom men know is Rama and Krishna who came down This on Earth. curb the fleeting feet. the mother of the Vedas.

The the universe. He who presides in theVignanamayakosa (Intution-Sheath)is endowed with the faculty of cognising all impressions. it. May the son of Kausalya protect my eyes. 3. Meditation and Action./ of Dasaratha protect my (organs Pranamayakosa (Prana-Sheath) is drawn is the of sense and action) and forehead. The Self Sheath) universe manifested in the Anandamayakosa (Bliss filled with infinite compassion towards the innate. 2. He who presides over the Annamayakosa may He protect my head that symbolises (Food-Sheath syllables of the ). The by ten horses effect of the Manomayakosa (Mind. as manifested in each of the above sheaths.' the tablet upon which after the my destiny Brahma.59 of of The three feet of the Gayathri Manthra are the germs out which springs the Tree of Knowledge with its branches Wisdom. He who presides over the universe. May ihe so. It is he that in the state of Sushupthi does away with the all grief and sorrow. and in them are condensed the incidents of the Ramayana. (The Self. who was evolved universe. May he protect my eyes. who presides over writes protect my forehead. May he. Maithrayana Sruthi RAMA RAKSHA. the Parabrahman and the next three help to . 4. three Manthras superimpose the universe up[The on Sree Rama. the channel of all knowledge and wisdom. I May he protect first my ears through which reach him. May as is he ivho is dear to Visvamithra protect my ears.Sheath). He is embodiment of Bliss and Consciousness. 1. has a wider consciousness and powers than in the preceding one). unselfish and disinterested. May Raghava protect my head. truths as the Ramaraksha express the same Gayathn Manthra.

May he who protected the sacrifice of Visvamithra guard my nose. symbolising Power. that brings about the result my organs of smell and taste. the Bow.60 remove the illusion. where- sou of Sumithra The Lord's heart goes out towards Hiranprotect mv face. 5. The delights of the heavenly world form the reward of sacrifices. the Sword other weapons. the fountain o] all knowledge protect is the of Knowledge organ speech. whom 9. from Himself and is the best friend of that evolved yagarbha. the channel through which they Hence. They should ever find a place in the throat. the prayer to protect that pass from the heart. they 7. protect May he. and the be who wields the Divine Weapons protect In his divine incarnation. Those that attain Emancipation in the ordinary way reach the world of Brahma there they are initiated . Manthras. protect my organ of speech through ing May May he who is which 8. with divine fragrance and taste are experienced. May he whom Bharatha that follow the " reverences perfect my neck. 6. into the mysteries of the Absolute. the Absolute. that forms the subject of the foot of the Gayathri]. My he whose heart goes out to the the Jeeva. and when Brahma goes back to the Lord. Sthotliras andSasthras form the component parts of sacrificial rites. portion of the body. lays by much merit by such holy acts as sacrifices that directs him to the Path whereby reaches the Soothrathma (He on . only means of reachmy he him. Time and my . Thus far the nature of the Supreme first Brahman. I acquire knowledge. The Brahmanas seek know by sacrifices" Srutlu. May shoulders. of sacrifices. Those Path of Action worship him to with It sacrificial rites. go along with him. the worlds are strung). of Meditation The Jeeva .

graced his arms. able to accomplish superhuman acts at once. . and Maha- vishnu the point of his arrow. the other Vidya. (Manthras 9. with bow of Siva that was no Plain- places him above his driver. ofSeetha protect my hands. leant as his stay feet of and support. they stand higher than many who have never bestowed a thought upon him. Vishnu in that Rama was and Siva). . Sruthi. May he protect the corresponding portions of my the body. and 12 teach that the third manifestation of the Lord is higher than Brahma. upon whom Jambavan navel. Siva. protect my Jambavan sought the . the Earth was his Brahma 11.61 the Ijke attributes. 14. " When Mahadeva his went against the Asuras of the car. May he who broke Bow of Siva protect my arms. The Lord fails not to reward each as he deserves. When he walked on earth as a the might of his arms he broke the other than the mount Meru (the Axis of the world). May he who slew Khara protect my trunk. 10. Khara and the other Rakshasas constantly meditated upon the Lord. one of the two Vidyas (occult sciences) imparted to him by Visvamithra. this man among men. mount Meru bow. May he. gave him unlimited physical strength. 13. These two Manthras show us that Bala. though as their mortal enemy hence. 10. the Lord to save himself from his dire distress R se his . He slew Khara and his Rakshasas and that was a blessing in disguise gave them a place in his world. manifest the power of Athibala. 12. May he who put down Parasurama protect my heart Parasurama stored in himself the spiritual May the Lord splendour of the Rama Here Brahmana and of the Lord Vishnu. 11. Three " Cities. is he had. and destroyed the worlds won by his down him put This evidences what a mighty heart Thapas. ly.

of love. May the Lord of Sugreeva protect of barter my loins. his Rama served his ends of use to and Sugreeva long after. * One good turn deserves another'. May he who destroyed the ten-headed is Ravana guard my beyond the Sookshmasareera that works through the ten organs of sense and action. 18. its rolling waves May he guard my knees that form. Jambavan's altitude. Manthras depict the four types of those that seek the Lord during his divine incarnations]. ted friendship. is The Lord locomotion. May he who conferred all good and protect prosperity upon Vibheeshana of my feet. (He who is thus meditates upon the and rests 19. the feet of children when they crawl about. Rama and savoured more Sugreeva's relations with than of genuine disinteresfirst . He who meditates upon him thus.62 was one 15. May Hanumaris master protect my thighs. He is the ideal Bhaktha (devotee). might. 17. protect my knees. He stood nearest As his favourite child. lord freed for ever from the Sookshmasareera in the bosom of Praknthi). [The last four lap. monkey hosts were to Rama Hence. Hanuman's devotion to Rama was unselfish to the extreme humble service to his master and to the best of his . He opens the of gates Joy to him who escapes the jaws Avidya . he stands on a higher level than Khara. (This teaches us that the Lord is beyond the material vehicles. and not of enmity. as it were. freed for ever from his vehicles). May he. he sat upon his to the Lord's heart. The Lord is the shores of the ocean of Samsara (material existence). who threw the bridge over the sea. he does not come up 16. in that he keeps back and is the haven of those who toil in it. To the grown-up child the ankles form the chief help in ankles. was the only thing he prayed for. may He guard them. Hence.

24 letters begin the 24. chose the two royal youths Kusa anc| Lava out of many they were endowed with considerable . evil is (This is Emancipation. I earnestly seek to stand in his presence. This the state of the highest the highest wealth " all Srutht. symbolises the Universe as Brahman.000 stanzas of the poem. doubt it not. the son where he was. out of his grace. my beloved. May he. .63 (Nesgience).' in the first Manthra. of the monarch that shines on his Throne Glory in the Audience Hall of the Universe. May Rama protect all my body. "Valmeeki. qualify me to find a place among the Elect. the Its Gayathn forms the germ of the Ramayana. May he remove all obstacles and dangers on the eight-fold Path. The later superimposed by Ignorance upon Manthras remove this misconception. the child of Valmeeki's heart. of Dasaratha . the but . Hence. the Vedas came down to as Ramayana. so. it blesseth him taught in the Vedas " The that reads and him that listens to it." Agasthya SamJntha. Parvathi. as is Almighty Ruler. is my is feet. the instruments of good. 'Raghava. The expression. Supreme One down earth as Sree on came Vedas to whom the reach. the sage.18 down the while Manthras 19 and 20 describe the destruc- tion of evil and the realization of supreme bliss. So. an amplification of Truths and like the Vedas. bliss is experienced). May he purify my three vehicles. The Lord. individual then described for lay of meditation and Manthras 13. try Rama. Ramayana is the Veda . form is His collective and purpose process . The Valmeeki's Vedas epic form is the basis of the Ramayana. wherein annihilated and where the supreme 20. May He guard "This rapid locomotion.

64 intelligence. troops. Ramayana. has very little to do with them. and their mysteries life. The Vedic Manthras are the deep pool. is Self. have amplifies incidents in the life of Rama and Seetha. full of Immortality. But. that call to He has no thrown into the ocean the Personality ! of Samsara (embodied existence) by to that clings material objects. behind him the wealth he accumulated in his life." by his own hymns who shines He. the Supreme light and who ever remains. R. exponent'' V. the the record of Seetha's fitter had studied the Vedas. it is but just that the above Manthra should have an inner mean" The of the past. The esoteric Let the mtutive student unfolds the mystery of the Self. Now. you and with numerous boats saved Aswins his ! . "All the in Gods and of the Rigveda are Him. 4. the Science of Self they that walk along the Path of to the brim with the Waters . I. somewhat of the veil that is thrown over the Namewhose manifestations come down to us as the presiding deities of the senses. who cannot Self. the The above to lift vedic text affirms that the Manthras do but seek less. let us take. to be recited in that sacrificial rite where " As a dead man leaves the two Aswins are invoked. even in their exoteric dead letter aspect. Ramayana and the Vedic passages which it The exoteric narrates the a double aspect. on whom bear the burden ing. the following Manthra. meaning has no eye for the deeper study the Holy Writ. Hence. could . him and his like to cast son into the roaring deep. him pierce to through these garments of sound. ! Inner Ruler Soothrathman (Thread-Soul) You extend your . ponder over it. for example. their mother. King Thugra were there. not have a So." This it is how the man of action all would have interpreted. also drink of it by the way. Action. They flow fields of to the of on broad the channels episodes through Vidya.

Q. Take the Manthra "Aja who " and black if we give the white. though teaching episodes. Similar selves. meaning. Brahman. here.65 grace unto it . . that sail Akasa in the heart and dispel the clouds of Ignorance. regarded as eternal. Vedic or otherwise. It seems that the Aswinee Devas are praised in the Transitoiy spoken of and as such. How can we understand expressions that denote . of The Chamasadhikarana narrating past of holds that such Manthras. takes Rama. His names qualities. of (differentiated as matter) to whom Splendour. this view it is eterit. the Waters and naturally instances would suggest them- Manthras with an esoteric narrative aspect and an esoteric spiritual one underlying. objects are above Manthra. and Great in the guise of the Teacher save through through the it the Sentences (Mahavakyas). meaning too. Hence. every Kalpa sees the divine incarnation of Brahma). all Indra and like expressions are but words do but express His infinite But. in fact. Grain and the other cereals are . do really aim at the is Science red. the passages yield a narrative as suited to the context. the Teachers understand that their natural words Aja denotes Praknthi are given such names Food. not individually (life-period of but in the type so. A. that the Vedas in which they are found are not composed by man. Q. All " Vedas do but describe the Supreme State makes it plain that Sree Ramachandra is the subject ot all knowledge. . as a type symbolising a the Devathadhikarana kosmic event. give no colour to the view. the passage simply expresses facts of previous knowledge and forms no evidence of superphysical truths. The Vedic text "All names do but point to him. and nal .

the words have no meaning of their own. But. . A. Godship. by by difference of context." Here.66 tion other gods as pointing to Rama ? If the aforesaid interpretais made to serve our purpose." it means Indra. The 1. the word denotes the worship of The Devas Yagna with the object is the . same expression very Again. The word Indra means literally "One who is endowed with superhuman powers to this " Usage too lends the its passage that support treats of the replacing of the Garhapathya fire uses the to denote the Garhapathya fire. take the text. lines or dots that . Agni and the other Devas. " in the passage They sprinkle the Yagna. material Akasa . yours. The Adhyathmika. in the following Vedic texts ing of the ocean. Amntha. stand for the numerals of place 4. we . ally the Waters of Immortality obtained during the churn- sentence can.'5. is subservient meaning " Whatever is seen passage denotes the Supreme One. even the least. sacrificial fire ing of the when it occurs in a passage about the churnfire. When this mortal man has his mind washed pure * of all desire. " stands for Emancipation. but in the natural it springs from the Akasa" to the conventional. Jeeva is to be viewed by us as the Supreme Brahman. association with others yield many meanings. various ." and offspring respectively. a difference makes them denote Similarly. But. Or. the Adhi-Daivika and the Adhi-Bhouthika meanings stand in the relative order of their importance. are similar in form or a but. The word Amntha denotes natura or word But. is That It Yagna . worship Supreme One the Yagna. 2. he of attains Soma . a unit or tens or hundreds or or thousands. the So. Again. the expression Akasa can but denote naturally the interpretation. . then he becomes Amntha " " Brahman even here May we drink " " That is man's May we become Amntha .

When the universe was enveloped in ignorance. the Jeeva dispelled it by Divine Knowledge that " transcends the senses this is how the most advanced will interpret is it. to suit the intellects of a low . to mean the st Supreme Self. what of the other Manthras that are connected with sacrificial rites? Do you A. the passages about chopping off the Manthras that are not found branches of trees must also be interpreted to denote the value in the Supreme Self. The Vedic text describing the Wheel of interpreted ^s follows. Indra. Difference of intelligence pretations. understood it that embodied self was characterised by immortality and it other attributes. Then. to not reasonable to give such an interpretation in sections treating of the Science of Self. Soul. Then. and the expressions denoting other deities do really stand for Supreme Q. Since the entire Vedas are devoted to that to except purpose alone. Virochana. It is any portion of it. is There a show lay of Manthras as do not down justice in interpreting such rules of sacrifice. the Karmakanda loses its eyes of those who tread the Path of Action. contend that they too point Rama ? Even so. Brahma gave out that The person who is seen in the eye is the Athman. is Fearlessness. taken for a serpent by one. that the sometimes accounts for difference of inter- slew Vnthram Now. But. that they may not nd to useless. Not so. another of them. one of his auditors. took Self transcending the vehicles was meant.67 conclude that narratives do often yield a spiritual meaning. A. The same fact is understood variously by A rope lying on the road is various grades of intelligence. we have no right p. but. for a stick by another and for a " rope by a third. is Brahman/' the the Now. we read in the Maha Bharatha that Indra the body with the invisible weapon Vajra " (Aswamedha Parva).

Water. the more advanced would see that the six seasons stand for the six senses. Food. one after another. hard to believe that Ramayana based upon the Vedas. . . the incidents of the Q. Worlds and Name). Manthra. and the year are similarly interpreted. Thapas. each is sense has Desire and Aversion as A in month made up tion of two fortnights (the Desire and Aversion have a the direcis double aspect. the month. according as they are directed Dharma Law) or against it. Mind. and but the traditional one to the less advanced. Each fortnight through the movements of the Sun and the Moon. Each of of these is made up . Karma. It is Avidya (Nescience). the result Action. of its two months poles. the mind withdraws into itself all the rays except the last. Thus. . of fifteen days . and is absorbed in the Self. the seasons. . through the agency of Viveka (Discrimination) this is the . whose very nature is abso- Thamas (Inertia). lute Later on. the Manthras yield a spiritual meaning to the wise. such an interpretation is the right one. like the episode of the death of Vnthra. Agni. The sun is the Self the moon is Manas with her sixteen rays (Prana. During sleep. the rays emerge from the Self. Akasa. on which the sun and the moon are in conjunction. Now. made up Earth. The Self and the mind one another. and that all Manthras have a spiritual significance. Sraddha. Senses. day and night order. waxing the full of the Moon are opposite to Wisdom. Vayu. the Wheel Time. symbolises this truth. Energy. If Ramayana the are nowhere mentioned is in the It is Vedic texts. how is it that Sayana and the other commentators on the Vedas have never revealed it ? Further. when wisdom has dawned of moon This is typifies the disjunction of of the sun and the of moon.68 The women mentioned there stand for the deities Dhatha and Vidhatha the black and white threads mean the fortnight. The New-moon day.

Now. the objects. we can well conclude that the Manthras bear only the traditional meaning to the uninitiated. since they but plunge one deeper into the mire of Ignorance. fully aware that in course of time it will lead The deeper meaning is not called for. dom. Q. . that the If Ramayana Vedas. suit the Worship of them is worship The Vedic commentator interprets the texts purposes desired. the materials. how post. acts The Manthras found in connexion with religious do but mention the Gods. can you twist them to yield an interpretation in support of the Ramayana ? . How then. So. room and even so. Everyone of one of them is every of to Rama. The Vedic commentators set them- selves to interpret the texts that bear upon the Path of Action and that sing forth the praises of the gods. accept the exoteric interpretations as ulti- mate. in such a way as to draw the hearts of the less advanced to Action. it does not prevent from reading into them the episodes of the Ramayana. ' The Vedas shun 'Lo ! they reveal the inner the man of little wislikely mis- this one may more its " A it . and finds no place. and the results. while the initiated see in them a direct reference to Sree Rama and the mysteries connected with him. But. and cry out represent me.69 t A. them forms the cause of the world the effect of the others. . is it of the latter to is delve deep into the hidden mines for ' of in vain that the Ramayana Maha Bharatha to blame it ? It is not exclaims. the method. the fault a blind man ? knocks himself against a If you care not Vedic lore. the force of us by We cannot context and by other traditional methods. The Ithihasas and the Puranas amplify the Vedas mysteries thereof. it is even so. furniture are reflected all its in each mirror in the Universe with ruling Powers are reflected in each God. But. it is simply unreasonable to declare incidents find no mention in the them on to Wisdom.

The Manthras are even so . "You." 'That state is hinted at by all the Vedas. level of Virat Brahman as pervading the universe and I have attained Texts that relate to inanimate objects should be similarly interpreted. the reveals the fact that the ." "That whom all these attain. Besides. Brahman evolved Universe as and pervaded it and the sacrificial fuel is to be regarded one of Its manifestations." "All this is the form of Brahman. in addition. are I one with it .70 A. ("Verily he is the Rasa. For the essence of Food and Stren- chop you to you/' off to attain supreme bliss and the . sacrificial You fuel. Now. that lay hidden therein. but. through. who has ." "The hymns " changeless the Vedas. for. now gather " hence. incarnation of the referred to the Earth that he dug up very sacred and " Again the Manthra is used when we chop the branches of trees. animate and later on. Let us take the in Manthra Krishna." is The . "You entered the great trees I the " form of this Hence. as Krishna the Supreme Brahman." " Lord of to universe it mean the Initiate understand you shine forth even in this branch you have made. gather you in two ways. ^they are invariably based upon spiritual truths. evolve the universe. you are even this you thrice seven times. the is who Boar dived into gather the earth thrown the Waters after this Earth. And ful student Rigveda in the splendour of our authorities for so interpreting this is possible only in the case of a careare of the of th$ Ithihasas and the Puranas. This episode we find in the Brahmanas and is but repeated in the above text." Sruthi). the Essence. pervade it through and and inanimate . such vedic texts as " All this is which the Purusha." Again the Manthra We up by Lord as him. I ! should be gathered by us. The gth. one enjoys bliss. having attained that essence. food symbolises Viratj and the Essence of food denotes the Supreme One.

to the Path ot Action men whose temperament lies that cannot expect the episodes of the Ramayana we way. He who does not ac- quaint himself with the Boar and the Dwarf incarnations of Vishnu cannot explain the texts solely by their context and Since the Vedic commentaries aim only at attracting use. is it not better to abandon it ? A. own light. nothing authorises us to interpret . nothing prevents his the Initiate from understanding it according to We should explain the Q. if that meaning does not ht in with the particular act. he who sees Sree Krishna through the veil and tries to reach him is the Initiate. But. difficult little knowledge . while the less advanced no other sees meaning than the praise accorded to the gatherHe who ing of the material earth and the sacrificial fuel. Men taught in them. narrate the incidents in the life of Sree The Ramayana and . may it to pierce it is through the veil but to the Open Eye its of the Initiate original. No. we can it see in conso- nance with the subject in hand. mentator has given an exoteric the Path of Action. The greatness of the Lord is the only meaning here but. mastered their worships the physical Boar is not very spiritual nor bright. But. Manthras in conso- nance with the religious rites in which they are to be used. a place therein of to find But.fi inner meaning. as also in the oblation of ghee as a general penance. the hymns transparent of the Rigveda. The Manthra " Mahavishnu crossed the is used in the silent recitation three worlds in three paces" laid down as a penance for breaking the vow of silence. but. there is not the least shadow of doubt that the epic it Valmeeki find is since of but amplifies the truths based upon the Vedas. However. the Vedic com- interpretation to the pasthat sage as referring to the physical food and its essence is meant to attract those whose for them fits temperament .

form a lovely background thief. id. there runs an under-current of spiritual all XIL There is How to read the Ramayana ? " You current a quaint saying of the wise.Rama meanin be should Each Manthra explained through. R. the stories of women and form a fit theme to while away the afternoon . cannot spend the day better than by studying the records of the their doings gamblers in the forenoon. when the anniversary rites are performed in their name. no one takes the it above but. It gives extreme pleasure to the Fathers to hear it recited. Kusa and Lava. that records in symbols the incarnation of the Supreme Purusha. . to the incidents in the Ramayana and to the Science of Self. and the expounder should be honored with . the coronation of Sugreeva. but. to recite just twenty chapters a day. 93). Valmeeki has enjoined the royal youths. is to be recited and listened to when the day draws to a close while. the Surren- der of Vibheeshana and the coronation of Sree fitting Rama are occasions when the reciter liberal gifts. Sree Krishna. the thief who steals away our hearts and his work among men is the best prelude one could desire to a peaceful and calm dreamlife. (V. Gifts of cloths cattle and gold should be made to him that reads it (Ib. understands to mean that the Bhara- tha. and her sorrows. ing relation to the sacrificial rite. should occupy the forenoon. III). VII. The Coming of the Lord. whose theme is Seetha. that narrates the gambling of the eldest of the Panda- vas and the evils that resulted therefrom. the ideal woman. The Ramayana of Valmeeki. the Installa- tion of the Sandals. neither more nor less." Now. the . and the to early hours of the night the adventures of the literally . ( Manthra Ramayana). Bhagavatha. the marriage of Seetha.

the reverence with the Holy Writ and he is freed from sin of every A long and happy life is his portion in the world of kind. gift of speech meed. Sing you a poem that shall known or secret.l mountains. perfect in its rhythm and melodious in its flow. and wisdom equalled by none. consciously or otherwise. U But. his kith and km. the Ramayana of so long shall rare you by me in my epic this. he shall (V. charm away the hearts of men. their men and monkeys. Lakshmana. The all swift-coursing rivers. beautifully adapted . he is a welcome wise hold it in equal who reads it with a devout heart. Should a Vaisya read it. the wide Earth and all it contains owns his sway. Later on. the created things shall pass away shall outlive and be has them and never men. guest in the world of Gods and is held in high honour among them. their very thoughts. A and noble faultless honeyed verses and diction. 2) that Brahma and said. merit. pay homage to read. Gods and Nothing words. men and when he goes away from it. Rakshasas. nay. " we any find (76. conferred " upon Valmeeki the Open Eye that relates to shall of the Seer of the actors in that great Nothing world-drama acts.1). merchant princes him nay. id. and cloud-cappe. of How does life it benifit us ? Rama's punfieb the heart of men. and confers supreme Hence .1.R. shall prove other than true. should a Soodra happen to hear it . that comes out of your mouth. Should 3 yea. is Brahmana read it.n XIIL "This record destroys their sins. their escape thy all-seeing eye Rama. win honor and glory among his kind. Should one warrior race his of the read it. Seetha. . your noble song naught fade from the hearts of men And as long " as the record of Rama's life sit holds sway over the hearts of highest heaven.

faithful and devoted wives. are ever blessed are delighted with wealth unbounded and offspring numerous. id. fame and upright heart. The woman that listen to this holy narrative with a heart full of devotion^ her length of days and wealth of children and rejoices m grand-children. abundance of wealth and corn." of years and prosperity. spiritual splendour. Sree Rama ever ready to gratify his requests. .u to music. In short. long life. good brothers and every thing that the human heart can wish for all this . begun and of its finished according to the best of the art. read or listen to 11 length it. 4.) Tins epic confers on kings long fame. He puts away in strange misery behind him is is for ever. The Shining Ones beyond measure. find not a place Anger heart of and her sister passions to the him who all listens words of Valmeeki. the thrice-distilled essence of the Holy Scriptures the surest giver of health to ail and happiness. like unto the the Lord himself come down loins as children of their and rejoiced in the in everything that this world can give and the next. life. the most exacting critic cannot praise the too highly. The evil Powers that may infest his house become his very inends and benefactors. Young women do bring forth excellent sons to gladden their hearts. even to the queens unto the earth ot Dasaratha. The king triumphs over desire offspring his enemies and rules the lord of the Earth. perfect health. Those ot the royal race that listen to it with a devout heart from some good Brahmana. victory and from every other blessing desired. an evergrowing circle of kinsmen. vocal or instrumental and it charming canons to hear . first . Is fail not You loins? your object get your You have it as much as you wish. The wanderer lands restored to the bosom of those that love him. Do you wealth ? to it. the kind and an unapproachable ideal for all tune to best come model for all future poets . who saw seventh remove. who (Ib.

his glory form the sub- Ramayana. even during the life time of the Divine One. the Siddhas and the Sages ever listen to it with hearts over- A single chapter of the flowing with joy. "Chyavana. 98). Jt is 100 crones of divided into 9 . 48. VII. the sage. Hence. Other Ramayanas that the life of We have reason to believe Rama was sung by many others besides Valmeeki." (Ib.* VI. who came after him.) The Ramayanas of Bodhayana. 111). he becomes one with the XIV. Ananda Ramayana The Lord Mahadeva his beloved.75 and much more form the meed pure ' of him who studies. the Gods. Ganga and the other sacred rivers all the merit accumulated thereby of the is his. The Divine Hero fails not to lift his devotee even unto his world Lord. the noble epic of Valmeeki. sang the Life of Rama. . Parvathi.id. Naimisa. Kurushethra and other holy spots. Valmeeki." " The Omnipresent Lord and ject of the (Ib. who listens whole-hearted to the recital Ramayana. the Gandharvas. heart and devout. in It narrated the life of Rama unto forms a portion of the Original stajizas. nay. Bharadwaja and many other Rishis are not now extant. the merit accumulated by thousands of Vajapeyas poem confers Aswamedhas. with a (/&. But. to and other holy sacrifices. The gift of untold wealth to deserving Brahmanas at Kurushethra during sacrifices confers no greater merit. Pilgrimages Prayaga. 131). obtained immortal fame" (Aswaghosha's Buddha Charithra VII. The sages that frequent the world of Brahma re- quested of permission of listen him to to go back to the audience-hall Rama and the remaining chapters of the Ramayana.

the holy man sought out Sree Krishna Chaitanya and served him faithfully for twelve years. The Poornakanda relates the genealogy of the Lunar Race. as also his sacrifice 108 sacred names.76 The Sarakanda cantos of 109 chapters and 12. the prayer known as Ramasthavaraja and the Deha Ramayana The Janmakanda tells us about (the inner meaning of it). vanished from the place. Lakshmana. The Vilasakanda depicts Rama's government. The Master enjoined compose the work known later on as the Adhyathma solely . The Manoharakanda contains the Laghu Ramayana (the Sumof Asura mary given tive to Valmeeki by Narada) and the Kavachas (protec- manthras) of Rama. us that " The Lord Sanka- ra. the conquest of the seven Dweepas and the past births of Valmeeki. as over the the same ground goes Ramayana of Valmeeki. having thus gratified the wishes of Ramananda. taken The Yathrakanda gives an account of the pilgrimage underby Rama. Bharatha. the battle between the kings of the Soorya and Chandravamsas and the Passing of Rama. the destructhe the house Ikshvakhu. The Vivahakanda of an account of the marriages of the of recounts the down tion of Rajyakanda 1000 holy names of Rama. 19) tells was related by Visvamithra. the putting their fight away of Seetha. But. the bringing the trees from the heaven of Indra. subsisting him to upon milk. Sathrughna. The Moolaka.252 stanzas. Rama and as coming back scions of Seetha her also Ramaraksha. the birth of Kusa the and Lava. Adhyathma Ramayana It is manda Purana and internal evidence generally held that this forms a part of the Brahthe printed editions confirm it. Later on. The Yagakanda describes the horse conducted by Rama. shows that it Bhavishya Purana (III. Seetha and Hanuman. the with the to is army lord of .

neither Valmeeki nor Vyasa can be claimed to be its author. greatness of Seetha. Manthra Rainayana By Lakshmanarya a rare and unic 156 hymns of the as the basis of Rigveda are of t the incidents taught these very same texts verted them later on into stanzas i . lean initi- The teachings of more towards the Adwaitha philosophy Sree Sankaracharya. the events that brought about the human incarnations of Rama and Seetha. It is and forms a portion of the Original RamaThe yana. a follower of Sree Madhwacharya. Adbhutha Ramayana Valmeeki narrates it to his disciple Bharadwaja. and the in 27 chapters episode of the thousand-headed Ravana are great length. As ethical usual.77 Ramayana". Mahadeva recounts of it to Parvathi. dents of the life Rama are described with The incimany exoteric l and spiritual episodes illuminating the events. at length. A Sangraha Ramayana modern work by Narayana Panditha. described at Agnivesya I Ramayana have come across only some stanzas giving the chronology of the incidents of the Ramayana. Yogavasishtha Ramayana in Valmeeki narrates to Bharadwaja what took place Vasishtha the audience-hall of King Dasaratha when ated Rama into the Science of Brahman. Hence.

of ruler Balabln. spiritually. commentator. He was in" the son of Athma Rama. the Milton of Tamil literature and his Ramayana is the Indian Paradise Lost. Night after listened the various Ramayanas and the . whose Life he . The author chapter interprets each for the current first Manthra narratively and explanation. D. and spent his 1&24 A. 1575 A. Rama. who lived about the time of King Dharasena. the Magnificent. Raghiwamsa By the famous poet Kalidasa. the inspired to Tamil poet. night he. Evey one of the 22 Chapters of the work is built of words which illustrate some one important peculiarity m Sanskrit grammar. and forms its the Samkshepa Ramayana. In 19 chapters he relates the prominent incidents in the lives of the Solar Kings from Dileepa down to Agnivarna Bliattt Kavya By the poet Bhatti. life of Rama at some length the inwhile the Padmapurana gives a comparative account of the same in a previous kalpa. He was warmly Jahan.78 it is a summary of the epic. and was born at Delhi. he went back unto Sree patronised by Shah In life at Benares. and Puranas expounded by the ablest men of his time He is the next day he sang them in melodious stanzas. Ramachanthramanaw By Tulasidas. the famous saint of Northern India. while he refers the the standard Dreader to Sayana. D. The Puranas Every one cidents in the of them narrates . Kamba Ramaycwa By Kamban.

ijt. besought of the Loid to severity of the sentence. but the Balakanda is the longest of them. Blinded came to regard his broad-hearted teacher as a heretic. he seated in devout meditation upon his God. your intercession him from the bhndrng force of births and deaths. the Lord Mahadeva could not pass over the open insult to his servant "A serpent thou shall become" said he " at and ot unwieldy bulk. One day his master chanced to come into the temple where the misguided man was with fanatism. Siva bitter drove him from his Saivite took there lived a Soodra in was a bigoted worshipper of hater of other sects. in a dark age of the kingdom and a of Kosala. karma man drove him on with irresistable force to the deeper depths of mtolerent bigotry. an ardent devotee of Sree Rama houses of flesh he abode in. "Nay" " replied Siva shall preserve can't be undone. In and one many were of the them he was a Brahmana. and thought it his bounden duty to hold him up to criticism and ridicule. the fanatic Saivite became His course shall be . and of Devotion in its manifold aspect. relieved his wants and revealed to of him the the inner nature Saivaism But. . and he shall remember his past. so great was his heart and so full of pity for the erring one." Thus. The Uttarakanda deals at length with the episode of the Crowsage Bhusunda. and sought the lonely retreats of Mount Ateru. In a former kalpa. But.79 He divides his work into 7 cantos like the Ramayana sang. unimpeded on earth. But. sat on with a look of pity and contempt upon his face. Big with conceit. he rose not to salute him ." The Teacher. It was thus the Ramachanthra came down to him. He him in. but. of Valmeeki. the and past the fundamental of unity of all unfortunate religions. pained unlooked-for mitigate the it to the heart this doom of dread. A cruel famine to where a philanthropic place Ujjain. His teacher minded it not.

could not keep his temper. He was the things. But. beyond all attributes. great Yogi. Our friend clasped his feet in reverence and prayed to be instructed in' the Science of Brahman. Bhusunda. The crow passed beyond the portals of Death Time had no power over him. to the fold. thou shalt become/' croaking crow (We should not jump to the conclusion that Lomasa. Lomasa tried to draw his heart towards the Absolute. the latest addition ^But. Narada sent him to Brahma who passed him on Mahadeva. he felt himself out his death in it and prayed oft to be initiated into the again he crossed the cried out. But. to them. out of patience with him. the supreme hierophant of the mysteries connected with Rama. He to a was but the mouthpiece of the karma of the man. Again and sage. beyond all Name and Form. as also the deeper truths connected with the Lord's Illusion and doings. . how cruel doubt could Indrajith or any other prevail over him " ? He prayed to Narada to enlighten him on the his Father point. Sankara transferred him to Bhusunda. the sage of restrained self. Lomasa thereupon instructed him in the mysteries connected with Sree Rama and narrated unto him the Life-record of the Divine One. was bound by the magic weapons of Narada despatched Garuda. Far from it. Now. When Rama Indrajith. who. He accepted with gladness the apparent cuise as one more debt paid. His vision was unclouded and saw far into the heart of Rama had not a more ardent devotee. " A worship of Sree Rama. known as Ramachanthra Manasa. that came head at that moment). the Brahmana had now a clearer intellect and a calmer heart.80 where he came upon the Rishi Lomasa. as one more stone removed from the Path of Progress. and Garuda heard from the crow the Ramacharithramanasa. . the messenger was seized with a destory "If Rama be the Supreme Brahman. the Divine Bird.

Later on. shame at being found out and fear ior the consequences overcame her. that is the only means of convincing an . Laksh- mana could have you not pierce through the illusion " quietly called out. lost Seetha. Parvathi would not yield her point. exiled himself to Dandaka. Sankara But. a smarting sense of defeat. take. Agasthya was a little Sankara warned her of her grievous misover his hero. his wishes were gratified. ? you fail to see that all this is his delightful lover illusion He is a man now and a forlorn he cannot but . instructed Agasthya in the deeper mysas narrated teries of the Divine Incarnation. There had the went with Parvathi pleaalong they sure of listening to the life and adventures of Sree Rama One day Mahadeva happened . and went in search of her with a breaking heart and woe-begone countenance. could not refrain from exclaiming to herself. In the course of time. " the object of too enthusiastic How is it. left ? Greeting to you. fright* Wonder. Sankara failed to meet him then. Bhavani. " And so this is Sree Rama who bewails the loss of his wife like any countryman in ? And this is what Sankara would persist regarding as the supreme Brahman and his worship ? Verily. Mahavishnu came down on earth as Raghava. by the sage. ful solitudes " Parvathi was dumb-founded. Mahadeva. Wherever she turned.31 and to visit Agasthya him. who was with him. struck with his extreme devotion to Rama. but. try as he would. play the part to perfection." and let her into the truth about Rama's incarnation. Rudrani repaired was and stood before him as Seetha. obstinate sceptic. there sh& saw . where Rama to Accordingly. her still more. She went -back to Paramasiva and Rama took the opportunity to mystify . sister Sankara and what would you in these ! Rama mine Where . my dear." Then. advised her to go by herself and subject Rama to any test she liked for.

*' Well. adored by countless hosts of Gods. who testified his devotion to after. her marriage to him. I hope you are satisfied. I am curious to know how you tested him/' But. his insult to Siva.000 years. upon her by Rama and . . birth of Karthikeya followed in One day Parvathi reverted to the old topic husband to clear her doubt. " No more in this incarnation shall I regard this woman " The as my wife she is a mother to me and sacred. he bethought himself that she had. though for a time. and prayed hard to be forgiven but Siva was in deep meditation and could not reply and she dragged on a miserable existence in that body of hers for about 87. cast she could not keep her lips from a lie. when she looked back. even as Bhusunda gave it to The sage Yagnavalkya got it from the crow. Mahadeva's heart was heavy with upon her it grief . Rama by came to such a terrible vow.Rama. Then. And Sankara.was better of to still and she blurted out. Vishnu and Siva). the blasting of of abandonment her her re-birth as daughter of Manmatha. assumed the guise of Seetha the Divine Mother. and the course. "Nay. her evil hour ! . I thought and tested him not. out her begged of the supreme compassion of his heart. Bharadwaja from Yagnavalkya and Thulasidas from one of his pupils. not withstand the illusion . sages and Thrimoorthis (Brahma. Your arguments were enough " convince me. Lakshmana and Seetha. Par- the body. Parvathi could . narrated to her the due and Garuda. prolonged austentes to become the wife of Sankara. Sankara asked her with a smile. Ramachanthramanasa. But. < know Daksha's vathi's sacrificial rite. her Himavan. of it . lo it vanished. Gods sang his praises high. Now. Sometime Parvathi . At last Sankara arose from his Samadhi and the first thing he did was to recite the holy Names of Sree Rama.

And brief summary Bharathakhanda forms one of the nine portions of Jamboodweepa. and trudged on wearily for a long time. to rest. faint with hunger and fatigue. a vision of beauty dawned upon him. of every bit of self-* control he at claimed her. like possess and there fresh at he stood his starwg fifelds. a lovely town in it. excuse enough for my giving the readers a of of it. the There is very little in common between the Jaina. the first of the seven globes that go to make Vineetha. held sway King Sagara. of fear and shyness upon the strange visitor. when his horse got out of hand and into a strange wood that he had never before it been Suddenly fell dead from exhaustion . in the prime of youth gazing with curious and eyes loveli- at a distance. any But> for the the maideji strange greenhorn was as much emotions that from a loss to account played over . its cares. A young ness. work Written in the Prakrith dialect by Hemachandracharya. One day he chased a deer far. the dazzling radiance that enveloped her like a halo. Ramayana that is Valmeeki and the Jaina Ramayana. a was passion with him. too tired to waters that lay to burning thirst at the cool his hand. The grace that pervaded her form and her every movement. and casting his eyes in that direction. until he came upon a lovely lake hidden Within a thick grove.83 The Jaina Ramayana This forms the tenth chapter the of the Vllth canto of a work. Thnshashti-elakapurusha-chantra. And at kingdom and far into the took him in. to which he sacrificed his Hunting up this Earth-chain. and the stamp of nobility about her deprived to him . woods. He threw himself down on its banks Sagara. Soon he was conscious of some quench his other presence near him. stood maiden. of the royal line of Ikshvaku.

. All at once. the God Chakrapani forest. and led them onto this where they have If seems disguise. and gladly followed his guide. favour his suit. But. was a case of mutual love at first sight. a call like a from some one near broke into the lovely dream and flash. the lover his and annexed made war upon him. the girl vanished back into the grove. a boy Sahasra- by race and hand battle of the Poornamegha. slew him in kingdom. He married Sukesi. was a suitor for the and as Sulochana would not princess . " Lord ! I am entrusted with a message to you which I beg to lay at your It feet. who had fairly lost all consciousness of where he he was doing.84 her heart to gaze and rooted her feet to the spot. hard Mount Vaithathya. perforce It upon the intruder with wonder-waiting eyes. whom he defeated with dreadful loss. When he opened his eyes. Her brother (to whom you are not unknown by fame) looks upon it with supreme satisfaction and has sent me lived ever since m here to request you to repair to their lowly abode. there stood before him an aged man who wore He bowed to Sagara with livery of a king upon him. Sagara." Sagara was overjoyed at this unexpected turn of events that promised to gratify the wildest hopes of his heart. was rudely awakened to a sense what or was. heart that Sukesi. of reality and closed his eyes to see if he was not the vic- by that time tim of some strange optic illusion. has gone you out to you and she would give you her hand in marriage. ruled at Gaganavallabha. nethra and a girl Sukesi. of the race. saved the lives of the children. the the deepest reverence and said. might not be unknown to you that Sulochana. saw Her here. lord of He had two the Vidyadhara children. the princess. and lost no time in leading an army against the usurper. and the lands of his foe. Sahasranethra ruled over his father's dominions. of the same Rathanapura.

they chanced disciples you had. wonderful are the ways of Fate. and they were born later on as Poornamegha and Sulochana. He left his friends and fellowtravellers far behind. mistook his father for some daring dacoit. " What causes brought veil to about such a deadly hatred between Poornamegha and Jina stayed his lift Lord Lord Sulochana. time after midnight. of yore. inexhorable separation. and came back to his home some he was seized with a fit He was away in other lands trading for a of home sickness. between Ghanavahana and Sahasranethra ? Why should myself and Sahasranethra be drawn towards each other by feelings of strongest affection ? opened their eyes to the past. when famous shrine of arm. he slew the father out of hand and was at the point of sending the son after him. As Fate would have it. when his him dead. to quarrel over something. and travelled back as fast as he could.two One day. He rushed out in anger. a " said Then. and at his alas! struck own threshold. when. karma could not be stayed in its course. long time . and dwelt. Sasi and Avali.85 Some^fcie after. the Lord " There : merchant by name Bhavana. the murderer of his father and his son Ghanavahana. Sagara prayed of the the from the past. after so long a period of But. They are no other than Ghanavahana B 39 . the friends made a pilgrimage to a Lord Jina. and. in A devout ascetic you were your last birth . Then. at Adithyapura. and Sasi killed his friend in a fit of fury. thus rudely roused from his deep slumbers. those whom he loved most. in a grove near the town of Saketha. his poor father heart was beating high with the anticipated delight of meeting. His son Handasa. he knocked loud and vehemently for admittance. Blind with rage. with the old still fierce animosity " ablaze in their hearts. Sahasranethra came upon Poornamegha. In the anxiety of his heart. least expecting his parent's arrival at that time. But.

. Meanwhile. deep below the Earth. full well do I know that my I and are must quit this body. days from me this diamond necklace and the arts of illusion of after so long a time. coming car. and heart.Sahasranethra hearts." line of on earth the perpetuate Accordingly. receive over. from his place to where Ghanavahana stood. her Now. and had long contemplated an alliance between Devi and would not hear him. none drank in the words of every one present. was listened to deep wonder and surprise by But. ruler of Rathanapura. the king the son of my were Rathivallabha. his son in secret Sreekantha his who. who begat His son Keerthidhavala took to wife Devi. the daughter of Sreekantha. I crown you king live of Lanka in the Lanka. had long loved of . away in Padmoththara. to know of it. His son was Maharakshasa. So. the Lord with greater avidity than Bheema." This marvellous with story. The which I am a master. " In my upon his neck with tears of joy. Pushpoththara of the Vidyadhara race. of KanchanaVidytithnethra. Devarakshasa. and cried. Thatithkesa succeeded him in the sovereignty of the Rak- shasadweepa. as also of the Pathala Rakshasadweepa. who ruled over Vaithathya. one of the door- keepers rushed fell All at once he and a Rakshasa by descent. Ghanavahana became the ruler of the Rakshasadweepa. as her father he resolved to revenge himself upon it. and their last thoughts still dominate their friend Avali was your favourite and is now your from the and kinsman. six Yojanas and happily to long May you Rakshasas. carried aerial Pushpoththara at was be- side himself with rage and was the heels of his foe. this page past. I last birth was you great pura. but. Padma his daughter. gods have restored you to my arms But. .

and lived a happy life there and fearless. . On that occa- daughter Sreemala threw the garland of flowers around the neck of Kishkindha of the Vanaradweepa and thereby choose him out as her partner in life. where the latter made Kishkmdha capital. Once. Dadhiratha. fought with the successful lover Sometime after. while Sreemala begat Adithyarajas and Riksharajas. and reconciled them whereafter. the ruler of Vanaradweepa. he life felt supreme remorse having taken the to pass by. ruled over by sion. had a similar turn mind and entrusting his kingdom to his son Kishkindha. Sukesa underwent a similar fate at his the two companions in misfortune retired to hands. He installed his son Sukesa on the throne and donned the orange-robes of the Sanyasi. a monkey tore at Sreechandra time pleasant with his claws. fast friends. the wife of Sukesa. But. gave birth to Mali. when Sumali and Malyavan . and drove him out of his kingdom. There Indrani. of a living thing. Sreechandra the wife of Thatithkesa. Asanivega of Rathanapura resented it as an insult to himself. requested husband to take her out for a pleasure trip in the her aerial car. They went to Vanaradweepa. Keerthidhavala interferred. a great Swayamvara was announced Adithyapura. his at Manthramah. who begat Dadhiratha. Pushpoththara installed Sreekantha as the ruler of his Vanaradweepa. neswara the Lord for of Compassion. A devout follower of Ji. Pathalalanka with their followers. The holy man's exhortations were so powerful as to arouse in his heart supreme indifference to the things of the world. His son was Vajrakantha. they became . renounced the world. and had a very of it when. An ascetic as to his happened and the king questioned him unwitting crime. Thatithkesa was so much enraged that he struck him dead on the spot.8? vowing dire vengeance upon him. of Meanwhile.

day Now. he marched upon Rathanapura and its ruler.88 Mali somehow came to know that his ancestral Lanka was in the hands of the ruler of Rathanapura . Sumali never despaired of restoring the fortunes of his house. Then him* Sumali and Malyavan hid themselves in the Pathalalanka and led the life of ascetics. the son of Visravas and his wife Samseka. he repaired thither. after. the conqueror made over Lanka to Vaisravana. the young man came to hear from his mother how their house had. Her husband came born unto not her. Mali. A son was of she named Indra. the boy did he imitated his great name-sake in his Stop vehicles and other signs of royalty and weapons. and were leading a hole-and-corner existence down there . to know of by assuming the form it. the Rakshasa. His mother her Chithrasundan was possessed an evil spirit. drove him out of his new conquests and regained his kindom. But. by whom he had Bhanukarna (Kumbhakarna). The boys were extraordinary strength and might and stood a half bows-length in height. and over sixteen endowed with the eldest. Vi- bheeshana and a daughter Soorpanakha. retinue. of so. ruled long and well. Sometime named him Dasamukha (ten-headed). Later on. struck with the reflection of the face of the boy in the nine gems. he took to wife Kekasi. that filled with a strong passion for Indra. the daughter three sons Rathnasravas Vyomabindu. how they were dispossessed of it. But. son and. to his father its might was such that none could so much as move it an inch thousand deadly serpents guarded it Sumali and watched that wonderful feat of his night. and gladdened her heart the object of her love. been rulers of Lanka and the Rakshasadweepa. whom Thereupon. . fell in battle with there. Indra was then of the king. one day came upon a necklace and lightly placed of it gems round that his belonged shoulders. Rathnasravas. the Lord of the Celestials.

mukha had ample time frankly for reflection and repentance . seems to be a good soul and soft-hearted. Vidyadhara race. was thrown day. kantha. relieved misery. But. and had by her a son Indrajith. Dasato . he simply caught up the Rakshasa and placed him in durance vile. Six thousand Gandharva women became his wives later on. go back of in peace. and he allowed Rayana after. the old friend of his house. for all his to strength and valour. Riksharajas married HariNala and Neela. Vali. and and gratitude. He attacked held him out of Lanka and Vaisravana. Vali could not understand this unprovoked attack so. he confessed to . Kishkindha and his army with him. Mount Meru his to lead daughter Sugreeva gave quit Sreeprabha in marriage to Dasamukha and celebrated it with extraordinary pomp and splendour. He proceeded to where they were. Some time Vali installed his brother Sugreeva in his place and a retired to the charming solitudes meditation. into hell by Yama. Vali that he had miscalculated and had caught a Tartar vowed deathless friendship he prayed hard to be set free. who bore him two Reports of the mighty strength and prowess of Vali and he proceeded forthwith reached Dasamukha's ears . drove sway over the Rakshasadweepa with great pomp. drove Indra from his rajas the ruler of Kishkmda's dominions. He married Mandodan. them from their kingdom and made Adithya- Adithayarajas took to wife Indumathi. while Riksharajas was placed over Rikshapura in the Vanaradweepa. One he came to know through Pavanavega that the sons of Kishkindha. a descendant of Indra of Rathanapura. . the daughter of Maya of the as sanyasins. by whom he had sons Vali and Sugreeva.The spirit of his ancestors was upon him he of and retired to the depths Bheemaranya. from which he returned master of a thousand magical arts. We of .

who. set worship. the contagion new his son Dasaratharaya on the ruler. beside himself with .90 Long afterwards. Long did he howl his let rending were tired of it ill. and with kings to on it caught him started Sugreeva on a campaign of conquest. he broke his journey at the banks of the river Narmada to bathe grip and. The rolling torrent his came upon Ravana articles of too soon and washed away image and the but. was allowed cal art to he won the grace of Jmeswara and obtain from Dharna. in his agony and protestations prayers him the go. Sometime after. when SahasJineswara and rest a while. king of Mahishmathi. not disposed to be too hard upon the fool. kicked away the dam that kept back all its waters. and took spread the orders. a fresh epithet Howler (Ravana). Ravana. between the mountain and . the magias known broad its Sakthi Now. the serpent. and in his aerial car. This incident gave the Rakshasa to Vali. the ambition the to rule over the in earth . placed throne and became a who sanyasm. his friend Anaranya. looking down. rage. Dasamukha and heart- could not free his hands from the earth. he saw that it was Mount Meru and Vali Fired with seated there plunged in profound meditation. a goddess of Nithyaloka and went thither All at once its course was checked. he He was engaged m devout worship of on the pleasant sands of the river. aid him. . Sahasramsa never the blow to . attacked Sahasramsa and took him prisoner recovered from to him free his at the earnest request of his father Sathabahu. the Rakshasa monarch fell in love with Rathnavah. he made over holy kingdom But. pressed down the mount ever so much with his toe. wrath at this insult to his majesty. he attempted to root out The monkey smiled in the mountain and Vali along with it* pity and. On his way. ramsa.

the prince Vasuraya. . patiently the hour their death and deliverance. to with such gram that how Aja should be mterperted. We took different The others came back after a time and described how they killed their birds and where but. I I failed to find a place where all there is none . In a fit of fury. wanted to know the why and argued the point with me. ( ! as I would. Reverend Sir Try directions. is useless upon putting declare . with no words made misery but a cry. what can it mean. praised the Raksaid to the assembled crowd. of it the others to long periods of life in But. I came back to the teacher and said. harm any every tendency all sacrifice should be made as seed. his travels. who set on to voice their this act of Ravana to shasa and damba. Ravana came upon king Maruthin a who was engaged cattle grand sacrifice. The Vedas. this hecatomb of innocent animals. the word has no other meaning good honest Sanskrit than a sheep or a goat. on us the ' ' Now. piety. he gave us each a bird made of flour and told us to kill it where there were none present.91 During tharaya. Ravana. grain that has been kept over not born. further.' But cried I the same word has been understood to in ' denote that which the is name of common . in but sense. " There lived of yore a great teacher by name Ksheerakahis and His son Parvathaka. . " The Vedas enjoin sacrifice of Aja. came there. could not bear to see this wanton cruelty. were disciples unde r the holy man. Narada. then. as a true follower of Jmeswara. and is hold that harmlessness to sentient beings the highest virtue. it three years ever intent sentient for. Countless sheep and awaiting were tied to the of sacrificial posts. Parvathaka his son. Now. The master was mightily pleased with me and condemned hell. son of Abhichandra of Sukthimathi and myself the third. One day. he sad havoc of the sacrifice. mercy. down that is being.

his . his defeat . a sentient being and it must not receive harm at our hands. who was the envied possessor of a him trident given by God Chamarendra. absurd to apply the passages to authorise sacrifice of animals. in a way.92 Grain having the power . interceded him and promised that he would turn over a new leaf whereupon. a holy man Anandamali expiation of the sin. too referred the matter to Vasuraya as the umpire. name his untarnished. his teacher. . when he insulted Ahalya. decided it in favour of my opponent. and Ravana cemented it by giving his daughter Manorama as a wife to Madhu. News reached him through his spies that Nalacoobara was ruling his and Ravana proceeded there subjects with a rod of iron in all haste to punish the tyrant as he deserved. who are decision and ever by condemned us. for woman and virtuous. were incensed to hell. A warm friendship was the guest grew up between the two. reminded him of a past evil deed of his. an Indra was consoled somewhat." at his unjust him The assembled Narada for multitude were loud in their praises of the masterly and lucid manner in which he had solved a very vexed question and let light upon it. the wife of wife Uparambha. Maruththaraya paid no heed to the ruin of his sacrifice he placed to heart the words of Narada and bestowed his daughter Kanakaprabha . He the Gods. in marriage upon Ravana. might be. The Rakshasa king next proceeded to Mathura and of Madhu. . Nirvanasangama. Parvathaka was hard to convince . Ravana left him in peace and turned his arms Now. in a way. a good . But. Indra had for long against Indra of Rathanapura. so much higher in the scale of evolu- How tion than grain!' so. I But. But. and had jealously guarded years kept But Fate fought against him his title of 'the Invincible/ and he drank of the bitter cup of in the shape of Ravana defeat. of reproduction in it is.

the father chose the latter as a meet husband day of marriage and sent word to his friends and kin that he town near the holy spot Manasatheerththa. near mount Vaithathya. and the preliminary rites were conducted with magnificent pomp. the sage. the son of Prahladaraya. Countless were the princes that sought her hand in marriage. met by Ananthaveerya. was extremely proficient in all the arts and sciences of the time. Now. at A Havana's heart sank within him. and he will be your Fate. Pavananjaya was no fool. You will lay violent " wife. you through the hands on " his heavy punishment is in store for Lord Vasudeva. but. "Well he said to himself. shall Hridayasundan and a daughter Anjanasundari. Mahendra consulted with his ministers. " Dasamukha. him who a reignfed at Adithyapura. who held sway He had a wife at Mahendrapura. and was gifted with marvellous beauty. my son you have incurred much sin by violating ! the wives of others. dead past bury itself. and sent their horoscopes and portraits to her father. he was the hands of others. by name Mahendra. Havana ranged over the earth. "let the spilt No use of crying over milk. Vidyuthprabha was the master of unbounded wealth. the stars promised a very short life. Pavananjaya. I keep my heart away from those who place not their affections on me. fixed the Naturally. these words of evil omen. the astrologers guaranteed him very long life. Well. now winning hard victories over some and anon suffering shameful defeat at On his way back to Lanka.93 Thus. for his girl. and chose Vidyuthprabha and Pavananjaya as the best of the lot. they assembled there in due course." There was a king. He knew very well that the choice fell upon him not because he was it would celebrate at a B-40 . was not endowed with such excel- lences as his rival . who said to him. Henceforth at least. but. Now.

At least that is what the " ! astro- That is all." "What a pity rejoined the logers give out. if | *b? marriage came off as grandly as any one could. nay " there nothing in life has but a short make a secret of. Anjanasundan must be a stranger to him for the rest of his life. what I A cup of nectar and death the next moment. is would prefer to unending draughts of poison anda life. and pitch May be replied the other secret. Anjanasundan nor ful daughter. Anjanaher two friends touched upon various current topics for a time. His friends. but because his life was the an unusually long one. but. unfortunately . unusually long one. He was the last man to make a scene. lease of longer if possible than that of Father Time. his kin and the guests shall never come to know the He would go through great sacrifice he made for their sake. " a than first Better a short life and sweet long one and dreary.'' it as became a dutiBut. for the life of me. Vidyuthprabha before him and Pavananjaya has an . one of the girls turned to " I the other and said." it Nay. " we know. the affair as he were the most ardent of lovers. the most beautiful and wealthy in the of all the princes upon Pavananjaya you are is as a husband " to for our princess. curiosity to his He his could not repress the natural affianced it. \yislv . cannot. Her face was as inscrutable as a sphinx quietly listened to . make out why our master should pass over Vidyuthprabha. did she chide her maids for taking that extraordinary liberty with her and the object of her father's choice. with a view to sundan and hear for himself what they thought of the match. when.94 a more eligible party than his rival. know how took it. how king and people viewed He managed to cenceal himself in the apartments of the princess. Pavananjaya jumped to the conclusion that the princess his only recommendanot for his own sake him accepted the tion was that astrologers guaranteed him a very long life.

A a doleful wail. any. he was glad that he had found out his mistake before it was too late. and of the course o\ true love that did run smooth. Pavananjaya caught at the opportunity to escape from a cheerless home. to to was the gates the presence of of palace his wife unknown . His mind had been under a cloud. Manasarovara. his and. and his heart warped and unnaturally perverted. listless and swan sent up from somewhere near that upon her mate came not. sustained shameful defeat at the of Varuna and sent word to his friend Prahladaraya come and lead his troops against the foe. What a brute he angel of goodness and patience his had been And what an wife had proved herself! 1 His unbounded self-conceit had certainly misconstrued her maiden modesty and silence. before midnight. was to insufferably and Nature seemed hold her breath pain.95 Pavananjaya took his bride home splendid suite of apartments. to his capital. gave her a set numerous retinue and every . Pavananjaya rolled too tired to sleep. into a loveless heart and utter apathy. hands to Ravana the Rakshasa. and besought the it past if possible* . It arous- ed in the prince a train of thought. Not a moment should be lost in making ample horse it reparation.of love-matches. confessed honestly. during the of day and encamped It at night on the shores hot in Lake sultry. that unconsciously led him to reflect upon the life of happy couples. He sought and. he took at once. His parents and wife did their very best to detain him He travelled far but he heeded them not. her great surprise -and bewilderment. even to the fullest. . comfort that heart could desire but. he never his eyes upon her. So. that tiight and in and frankly and him forget pardon They had a very happy time of the small hours of the morning everything her to . calling on an uneasy bed. Well.

They would not heed of the the advice of their prudent minister to take no action their until son should corne home. Anjanasundan ears to at conceive and it came to the They would not listen king and queen. For once. name by requested of pain the princess had a very dear friend of hers. a sort of oasis in the midst of a dense forest. of friendship stronger A loving heart saw judice her that more clearly than Age and crabbed PreShe consoled the heart-broken girl and assured she would see her through at any cost. One morning Vasanthathilaka approached him and asked. "Holy sir! What will become of my poor friend? The child in her wornb has it happy days two queens before " it ? And to her replied the sage. and subsisting across. She sought her out and Vasanthathilaka. and to silence him all a child. They the signet ring she produced." to leave the capital the very next day. travelling by charity stages. Here is no place for you. " In her last birth this lady of was Laksh- meevathi. any scandal in case she conceived and bore he gave her his signet ring and rode back in did speed to the camp. if possible. not bestow a glance would any explanations. early as possible. She . and put up for themselves a sort of cottage near the hermitage of Amithagathi. do not want us to believe that they are fools enough to punish an innocent girl. more stupid and pig-headed. promising to be back as As a sign of his visit to her that night. a holy man. on At the last kindly those they came they reached Hanupura. Her Now. was the than tie of blood.96 Pavananjaya took leave of his wife. shelter and help from her when her hour the tie and misery should come upon her. The unfortunate girl was made parents " You were. They left the abodes of men far behind and repaired easy of to the wild woods. one of the Kanakaratha.

how happy Fate at least . he found out his mistake and alighted on mount Sreesaila. She brought But. where he was born. his new-found was love. But. Mighty were his feats and marvellous his deeds even as a child and the fame of his strength and prowess flew far and fast. he father Pavananjaya returned to his kingdom. made war upon Meanwhile. and delivered from captivity Khara Varuna. affair he had . which was shattered his to pieces through the shock. from Hanupura." will I* Shortly after. sprang into the air to bring it down. and threw sheer spite.hated her rival. and in wara that she worshipped. was a Sunday in the month of Chaithra and the constella- name tion Sravana ruled the day. in all the worlds. repentence came upon her soon. the brothers of Havana Thereafter. Anjanasundan gave birth to a son. . The cloud that now darkens her fair soon pass away and she will be taken back with and honor joy by the very people who have discarded her. mercilessly driven from the town by his own and all because parents. . Hanumantha they called him. back the image and prayed to the Lord to pardon her sacriThat is why she was hounded out by her kith and lege. routed his army and Dooshana. desolate happy pledge of their reThey might misery. stole the image of Jinesit on a heap of rub- bish. One morning he saw the rising Sun and mistaking it for a nice plaything. in that a son would be born unto her and great will be his fame km. covered with glory and loaded with honors and presents by the Rakshasa king. A terri- him at home. He called the people together and related to them how he had cruelly misunderstood his innocent wife. who ought to have known better ble shock awaited she had born in her womb of the union have in the after come back he had a voice more vital interests at stake. long years waited for him to . Her timely repentance will bear ample fruit. His wife.

Saudana. The younger came and son. where the persecutors of his wife abode. gave him to wife his daughter Sathyavathi. until at at last one happy day he came upon them the outskirts of humbly. Nahusha. how he provided against that very contingency and how his parents were obstinately blind to the truth and had perpetrated an unheard-of cruelty. Himachooda was his he had two sons Vajrabhahu and Purandara. the poor scorn when her own flesh and blood her out with re- he could not thank her enough nor think of any turn of gratitude. they entered the order of the monks. Simharatha. and bestowed her daughter AnanthaOn his way back. out of a heart full of gratitude and delight. who. living and dearer child mother cast to to breast. him to stay with them. Sugreeva and Nala wife and King Vijaya ruled at Ayodhya. a Hanupura. great gave him their daughters Padmaraga and Harimahni to wife. . and coming to know of the service rendered by him to their old friend Ravana. even if the search should end with his life. to and him. Hemaratha. He would go out into the world and search even to the remotest corners of it. his girl He clasped his dear wife Vasanthathilaka. His house He had no call to remain was far his wife. ratha. Hanumantha rendered signal service Havana the Rak- shasa. His heart far did he roam.98 brought them together. Hiranyagarbha. the throne. after a time. father Keerthi- Kosala. Brahmaratha. The elder took Manorama after to wife . Chathurmukha. except him and all humbly praying her to live with her days and continue to be a mother to himself his wife. but. Long did he wander and all was left away and with unto him desolate. They came back to his kingdom and to lived there long and happily. His sister Soorpanakha less grateful was not invited kusuma upon him.

King Ayodhya and the daughter of Janaka of Mithila are your Fate. The astrologers interpre- ted it that she would give birth to a son whose fame would . who signal attacked service rendered him the king two boons. Havana was dumb-founded at this unexpected turn Narada had taken him all too seriously and had spoken out a very unpleasant prophesy. he would cheat Destiny and give the he to Narada he would make it utterly impossible for Dasaratha and Janaka to have any children at all he would lay them out as corpses and there was an end of it. But. ratha reigned at Mithila of happily. . Vathayapritha. Kuberadaththa Kumku. they had word of it before hand and were far away by the time their enemy was upon their city. wantonly. an enemy Kaikeyee and Suprabha. AdithyaMandhatha. Sarabha.99 Satharatha. Ravimanyu. left Meanwhile. Dasaratha travelled the Magadha country with a long way and his wives AparaIn a battle with Sumithra. of Havana upon the life-like images that the kings had on their throne and reported to his brother that the objects of his apprehension were no more. Raghuraya and Anaranya. The son of Dasaratha. So. the sun and the moon. Hiranyakasipu. "Now. tell me when I am to die and by whom ?" Ayodhya long and was his To whom Narada of " replied. His son Dasa- Simhadasava. Vasanthalethaka. Dwiratha. shana to make away with them but. he sent his brother Vibhee. Vandhara." of the conversation. Vibheeshana executed the orders . King Janaka of faithful and friend. Prathimanya Prathibandhu. Dasaratha had four sons. his eldest wife. Vetrasena. ratha. saw in her dreams a an elephant. settled in jitha. sthala. Aparajitha. which she occasion to ask. Kaikeyee return got from reserved for some future him and in One night lion. . and asked him in a spirit of banter. Indudhara. contemporary One day Havana met Narada. PunjaKakuthstha.

as beautiful as the Shortly after. an elephant. VajravarShould Rama succeed in so much as bending it. the sun. Narada to abduct Seetha.100 spread over the whole world. Narada came of to hear re- extraordinary beauty paired to the house of Janaka to have a sight of her. overshadowed by Mahavishnu. They called him Narayana and also Lakshmana. Seetha was horribly frightened monstrous ugliness and would not come forth. to her. About the same time. worth." there. tha. Seetha shall be his. blue in hue. Rama was another of his names. I will merit and valour must have a voice in send you a famous bow. They named him Padma. of obtained permission to go instead of his father This induced Janaka to give him his daughter Seetha to wife. Now. a son was born Goddess Lakshmi who dwells in Brahmaloka. induced King Bhamandala father Chandragathi stopped Stung to the quick. A son was born to her. attached Janaka. who requested his friend to assist him. at his the the princess and But. . He was an incarnation of one of the gods. pure it luck too . the fire. the ocean God and Lakshmi. Kaikeyee.' Janaka acceeded to the proposal and and invited Rama to fulfil the conditions. and Suprabha was the mother of Sathrughna. The third wife. begat Bharatha. Later on. the moon. But. the capital of Barbaradesa. from the lotus on which Lakshmi sits. It was but play for the hero . What a claimed Janaka have already promised her hand to Rama. Janaka married Vaidehi and had a daughter. his it and sent word " to Janaka to pity!" ex- give Seetha in marriage " I to his son. Atharangama. The second wife likewise dreamt of a lion. the Mlechcha king over Mayuramala. Rama and defeated the enemy. Seetha by name. and Seetha became his wife. north of mount Kailas. of Chandragathi would not drop the matter 'Such a gem of a woman shall never be the prize But.

The old monarch had. the son of such a noble father. Bharatha went on his knees to Rama and besought him to remain at Ayodhya and accept the throne as his lawful right. his lost kingdom of Ayodhya." Dasaratha. Rama called unto him a hunter that " Lord " said stood by. took an example from his father and was bent upon going away from the kingdom. But. should be kept in full. through the grace of Jineswara. Dasaratha was enabled to regain. whose knew no deceit. and asked him the reason of it man "this is or this was the famous town of the a petty ruler. Thereafter. of Jineswara. But. and far. without a moment's hesitation. tarnish by his weakness for power the bright fame of his ancestors that shone far far into the illimitable past ? His father's pro- mise. of which the price was his life. sacrificed his life and every Rama thing that it could offer him on the altar of Truth and Duty. governed here with and He was a devout follower great justice. came upon Chittrakoota and a town where they 1 found no living soul. Vajrakarm. he cut his image on his signet and vpwed Dasanga. "With the greatest pleasure" replied Dasaratha "Then. bowed his head in sorrow and consented to condemn to long exile the darling of his heart. and Lakshmana travelled long Seetha Rama." said fulfil his Kaikayee place heart send away Kama to the distant forests and my son Bharatha on the throne. the snows of age chilled his heart and he resolved to install Rama in his place. whose lips were never soiled by an untruth. many days' They passed by mount journey from it. maidens of the Vidyadhara of and Bharatha married the daughter Janaka's brother.101 Lakshmana married eighteen race . Would he. and at last entered the dense forests of Panyathra. It was then that Kaikayee came forward and requested him to " promise unto her. fame .

"doubtless my life . One day. Rama reached the town of Vijayapura and was sauntering through the lovely gardens on he saw a beautiful girl about the outskirts. having saved . to the state you now see it. and she burst into a flood of tears. could you ever think of going into Maker unbid and before your time ceeded in thwarting her '' My " good 1 sister ! How your the presence '" of Lord " replied the maiden. who had made the tree his home. " it in. when He ran to her and sucto put an end to her life in prison purpose. a hunter-king. you would have been the first to kill me out of sheer pity". hunger and fatigue. a beautiful town arose on the spot. in you rejoice and regard it as a great benefit done to me but. pained to hear He directed Rama was extremely Lakshmana to punish wanton injustice and brought about a This better understanding between him and Vajrakarni. came down and offered reverent worship to Rama and through his magic. Thereafter. his lord reached god and master. A large banyan offered them a welcome refuge under its pillared shade A Yaksha.. This the ears of Simhadasa. in accents of bitter despair. where the exiles lived for a time. Rama sent Lakshmana to and free Valakhilya from bondage Kaka slay Another day. They consoled wandering and came to know that her father king Valakhilya was defeated and kept by Kaka. if you knew what misery I was trying to escape from. they travelled far and suffered much from heat. who came down upon him with a large army. Simhadasa for his enabled the latter to devote himself heart and soul to the worship of Lord Jina. drove him and his subjects from the town and reduced it that he would or man.102 never bow his head to any other. they dived deeper and deeper her into the dark woods and one day came upon about in a lovely princess man's attire.

to see her came back to take her to Ayodhya. happy which you never knew me to break. the son of Khara and Soorpanakha. if that were in his power. is ''He who stands by your side. So. who took birth there as a bird to expiate his Rama took pity on the poor creature and transformed sins. . would it give me infinite pleasure to see you take this worthy maiden to wife. to On their way. Sambooka. Now. a sacred bird. Another lime. . the king. " Rama turned dear." me what your heart yearns after and you shall have Then she took heart Mine life is and said." Lakshmana. Dandakaranya. Better dark death than a hell. a that your promise she laughed to out of very Lakshmana and is endowed My you lady mind and body she with no ordinary attractions of has set her heart upon you and I have passed my word said. see beautifully fulfilled?" you and see not of dire misery. they stayed at a town named Kshemanjali. where Lakshmana married princess Jithapadma. they came know that Athiveerya. of Nandavartha. Two Brahmanas that lived in the mountain valleys sought his feet and were raised by him Then. him into Jatayus. that this . so named after Danda. raised the poor girl from the depths of hopeless despondency to the highest pinnacle of joy and She was to remain with her parents until they delight.103 blamed himselt " for resolved to lighten having caused her useless grief and her load of sorrow. to whom his brother's word was law. was undergoing severe austerities in a bamboo grove on the banks of . they came to the to the highest heavens. living is the cause of my woe. king was working up a conspiracy against his and Rama punished him master and over-lord Bharatha as he deserved. my child ! Tell it. . your brother Lakshall mana. bitterness. Grieve not. a hopeless love unreturned.

104 the Krounchapa. She came more than once on that errand. came upon them with a large army. where he placed her in the Asoka to his assistance grove under the guard of fierce-visagecl Rakshasis. Ravana turned a deaf ear to all remonstrances and well-meant advice. The famous sword Chandrahasa. of magical Lakshmana decided ppwers. she set her husband upon Rama and Lakshmana. blind with jealous rage. But. But. his wild ways. He tried he threatened her with horriall his arts of persuasion . to plead for him with woman's logic. marry her avvay from him as a loathsome thing. Then. he offered her his wife all his untold Mandodan was induced wealth and unbounded power. behind the hermitage voice of of Lakshmana to Rama. and his unbounded wickedness. and slew to get. who she swore modesty to beseech him to her. Vibheeshana tried his utmost to save her from his persecutions. whereupon. his barbarous a splendour. She moment in sending Rama Finding her alone and unprotected. the Rakshasa king pounced upon her and earned her to his island home in Lanka. Seetha grew more and more bitter towards Ravana and openly scoffed at him. Seetha at in once concluded that Lakshmana was lost deadly peril. Lakshmana asked Rama to take care of Seetha while he went forth to fight the Rakshasa hosts. was what he wanted to get. . Ravana took the opportunity to do He concealed himself his sister Soorpanakha a favour. Rama's divine beauty enslaved her heart and she overcame a woman's sense of But. that his success would considerably endanger the safety of the world. it him with the very sword he was trying Soorpanakha was inexpressibly pained to hear of and complained to Rama in no mild terms. ble tortures and a lingering death too painful to conceive. Khara. and called upon him in the save him from death at the hands ol not a his enemies. Rama spurned had offered her deadly insult.

as Fate would have it. Sugreeva took refuge with Kama laid before and him his tale of wrong and suffering. north and south. intending to have a good safety of . beteen his and counterfeit. Thara by name. they search as they would. of Seetha and west to bring him news but all in vain. . of matchless beauty and intelligence. nor give them the least news to about her. sent messengers east and cunning. king of the Vanaradweepa. But. slew out of hand the pretender and restored Sugreeva to his kingdom and to his king vowed nevei to discovered the whereabouts of Seetha. He. Sahajathi fell in love with her and taking advantage of the absence oi her husband. Hanumantha was entrusted with Rama's signet to watch over Seetha in her hour of peril and the ring was to be his . Rama and Lakshmana of endured tors Dooshana Lakshmana freed him for and gave him the kingdom of Pathala Lanka of the from Khara and ever from his tormento rule. they could anybody thereabouts Lakshmana. assumed his shape and proceeded to her apartments. found their home desolate came not upon Seetha. word to their friend was kept in durance vile at credentials. The grateful rest. Seetha for her wild fears for the But.105 Rama and Lakshmana annihilated Khara and and returned laugh at his forces to their hermitage. Sugreeva. Rama divined the truth in a moment. wife. Lanka by the infamous Ravana. the cruel King Viratha complained treatment he had . in which the latter fight Sugreerva had the best of it. had a wife. until he had Viratha and Bhamandala that the wife of his heart sent Rama. out faithful great gratitude of his heart. Sugreeva sent his monkey hosts to Lankadweepa to search it through and through. the real Sugreeva came upon the scene There was a terrible all too unexpectedly.

her heart sore with grief and her thoughts full Rama. She kissed over and over the priceless ring that was to her an embodiment of her beloved. magical taken before roundThere he brake them as so many wisps of straw countless his his evil hfe and iniquities ly rated Ravana for and in the end. He must meet the be done. destroyed many of the fortifications of the town and was back to the mainland. large section of the royal army and finished up with sending Aksha. Hanuman would not go back without giving Ravana some tangible proof of his having been at Lanka. and have his had gone before him. leaving Ravana . He sprang away over the heads of those that stood around him. Joy illumined the heart of the poor forlorn wife. something remained to woman-stealer face to face. seated under an in close confinement. . proud monarch. the favourite son of Ravana and a very famous general. blessed Hanumantha her as her deliverer . produced the signet and acquainted her with the whereabouts of Rama and what he passed through on her account. he allowed himself serpent-bonds. and was to be bound by the the king. it out with him after own way. So. Now. Hanumantha declared himself unto her as a trusted mes- senger from her lord. from gave taken a fate worse return than a thousand deaths and be him back in own crest-jewel to to Rama. with an oft-repeated prayer to come on the wings of speed to Lanka and free her from the clutches of the vile Rakshasa. The Asoka of tree. interVibheeshana and through his help. shattered to pieces the diadem of the . where Seetha was kept: She was there.log valiant Hanumantha crossed over to Lanka. to where his forefathers But. whom she expected every moment to come to her. managed to peneviewed trate into the garden Devaramana. something to remember him by he managed to destroy a .

Sugreeva. Lakshmana thought of his conveyance. the two Ravana sent forth armies during the closed in army and coming battle.107 and his laid Rakshasas utterly dazed with fear and confusion. Lakshmana. who had deep sleep. who rose as from all Lakshmana. Rama. At last they approached Lanka and beseiged it. Bhamandala and the monkey hosts marched upon Lanka in hot haste. and made short work of the among Rama caused a dreadful carnage serpents. of her fortitude. Suvela and Hamsadhara met with no better fate when they tried to oppose their march. deadly bind the his magical serpent-we. of her brave defiance of Ravana and hts might. went over to Rama with his promised signal assistance Then. light. Bhamandala divined his was off to mount Drona. and victory was almost within his reach. and produced Seetha's crest-jewel to confirm his statements. and Lakshmana was the most powerful of his hurled upon him a magical weapon. But. Ravana came upon the battlefield. for the moment been waiting along a . from purpose and Where he brought the Waters of Life. Meanwhile. Vibheeshana after one more hopeless attempt to turn Ravana's feet from the path of wickedness. recognising that foes. lay as one dead. Then. But. barred their way. whom Nala and Neela put to rout. two friends of Ravana. Sakthi by name. Rama dashed it in a flash. Samudra and Sethu.ipons to monkey host. the bird Garuda. and render Rama utterly powerless. who speedily appeared upon the scene. the Rakshasa hosts. before He Rama a harrowing tale of Seetha's woe. Now. bound and . Hanumantha. he over his brother. he had reserved against his dread enemy Lakshthe convention that the Sakthi ought not to be fought against he quietly allowed himself to be that mana respected . of her oft-repeated prayer to be freed from that den of crime .

was to rule over the Vanaradweepa Hanumantha Sugreeva Viratha was rewarded for his faithheld sway at Sreepura Madhurapun . they travelled back to Ayodhya in the famous aerial car Pushpaka. his in return. whom he was. the throne of . . brother to Havana. was heartily ashamed of her meanness and followed her son to his calm retreat. " its lawful ruler.his eldest born. he himself was crowned king of it by noble benefactor. of declared. and severed the head of the Rakshasa king from his body. the true friend. but the of worldly life faithful Viceroy. Pathalalanka. no bounds. Thereafter. Rama was duly installed on Kaikeyee. Vibheeshana begged hard of Lakshmana to accept the sovereignty of the Lankahimself his Discus. Hanupura. Bharatha and Saththem some from the met way capital.were made rulers of other kingdoms. time for reflection and repentance. Kumbhakarna. Rama remembered those that had befriended him in his adversity and stood by him through peril and danger.108 that would end the life of Havana. and Indrajith. but. . and went back to their respec* pective kingdoms in great joy. Sixteen days they stayed at Lanka. there to he said and passed away into the silent hold communion with the Supreme. most hospitably whose joy and gratitude knew entertained by Vibheeshana. mentally called unto came. Hanuman was was placed fell in charge of Neela Vaithadya and Rathanapura to the Bhamandala. as he " He had had enough woods. It dweepa. lot of where . and a touchrughna ing sight so it was to see many to years of the brothers meet again after separation. danger and trouble. full Bharatha formally and with a heart made over the kingdom Rama. ful service with the vast dominions of born. Thus. They were loaded with honors and presents. who had ample Ayodhya He placed Sathrughna over gave the Rahshasadweepa to Vibheeshana.

a 1. by Kavi Raja. 3.109 ruled over Ayodhya long and well. 6. Prabhavathi. and Seetha. it But. Visalya. his and that wanderings is in the and ends with marriage to Seetha. Rama-vilasa: . : Raghava-vilasa by Visvanatha. It is written on the 7. Rathinibha and Sreedama were his queens. It and is confines his itself to the first part of forest Rama's adventures. it 4. by Ramacharana. The 2. A verse in it. well in It is so word- ed that may apply equally to the adventures of Rama 5. Lakshmana divested himself of all cares of state. It is Chainpn Ramayana : in five cantos by Bhoja a prose work interspersed with beautiful poetry. Rathnamahka. Vanamala. Jithapadma and Manorama and the two hundred and fifty children born unto them. and lived a peaceful life of domestic felicity in the company of his wives Kalyanamahka. Sethu-bandha A poem written in the Prakntha ' dialect by Pravarasena. or the Pandavas. Rupavathi. from chapter 128 of the Yuddhakanda found OTHER WORKS ON THE SUBJECT POEMS 1. the most curious thing about the is Rama represented as brother of is Seetha. Raghava-bhyudaya Raghava-pandavceya. model of the Geetha Govinda of Jayadeva. author of Sahithyadarpana. Dasaratha Jathaka. being fact an epitome the of the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha.34. Ramavilasa: by Hannatha. episode is Rama's laying bridge across the sea that separates Lanka from the mainland. It forms one of the Birth-stones of Lord Buddha written in Pali prose. Dandi central refers to it in his Kavyadarsa. Raja.

12. 6.It is said to been composed by Hanuman. Dootliangada'by Subhata. ' Ravavarjnnccya DRAMAS 1. 10. seven acts by Jayadeva. and Sanskrit literature. Long long after. Janakee-pannaya:by Ramabhadra Deekshitha. who wrote it on . 9. Ramayana-manjan -by Kshemendra. Rajasekhara. Ramachandra-chariihra-sara RaghunatJia-bhyudayci. o. 10. Janakee-charana-chamara:by Sreemvasacharya. dealing respectively with the incidents the Poorvakanda and the Uttarakanda of the Ramayana. have Hanuman-nataki or Malia-nataka. some portions covered and arranged by Damodara-misra. fourteen acts. Raghava-naishadliecva 11. in Abhirama-mani by Sundara- misra. 9. Anargha-raghava Prawnna-raghavci in . of Rama cast the reign of Bhoja Raja. 8. rocks. Here concludes Preface and Introduction given by Srinivasa Ayyengar . : by Agnivesa. 7. Maharcera-charithraand Uttara Rama-chanthrain by Bhavabhoothi. by Hara-daththa-soon. lest // Valmeeki sung his marvellous poem and should be thrown into the shade. by Bhatta Bheema. of them were It is in rein written some of the stanzas are veritable gems of 4. 2. seven acts by Muran. 12. the faithful devotee his stanzas into the sea.110 8. Later on. 11. Bala-ramayana'by Udaththa-rafthava. Uiimaththa-r(ighava-by Bhaskara kavi Chalitha-rauia. 5.

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