We Will Learn Many New Terms in this Session

• • • • • • • Bow, stern, port, starboard, aft, fore Mast, boom, main, jib, centerboard, rudder, tiller Tack*, head, clew Luff*, leech, foot Halyard, sheet Upwind, downwind, reaching Tacking*

*Many sailing terms have multiple meanings. In this session, we learn two meanings for the term tack, and two meanings for the term luff

5

A Boat Has Four Sides and Two Relative Directions
Bow Fore

Port (Top View)

Starboard
Port and starboard denote the sides of the boat withthe bow forward. If looking at a boat coming towards you, the side that appears on your right is the other boat's port side.

Aft

Stern

6

The Capri 14.2 You’ll Be Sailing Has Two Sails, Mast, Boom, Centerboard, Rudder and Tiller
Mast
(vertical spar)

Main Boom
(horizontal spar)

Jib

We dont have Jib sails on our boats but it is a good thing to know about as we may get some in the future. Likewise goes for centerboards.

Tiller Rudder Centerboard

Aft

Fore

7

Sails Have Three Edges and Three Corners
Head

Leech

Luff

Jib* Clew Foot

The same goes for a main sail

*Similarly for the main sail

Tack

Aft

Fore

8

Halyards are Lines that Raise and Lower Sails, Sheets are Lines that Trim Sails In and Out
Halyard (attaches to top of mast) Head

Leech

Luff
We just have a single main "sheet" (rope) on the main sail, used for pulling the sail in (tightening up) or letting it out (easing the *Similarly do have a sheet). We for the main sail halyard for the main sail.

Port and Starboard Sheets (controlled by crew) Clew

Jib*

Foot

Tack

Aft

Fore

9

The Skipper Sits Aft, Crew Sits Fore, and Both Sit Opposite the Boom and Face Forward
Bow Fore
We want to sit as far to the stern as possible as this raises the bow up and prevents diving down and into/through the waves as much. With 1 or 2 sailors- sit as pictured. with 3 or 4 sailors- place 2 on the side facing the sail and the 1 or 2 others on the opposite side to balance out the weight.

Crew Skipper Aft

Wind

Stern

10

The Skipper Steers With the Tiller and Trims the Main Sheet, Crew Trims the Jib Sheet and Watches for Traffic
Bow Fore Jib Sheet Main Sheet
Wind

Aft Tiller
If you push the tiller one direction, the boat will turn the opposite. Therefore, if you want to turn to the left (or to port), you will pull the tiller towards yourself.

Stern

On our boats, the tiller controls both 11 rudders (the blades that go into the water and steer the boat)

There are Many Cues for the Direction and Strength of the Wind
Trees

Flags
Wind

Ripples and dark patches

Birds Sails

Traditionally, the wind in Dominica comes out of the North, or from the right when facing 12 the water at Coconuts. However, it is very shifty and can change back and forth at a split second and you must be ready for these rapid wind direction changes.

UCLA

C MA

We Can’t Sail Closer Than About 45° to the Wind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

13

We Will Learn To Sail Upwind, Sail a Reach, and Sail Downwind*
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

nd wi Up

*We Will Avoid Sailing Directly Downwind Until Later in the Course

Reach ing

nd wi wn Do

14

We Use Sheets to Trim the Sails All the Way In When Sailing Upwind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

nd wi Up

Remember- Sheet is the sailing term for the rope that controls the sail's movement towards and away the midline of the boat.

We Pull the Sheets Tight to Trim the Sails In

15

We Use Sheets to Ease the Sails Mid-Way Out When Reaching
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

We Ease the Sheets to Let the Sails Mid-way Out

Reach ing

16

We Use Sheets to Ease the Sails All the Way Out When We Sail Downwind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

We Ease the Sheets to Let the Sails All the Way Out

nd wi wn Do

17

We Don’t Have Brakes So We Use Safety Position to Stop the Boat
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

nd wi Up

Safety Position
Step 1: Point Upwind Step 2: Luff (Ease) the Sails

Turning directly into the wind will also stop the sailboat, but this is prefered.

18

When Rigging We Will Use a Cleat Hitch to Secure Halyards After Raising the Sails

A general term for a rope on a boat is a "line". (it becomes a sheet when controling a sail, and a halyard when it is used to raise a sail)

This is a cleat

1. Wrap the rope around the cleat one time. 2. Make an 8 over the cleet 3. Right before finishing the 8, twist the rope under itself so the the underside of the rope will line up in the same direction as the previously made 8, place over the clear and pull tight. It is seen that the 2 lines line up as in the 4th picture and go under a single line that holds them down together. wrap up the extra line (rope) and tuck it away neatly.

20

We Will Use a Figure 8 as a Stopper Knot to Prevent Jib Sheets from Running Free
We also tie the end of the main sheet like this

21

We Will Change Direction By Tacking
Wind

4
Tacking is also called "coming about", and denotes turning when you turn by moving the front of the boat (bow) through the wind direction and finish the manouver on the other side. Other commands often used are: 1. Skipper: "Prepare to come about". allowing the crew to get in position. 2. Then the skipper asks "Ready to come about?" 3. The crew then responds: "ready". 4. The Skipper then calls "coming about" and pushes the tiller as in the example.

Skipper: straightens tiller, trims main sheet Crew: trims port jib sheet

Power Channel

3

Skipper: eases main, moves to starboard side as sails luff, changes hands for sheet and tiller Crew: releases starboard jib sheet as jib luffs, moves to starboard side

2

Skipper: “Helms alee,” pushes tiller away, boat turns towards wind

Power Channel

1 Skipper: “Ready
about?” Crew: “Ready”
26

We Will Sail A Figure-8 Course To Practice Tacking

Wind

27

Avoid Collisions By Remembering “Tiller Towards Trouble”
Wind

Boat A avoids collision by pushing tiller towards kayak and tacking away
Remember push/pull the tiller direction opposite to the way you want to get. This will become second nature to you in time.

28

When Docking, Point Directly At Dock, Ease Sails All The Way Out When a Few Boat Lengths Away
Wind

UCLA

We dont have a dock as of now, but the beach is to be seen as a dock, and a similar manouver performed. remember the direction of the wind in relation to how you will turn the boat against the land.

C MA
29

Push Tiller To Turn Towards Wind When ! Boat Length From Dock
Wind

UCLA

C MA
30

Let The Boat Glide To A Halt Along Side The Dock*
Wind

*Tip: pull the tiller towards you once head-to-wind to pull boat closer to the dock.

UCLA

C MA
31

We Coil Lines And Stow Them Neatly
1. make nice coils without twists. leave some line at the end ( a few feet) 2. wrap the remaining line around the coiled bunch a few times. 3. make a small loop and pass it though the top circle of rope formed by the wraps 4. flip it down over the top circle as shown. 5. You should have a nice coiled line that will stay untangled and in good condition.

33

We Will Learn Many New Terms in this Session
• • • • • Windward*, leeward* Head up, fall off Heel in, hike out Close hauled, close reach, beam reach, broad reach, run Gybe

*Many sailing terms have multiple meanings. In this session, we learn two meanings for the term windward, and two meanings for the word leeward

2

We Sometimes Refer to the Windward And Leeward Sides of a Boat

Leeward (same side as boom)

Windward (side opposite the boom)

Wind

3

We Sometimes Refer to the Windward Boat And Leeward Boat
Leeward Boat
second boat to be hit by the wind...blocked by the windward boat

Windward Boat

first boat hit in the path of wind

Wind

4

The Boom Always Points Toward The Leeward Boat
Leeward Boat Windward Boat

Wind

5

Heading Up is Turning Towards the Wind, Falling Off is Turning Away from the Wind
Wind

Heading Up

Falling Off

Towards the wind direction. Also termed "pointing up"

Away from the direction of the wind

6

A Gybe is a Change in Direction by Turning Away from the Wind (A Tack is Toward the Wind)
Wind

1

Skipper: “Ready to gybe?” Crew: “Ready”

The wind direction changes across the stern of the boat. The boat will chage tacks (to be discussed later but mean changing from port tack to Power starboard tack, and vice versa)

Just as in tacking/ coming about, it is often customary to have the Skipper to state: "prepare to gybe" before asking "ready to gybe," allowing the crew to get ready and prepaired.

2

Channel

Skipper: “Gybe ho!” Centers main to control boom, pulls tiller to fall off Crew: prepares to release jib and to change sides as boom crosses over 3 Skipper: crosses over just as boom nears center, changes tiller and sheet hands

Crew: crosses over and releases starboard jib sheet 4 Skipper: quickly eases main sheet Crew: trims port jib sheet

Power Channel

7

A Gybe Results in a Large Change in Angle of Sails for a Small Change in Heading
Gybe Change in Angle of Sails Required Change in Heading
A Gybe is a lot harder on a boat as the sail will swing very fast from one side to the other. It is usually done when sailing withthe wind behind you "running/ surfing". When gybing, it is often recomended that the main sheet be pulled is as the gybe is being performed to restrict the sail's range of swinging, therefore protecting the crew from a fast moving sail across the entire boat as well as maintaining the boat's condition.

Tack 15° 90°

180° <1°
Wind

Gybe

Tack

A tack/coming about is often slow but effective unless very high winds, as one must turn through the wind and go into the no sail zone known as irons before coming out on the otherside and regaining control of the wind. it is better for the boat and less rushed, therefore prefered under all directions or "points of sail" unless going away from the wind known as 8 "running/surfing".

Try Pushing the Boom Out and Pumping the Tiller When Stuck “In Irons” (in No Sail Zone)
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

9

Hauling as Close to the Wind as Possible is Called Sailing A Close Hauled Point of Sail Point of sail= direction of travel in realtion to the wind
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

Cl

e os

H

led au

Trim Sails in All the way

10

Reaching Close to the Wind is Called Sailing A Close Reach Point of Sail
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

Cl

e os

H

led au

Cl
Sails Slightly Eased

h Reac ose

11

Reaching with the Wind on the Beam is Called Sailing A Beam Reach Point of Sail
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

Cl

e os

H

led au

Cl
Sails Eased ! Way Out

h Reac ose

Beam Reach

12

Sailing a Broad Angle to the Wind is Called Sailing a Broad Reach Point of Sail
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

los C

ed ul Ha e
a ch e Re Clos

Sails Eased " Way Out

Beam Reach

Br o

ad

Re ac

h

13

Running Away From the Wind is Called a Run
Wind

45°
No Sail Zone

los C

ed ul Ha e
a ch e Re Clos

Sails Eased All the Way Out and on Opposite Sides (Wing and Wing)

Beam Reach

Br o

ad

Re ac

h

Run

14

In a Gust We Can Ease the Sheets, Hike Out, And Head Up to Avoid a Capsize

Sit Further (Hike) Out
Wind

Ease the Sheets Push Tiller to Head Up
15

***NEVER LAND ON THE SAIL NO MATTER WHAT HAPPENS IN A CAPSIZING!!!***

We Will Use a Four-Step Process to Right a turtle (totally Turtled Boat Our boats shouldn'tatop the mastsflip) with the white float
Step 1: skipper and crew hold centerboard and lean back to bring boat into capsize position Step 2: skipper climbs center-board; crew releases sheets

Never leave the boat if you capsize. In case of need for rescue, it is much easier to find you if you are with a large visable object (the boat)

Step 3: skipper leans back to right boat; crew holds hiking strap

Step 4: Crew is pulled aboard boat by hiking strap, then helps skipper aboard over stern

Our boats dont have centerboards, but do have 2 pontoons (the white floats on each side). First,16 turn the boat to point into the wind and release the main sheet from the cleat (locking mechanism for the main sheet). Stand on the pontoon floating on the water and pull the "pull line" (tied at the front of the trampoline) over the top. Hold it and lean back to turn the boat upright again. Climb aboard and maintain control of the boat.

We Will Sail A Loop and Alternate Tacking and Gybing
Tack

Wind

Gybe

17

We Will Learn Many New Terms in this Session
• • • • • Starboard tack, port tack* Stand-on vessel, give-way vessel Battens, outhaul, cunningham, boom vang True wind, wind of motion, apparent wind Tell tales

*Many sailing terms have multiple meanings. In this session, we learn a third meaning for the term tack.

2

A Boat is on Starboard Tack if the Boom is on the Port Side, Otherwise it is on Port Tack
Wind

Port Tack

Starboard Tack

Wind hits the port side of the sail

Wind hits the starboard side of the sail

3

Rules of the Road Aid in Preventing Collisions Between Two Vessels
• Rules categorize vessel responsibilities
– Stand-on vessel: responsibility is to maintain course and speed. Typically this is the less maneuverable vessel – Give-way vessel: responsibility is to maneuver to avoid collision with stand-on vessel. Typically this is the more maneuverable vessel

• Both vessels have a responsibility to avoid collisions
4

A Sailboat is Usually the Stand-on Vessel When a Power and Sail Boat Meet
Exceptions: • Large vessels in narrow channels (law of gross tonnage) • Towing vessels • Vessel not under command

5

Remember OTW When Two Sailboats Meet (On The Water)
O
Is one boat Overtaking the other?

No

T
Are boats on opposite Tacks?

No

W
Give-way: Windward Stand-on: leeward

Yes
Give-way: overtaking Stand-on: overtaken

Yes
Give-way: port tack Stand-on: starboard tack

6

Can You Apply OTW To Determine the Stand-on and Give-way Vessel for Each Example?
Wind

Example 1
Give-way Stand-on

Example 2
Give-way Stand-on

Example 3

Example 4
Stand-on 4 knots Give-way 6 knots
7

Stand-on

Give-way

Sailboats Should Almost Always Give-way To People Powered Boats
People powered boats include – Kayaks – Sculls – Rowboats Exception: overtaking boats should always giveway to overtaken boats

8

The Main Sail Has Battens to Hold Shape in the Leech
on our boats, the boom is also a batten. Be careful with them as they are thin fiberglass and can be easily broken if mishandled.

Battens

Leech Luff

Foot

Aft

Fore

9

The Cunningham (or downhaul) Tensions the Luff

Leech Luff
Cunningham

Foot

Aft

Fore

10

The Outhaul Tensions the Foot

Leech Luff
(our boats don't have outhauls)

Outhaul

Foot

Aft

Fore

11

The Mainsheet and Boom Vang Tension the Leech
All of the pulleys on a boat are known as "blocks". the last one that the main sheet passes through at the stern of our boats has a "cam-cleat" which is a set of 2 gripping spring loaded wheels which clanp down and hold the sheet from being let out. to let the sail out, just pull downward, which will manouver the sheet out of the cam-cleet and be free to let out "easing the sheet". (one can pull in the sail while it is still engaged in the cam-cleat)

Leech

Main Sheet Boom Vang

(we don't have boom vangs on our boats)

Aft

Fore

12

Rule of Thumb: the Heavier the Wind, the Tighter the Rig • In heavy wind, let the larger crew member tighten the rigging:
– Halyards – Cunningham (downhaul) – Outhaul

• This de-powers the sails by flattening their shape, allowing more wind to spill out

13

The Apparent Wind is the Sum of the True Wind and Wind of Motion
Apparent wind: 0 + 12 = 12 knots Apparent wind: 10 + 12 = 22 knots

True wind: 12 knots

Speed of Motion: 0 knots

Speed of Motion: 10 knots
14

Sailboats Are Propelled by Apparent Wind

Apparent True

Motion

15

Strings Called Tell Tales On Each Side of Sail Aid in Sail Trim For Upwind Points of Sail

Luff Leech
Outside tell tale (dashed line indicates tell tale is on opposite side of sail)

Jib
Inside tell tale

Foot

Aft

Fore

16

Both Tell Tales Will Stream Straight Back When Sails Are Properly Trimmed*
This goes for our main sail as well

Luff Leech

Jib

Foot

*It’s okay if inside luffs up on occasion

Aft

Fore

17

For Close-Hauled Sailing, Fall Off if Inside Luffs or Head Up if Outside Luffs
This goes for our main sail as well

Luff Leech Leech

Head up since outside tell tale is luffing

Jib
Fall off since inside tell tale is luffing

Jib

Foot

Foot

Aft

Fore

Aft

Fore

18

For Other Upwind Points of Sail, Sheet in Direction of Luffing Tell Tale
This goes for our main sail as well

Luff Leech Leech

Sheet-out since outside tell tale is luffing

Jib
Sheet-in since inside tell tale is luffing

Jib

Foot

Foot

Aft

Fore

Aft

Fore

19

Remember “When in Doubt, Let it Out” To Trim When Sailing Off the Wind
Wind

1

Ease jib until it begins to luff (Let It Out)

2

Sheet-in jib until it just stops luffing

This goes for our main sail as well

3

Trim main until parallel to jib
20

We Can Use the Tiller, Sails and Body Weight to Steer the Boat

Tiller Head Up Fall Off
Push Pull

Sails
Ease jib, sheet in main Sheet in jib, ease main

Body Weight
Heel in Hike out

21

We Will Use The Figure-8 Method For PersonOverboard Recovery
Wind

1

Yell “personoverboard,” fall off onto a beam reach

2

Keep your eye on victim, sail 5-7 boat lengths away

3

Tack and immediately fall-off to get down wind of victim

5

Luff the sails to stop the boat with victim to leeward, help aboard over stern

4

Watch victim and carefully plan to approach on close reach, pointing directly at victim
22