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A MANUAL OP INSTKUOXIOfJ
AET OE WOOD ENGRAVING.
DESCRIPTION OF THE NECESSARY TOOLS AND APPARATUS, AND CONCISE DIRECTIOIJS FOR THEIR USE; EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS USED, AND THE METHODS EM-
PLOYED FOR PRODUCING THE VARIOUS CLASSES OF WOOD ENGRAVINGS.
WITH ILtUSTR ATIONS BY THE AUTHOR.
Cornell University Library
original of this
the Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright
the United States on the use of the
A MANUAL OF INSTRUCTION
AET OP WOOD ENGEAVING.
DESCRIPTION OF THE NECESSARY TOOLS AND APPARATUS, AND CONCISE DIRECTIONS FOR THEIR USE; EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS USED, AND THE METHODS EMPLOYED FOR PRODUCING THE VARIOUS CLASSES OF WQOD ENGRAVINGS.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR.
PUBLISHED. BY JOSEPH WATSON.
Peters & Son.Ap^'^y Entered. BOSTON: Electrotyped by 5 C. In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. . by JOSEPH WATSOK. AND 13 Washington Street. J. in the year 1867. according to Act of Congress.
It has aimed to give the necessary instruction in as concise and simple form as possible . line after line. PREFACE. by giving the necessary practice. Upon examination. and the author believes that any person of intelligence.. they arrest attention only the thoughts they con- vey are received few persons examining the manner of their execution. will be able to produce excellent wood cuts that is. common. there thing of the method of their pro- They have become a . although the pages of this little book are few in number. that and the hope expressed that woman will enter of labor upon which she has begun to explore the suburbs. by following the directions. patiently. Because it is a sedentary occupation. To supply this want. it is sent forth on its way. and only in a few instances are pictures made by any kind of machine. illustrations are few persons who understand any blessing so upon wood are numerous nowadays. It is often said that it is engraving just adapted to her. so that a novice might learn to engrave without an instructor. the instructions are comprehensive. this little manual has been prepared. And. are the grounds for the belief of the adaptability of Wood Engraving to woman's . like the types till they usually accompany. With the hope that the little book may incite attention and love for the art of Wood "Ungraving. that. or being aware that all the numerous lines that make up a picture have each been wrought carefully and separately.. that it may meet many to whom its teachings will be valuable. Only few books have been written upon the art of Wood Engraving. by the dexterous hand . and because woman needs new avenues of employment. not one was found that gave directions for the practice of the art. and these are chiefly relating to the history of the art. because it is light manual labor. largely upon this field is a fine employment for woman. Although duction.
tailoring. entering . ments. if pursued with a true love for art. then. which would be sufficient for grad- uation in millinery. and during the hours of interval she . A Nature's countless effects. if she studies. nor as many hours as men. she ought not to apply herself as many hours as she could give to other pursuits. J Another point requires consideration. It is adapted to woman . or other trades for or twelve month's tutilage. and observation of taxed. mantua-making. all other departments of art are alike ennobling." Let. and her fitness for its pursuit. whether executed by a man or woman. the profession is not become overcrowded the prices as yet for the same quality of work being the same. if she perseveres. such as her usual avocations seldom require. All her powers become quickened and enlarged. The world has become by a few women having commenced the pur[Of course. but if she faints not. women. She must understand that it requires patient and persevering study and thought. " and let her own works praise her in the gates. Men in good health can usually engrave eight or nine hours every day. In a pecuniary point of view. and a skilful engraver can' usually earn much more money than in most of the feminine employ. both for itself and its elevating influence upon the world.IV PREFACE. capacity. And she will meet with all the discouragements and difficulties that are incident to. but she cannot learn the art in a three. While she is resting from actual labor. Not these the true reasons why. six. every department of art . and experienced in. With the present physical power of woman. richer within suit of Wood a few years Engraving.should recreate as much as possible. womefl of ability and industry consider the propriety of upon the pursuit of the art of Wood Engraving. she may still make progress by examination of all fine works of art. without being severely woman ought not to engrave more than five or six hours. great is the reward to her soul.
art of engraving on wood is of very great antiqui- It was practised by the early Egyptians. the observer may re- by their being printed on the same page with type so printed. most comprehensive all sense. otOio CHAPTEE IiT its I. but in a crude and simple manner.WOOD ENGRAVING. cut. but ing. The ty. fifteenth century. lithographs. lief. In the. or Any type cut in wood. but also to the production of the explanatory text on the 1* 5 same . not to the representation of figures only. whereas plates and lithographs cannot be occupy separate sheets. and by Euwas ropeans from a date prior to the Christian era. is usually limited to used for printcarving in re- and does not include raised figures. called a is wood steel engraving. those made from and copper are and those from stone. from which is may be made made from called printed impressions. cognize wood-cuts produced. it applied. applied to prints wood while plates . but . or wood- The term wood-cut . the term " wood en- graving " implies ornamental cutting or engraving on such as is wood. Without any different further knowledge of the manner in which these ai-e kinds of engravings.
he evinced a love of art . strange as it wood engraving attained a high may appear. who contributed more than any previous individIt has ual to the progress of the art. He improved every opportunity. he . little work called " The These illustrations were made by Beillustrations Anderson commenced making these but. the he was familiar with manner of producing them was suggested perseverance. to entire pages of text . His first attempts were upon copper cents. degree of excellence. Within a century after. when about half completed. the latter part of the eighteenth century. In the latter part of the fifteenth century arose Albert Durer. he into America by Dr. thus foreshadtypes. yet. rolled into plates." wick. within In the seventeenth century declined to a very low ebb. and at the age of seventeen was employed by William Durell. and later still block. Alexander called the inventor of the Anderson. upon type metal . and at the age of twelve he commenced engraving. and watching the silversmiths at their work.6 WOOD ENGRAVING. may be art in this country. by his own ingenuity and From his earliest made years. been generally be- lieved that he himself engraved upon wood . to copy the illustrations of a popular Looking-glass. although illustrations. far nearer perfection than it The art was introduced Indeed. for. He learned the method of using the gravers by looking in at the win- dows. in owing the printing with which these early at- tempts soon after culminated. carried it Thomas Bewick had ever been. though by some it is questioned whether he did more than furnish designs. a bookseller.
habits. of himself. tions life. fectedly modest and He will not allow that h. genial He is very regular and tempera. he has maintained the same earnestness and enthusiasm for the art as when he comhave a love menced. and graduated. at the age of twen- ty-one.WOOD ENGRAVING.te in his and interesting in conversation. New York. learned that the originals were engraved on wood. near Beekman's April 21. he engraved last year. 7 lie immediately procured some wood. he has engraved exclusively on wood. his illustraall. he used copper and Till wood as occa- sion required . He studied He medicine. have embellished works which are familiar to his Throughout long career. but.e he has has any peculiar talent or excellence. and unafretiring. that he decided to devote himself to the pur- suit of engraving. practised medicine for a short time. only that been industrious. which It He we still plies the graver. and not use the art merely as a means for obtaining money. and his love of art was so irrepressible. 1775. who has kindly permitted . He believes that an engraver should of engraving.did not prove a congenial profession . He has engraved during his long and busy the last century. and is consequently now (1866) in his ninetieth year. Anderson was born in Slip. was by urgent solicitation that he consented to do for the private use of a fi-iend. from the medical department of Columbia College. and found that it was much more pleasant to engrave than type metal. but it. the year 1820. since then. Dr. The portrait this here present. many thousands of subjects From the latter part of down to the present time.
Contemporary with Dr. Adams and H. They both possessed much deli- cacy and finish in their rendering of their subjects. for a number of years these three -were accorded equal fame as the best engravers in America. The author hopes all that its presence here may prove an incentive to to pursue the art in the spirit and with the earnestness displayed by the father of American wood engraving. its use in this work. is indebted to it A. USText to I. They studied the works of Dr. Adams is living still. and of Bewick. Dr. Anderson. Adams and Mr. Mr. but he laid aside his graver some . who contributed to carry to a high degree of perfection.WOOD ENGRAVING. Hall were also self-taught men. other. Hall. Anderson. American art J. his exemplar. Anderson and each Mr.
P. fen-ing jjulse process of trans- now in use was invented by From the im- given by these three pioneers. and Mr. As an so auxiliary to science. the art has advanced country.woojD engraving. Sowerby. H. in tools and appai-atus used in engraving. Hall made many improvements The liim. no sister art has achieved much. Who that has been delighted with Bewick's animals and birds. keeping iDace' with the art in rapidly in this Europe. 9 Mr. Gosse. and suph later works as those of Thomas Rliymer Jones. does not bless the unknown originator of an art which brings to bur humblest firesides these exquisite tions of every illustra- imaginary and actual subject? . years ago.
if many impressions are taken from the cut. There be no crumbling out of little nor tearing of the fect. and from will spots. That which free is of a delicate yellow color. and print from such duplicate. several blocks are joined together by the dealers. In such cases. so that. As quality varies much. made on the end of the In most cities. side is planed quite smooth for the engraving. there are dealers nish whose business .CHAPTER Foe its all fine II. usual to duplicate the en- graving by the stereotype or the electrotype process. it is to prepare and fursell it in wood to engravers and they usually blocks as thick as the height of printers' type. line cut will be per- The wood must be sawed cut can be across the grain. it is for this and other reasons. it As the box-tree seldom attains great is frequently happens that the diameter not great enough to furnish a block of sufiicient dimensions for the cut required. so that the fibre. so that the joint is not detected. some best skill is is necessary to a good selection. are apt to spread apart during the process of printing. wood but every . This wood cuts smoothly and particles. Turkey boxwood is used. evenly. engravings. that the engraving may One be printed at the same time with the reading-matter. how- ever. size. 10 . Such joinings. clear.
and protecting the shrunken or concave. and sometimes even pine. subject to be engraved is The is placed on wood just as the engi-aver to cut it. : well seasoned. Second. &c. other kinds of wood are employed. so that the picture negative.. Photography has been lately employed. A photograph on wood cut in the same man- ner as a drawing on wood. being sure that the plane side is level and smooth. pear. 11 For coarse engravings. times by furnishing a . it Under will often warp slightly this may in some cases be remedied by exposing the swollen or convex side to the air. : — transfers Making from prints. much water. this process requires To put a picture on wood by dampen the assistance of a photographer. which is would cause it to warp and it. rinse off the block. print. and it ready Care must be taken not to allow the block to absorb split. coarse labels. handbills. mahogany. Use water the is enough to keep the surface scratches are for use. Drawing on and. Maple. are brought into requisition for posters. All -wood for engi-aving must be the most favorable circumstances. prepare a block for a transfer or a drawing. To it. "When all little rubbed out. free. WOOD ENGRAVING. If the block to have a drawing made upon the . or directly printed on a photographed on the wood in the is camera. There are now three methods employed First. which may is be traced from is stead of a sketch and sometimes the block prepared it witla with chemicals. apple. it and rub lightly with a piece of pumice-stone. wood with pencil and India ink — — somein- Third.
softened. Allow it to remain till the ink is softened. more the ink is time will be required. as variafions it. It is then distributed evenly over the surface by light and dexterous touches with the fingers. and it js The block should be well to make it an and warp its invariable rule to place the block in this position. Many engravers whiten a block for a transfer the same fers as for a drawing. and obscure the fluid is lines of the Transferring made by adding till to the highest proof alcohol is caustic potash a saturated solution obtained. the still picture into.. and adhere to the block.man- ner of doing this to take a white enamelled card. the engraving to be transferred on a glass or earthen plate pour a so that sufficient it quantity of the fluid over the engraving. carefully rinse When the sufficiently off the fluid by dipping block. and rub the surface of the block. Keep this in a glass bottle with a glass stopple. «f the atmosphere suffice to shrink.. may be thoroughly wet. The author is prefers making trans- without. and lithograjths. jDlates. water. engraving. 12 surface WOOD ENGRAVING. The is jDrocess is as follows : The block prepared as described above with the pumice-stone and water. Transfers may Lay be made from wood-cuts. If the print is very pale or old. for the white agt to loosen from the block. which will be not or more than a minute two generally. and pass them through a . placed on its edge to dry . swell. on the print.. The best . and *bis position exposes the greater part of of making transfers surface equally. is whitened while is it is yet damp. the dampness of which will cause the enamel to come off the card. Place prepared damp (not wet).
With a soft lead-pencil. as part of the regular instruction in engraving for. it. Drawing should be pursued . to be able to put a It is an advantage for the engraver drawing on wood. may be Place the tracing face downward on Mucilage the whitened block. Draughtsmen generally keep the paper. When they and are all visible on the block. Cover the sketch with tracing paper. al- though the tools and manipulation will differ. kept with a sharp clean. trace carefully all the point that the line outlines. with a very hard all fine quality of lead pencil go over at the outlines. To put a drawing on wood. The chalk is scraped on One side only is thus preplaced with the red side tracing. may be used purpose. the engraver better from understand how to cut a drawing much having a knowledge of drawing. for there are many times when the absence or engagements of the draughtsit man may make necessary. drawing should be considered an indispensable part of the education of every jserson. retrace the outlines. for this and fasten it securely. With a metal or ivory point. or a very hard pencil. fer 13 It requires much more is pressure for making a trans- than for printing. and fasten so that shall not slip. a sketch is first made on which it paper. press. between and the . and rubbed over pared. or yellow beeswax. hand a piece of tracing paper prepared with red chalk. not so sharp that it will cut the paper.WOOD ENGRAVING. it is vei-y thin and transparent. This prepared paper it is toward the block. generally pursued separately from Drawing on wood engraving on wood. Indeed.
go over all the outlines with -a fine.14 WOOD ENGRAVING. red instead of black. hard pencil. it is for the traced lines are not always true lines. on the block. no such doubt occurs. wash over the required por- Repeat the washes till the desired effects are pro- duced. is mine the true from the in red. and necessary for the draughtsman to place the correct line by the side of the traced one. made pale. Pencil such portions as are needed. . When the tracing completed. with or without the red paper. With India tions. and put in whatever nines of suggestion to the engraver that are desirable. This an ad- vantage . it is frequently difficult for the engraver to deterfalse line. The and is will be found. ink. lines are retraced as described above. When they If the tracing is are both in jjencil.
CHAPTER The sists III. apparatus necessary for engraving on wood con- of a set of engraving tools.ilJ„l!IJ.l.i>iiiii. a bottle of sweet side. a magnifying glass. an ivoryis . a sand-bag cushion and stand.'iyi I*- % m ii". . a soft tooth-brush.j|lilll'. soma bees- '' oil.\ ^^* " '"""^ss^fiiipf|§^ with one plane ' A piece of pumice-stone wax. and an ink slab and dabber. an oilstone and small leather hone. and stand for holding the glass.iill|[||.
" A " shows the side The tint-tools should be straight upon the bot- tom. When thicker at the back. box of ink prepared for making proofs. liable to and hang in the wood . Of the engraving tools. First. Of these from seven to twelve are required. The sides should slant to the top or back. A section of them will appear like this. tools. cut exhibits 12 3 4 UHAA A A A A the graduation from one to eleven. If the no thicker at the top or back than at the bottom. A section appears thus : — .16 paper-knife. of a tool. will will stick. be break down in printing. graduated from a very fine tool — so fine that the cut it makes will scarcely line be visible when printed — to one which will cut out a The about one-twentieth of an inch wide. and the lines cut . tint- used chiefly in cutting tints : hence their name. the lines cut will have more base. consequently more strength. are (secondarily essential. which tool is it may be round or square. and India proof-paper. a WOOD ENGRAVING. there are four sorts. and the edges formed by the bottom and sides should be slightly rounded if sharply : the tool will cut more smoothly than angular at the edges.
17 class of tools are the gouges. and that the largest gouge should be large enough to dig out the largest spaces required. This form enables the engriaver to vary the width of the lines cut. considerably larger than No. tint-tools.WOOD ENGRAVING. The third class of tools are the gravers. chiefly The fourth class are the chisels. used cut around the edges of pictures. better for being The gouges are rounded upon the bottom. two or three only are necessary . Gouges of the but if the sizes 12 and 13 are usually suffi- engraver has it much work. and it X^is would be well that the smallest gouge should be next larger than the largest tint-tool. and Sorter on the sides than tint-tools. from two to four be enough. cient. or lozenge-tools. The second tools. or digging-out Of these. will be well to add another gouge. being nearly square or lozenge in shape. requiring large spaces to be be taken out. from a very fine line to will one quite coarse. Of to the gravers. and lower the 2» wood in such . in They differ from the being much thicker at the ABC A A A back than on the bottom. 13.
and the shaving tool. it is nearly Straight.r : 18 portions as WOOD ENGBAVING. From twelve to twenty tools will form a set sufficient I — II for all ordinary purposes of engraving. or lozenge-tools. .&o. : The handles use. lits But. 2. the point being inclined slightly downward. 6. C. B. the gouges are also numbered the smallest tint- gouge being the next number higher than the largest tool. : iThe face of a tool should beliept rather long than short '. the tool will rather plough the way through wood than cut it . so that . the tools. 3. II. chisels may be marked I. will aliso turn oyer at the point of the and prevent . however. For convenience. are marked A. The The gravers. 5. One or two are sufficient. and others delight themselves with the number and variety of their tools. of the tools are usually of wood . if too obtuse. for then the point will break off in the wood. . &c.Qt':tbo''long. may be necessary. Some engravers pride themselves upon doing the greatest variety of work with the smallest number of tools.by the cut is the or cork the shape indicated for most convenient The tool -should be inserted into the handle. 4. it is usual to The : series of tint-tools are mark the handles of all numbered 1.n.
so that too sharpening tools. final polish will be given by the use of a leather hone or strap. passing . it. must be moved. Put a flat few drops upon the stone. For keeping them is sufficient. shai-p while engraving. it.WOOD ENGRAVING. upon the will stone. A small grindstone will aid in grinding to a proper angle the face of the tool when too obtuse. many little facets. A golden rule for the engraver to observe faced. much time need not be consumed oil is Sweet the best for use. tool flat-wiseit upon re- As soon as changes to a straw color. 19 "A " repre- sents a tool too obtuse. the tool will cut cleanly and smoothly. and keenly sharp. which If it be not held steadily. oil. and the shaving will not obstruct the sight of the engraver. Place the face of the tool steadily while rubbing is right. which A is. a good oil-stone It should be fine it enough to make the tool and should "take hold" in smooth while sharpens. When of this angle. always to keep the tools well If the tools are found too brittle. the engraver fi-om seeing the lines being cut. or permitted to cool If it is heated beyond the straw color. there will be are very objectionable. enough. red hot. "B" shows the proper angle of the face. or other piece of iron. and either dipped in sweet gradually. and hold it It then have one smooth face. the defect may be remedied by heating and laying tlie it a poker.
of such height. body The magnifying There is glass should be of. but severely. be filled so full that the block will not sink into The cushion may be placed upon a table . and others use right and will soon find left alternately. For an ink-slab. or round bag of leather filled with sand. Every one which is most con- venient. or a thick is plate of glass.moderate power* much work fine that can be done without a glass. taxes the eyes too and a quarter. is necessary to have a cushion. left. so that the glass may be adjusted at whatever dis- tance from the engraving the focus of the glass quire. and It will bend. the will be perfectly erect. . it will into the purple tinge. the best for use. A glass an inch eter. on which to place the block during the It should it. and is detrimental to the quality of the engraving. with a horizontal glass. a piece of lithographic stone. The arm should be movable on the up- right. and a half in diam- the most suitable The frame may be of wood. or an inch size. upon a block of wood. —a turned truncated cone of wood. arm for holding the or metal. to do too work without.20 WOOD ENGRAVING. process of engraving. may re- Some us"e engravers use the right eye. This stands firmly. This should be placed upon a firm table or desk. that. instead of breaking. or directly but en- gravers generally use a stand made for the purpose. and holds the cushion well. An upright stand. with the top dished out slightly. is shell. is essential. others the some both eyes. have been heated too much. whether the engraver sits or stands.
and also preserve the eyesight for future use. must be soft. tie it up in a circular piece of strong. By carefully attending to the light. the en- graver will be able to work with present pleasure. make into a flat ball. so as not to injure the lines of the engraving. A north light is the best by which much nor too graver sits little to engrave . and the lower part so as to protect the eyes from the light below. Dr. take about a double handful of is wool (cotton not elastic enough). To make the loose 21 dabber. young engravers to be Sometimes it is well to wear a shade over the . — the upper part of the window so that not too much light wUl enter . The window at which the enfall should be so shaded that the light will on the block. it is better to tie it up the wool silk. on the face of the ball while beating the it Wind is the surplus silk or skin. by whatever lightthe engraver works. fine it or chamois skin. Anderson careful of their specially enjoins all eyes. that there are and then cover with the Be sure no wrinkles. but not so high as to throw a shade upon the block. but. If silk used. eyes. and silk. in a stout piece of cotton. and not on the eyes of the engraver. there must not be too light.WOOD ENGRAVING. and tie it so tightly that the silk or skin will not wrinkle ink. so that will make a handle for the dabber. but do not make the face of : the ball too hard it should be slightly elastic. A soft tooth-brush is used to brush away the small It chips cut out by the gravers.
third. with the left hand. art. it is just as well to all make the attention without the glass. is a successful jjursuit of wood required begin- patience.ate upon the handling of the tool and block. bold it firmly to prevent its slipping. and a love of the The may or may not use the magnifying glass during the lessons. Place a block on the cushion. .CHAPTER Fob ner first IV. perseverance. and. Hold the handle of the tool with the second. but. engraving. as some little time is required to gain first trials the use of the tools. but bo that it may be readily moved and turned as required while engraving. and concentr. and fouith fingers. but not rigidly. and the palm of the right hand grasping 22 firmly.
usual to draw lightly. commence near thQ upper edge. the tool. with a pencil. across the block. as shown by this cut. the is thumb upon the surface of the block. and not too deeply. as all shown in the preceding illustration. using the forefinger to guide the tool. parallel lines. WOOD ENGRAVING. and adjusting the block as described.. first trial. and For the first lessons in engraving. and cut slowly. and the forefinger always guides. is the rest against which the tool moves. choose a small piece of Select a box-wood : an inch or so square will answer. a It is line. rests In large cuts. and just on the right side guide the tool with the forefinger. as straight as possible. the 23 In cutting all small end of the thumb is is placed against the side of the block. series of cuts of tints For the first trial. pictures. tool of medium size for the Holding the ' tool. a are the best.. At no time should the tool be pinched between the : thumb and forefinger the thumb never holds. to .
or: downwards. a fair line will have been Commence .. or tone. and. endeavoring to leave the line as its wide throughout lines that are entire length as at the beginning. and. sue- But it is hardly probable that the be. wood throughaut the entire length of the Having determined the width of the lines of the tint. ginner will be thus fortunate still. when comwood mencing the second line. cutting into the the same depth as before. a greftj. depends upon the width of these lines. for tte would be well to cut in ly bfilow it. guide the tool slowly across the block. either If possible to cut the second line without: line swerving upwards. and the color. it serve as guide-lines for cutting. by proceeding slowly cut. which make it both black and white . making the it thinner. The quality of plain tint depends upon the evenness of the lines. place the tool at the required distance below the line cut. than at its commencement. tool. 24 . and preserving the same pressure of the cess is attained. and the lines cut out appear white. first line. apd carefully. WOOD EN&RA VING. The left are the lines that receive ink in printing. tjhe first pencil line or immediate^ Keep the same pressure of the tool into the line. making thicker.
slab. but patience and perseverance will be rewarded with success. for that will smear the ink into the lines. 25 every line carefully . Do not rub the dabber over the surface. its beau- unluckily. From the thick and lumpy lines. lines. be let alone . allowing the dabber to remain a few seconds on the block at each beat. do not continue in the wrong direction. probably. better to have stops in the tint than crooked It will take quite considerable it will be. and some sible. observing closely with the eye the Avidth of the lines left. and with ^h<3 fingers the depth of the lines cut. will have been cut too this piece It will not be posit to make of tint perfect. with beat it till it is very Then lightly beat the block. the character of th& hnes is shown very in' plainly. If.. Stop. with a tool several degrees finer than the one . Having cut the upon the fine. Some lines. some will seem to have lumps upon them thin. and proceed as carefully as though hundreds of dollars were depending upon ty and precision. the exact quality of the engraving exhibited. will be found thicker one portion than in another . and take the tool out. the lines get to running up or down. By" carefully inking a is- cut. but with care may be much improved. observing its distance from the nearest pencil guideline. place a small quantity of ink the> dibber. and. It is. and put it farther along in the wood. cut a line : Do not think about the time required to let each line for the time being be the most important thing in the world. and. time to get the use of the tools so that possible to cut an even tint. jBrst block. In this first lesson. commence again. WOOD ENGRAVING. The lines that are too thin must they cannot be mended.
and lay care- upon the block. and it is always better to stop. take off a slight shaving. rub gently over the paper. re-enter the and cut the space of wood line as it stopped. When line. the the tint will scarcely be disturbed by the meeting of the two series of lines . cut a piece of India proof paper. gin again. with a the remainder of the side of the stop of end of the lines. than to cut crooked And there will oflen be occasions when it will be ne- cessary to unite tints. little left almost through to the fine tool. cut with different-sized tools. stops occur. cut end of the Then. being wood through on each careful not to make the color of ends of the lines too fine. . lines are cut. With an ivoiy paper-knife. and belines. with the same tool with which the tint was cut. make Rub in the direction the delicate lines Light and must be rubbed more gently than heavy Do this in all cases if possible. ink the block again in the manner it described. and. turn the block downwards. pressing only sufficiently to the ink adhere to the paper. on the upper and now on the lower side. and so make the too thin. being careful not line to take off too much. in this same manner. After trimming the lines of the tint as much fully as is necessary. "When well done.26 WOOD ENGRAVING. now with which the tint was cut.
and cut some similar tint. with the same tool. and those that arc sharp. It is advised by the proofs of -work from the beginning. Also. the press 27 should be so adjusted that there will be less pressure upon them than upon the author to preserve heavy lines. and do not give tint are the practice till straight lines and an even produced. in printing. Proceed and be in earnest to make straight ijp lines.WOOD ENGRA7ING. lines. and. lesson. take a block somewhat larger than carefully. cut lines with surface. as they ress of the individual. . mark the prog- and they are always useful for ref- erence. This and the fol- lowing examples have been both cut with the same tool. For a second the first. The use of different-sized tools will give vari- ety in the tint-studies.
The produced by the difference in the width of the The next example is cut with a finer tool. protints. or face as it is technically called. ceed with graduated which are made by varying the . After success is attained in producing plain tints. difference in color is lines.28 WOOD ENGBA7ING. and has more surface. than in the pKBA^ieus examples.
facility is obtained in straight-line lines. however. 29 other. with more undulation of line. as in this example. " when . as in the following instance. that cut masses of tint with this line 3* . not desirable to the alternate for. it is It should be observed. proceed to the study of slightly waved Cut some lines which are waved. as in Cut some lines quite curved. and their distance from each tints.WOOD ENGRAVmO. This land of line will be found very useful in sky-tints. width of the After lines. Afterwards cut some this example.
to protect the picture from being rubbed .30 undulations are WOOD BNGRAVma. and endeavor to imitate till them. and con- tinue the studies of tint-cutting skilfully. take a small picture principally of tints. When is able to cut tints well. when printed like will appear as if intersected from top to bottom. much curved. which made In a drawing on wood. the lines to express the given effects are cut according to the judg- ment of the engraver. Before commencing to engrave either a drawing or a transfer. the tint." will " This effect or be observable. all the lines are wood just as they are to be cut. the pupil can cut tints Remember in that future success depends upon first the manner which these lessons are cut. and observe closely the tints. Hence transfers. wicker-work. the block must be covered with paper (envelope paper is best). both in lines cut by hand by ma- chine." Examine fine examples of wood engraving. transferred to the In a transfer. at this stage of the pupil's progress. with perpendicular stakes. are most serviceable for practice.
of all It refers firstly to the form or boundary objects in a picture. Make is a small opening in the paper. indicates the . and useful for practint remove the wood around the edges of the with a gouge. example First like this turret is simple. so that the ends of the lines will be lower than in the other portions. and blurred by the hands while being engraved. An tice. The term wood engraving it has two lines meanings. With the finest tint-tool. cut a thin shaving from the surface of the ends of the lines.WOOD ENGRAVING. With a chisel. lines Remove it as fast as may be necessary during the process of engraving. Let it be large enough so that the edges do not shades the being cut. where the engraving to be commenced. and. 31 A piece of yellow bees-wax will be found most useful in fastening the paper to the block. secondly. cut an outline between the sky-tint and outline in the turret.
. and the then cut. them from surrounding ohjects and tints. the outline tint cut carefully close to the black line. and remove. separatit ing from the sky-tint . This outline is generally so fine that it is not cut. and the tints cut with tools of diiFerent sizes. line cut around objects. lines. with a make the on the outline still wider. where the tints on the bricks are stopped by the boundary lines.32 delicate white WOOD ENGRATING. as in printing they will in the tool. Dex terously trim any lines which have been left too thick. Be careful that the tool does not rest bruising them down. which indicate the seams On is the light side. because all generally better to cut backgrounds before objects in the foreground. some of the bricks are lightly tinted. To cut the white blocks with a fine tool . this white outline is used on each side of the turret. The lines window The are nearly cut with the finest tint- arcs in the balustrade are outlined. stopin the ped by the brick-work. which separates In this example. it is The sky-tint is first cut after the outlining. it which without would appear to stick to each other. On : the tinted bricks. the wood within with a small gouge. ink the block. and compare the cut with the impression from which the transfer was made. When completed. The tints on the shaded side are cut in short lines. as before described. on thi3 light side. and on the upper and under sides of the arcs. and others are white. lines crossing. distinctly perceptible in the impressions from the but is necessary to give the requisite relief to the objects. seem to be broken all lines. cut an outline on each side of the black lines coarser tint-tool. between the sky and balustrade.
can always get the subject lighter. This example. a stonehenge. not to bruise the lines with the tool.WOOD ENGRAriNG. Commence . so care must be ob- served not to get the subject too light before a proof taken. It will This example of a be well to take lessons in cuts of this character. 33 The wood engrayer but cannot reproduce • the black which has been cut away. will bring into use the previous lessons. falcon is in outline. in cutting outline pictures. in connection with those that / com- bine tints with form. and introduce some variety. but be careful not to trim too much. Great care is necessary. is Pictures in outline are those in which the forms of the objects are given without shading.
It is always is an object placed If in this instance the stones were cut first. it would be almost impossible to cut the tint entirely to the black line without breaking through. and lower the edges. cut out the space of white in the centre. tint with cutting around. and lowering the edges of the on the outside .34 WOOI> ENGRAVING. . and outline the stones. best to cut the tints against which first.
"Clear blue sky represented by straight-line tint. some slightly. And here may be observed. "The choice of these judgment. ly in tint. that objects in the foreground exhibit most fully the characteristics of quality. and the relation they bear to each other. which are waved. the markings of . In this example. The stones are represented by broken tints : the series of lines are short. to display the mechanical of the engraver they ought to be the signs of an artistic meaning. the different tints in the . which also indicate the light edge of the clouds. tints depends upon can be laid taste and specific rules down to guide Lines are not to be introduced merely skill as such. lines jiart- and some are quite waved. it The ground is cut and partly with indications of grass. The lines are none of them perfectly straight. and be it judged of accordingly as they serve to express feeling with and correctness. either uniform or graduated. and others much waved. sky suggest different degrees of density of the clouds and they are separated from each other by white touches. those in the midin the dle distance less.lines." The engraver should remember that with lines must be produced given effects. This combination of suggests the roughness of stone.. have stops in them. So in this example. and those background the least. at the foreground. and are crossed by otTiei. The lines used must be those which will best suggest the forms and textures of the ob- jects represented. The sky all 35 in this cut is made of several tints. so no in their selection." : WOOD ENGRAVING. hence in clouds the is The lines undulations suggest motion: are usually waved.
it is a suitable example for a beginner. the mai-kings are lost in the tint. those in the background are in plainer tints. will observe distinctly the blades of grass immediately at the feet. By ferent degrees of pressure into the wood. The pupil will gravdifis observe that the line taken out varies in width. suggests the reality of nature . while those at a distance will appear merged into an indistinct : mass of even tint. The leaves are cut with a small gi-aver. from its shape. lines cut out. the in those that are near- markings are bold and decisive. in this The The grass example is cut with a lozenge-tool. for the student. and remove the wood as has previously been described. The work being simple. the engraver enabled to produce differences in the width of the hnes. also how the leaves and grass The narrow rim of tint on the stone may be cut with either a tint-tool orgraver. The letters must be . as the ground recedes This fi-om the front. This cut of " Finis " almost entirely cut with a graver. grass are strongly" indicated but. The pupil will observe the variation in the width of the are formed. standing on a lawn or meadow. around the masses of leaves. er. is adapted to cutting such lines. So with the stones in this example est the foreground.36 WOOD ENGRAVING. . and also to cut them with a freedom and delicacy that is is impossible with a tint-tool. Cut a broad outline outside.
are cut with The . and most of the tint-tools. and the shade on the shore. tints on the foliage. The blank spaces are removed with a gouge. Examples like the following will enable the pupil to bring into use the previous lessons. the water. are all cut with tint-tools of various sizes. mountains and rocks. In the first cut. In the second cut. the sky.WOOD ENGRAVING. 37 and the wood between them taken is away with eithier . whichever most convenient. the sky. carefully outlined. a graver or tint-tool. The foliage is cut with gravers. the buildings.
The skies and contrasted with the build- ings in the one example. will this trans- prove a truthful one. are done with gravers. lates The engraver takes meaning and trans- with lines the artist's into an engraving. The pupil will observe also the meanings of the lines effects. the lines have more strength than in those farther away. the lines are almost entirely cut with . The makes a drawing on wood.38 WOOD ENGRAVING. or a mere mechanical perform- ance. '4i^^- In this example. and some of the marking on the rocks. which are employed to produce given are cut with delicate lines. at a great distance. Distance is thus inti- On The the buildings. giving us a picture in the it. seem to be mated. draughtsman language. According to the lation ability of the engraver. more color and character than on those An artist engraving holds the same relation to a drawing that a translation does to a work in the original. and with the rocks in the other. in the portions that seem to be nearest. lines on the nearest mountains and rocks have in the background.
in the manner previously described. gravers. The wood removed around the outside. At this stage of the pu- progress. The foli- . and the edges of the sky and the foliage lowered.. The delicate foliage is cut with a medium-sized graver. 39 An outline is cut around the animal. The this on the animal are best cut with the graver.WOOD ENGRAVING. can be cut either with the 'graver or the pil's tint-tool. and also on the ground. The shade on the small tree. the lines are so chosen and disposed that they animal. lines it would be well to cut it with the tint-tool. In example. hairy The differences between qualities and textures are more is fully exhibited in this cut. and also indicate its show the form of the coverino.
in the background. A. — but with a gentle when compared with one delicate. For that they should be disposed so as to denote the pecuUar form of the objects they are intended to represent. the outline the same. E. instance. WOOD BNGRAYING. but mainly with With respect to the direction of lines. in an arm or tically. leathery hide of the hippopotamus. a — conveying the idea of either a hard cylindrical form. A well-chosen line makes a great difference in progerly representing an object.40 age of the trees. leg. C. less appro- though more In these five examples. priate. is partly cut with tint-tools. is or of curvaturfe suitable to the shape and degree of rotundity required. D. B. and the reedy grass. " When such curved lines are introduced to repre- . differing also from those which indicate the rough and wrinkled skin of the rhinoceros. rough hair of the wart-hog. it ought at all times to be borne in mind by the engraver. they ought not to run horizontally or verflat surface. This engraving gravers. and the width of the : lines as nearly alike as possible the differences in the di- rection of the lines produce the differences in effect ob- served. is indicated by dif- ferent lines from those of the sky or foliage or the water. The coarse. or from those which suggest the thick. are each indicated by lines of diiferent character.
as in the may be examples above. and thus represent a variety of light and shade. however. as in figure E.eans.WOOD ENGRAVING. will be avoided. without the necessity of introducing In cutting curved lines. but also produce color. as is shown in figure C. the tool be apt to cut through the black line already formed whereas. the lines should be cut as if intended to be continuous. other lines crossing them. CD more C should. by commencing at . siderable difficulty is If. 41 sent the rotundity of a limb. all risk of their disagreeing. expressive of its greatest prominence. and works towards B. as the lines approach observed each other in approximating curves. be lowered out E " This disposition of lines will not only express the form required. as is seen in figure D : by this m. in executing a series of such lines as are shown in this example. con- experienced by not commencing properly. the engraver will always . The part which is white in before the lines are cut. commences at A. with a break of white in the middle.
leaving good clear lines. which is represented by a series of equidistant lines. while is the inconvenience arising from slips avoided. When reversed. and consequently never touches the lines previously cut. and the lines are ragged. " This care ought always to be' observed when engraving properly. of the first line when properly commenced. and working towards A. "The similar rotundity of a column or object is represented by means of parallel lines. The effect of such lines will be ren- dered more evident by comparing the column with the base. that is. It is always much easier and better to cut curves with the arcs downward. a series of curved the lines. which are -comparatively open in the middle. where light are is required. is B.42 WOOD ENGRAVING. the tints are produced . since the tool can be guided easily. by holding the block work is executed with greater freedom and ease . and not the termination. it is As the drawing is the reverse of the im- necessary to observe that the motion of the left graver point is from right to on the blocks . it is up-hill work. the graver always outside of the curve." In almost all illustrations of ma- chinery and mechanical apparatus." To cut these lines in this masiner. but which closer engraved and thicker towards the sides. pression. the B forms the beginning. as. it is necessary to place the block up- side down. to express shade.
cutting these forms. except to indicate a strong shadow. in accordance which is not at with the ideas which such substances naturally excite. for if cross lines be introduced. more expression of character In the foreground. character are strongly defined in the and The masses are so disposed. with a few touches of white judiciously taken out. "Objects which appear to reflect brilliant flashes of light ought to be carefully dealt with." tions of foliage can best Most indica- be cut with a graver. are best represented by single lines . denoting somewhat the form of the leaves. tallic and all bright and smooth me- substances. grounds.WOOD ENGRAVING. the pupil will detect the means . masses of foliage are represented lines by the of which are somewhat curved. 43 hence ability to cut straight- will enable any one to excel in mechanical engraving. and cut in tint-tool series. " Clear. the indications of character are made angular or rounded. Here the may be used to advantage. middle distance. for in wood engravings such lights can only be efiectively represented by contrast with deep color. leaving plenty of black as a ground-work. we have a bit of woodland por- By examination. unruffled water. by the use of line tint straight lines . best represented by sin- gle lines running in the direction of the object. that the whole general eflect will give the im- pression of the kind of foliage delineated. is In the given. in general. trayed. it gives to all them the appearance of roughness. In the next example. In backtints. " Reflected lights are. The markings of light. The graver is best adapted to delicately so in the shadow.
and the whispers of its myriads of ever-moving Ileaves. — of Nature's countless tongues. suggest its employed to convey the idea of a coolness. It is the aim of all true Art .44 WOOD ENGBAYING. revealing her in- comprehensible harmonies. real forest.
In this example of portraiture^ there of tinting and cross-hatching.WOOD MNGRAYING. 45 to represent Nature so as to bring to the mind' of the observer all those emotions which the redlity would call into existence. the is a combination Cross-hatching signifies manner of producing effects by series of lines crossing .
it is it customary to prepare the boxwood tn sections.46 each other. but wood engravremove the ing. but. it is necessai-y to little white spaces between the lines. stippling. it requires great care to cut . In plates. in combination with tints and a kind of tints. In large cuts. when it is introduced. Flowers are usually engraved with delicate cuts. finely well. Cross-hatching es- pecially adapted to drapery.a study. It is also much employed in cutting fruits. cross-hatching desirable to Of course. was much emgenerally cut is ployed in representing in tints. throughout . for the in engraved across each other . "that what is worth doing worth doing well. required to be 4one in a given time. interstice . Sometimes a dot or short It is line is within this square or diamond. is of the maxim. Indeed. the portions of the picture ruled. the engraver should have constant appreciation at all. being a reverse process. Commence hold and turn the graver so that the space of clear left wood may be little cleanly cut out. In mechanical much of the plain lining is fre- quently done with a ruling machine. it is do it and the engraver should begrudge no pains to its acall quire facility in execution. this can be easily done. so that . lines are WOOD ENGRAVING. leaving the lines and continuous. cross-hatching flesh. hardly ne- cessary to state that the wood is cut away around them." At one time. This can generally in an angle of the little be cut best with a graver. which is now with white lines crossing. The machine is set so as to produce the required tints. which will produce masses of tints in an expeditious and satisfactory manner. and then the cuts completed by hand.
from which the printing This method is employed by most illustrated j^arpers that por- tray the incidents and events belonging to the time. The' sheet is quite thin. is removed from the mould a fac-simile of the engraving. a it cut that has twenty-four days' labor upon may all be done in one day. may be taken apart after the drawing is 47 and each section given to an engraver. stereotype made. mould is made in plaster from the cut : melted type-metal poured into this mould. tions are then re-united. For the stereotype. and. About twelve hours is after- usually. the whole being the height . making a copper duj)licate of the engraving. and' wards backed with type-metal. For instance. adjusted in contact with the mould and the action of the magnetic currents causes the copper to deposit upon the mould. The thickness of the sheet of copper depends upon the length of time that the mould remains in the solution subject to the action of the battery. The is different sec- and usually an electrotype or done. a : mould is made with a preparation of copper. and each part given to an engraver. if subdivided into twenty-four parts. by which means a single wood-engraving may be duplicated an indefinite will allow number of a is times. made npon it.WOOD ENGRAVING. For an of electrotype. and each duplicate many thousands of impressions to be taken. and then mounted upon wood (cherry or mahogany) . It march of may not be amiss to say a few words in relation to the stereotype and electrotype processes. wax and plumbago this mould is placed in a solution The wires from an electro-magnetic battery are . is sufficient. when cool.
Perfection may never be soiils attained in this life . simple. the reader is best able to judge.: 48 of type. infilled with the Divine Spirit. with what success. engravings. will -enable any one to achieve success. combined with a love of the art.. for to the : best engravers there are always higher mounts to ascend always within. eotype for fine. " Higher." present the cry. ' Copper also more durable than type-metal. the author would reiterate the statement." Every line made by the hand when a picture has been completed. an engraving with living lines. causes the work of its hand to go forth to other human its souls with unuttera- ble power to impress them with lessons of thought and feeling. different persons will be According to the aptness of the facility with which they will be enabled to execute in a good engravings longer or shorter time. and practical as possible . as mould can be made in wax than -in thus renderis ving the duplicate more perfect. In conclusion. An electrotype is considered better than a stera sharper and more delicate jplaster. The author has endeavored to make the directions for wood engraving as concise. and. unto each engraver. their higher. it is still Verily. But genius alone will not be sufficient for the attainment of excellence there must be also diligent application. traced upon the spirit. that practice and perseverance. one invisible to human eyes. has been wrought in a human soul. and many more impressions may be printed from an electrotype than from a stereotype. which. WOOD ENGRAVING. . and is i)recept upon precept. "line upon line.
anx .^^^^ A manual Cornell University Library of instruction in the art of wo 3 1924 031 253 549 olin.