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dtheofan@phil.uoa.gr
Abstract
The tendency to treat restrictive pu-relative clauses as constructions the interpretation of
which depends solely on structural considerations (Nikiforidou 2005: 169) has recently been
challenged within the cognitive model (Nikiforidou 2005, & 2007),
emphasis being given to pragmatic constraints when the head is underspecified. The aim of
this paper is to support the priority of the syntactic constraints. Following the generative
approach and focusing upon cases with target IOdat, DPgen complement of noun and PP
complement/adjunct I shall try to show that the interpretation of the null target and,
consequently, of the underspecified head is related (a) to syntactic constraints of the narrow
syntax (on Agree or movement), determining the null vs. lexical realization of the target and
(b) to constraints at the interface levels (Full Interpretation). Pragmatic factors contribute to
the interpretation of the syntactically underspecified head, on the condition that universal
syntactic principles are not violated.

1.
-
(Nikiforidou
2005, & 2007).
(Comrie 1998)
, (1)-(3)
( (1), (2)) ( (3))
, ,
.

8
(30-8-2007) , ,
.
.
.

828

.
:
(1)

(2)

(3)

( Nikiforidou .. 179 (1), 178 (2) 172 (3).


, ,
2 ,
(), ,

()

,
. :
()
. (4), (5) (6)
, , ,
:
(4)

*()

(5)

*()

(6)

o (Nikiforidou .. 181)

(que, dass, that, che)


.

(.., , ):
(7)

*the girl

that I

gave

the book was very pretty



(8)

cest l ami

a qui/

*que

j ai demand de l argent

/

(9)

la persona

a cui/

*che scrivo e

mio

amico

, : Joseph (1980, 1983),


- (1985).

829

/

(10)

Ich kenne keine einzige Frau, deren/*dass der Mann bereit ist, die Hausarbeit mit ihr
zu teilen
/


() (
)
(6)
(Nikiforidou .. 181-182) , ,
. :
(11)


( 2004: 142)

(12)

(Joseph 1980: 238)

, ,
(3)
, ,
,
, 3

.
(Chomsky 1995, 2000, 2001)

, , -
, ,

, , ,
(3).
/
,

830

,
, ,
,
.
, ,

.
2. :
2.1. -

.
: (Chomsky 1977, Borsley 1997, Radford
1997) (Kayne 1994 ).
, ,
(Operator), ()
, ( ) [, ] 4
.
[, ],
. , ,
& (2003), - ,
.
,
( - . - 5
, 6 ,
3

,
(, ).
4
(. Specifier, . Spec)
(. Complementizer, . C).
5
Extended Projection Principle, . .
( ) ,
,
[, ], .
6
Chomsky (1995)
(copy) (merge) ,
.

. ,
(, ,
), ( ,
, , Bobaljik 2002, Spyropoulos & Revithiadou 2007),

(Grohmann & Panagiotidis 2004).

831

/ 7 ).
(- )
:
(13)

[ [ i [ [ [ .proi]]]]] 8

(pro)
[, ], , -.
.
[+ ] ([+ Rel]
Pesetsky & Torrego 2006: 18, [ wh ] Alexopoulou 2006: 73, 75)
, , 9 (Tsimpli, 1999)
[, ].
, , ,
(D feature, Roussou 1994), (Alexopoulou .. 76-80, .
18).
.
: ,
(Joseph 1980, 1997), pro (Ingria 1981: 163-64,
- 1986/87: 48 , Alexopoulou

.. 75), wh

(Kotzoglou 2005: 265).


(Ingria,
- ..) (Alexopoulou .. 75,
. 16)
( ) -
-
pro 10 .
( , ) .
7

, (,
probe) ( goal)
. ( ) , -, ,
o ,
(value)
(Chomsky 2000, 2001).
8
: = (.= Determiner
Phrase, . DP), = (. Tense Phrase, . TP). o . . 4.
9
- (quantificational) (nonquantificational) . Lasnik & Stowell (1991). / . simpli
(1999).
10
.
- (1986/87: 47-50) .

832

2.2. () ()
- ,
,
, -
-
.
:
(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(14) (16)
(pro) :
(18)

[ i [ proi[ [ j[ pro [ tj[ [ tj ti ]]]]]]]] 11

(19)

[ i [ proi [ [ j [ proi [ tj[ [ tj ]]]]]]]]

, , ..,
, .
- (, ) (pro)

/ ()
() .

[, ],
, -.
, ,
,
.

, , /
11

. . 8. : = (. Tense , . T), (. vP)


833

( ).
()
, ,
12 .


( , ), :
,
( ) - - (
)
( & .. 183).
(
) :
(20)

(
2003: 340)

(21)

( 2003: 343)

, /
.
2.3. :

- .
, ( )
( Drachman 1977, Alexiadou & Anagnostopoulou 2000, &
2003, Alexopoulou 2006):
(22)

*() ;

(23)

() (Joseph 1980: 237)

(24)

*()

( ), = (. Verb Phrase, . VP), = (.Verb,


.V). (t) .
12
. . 5.
pro
*()
.

.

834

(25)

- *()

,
, ,

.
:
(i)

( ,
).

(ii)

.
(iii)


, .

2.4. : - - /
, / ,
, . , () (
.) , (),
(Anagnostopoulou 2003, 2005, &
2003) , , [, ] ( &
..203)

[,

APPL] 13

Anagnostopoulou 2003: 147).


(23)
14 , (Anagnostopoulou 2003):
(26) [ i [ proi [ [ [ pro [ [ i [ [ o]]]]]]]]

13

APPL - -
(nagnostopoulou 2003: 34-38)

.
.
(.
, ),
, [, ].
, , .
14

,
: [ i [ proi [ [ i [ pro [

835


, ,


( [ , ]) .
, . -

,

. 15 pro
[, ] ,
/ 16 .
, ,
.
,
.
.
, , Bobaljik (2002), Spyropoulos &
Revithiadou (2007)
, /,

.
(
)
( )

(. .) .


, , ,
( ) ( ).
, ( [ , ]), ,
(Strict Adjacency)17 , .
15

Bianchi (2004: 95-97). , . 96 .


pro (/)
. .
Grohmann & Panagiotidis (2004).
17
. Spyropoulos & Revithiadou (.. 22-27)
Bobaljik (2002) .
16

836


. , ,
corpus 30 - /
- 20 .
, ,

.
(Holton al. 1997: 443) (Joseph 1980: 237, ()
) 18 .
, ,
, ,
() . .
(27)

;
( )

(28)



( = )

(29)

( / )

, ,
,
( (27) ).
,

/ , - , ,
19 -
(Full Interpretation).

.
.
18

Alexiadou & Anagnostopoulou


(2000), & (2003), .
19
(probe)
,
.

837

2.5. :
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.

(/
, ).
(Alexopoulou .. 80)
,
. , ,


.

. , ,
(. .)
.
, ,
(intervention effect) ( )
20

.
, ,
. ,
,
, ( ).
, [, ]
,
(Adjacency), .

20

838

2.6.
..
, (blending) -
-
(Joseph 1980, - 1985, Alexopoulou 2006: 97-100, Nikiforidou 2005,
& 2007),
.

, ,
(31),
(30).
(32):
(30)


( .. )

(31)


( .. )

(32)

( & 2007: 310-311)


( , , )

/ , ,

,
.
/
, - (33), (34) -
- (35), (36):
(33)

( , )

(34)

( ,
, ? )

(35)

* ( )

(36)

* ( )

839

.


( )
, .
,
/
,

.

: /
,
,
, .
3. :
, ,
,
, .
,
, ,
.

, ,
,
.
,
, ( ..)
- , ,

(3).

, . ,
, ,
:

840

( & 2007,
2001). , ,

,
: /
;


,
.
; , ,
;
, ,
, .

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