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This sequence of slides is designed to introduce, and explain, the idea of Graphs in practical work, as explained on pages 363-364 in New Physics for You, 2006 & 2011 editions or later.

Note : When you start this PowerPoint if you see a message about “Read-only embedded fonts” then you are recommended to select “Open Read-Only” as this (i) gives a clearer font for those at the back of the room and (ii) ensures that the text-highlighting of key words is correct.

On each slide the key points are revealed step by step, at the click of your mouse (or the press of a key such as the space-bar). Before making the next mouse-click you can ask questions of the class or make statements about what is about to be revealed. This should help students to become clearer about the ideas involved. Naturally it pays to have quick practice-run first. To start the slide-show, press function-key F5 (or right-click->Full Screen) (to return to ‘normal view’ press the <Esc> key). For more (free) PowerPoint presentations, visit www.physics4u.co.uk

How Science works:

Graphs

New Physics for You, pages 363-4

Learning Objectives You should learn :

• About different types of graphs, • How to draw them when you are doing your practical work, • How to interpret the different shapes.

Drawing a graph When should …and when I draw should Ia draw a bar-chart …? ? line-graph .

use a bar-chart: • a continuous range of values.Drawing a graph Look at the table of your results: If this column has • only certain fixed values. use a line-graph: .

Drawing a graph What is the best way to draw a line-graph? .

like 1 square = 3 N or 7 N Choose a scale that will make your graph use most of the sheet of paper. or 10 N But never choose an awkward scale. . or 5 N.5 steps in drawing a graph 1. For example: 1 large square = 1 newton (1 N) or 1 large square = 2 N. Choose simple scales.

Put the dependent variable on the ‘y-axis’ and the independent variable on the ‘xaxis’ .5 steps in drawing a graph 1. Choose simple scales.

Plot the points neatly. x x x Re-check each one before your next step. . To mark the points we usually use an X x x x Usually you need 5 or more points for the graph.5 steps in drawing a graph 2.

5 steps in drawing a graph 3. . If the points form a straight line… …draw the best straight line through them f o e st e b x fit’ x x x ‘ li n x x Check that it looks the best straight line.

5 steps in drawing a graph 4. . If the points form a curve… …draw a free-hand curve of best fit Do not join the points like a ‘dot-todot’.

You can decide to ignore anomalous points. If a point is not on the line… …use your apparatus to check this measurement again x x x x x x This is called an anomalous point.5 steps in drawing a graph 5. .

4. Choose good scales.5 steps in drawing a graph In summary: 1. Check anomalous points. or draw free-hand for a curved graph 5. with the dependent variable on the yaxis 2. . Plot the points carefully 3. Draw a line of best fit using a ruler for a straight line graph.

Types of graphs Let’s look at some examples of graphs .

.Types of graphs A straight line graph: 1 length length weigh t An example would be weight the length of a spring against the weight on it.

See page 390. If one doubles. then the other one also doubles.Types of graphs 2 A special case is when the straight line goes through the origin : In this case the two quantities are directly proportional. origin .

.Types of graphs 2 If you think your graph should go through the origin. then draw it exactly through the origin.

Types of graphs Example 1: 2 the extension of a spring against the weight on it. extension weight .

current voltag e This illustrates Ohm’s Law.d.Types of graphs Example 2: 2 the current in a resistor against the p. across it. .

rising : The dependent variable rises quickly at first Here are some examples: and then more slowly .Types of graphs 3 A curved graph.

. velocity time Eventually the object will reach its terminal velocity.Types of graphs Example 1: 3 the velocity of a falling object against the time.

current voltag e .Types of graphs Example 2: 3 the current in a filament lamp against the p.d.

Types of graphs 4 A curved graph. falling : The dependent variable falls quickly at first and then more slowly Here are some examples: .

.Types of graphs Example 1: 4 the activity of a radioactive source against the time. activity tim e The time to fall to half is called the halflife.

tim e . This is discussed in the next PowerPoint.Types of graphs Example 2: 4 acceleration the rate of change is shown by the gradient of the graph.

• Be able to give examples of graphs with different shapes. .Learning Outcomes You should now: • Know how to draw a line-graph correctly. • Be able to interpret graphs with different shapes.

391 For more free PowerPoints. page 364.co.physics4u.For more details. see: New Physics for You. visit the web-site at www.uk .

click below to see what’s available: http://www.co.uk/ .physics4u.If you are connected to the web at the moment.

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