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Notes on Tafseer101
Taken from recorded video lectures and course materials
Qadar Khan 9/9/2011

Email Skype ID: qadar-khan

These notes have been prepared for the sole purpose to benefit the students @ Islamic Online University. Any feedback, comments or suggestions are welcome. May Allah forgive me for any errors. If you derive any benefit form these notes, then all I ask is to please remember me in your duaas! May Allah grant us success both in dunya and akhira! Ameen!

Module 1
A. Meaning of Usool at-Tafseer
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Idhafah constructions of Usool and Tafseer Usool is the plural of asal which means root, foundation. Technically, it means principal. Tafseer is rom the root fassara which means to explain. In the Quran Ahsanu Tafseera meaning the best explanation. Technically, a branch of knowledge in which the Noble Qur'an is investigated to understand, to the best of human ability, the intent of Allah, the Exalted, expressed therein. The western equivalent of Tafseer is exigesis which means explanation and is mainly used with reference to the Bible. Three possible sources for meaning of text a. The speaker or the author b. The text itself c. The recepient Islamic perspective is Allah has intended meaning of the text and the goal of the Tafseer is to understand that meaning. Text have a range of meaning. Some may have one meaning, while other may more meaning. Down the ages, deviant tafseers. Outlandish and unacceptable. Scholars developed a methodology to interpret the Quran the right way. The purpose of the methodology is to evaluate the commentators. It provides guidelines to the exigesis of the Quran. Its primary objective is to identify the principles that provide guidelines for valid exegesis of the Qur'an and protect from erroneous interpretations

6. 7.

8. 9.

B. Reasons for Usool at-Tafseer

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C. Uloom-ul-Quran
1. A separte science of the Quran. 2. Idafah construction. Uloom is the plural of Ilm which means knowledge. Linguistically, Quran means recitation, whereas tehcnically, it means the speech of Allah revealed to Muhammad (sallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) in Arabic and transmitted to us by tawtur, whose recitation is an act of worship. 3. It refers to the fields of knowledge which serve to elucidate the Quran or which are derived from it. 4. The Quran is a miraculous book and is primarily the Book of Guidance. 5. The two main purposes for the revelation of the Quran are to provide guidance and an enduring miracle that will be a sign to humanity of the validity of Muhammad's (peace be upon him) claim to prophethood. 6. Uloom-ul-Quran include know of tafseer or exegesis, qiraaaat, rasmul-Uthmaanee (the Uthmaanic script), ijaaz al-Quran (miraculous aspect of the Quran), Asbab an-nuzool, annaasih wal-mansookh, iraab alQuran, religious rulings , Arabic language, literature and grammar.

D. History of Uloom-ul-Quran
1. Early writers of 8th Century CE include Subah Ibn al-Hajjaaj, Sufyaan Ibn Uyaynah, Wakee Ibn al-Jaraah. Their tafseers collectio of the opinions of the Prophets companions and their students. 2. Tafseer by Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree 310 A.H. considered greatest and strongest. 3. 9th Century C.E Alee Ibn al-Madeene (Bukharis Teacher), and Aboo Ubayed al-Qaasim ibn Salaam. 4. 10th Century C.E. Aboo Bakr as-Sijistaanee 5. 11th Century C.E. Alee Ibn Saeed al-Hoofee 6. 12th Century Abul Qassim, Abdis Salaam 7. 13th Century Alamud Deen as-Sakhaawee 8. 14th Century Badrud-Deen az-Zarkashee (al-Burhan feee uloom al Quran) 9. 15th Century Muhammad Ibn Suliman al-Kaafeejee, Jalaaluddin al-Balqeene, Jalaluddin al-syootee 10. 20th Century A new flurry of authors

The Quran

Types of Wahy
Hadeeth Qudsi Hadeeth Nabawi

Module 2
A. Wahy Divine Revelation
1. Literally means a swift and secretive transfer of information 2. The Quran sometimes uses Wahy to mean instinctual animal. And your Lord inspired the bee by Wahy to make its home in the mountains, trees, and what (men) build) 3. Also used in the Quran to mean natural human instincts: and I inspired Mosess mother by Wahy to suckle him. 4. Also used to mean Allahs inspiration to humans to actions: then, when you fear for him, cast him into the river (in a basket), and dont be afraid and dont grieve. 5. Occasionally refered to as the whispering and prodding of the devils: And verily the devils inspirte their allies by wahy to argue with you. 6. Sometimes used to mean communication by rapid, subtle gesture as in the story of Zakareeyaa: ..and gesture to them to praise (Allah) in the morning and the evening. 7. Allah uses it to refer to the porcess by which He gives commands to His angels. 8. Used to refer to the process of revelation of Allahs command to His prophets as well as the revelation itself.

B. The Method of Wahy

1. Direct as in the forms of true dreams or in the form of direct conversation 2. Indirectly as by the way of the angel Jibreel.

C. Direct Revelations
1. A portion of Allahs revelation communicated directly. No intermediary. 2. Forms of direct revelation: visions during a prophets sleep or words spoken by Allah behind a veil. a. True Dreams: Communicated to Prophets in their sleep. The only Surah revealed in vision was Surah al-Kawthar. (Reported by Anas Ibn Malik). True dreams not restricted to Prophets. All dreams of prophets are true. Ordinary people dreams may be true or false. b. Divine Speech: Actual words of Allah Spoken to the Prophets behind the veil as in case of Moses hence the title Kaleemullah. Allah also spoke to Prophet Muhammad Sallalahu aalyhe wassllam during Miraaj.

D. Indirect Revelation
1. 2. 3. 4. Indirect Revelation is through angel Jibreel. Most of Allahs revelation was brought about by indirect revelation. Most part of the Quran was through indirect revelation. Indirect revelation reached the Prophet (PBUH) in two ways. a. Reverberating Sound like the gong of a bell. i. The angel remained in the spiritual state and the Prophet (PBUH) raised spiritually to a certain state to receive the revelation. ii. The most severe form. The Prophet (PBUH) use to sweat on a cold day while receiving relevation in this form. b. Direct speech of the angel

i. ii.

Much easier for the Prophet (PBUH) to bear. The angel would appear in human form and pass on the message in human speech.

E. Types of Wahy
1. The Quran: Allahs word revealed to the Prophet (PBUH) in Arabic. The style of the Quran is inimitable and its recitation is an act of worship. 2. Hadeeth Qudsi: Allahs world revealed in Arabic to the Prophet (PBUH). Statements are directly attributed to Allah. 3. Hadeeth of the Prophets-Two Types a. Statements of the Prophet (PBUH) based on his own reasoning (ijtihad). Corrected by wahy if incorrect or approved by the absence of wahy if correct. b. Second: Statement of the Prophet (PBUH) whose meanings were wahy but whose expressions were in the Prophets own words.

F. Doubts About Quranic Wahy

1. The Quran was the product of Muhammads intelligence. That would that the Prophet (PBUH) knowingly or unkowingly deceived his followers. Kinder critics claim that the Prophet (PBUH) was well-intentioned but they wahy were delusions and hallucinations. Totally unsubstantiated historically- Coherence of the Quran & clarity. The less kinder critics claim the Prophet (PBUH) deceived his followers to establish leadership. Again totally false. 2. The Prophet (PBUH) attributed it to Allah in order to give more weight to his words. This would put the Prophet (PBUH) to deceive for power, prestige, luxuries. This is refuted by the Prophet (PBUH) life. 3. The Claim the Prophet (PBUH) learned the knowledge contained in the Quran from Christians and Jewish sources. He Buhayraa when only a boy-his meeting with Waraqah Ibn Nawfat too short-No historical record that anyone taught the Prophet (PBUH). 4. Claim that Haddaad, the Roman Blacksmith taught him. Haddaad was foreigner-barely speak Arabic. Was only a blacksmith. 5. Claim that the stories in the Quran are traced back to apocrypha. All story books tracing the Quranic stories were in Syriac, Hebrew or Greek. The Prophet (PBUH) never learnt any foreign language nor travelled through the Middle East for learning.

G. Notes from Live Session (By Ismail Kamdar, TA)

1. Literally Wahy means a quick and secretive transfer of information. 2. It has been used in the Quran to refer to animal instinctual knowledge and habits, human instincts, intuition, devlish whisphers, subtle gestures, Allahs communication with the angels and finally the revealtion to prophets. 3. The Sharee definition of Wahy is the revelation of Allah to the prophets. The revelation itself and the means of conveying it are both called Wahy. 4. Methods of Wahy: a. Direct Wahy i. True Dreams ii. Divine Speech b. Indirect Wahy: Via the angle Gabriel Which came in various forms. 5. Types of Wahy:

a. Quran: Allahs word revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Arabic, whole style and construction is miraculously inimitable and whose recitation is a form of worship. b. Hadeeth Al-Qudsi: Allahs words revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Arabic. c. Haddeeth An-Nabawi: Revelation which was quoted in the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) own words. d. Not all hadeeth fall into the category of Wahy, many hadeeth are based on the Prophets Ijtihad. It is mainly those hadeeth deal with Shariah and the the Unseen which are a from of Wahy. 6. Many disbelievers try to riase doubts about Quranic Wahy, there are two main claims: a. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) made it up. b. He was taught it by a Christian blacksmith in Makkah.

Methods of Wahy

Direct Wahy

Indirect Wahy

True Dreams

Divine Speech

Through angel Jibreel

Module 3
A. The Quran: The Unique Book
1. Linguistically Quran comes from qaraa which means to read. So literally, a reading or reciting. Historically, the term Quran used to specifically refer to the Book of Allah, revealed to the Prophet (PBUH). 2. The Word Quran refers to the Book as a whole as well as individual or group of verses. 3. The Book has been referred to by other names such as: a. The Furqan meaning the Distinction. b. The Dhirk meaning the reminder. 4. Definition of Quran: Allahs words which were revealed in Arabic in a rhythmical form to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Its recitation is used as an act of worship and its smallest chapter is of miraculous nature. 5. Hadeeth are the Prophets divinely inspired statements a. Hadeeth Qudsi: A hadeeth in which a statement is assigned to Allah b. Hadeeth Nabawi: inspired statement in the Prophets own words not assigned to Allah. 6. Quran differs from Hadeeth Qudsi in 3 ways a. Quran is from Allah in words and meaning, hadeeth qudsi only in meaning. b. Second: Quran can not be imitated. Allahs challenge to the Arabs and non-Arabs. c. Third: Quran recited in salah and act of worship.

B. The Theme of the Quran (Subject Matter)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quran is unique the way it presents its subject matter. Not like other books with intro, explanations and conclusion Not restricted to history, philosophy or laws etc. The way the subject matter is presented is different from other books To reader unaware of its uniqueness may be puzzled and appear to him disorganized or haphazard. 6. Subject matter of the Quran a. Man b. Man in relation to his Lord c. Man in relation to himself d. Man in relation to the rest of creation. e. Quran is guide to man, so no irrelevant or unnecessary details.

C. Four principles to avoid confusion

1. 2. 3. 4. The book is the only one of its type in the world. Its literary style is quite different from all other books. Its theme is unique Preconceived notions of a book are only a hindrance to the understanding of the Quran.

D. The Miracle of the Quran

1. Allah sent miracles to the prophets in areas wherein the nations of the time excel. 2. People at the time of Moses excelled in occult arts and Allah gives Moses a miracle above their excellence.

3. People at the time of Jesus excelled in medicines; Allah gave him a miracle in the same field far higher than their expertise. 4. The Arabs proud of eloquence in literature and poetry, yet were unable to produce something like the shortest surah of the Quran.

E. The Challenge: Three Stages

1. The Whole Quran 2. Ten Soorahs 3. The Single Soorah

F. Other Miraculous Aspects

1. The past stories: Accurate descriptions, historical events and places. 2. Predictions about the Future a. Predictions of victory of Romans over the Persians b. Predictions of the victory of Makkah.

G. Description of the Natural Phenomenon

1. The Expanding Universe 2. The Water Cycle 3. Embryology

H. Contradictions in the Quran

1. Case One: Calling together or ripping apart. The Bang Bang explains it. 2. Case Two: Creation of man. Metaphysics, Chemistry and Biology.

Module 4
Preservation of the Qur'an, the Seven Aspects and Recitations The Qur'an was preserved in three stages:

A. The Prophets Era

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Primarily through scribes & memorization. Portions of written on flat stones, tree bark, wood, dried animal skins, shoulders blade. The Prophet (PBUH) urged the companion to memorize the Quran. The Prophet used to recite it in salah and the companion would memorize it. Not recorded in a single mushaf during this era

B. The Era of Abu Bakr

1. The group who refused to pay zakat and wanted to attack Madeenah and destroy it. 2. The second group was that who never accepted Islam truly but just joined the winning side. They support the first group in order to free themselves. 3. The third group was those of the false prophets and prophetesses. 4. At the battle of Yamama many Huffaz were martyred to fight against the apostates. 5. Umar Ibn Khattab advised Abu Bakr to compile the Quran. 6. Abu Bakr at first refused but later on agreed. 7. Abu Bakr had Zaid Ibn Thabit to lead a team to collect the entire Quran in one mushaf. 8. After the compilation, Zaid handed over the copy to Abu Bakr who, later on, passed to Umar who passed to Hafsah.

C. The Era of Uthman

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The expansion of the Islamic state to Egypt, Syria, India, Iraq etc. The Quran revealed in 7 dialects. Difference arose over the various recitations of the Quran. Hudayfah advised Uthman of the seriousness of the matter. Formed a committee under the leadership of Zayed Ibn Thabit. Zayed made 7 copies from the mushaf of Hafsah. Uthman sent those 7 copies to various parts of the state and returned the original to Hafsah. 8. All other incomplete or portions were destroyed.

D. The Seven Ahruf

1. The literal meaning of ahruf is edge, aspect or circumstance. 2. Allah revealed the Quran in seven different forms. 3. All companions not aware of it and minor disagreements among them occurred which were resolved by the Prophet (PBUH) 4. The Qur'an was revealed in seven aspects: scholars differ over what this refers to, they all agree it refers to seven different ways of recitation which the companions would learn according to what ever was easiest for them.

5. Some say these were seven dialects, others say it was seven recitations, the strongest view seems to be that it was seven different ways of recitation each accommodating different dialects (reconciles the other two opinions) 6. The seven forms played a vital role in the actual preservation of the Quran.

E. The Qiraaaat (The Recitations)

1. A qiraaaat is a method of pronunciation used in the recitation of the Quran. 2. These methods are different from the seven forms or modes (ahruf) in which the Quran was revealed. 3. The present Quran is only in one mode i.e. Qurayshi mode. All the methods of recitations are based on this mode. 4. The methods on each level of the chains of the scholar of recitation is called mutawaatir. 5. In 10th century CE (6th AH) the number of recitation was reduced to 7.

F. 10 Scholars of Quranic Recitations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Aboo Amr Ibn Alaa Ibn Katheer Naafi Ibn Aamir Aasim Hamzah Al-kisaaee Aboo Jafar Yaqoob Khalaf

G. Conditions for Mode of Recitations.

1. It must be narrated through Tawattur 2. Match one of the Uthmani Mushaf 3. Not contradict any rules of the Arabic grammar.

H. Benefits of knowing about the Ahruf and Qira'at:

1. 2. Provides different meanings for verses Proves the miracle of the Qur'an in that the Arabs could not even imitate it in a dialect of their choice. 3. Proves the miracle of the Qur'an in that there is not a single contradiction even between the various Qira'at and Ahruf. 4. Provides variety in how the Qur'an is to be recited

Module 5 Tafseer Methodology

A. Etiquette of a Haafiz
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Should purify his intention to seek the pleasure of Allah Discipline to recite day and night, in and out of salah so not to forget it. Engaged in the praise of Allah. Should be mindful of death and prepare for it. Fearful about his sin and hopeful of Allahs forgiveness. Knowledgeable about the people of his era and on guard and aloof from his ruler. Ibn Mas'ood said, It befits the memorizer of Quran to be known by his night when people are sleeping, and by his day when people are awake, and by his weeping when people are laughing, and by his silence when people are discussing [yakhoodoon], and by his humility when people are prideful, and by his sorrow when people are making merry. 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr said, It doesnt befit the carrier of the Quran to wade in with those who wade, nor to act ignorant with those who act ignorant, rather he should forgive and pardon due to the right of the Quran, for the word of Allah is inhis breast. Be extra cautious about avoiding paths of doubtful matters. Reduce his laughing and his speech in the gatherings. Be humble and avoid arrogance. Should know the Makkans verses and the Madinan verses. Abrogated and abrogators. Should know the Iraab of the Quran and meaning of uncommon words.


8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

B. Qualifications of a Mufassir
1. Arabic Language a. b. c. d. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Meanings of words Nahw Saft, Ishtiqaaq Balaaghah

Usool al-Fiqh Tawheed Asbaab an-Nuzool Stories of the Quran Abrogated and abrogating Hadeeths that calrify the mujmal and mubham Commentaries of the Sahaabah Fiqh History, customs of Jaahiliyyah, by way of contrast. Natural History Divine bestowed knowledge, given to those who act upon what they know. Disqualifiers a. Bidah b. Arrogance c. Love of this world

d. Inclination to sinful acts

C. Methodology of Tafseer (Dr Ansari)

1. According to Ibn Abbaas Tafseer is four Types a. b. c. d. Halal and Haraam. Tafseer the Arabs can make based upon their language. Tafseer performed by the scholars Tafseer known only to Allah

2. The Substance of Mutashaabih a. b. c. d. Muqattaaat The nature of the rooh The exact timing of the Day of Judgement The how of Allahs attributes

D. Authentic Levels of the Interpretation

1. The first place to look to understand a particular verse of the Quran is the other verses of the Quran on the same subject. 2. If clarification is still required, the answer should be sought in the authentic sunnah. 3. Commentaries of the Sahabah a. b. c. d. Asbaab al-nuzool Naasikh and mansookh Their commentary in matters of the unseen is considered marfoo However, linguistic commentaries do not enter into that.

4. Ray (Discernment or Opinion) has its place after all the preceding steps.

E. Scholars of Tafseer among Sahaabah

1. 2. 3. 4. Four Caliphs especially Alee Ibn Masood Ubay Ibn Kaab:Abu Jafar ar Razee- Rabee ibn Anas-Abul Aaliyah-Ubayy Ibn Abbas-and his students (Following) a. Mujaahid b. Saeed Ibn Jubayr-Atta Ibn As-Saaib-Qays c. Ikrimah- Muhammad Ibn Abee Muhammad Mawlaa Aal Zayed b. Thaabit-ibh Ishaaq d. Alee ibn Abee Talhaha Muaawiyah Ibn Abee Saalih-Aboo Saalih Kaatib al_Layth al-Bukharee. e. Dhaaak f. Kalbee 5. Zayed Ibn Thaabit 6. Aboo Moosaa al-Asharee

7. Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr

F. The Methods of Tafseer (According to Dr Bilals Usool at Tafseer)

1. Tafseer of the Quran by Quran Questions and statements made in one place in the Quran explained in other places and statements. Before seeking an explanation elsewhere, the Quran must be relied upon to explain itself for Allah knows best what he intended. 2. Tafseer of Quran by Sunnah The Prophet (PBUH) further clarified. Was entrusted the job. The Sahaabah used to go the Prophet (PBUH) for explanations. Because the Sunnah was based on guidance from Allah, it represents the second part of Gods promise to the explain the Quran. 3. Tafseer of the Quran by Athar If the companions could not find the explanation in the Quran or Sunnah, they would use their own reasoning based on their knowledge of the context and intricacies of the Arabic language. 4. Tafseer of the Quran by Language a. New meanings, foreign words. b. Grammar-philology-dictionaries. c. Example of the word lams d. Example of the word burooj and its explanation by Yousaf Ali and Pickthall. 5. Tafseer of the Quran by Opinon a. Should not contradict the above four steps. b. No clash with classical authentic interpretations. c. Interpretation based on speculation and unsubstantiated opinions is strictly forbidden.

Module 6 Asbab an-Nuzool

A. Two types of Quranic Verses
1. Revealed without reference 2. Revealed with reference

B. Definition
1. Asbab linguaitically means cause, a rope, event etc. 2. Nuzool means revelation

C. Benefits of this Knowledge

1. Wisdom of Allah imposing a particular law 2. Expression of Allahs concerns for His worshippers 3. Guards against possible misinterpretation. An example is Verse 2:158 states: Indeed, Safa and Marwah are among Allah's symbols. It is therefore no sin for one who makes Hajj to the House, or 'Umrah, to go around them. 4. Asbab an-nuzool is not affecred by the generality of a verse restricted by another text 5. Clarification of who is intended by a verse. 6. Facilitates memorization of a verse and its rules.

D. How to know Asbab an-Nuzool

1. Statement of the Sahabee 2. Mursal of a Taabiee if supported by another mursal and well known muffassir. 3. Muffassir must make sure that a sabab mentioned by other muffassis is authentic.

E. Expressions that indicates it.

1. Such and such explicit 2. Such and such happened- explicit 3. This verse was revealed about such and such-ambiguous.

F. In case of more than one incident

1. 2. 3. 4. Authentic isnaad is given preference Clarity of wording is given preference 2 isnaads are authentic but one has a factor that gives it precedence. Possibility of a verse revealed more than once.

G. Understanding of the General Text

1. Majority: to be understood according to its linguistic generality except if indicators to limit it. 2. Minority: Limited to the sabab al-nuzool

Module 7
Makkan and Madeenan Verses and Surahs A. Categorization Criteria
1. Makkans revealed in Makkah, Madinan in Madeenah except a few. 2. Makkan addressed to Makkans and Madeenan to Madenite. 3. Makkans before Hijrah, Madeenan after Hijrah. Dominant categorization majority's criterion.

B. Benefits of Knowledge
1. 2. 3. 4. Dawah Fiqh Nasikh (abrogating) and Mansookh (abrogated) Confidence in the preservation of the book

C. How to know the difference

1. Statements of the Sahabah 2. Statements of the Taabieen 3. Ijtihaad

D. Features of Makkans Soorahs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tawheed, risalah, hereafter. Basic principles, halal and haram. Moral principles Stories of Prophets and previous nations Short surahs, short verses, vivid imagery. The word Kallaa (33 times in 15 surahs) Every surah containing prostration is Makkan. Every surah start with muqatiaat except al-Baqara and Ale-Imran. The story of Adam and Iblees. O mankind! Mention of hoor een. Detailed legislation Attention to the people of the Book. Hypocrisy discussed in detail. Permission to fight Long surahs

E. Features of Madeenan Surahs

Module 8 Abrogation
A. Definition
1. 2. 3. 4. Liguistically nasakha, yansukhu, naskhan Obliterate, efface, cancel, annul. Transfer or copy In Shareeah, it means cancellation of a shareeah hokum by a shareeah evidence later than that. 5. Can occur in the Quran and sunnah and by the Quran or Sunnah.

B. Usage among the Salaf

1. Complete abrogation 2. Partial abrogation C.

Partial Abrogation Types

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Takhsess al-aamm Taqyeed al-mutlaq Tabyeen al-mujmal Temporary suspension The abrogated hokum must be established for Sahreeah daleel Must be through Quran or Sunnah Abrogating must have come after abrogated. No possibility of reconciling the two.

D. Condition for its Occurrence

E. Evidence for its Occurrence

1. Logical (a) Allah is the Lawgiver (b) wisdom 2. Textual (a) Previous scriptures (b) Our Scripture

F. Shubuhaat (Doubts about its Existence)

1. Badaa: linguistically appear 2. Abrogation occurred due to wisdom occurred after the original. Response to this is that the whole process was on the basis of wisdom to Him primordially. 3. Did He know that this rule was going to expire when He first legislated or note? If no it is ignorance if yes then the naskh is superfluous. Response to this is that the naskh is the means by which the termination is made known to us.

G. Knowedge of the Occurrence of Naskh

1. Internal Evidence 2. Clear statement or the sahabah that one of the two statements is later than the other. 3. Ijmaa of Early Scholars

H. Ways that are not valid for indentifying Naskh

1. The statement of a companions. May have based on ijtihaad. Also naskh had wider meaning 2. Order of Quranic verses in mushaf 3. Ijtihaad of a mujtahid or the statement of a mufassir without objective evidence. 4. One of the texts is consistent with al-baraah alasliyyah.

I. Types of Abrogating and Abrogated Texts

1. Quran by Quran 2. Quran by Sunnah. This is controversial (a) a bequest for relatives (b) prohibition of predatory animals (c) Prohibition of marrying a woman and her aunt simultaneously. 3. Sunnah by Quran (a) Qiblah (b) Aashooraa for Ramadaan 4. Sunnah by Sunnah

J. Types of Naskh with regard to the Quran

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hukum no tilaawah Tilaawah not hokum Hukum and tilaawah Naskh does not occur in fundamental principles of right and wrong. Naskh does not occur in the content of statements of fact.

Module 9 Language of the Quran


Phonetic Level
1. More sustained arrangement of syllables than prose. 2. Less rigorous arrangement of syllables than poetry. 3. No rigid rules of structure and mono-rhyme of Arabic poetry.

B. Types of Rhyme in the Quran

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rhyme Proper Near rhyme of phonetically relatable consonants. Nasal rhymes /m/n/ e.g. Al-Fatiha Liquid rhyme Voiced obstruent rhyme (mostly qalalah)

C. Basic meaning and relational meaning

1. Kitaab acquired special semantic coloring. 2. Yawm meaning day linked to deen, hisaab, baath, qiyamah. 3. Kafara basically means to be ungrateful. It became to mean ingratitude to God. And by the end of the Prophet (PBUH) life it came to mean the opposite of aamana.

D. Word Choice
1. Abaqa for Yoonus 2. Subtle grammatical constructions 3. Grammatical shift for Rhetorical purposes E. Grammatical Shifts in the Quran (iltifaat) 1. change in person between 1st, 2nd and 3rd person ( most common type) 2. change in number, between singular, dual and plural. 3. change in addressee 4. change in the tense of the verb 5. change in case marker 6. using noun in place of pronoun

F. The General and the Specific

1. Al-aam: a word which applies to many things, not limited in number, and includes everything to which it is applicable. 2. Words indicating generality like jamee, kul, kaaffah, aye 3. Conditional and relative pronouns like allathi, allatheena, min 4. Singular or plural noun preceded by the definite article al 5. Indefinite noun in a negative statement, question, prohibition.

G. Types of General Texts

1. 2. 3. 4. Absolutely general General restricted by same text General restricted by another text General wording but the intent was specific

H. Specification: Takhsees

1. Means to make clear that the general wording is intended to apply to only some of its members. e.g. prohibition of marriage to mushrik women exception is Christian and Jewish women. 2. There are different types of Takhsees 3. An example of takhsees al-'aamm (the exclusion of some members from a general set defined by a given wording) is the verse Do not marry mushrik women until they believe. *2:21+

I. Types of Takhsees
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Takhsees by the same text Takhsees by a different text Qiyaas Logic Sensory Perception

J. Conflict Between Aam and Khaas

1. Rule 1: in a given rule, priority given to khaas. Khaas is stronger than aam in its indication of the ruling. 2. Rule 2: When two aams conflict, tarjeeh must be sought from another daleel.

K. Mutlaq (Absolute) and Muqyaad (Qualified)

1) Difference between Mutlaq and Aam: Aam refers to everyone, Mutlaq refers to anyone. 2) Mutlaq is generally indicated by a indefinite word in a positive sentence 3) Muqayyad is usually indicated via an adjective or clause 4) Can the law of a Muqayad verse be applied to a Mutlaq verse? Can be applied in four situations

Module 10 Muhkam and Mutashaabih

A. Classification of words based on clarity
1. Nass: wording which carries two or more possible meanings. 2. Zaahir: two or more possible meanings but one of them is stronger. Refers to apparent meaning or obvious meaning. 3. Mjumal: A wording whose intent cannot be determined without further clarification.

B. Aspects of Thaahir Interpretation

1. Haqeeqah over Majaaz. 2. The presumption that nothing has been left out. 3. The presumption that unrestricted was meant to be left unrestricted. 4. The presumption that the general includes every member of its class without specification. 5. Commands are thaahir in indicating obligation 6. Negation of validity takes precedence over negation of perfection.

C. Muawwal: Taweel (To Return)

1. To explain the intended meaning of a statement. 2. To interpret according to secondary meaning. 3. Realization or implementation of a statement. 4. Technical meaning of Muawwal is opposite of Thaahir

D. Types of Mujmal
1. Mushtarak (Homonyms) 2. Ambiguous construction 3. Pronoun referral 4. meaning unknown to listener. 5. Clear to listener that the speaker intends to qualify a command or prohibition 6. Action of the Prophet (PBUH) opened to more than one interpretation.

E. Haqeeqah
1. Literally or original meaning then extended as "asad" meaning lion then extended to mean a brave man. 2. When first meaning comes to the mind of the non-native speaker, but may be used in non-literal sense.

F. Division of Haqeeqah
1. Linguistic 2. Customary a. General

b. Special 3. Sharee. When the Shareeah gives special meanigns like salaah, sawm, zakkah.

G. Majaaz: Metonymy; Metaphor

1. used in transferred sense. 2. Figure of speech, to use name of one thing for other like bottle for drink. 3. Turn to metaphorical meaning when a qareenah is present to indicate that the literal is not intended. 4. When a term has taken shareeah meaning according to its original linguistic meaning the usage is Majaaz.

H. Mhukam and Mutashaabih

1. Liunguistically,Muhkam means to bridle. hakamah 2. Linguistically, Mutashaabih from shahabah to resemble. 3. Tehnically, muhkam whole law is still in effect, text whose meaning is known, text which can be interpreted in one way, understood without reference, whole indication is raajih, understood without difficulty. 4. Technically, mutashabih abrogated, reference that Allah has reserved, text which can be interpreted in more than one way, not understood without reference, may be understood with difficulty.

I. Types of Mutashaabih
1. Utterly incapable of understanding. 2. Which can be understood through exertion of effort or research. 3. Only the most knowledgeable of scholars can understand.

J. Reasons for Mutashaabihaat in the Quran

1. Test of humility, knowing one's limits. 2. To avoid anthromorphism

Module 11 Haqeeqah and Majaaz

A. Haqeeah
1. Literally the original meaning of a word is extended. Example lion, he is a lion. 2. Also means the first meaning that comes to the mind of the native speakers.

B. Division of Haqeeqah
1. Linguistic as asad for lion 2. Customary which may be general as the word Daabah or special as the word marfoo which different groups assigned different meanings. 3. Sharee. To give special meanings, used in shariaa h text like salah, sawm, zakaah.

C. Majaaz: words used in transferred sense

1. Turn to metaphorical when qareenah is present 2. Objections of Zaahirees and the Maalikee Ibn Khuwayzmindaad Denial to literal meanings implies there is falsehood in the Book of Allah. Response to this is: No. One must understand in terms of native speakers. Denying majaaz is not appreciate Qurans deft use of language.

D. Types of Majaaz
1. Majaaz aqlee (rational metonymy). Also known as majaaz isnaad. Relating an action other than to the actual actor. Majaaze aqlee is sub divided into: a. Both its elements of are haqeeqe b. Both its elements are majazze c. The first element is haqeeqe while the second is majaaze d. The first element is majaazee while the second is haqeeqe 2. Majaaze Lughwee (Linguistic metonymy) Use of a word to mean other than its primary linguistic meaning. Sub types are: a. Referring to a whole by one of its parts. b. Using the whole to refer to one of its parts. c. Using a trait of the whole to describe a part. d. Using and adjective of a part to describe the whole. e. Using a general term to refer to something more specific. f. To refer to the malzoom by laazim. g. To refer to the outcome by its cause. h. To refer to the cause by its outcome. i. To refer to someone by what they used to be. j. To refer to someone or thing by what they or it will become. k. To refer to the occupier by what it occupies l. To refer to the occupiers of a space by the space. m. To refer to something by its opposite. n. Attributing an action to something by way of similarity o. Use of a verb when the intent is almost p. Inversion of word order

q. r. s. t. u. v.

Use of the plural for one Use of the plural for dual Use of the past tense for future for emphasis. Use of imperfect for the perfect. Use of a statement to indicate command Use of the command form for statement of fact

E. Kiaayah and Tasreeh

1. Kinaayah means allusion or euphemism i.e. to speak about something in a roundabout way. 2. Tasreeh to say what you mean without beating about the bush.

F. Why is Kinaayah (allusion) Used?

1. Due to delicacy. 2. For vividness

G. Tareed ( Hint)
Not refer directly but to hint at.

Module 12 Mubhamaat and Oaths

A. Mubhamaat
1. Quranic references to individuals, groups or places without naming them. 2. May be either individuals, groups or places. 3. There are several reasons for them.

B. Reasons for Mubhamaat

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The term or identity explained elsewhere. Well-known and no need of clarification. To protect individuals feelings No great importance. Indicator of general significance To magnify by mentioning the traits. To indicate insignificance

C. Taqdeem and Takheer

1. Moving words up 2. Moving words back 3. This moving is due to certain consideration

D. Reasons
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tabarruk Tazeem Tashreef Contextual appropriateness Stressing importance and warning. Priority a. Chronological b. Order in performance c. Numerical order d. Sababiyyah e. Majority over minority According to Imam Shafee pre-requisite of knowledge. According to Ibn al Qayyim more than 40 examples in the Quran. Some considered it a composite majaaz i.e. murakkab mujaaz. May be a simie (tashbeeh sareeh) Allah swears by Himself, His signs or aspects of His creation. Allahs prerogative to swear by whatever He chooses. His servants only to swear by Allah. Aspects of creation which Allah swears by are either eminent or beneficial.

E. Quranic Analogies
1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4.

F. The Oaths of the Quran

G. Oaths to Emphasize
1. Tawheed

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Status of the Quran Muhammad (PBUH) is the true prophet. The day of judgement is definitely coming. Aspects of human condition Jawaabl al-qasam unstated because of contextual indication.

Module 13 Quranic Arguments and Stories

A. Quranic Arguments
1. Disputation key aspect of human nature. 2. Quran is the book of Dawah. Its arguments not like scholastic theologians as it addresses peoples fitrah. 3. Quran is not addressed to philosophers but to humanity in general. 4. Calling people to the signs in creation. 5. Quran rules for disputationcall to the way of thy lord. 6. Applying psychological pressure. Socrates questioning. The Quran repeatedly poses questions.

B. Use of Analogies
1. A fortiori analogy is known as al-qiyaas al-awlaa like the analogy of returning the dead to life with creation of the heavens and earth. 2. Analogy of restoring life to dead people with restoring life to dead earth through rain. 3. Analogy of returning life to disintegrated corpses with bringing fire forth from green wood. 4. Refuting the disputants claim by establishing the opposite.

C. Quranic Stories
1. Story loving part of human nature and the Quran did not ignore it. 2. Objectives of Quranic stories: a. All messengers had the same basic message. b. All messengers were opposed. c. Muhammad (PBUH) had no knowledge of these stories before they were revealed. d. Strengthening the resolve of the prophets and believers. e. To teach and provide food for thought.

D. Types of Quranic Stories

1. Historical: Specific individuals and time-space. Stories of the prophets. 2. Archetypal: Individuals not identified. Story of Cain and Abel. 3. Examplary Tales: coined for purpose of reflection. Not necessarily occurred. Unnamed individuals. More of types. Example story in Soorah al-khaf.

E. Characters in Quranic Stories

1. No detailed physical descriptions like in novels. 2. Makes the personality distinct by actions, not descriptions. 3. Characters in the family frame work Believing father/disbelieving son: Noah and son Believing son/disbelieving father: Abraham and his father Believing father and son: Abraham and Ishmael Believing wife/disbelieving husband: Pharaohs wife and Pharaoh Believing husband/disbelieving wife: Noah and his wife; Lot and his wife

4. Controversy around the story of Pharaoh. Tafseer Ishaaree regard it symbol of ego of man. Al-Qurtubee rejected this. Ikhwaanee/Mawdudi interpretation, Pharaoh symbol of political tyranny while Moses symbol of justice to establish Islamic state. Not valid interpretation.

F. Characteristics of Quranic Stories

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fragmented & scattered. Snapshots. Relevance. Sometimes the point of the story is a warning. Sometimes to comfort and support. Sometimes to make prominent the issues. To show how Allah takes special care of the pious and how His power overrides all human schemes to thwart His plan. 6. The repetition of the stories gives the Quran a symphonic structure lie a piece of music with recurring themes. The repetition occurs only in Prophets stories. 7. Sparsely told. Extraneous details pared away.

G. Quranic Stories- Time Four Main Types

1. Time defined by planetary movements i.e. hours, days, months i.e. normal time. 2. Primordial Time: Before the establishment of the system of planetary movements like creation of heavens and earth in six days. Not referring to 24 hours day. 3. End time i.e. after the Day of Judgement 4. Subjective Psychological Time: like the story of the man who died for a hundred years and then was resurrected.

H. Quranic Treatment of Locations

1. Those mentioned by name and still known by that name. For example, al-Masjid alHaram, Egypt. 2. Mentioned by name but location not known like Mount Judiy where Noahs Ark landed. 3. Mentioned only by attribute which could be applied to many places. 4. A character may be associated with a place but the story is only alluded to not told. 5. Story told without indication of the place.

I. The Geographical Focus of the Quranic Discourse

1. 2. 3. 4. The hear or the bulls Eye: Makkah, al-Haram, Saffa, Marwah etc. The places of Battle. 1500 Km radius of Makkah. Some locations are unknown like Dhul-Qamayn

Module 14 Tafseer Bil Mathoor

A. Methodology
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mathoor comes from the term athar which means narration. Any narration attributed to the Prophet, companions and sometimes to the tabioon. Popular among sahabah. Very reluctant to give opinion about Quran. Quran has serious warnings when speaking about Allah without knowledge. (7:33) Tafseer Bil Mathoor is a tafseer of what is explained in the Quran, transmitted from the Prophet (PBUH), companions and their students. Tafseer Bil Mathoor is also known as Tafseer Birriwayah. 6. Scholars agree that tafseer Bil-Mathoor is permissible and preferable over other forms of tafseer on the condition that the isnaad are authentic. 7. However, a substantial amount of material is not authentic. 8. Tafseer Bir-rai, which is tafseer of opinon. A pure tafseer of opinion is deviation. Most tafseers are a combination.

B. Reasons for Fabrications in the Transmissions

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Deliberate fabrications by the enemies of the Quran. By partisan sectarian groups. No inspecting the transmitted reports critically. Widespread narrations of Israeeeeliyyaat. He was a teacher of Imam Ahmad Completely Tafseer Bil Mathoor without his own opinion. Few narrations, fragmented without providing full picture. Most narrations found in his book al-Mussanaf Abdul Razzaq.

C. Tafseer Abdul Razzaaq

D. Tafseer of Sufyaan al-Thawree

1. His is complete tafseer Bil Mathoor 2. Also includes some of his comments with narrations. 3. It is very brief.

E. Marwiyaat al-Imaam Ahmad

1. Not his own book written by him which was lost. This refers to the one recently complied and published by Hikmat Basheer Yaseen in 1994. 2. Compiled from works of Imam Ahmad, his students work and reports from him. 3. Although the original book by Imam Ahmad is lost. However other scholars referred to it like: Ibn al Nadeem, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibnul Qayyim and Ibn Hajr. 4. Al-Dhahabee: expressed doubts about the existence. 5. Very detailed and include comments in addition to narrations.

Module 15
A. Tafseer al-Tabaree
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. Muhammad Ibn Jareer al-Tabaree died in 310 AH Also known as Jaafar, mujtahid and founded his own madhab. Lost but copy found and first printed in 1323 AH Introduces a passage, mentions variant recitations & linguistic explanations. His Tafseer is combination of Mathoor and Rai (narration and opinion) Uses Tarjeeh i.e. mentions interpretations or earlier scholars and chooses what he considers as the strongest interpretation and explaining the reasons for his choice. Collected every narration he could on every single verse. It contains a lot of fabricated and weak narrations along with Israailyaat. However, he mentions full isnaad so that the scholars can check its authenticity. Primarily a reference work, an encyclopaedia type. Not a book to be read from cover to cover. Used by Orientalists to attack Islam. Also wrote half of Tafseer al-Jalayn, other half by Jalauddin al Mhahalli Prolific writer, said to have written 300 books. Did not include the isnaads although he did include the source. Contains a mixture of authentic and weak narrations.

Tafseer al-Durr-al-manthoor by Jalal uddin al-Suyootee

C. Tafseer Zaad al-Maseer by Abdul Rahman Ib Alee Ib al Jawzee

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Summary of the opinions of earlier scholars (salaf) Statements of the Propbet (PBUH), companions, Tabioon and linguistic scholars. Strict on authenticity of isnaad but does not mention. 9 volumes long. Contains a lot of Israaliyaat. Also touches on fiqh issues relevant to a verse.

Module 16
A. Tafseer Al-Baghawee
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Husayn Ibn Masood ibn Muhammad Al-Baghawee born in 433 and died 516 AH. Expert in Shaafiee fiqh, hadeeth and tafseer. Sharha al-Sunnah his famous tafseer and compilation of hadeeth. Composed his tafseer in response to requests from his students. Al-Ghazaali, Al-Kya -Haraasee, Al-Zamakhsaree were among his contemporaries. His sources are Abu Ishaaq, Al-Thalabee, Whab ibn Muna bbihs, Muhammad Ibn Ishaq. Main source of narrations was al-Thalabee who wrote a famous tafseer called Al-Kashf which did not have any chains of narrators and was more famous than At-Tabaris tafseer. It, however, contained many fabricated and weak narrations. 8. Bahawee used Al-Thalabee as his main source but removed many of the weak and fabricated narrations. 9. His Aqeedah is Salafaee

B. Ibn Atiyyah
1. Ibn Atiyyah, Abdul Haqq Ibn Ghaalib al-Andaloosee was born in 481 and died 541 AH. 2. Spanish scholars and his contemporaries were Qaadee Ibn Rushd, Qaadee Aboo Bakr Ibn Al-Arabee, and Qaadee Iyaad al Yahsubee. 3. Al-Tabaree influence and relied heavily on him. Other people influencing him were Abu Bakr Al-Naqqaash and Abul-Abbaas Al-Mahdawee. 4. His methodology is combining mathoor and ray. reports narrations without isnaad. Statements of sahabah, frequently quoting opinions. 5. He quotes opinion without tarjeeh. When reconciliation is not possible, he makes tarjeeh. He makes tarjeeh sometimes on the basis of hadeeth and sometimes on the basis of logic. 6. His writing style is straightforward and quotes other mufassirs including Tabaree, Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn Abee Haatim and Al-Baghawee. 7. His Aqeedah is Ashaaree.

C. Ibn Katheer
1. 2. 3. 4. Imaad al-Deen Abul fidaa Ismaaeel Ibn Umar Ibn Katheer Al-Qurashee al-Busraawee. Born in Busra and moved to Damascus at the age of five. Shafiee fiqh. His methodology is the standard methodology: Quran by Quran, Quran by Sunnah, statements of the sahabah, statements of the Tabeen. 5. He mentions a few Israaeeliyyaat. However, he does term that content strange. 6. His writing style is straightforward. 7. He quotes from Tabaree, Qurtubee, Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn Abee Haatim, Al-Bahgawee.

Module 17 Tafseer Bil Raye

A. Tafseer Bil-Ray
1. It is permissible as long as it does not contradict the Quran and Sunnah. 2. Evidence from the Quran Will they not meditate on the Quran, or are there locks on the hearts. [47:24] 3. Evidence from Sunnah O Allah! Grant him understanding of the deen and teach him the interpretation [of the Quran]. 4. Rational Argument. Prophet explained limited verses difficult for sahabah, tafseer by ijtihaad permissible to explain the unexplained.

B. Al-Zarkashee Steps for Correct Tafseer bi-Ray

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Start with what has been authentically reported from the Prophet (PBUH) i.e. manqool. Quote Tafseer of the Companions. Undertake linguistic analysis with proper consideration for the rules of the language. Take into account the context of the verse. Take into account the Maqaasid (objectives) of the Shareeah.

C. Types of Knowledge in the Quran

1. That which Allah has reserved for Himself. 2. Knowledge which Allah informed the Prophet about. No comment without mathoor. 3. Knowledge open to human investigation. Lawful for Tafseer bil-Ray

D. Al-Kash-Shaaf by Al-Zamakhsahree
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mhamood Ibn Umar 467 to 537 AH He was a Mutazilite. Starts each surah with its name, number of verses, makkan or madeenan, asbaab etc. Uses mathoor if not in conflict with his Mutazilite views. Gives high status to the intellect. Uses taweel to explain away any hint of anthromorphism. philological and syntactical Tafseer His tafseer is free from Israliyaat.

E. Mafaateh Al-Ghayb Tafseer al-Kabeer by Fakhruddeen Ar-Razi

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. A Shafee Scholar. Engages in many debates with opposing schools of thought. Comments on each verse and describes Asbab. Explain relationship of verses with previous ones. Explains the wisdom of the verse. Explains the keywords. Tunisian Scholar and Rector of Al-Zaytoona University. Rivers of al-Shaatibees works. Attempts to answer difficult questions. Uses grammatical intricacies at very high level.

F. Muhammad Al-Tahir Ibn Aashoor 1879-1973 CE

Module 18 Fiqh Tafseer

A. Fiqhee Tafseer
1. Refers to explanation of the Quran from legal perspective. 2. Most of them comment on selected verses except Al-Qurtubi. 3. They are a sub-division of Tafseer bil Ray mixed with narrations.

B. Tafseer of al-Raazee
1. Period from 305 to 370 AH 2. Was a Hanafi Scholar and studied under the major hadeeth scholars. 3. His tafseer known as Ahkaamul Quran 4. Quran is not to be opposed with akhbaar aahaad. 5. "What comes to you from me, compare it to the Book of Allah; what is in according with the Book of Allah is from me, and what contradicts the Book of Allah is not from me." (hadeeth) 6. Issue regarding who curses the Prophet. Difference of opinion. some say he should be killed, others view asked to repent and then punish, if non-muslim ask to accept Islam if not killed. Several other opinons. 7. He uses fiqhee tafseer to try and prove that Hanafi principle that Ahaad Hadeeth can't be used for proof in fiqh.

C. Tafseer of al-Kiyaa al-Harraasee

1. Also called Ahkaam al-Quran. 2. Time period 450 AH to 508 AH 3. Accused of Ismaaeelee sympathies. 4. He was a Shafiee scholar and wrote many books. 5. From his tafseer of Surah Kahf that Fuqahaa would extract rulings from verses which we would not have thought of. 6. Another example of his fiqh issue discussion is regarding the difference of opinion that whether a Dhimmi should be judged by our Shariah or theirs.

D. Ibn al-Arabee
1. Aboo Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Arabee 2. Time period 468 to 543 AH 3. Born in Morrocco. 4. Mujtahid in the Maalikee madhab. 5. Studied with al-Ghazaalee. 6. This is not the famous sufi scholar. 7. Fiqh issues in his tafseer include examples of the issue of prophets not discussing issues beyond human understanding. 8. Also uses the story of the poeple of the cave to discuss the Fiqh issues regarding Wakaalah.

E. Muhmamad Ibn Ahmad al Qurtubee

1. Died in 671 AH.

2. He was a Maalikee 3. His tafseer is known as Al-Jaami li Akhkaam al-Quraan 4. Example from his tafseer whether it is regarding as permissible for someone to throw themselves into clear danger in the battlefield, based on the verse "do not throw yourself into destruction" after explaining the general meaning of that verse.

F. Muhammad Alee al-Saaboonee

1. His tafseer known as Rawaai al-Bayaan. 2. He is a contemporary scholar of Tafseer. 3. Deals in variety of issues like definitions, asbab an-nuzool, subtle points, general guidance and fiqh.

Module 19 Soofee Tafseer

A. Types of Soofee Tafseer
1. Nazaree: Theoritical, starts with a metaphysical theory about the nature of being and imposes it on the texts. For example the theory of wahdatul wujood that nothing actually exists except Allah. 2. Ishaaree which means symbolic interpretation. idea of layers of meaning, apparant literal and non-apparant which only reveals to one who purifies himself through soofee methodology. 3. According to al-Dhahaabee, the main differences between metaphysical Soofee Tafseer and ishaaree Tafseers is that 1) Metaphysical Soofee Tafseer starts with a preconceived notion about the nature of reality that has formed in the mind of its author first, then the Quran is interpreted in the light of it. Ishaaree Tafseers are not the result of a theory but of the regimen of spiritual exercises practiced by the authors until they result (supposedly) in divinely inspired insights into hidden meanings of the texts. 2) The author of metaphysical Soofee Tafseer considers his interpretation as the true meaning of the verse or passage, whereas the Ishaaree Tafseers acknowledge that the apparent meaning is one of a number of possible meanings and that the readily apparent meaning is valid and is, in fact, the primary meaning.

B. Ibn al-Qayyim Conditions for Ishaaree Tafseer

1. Should not conflict with zahir meaning 2. The interpretation should be a valid meaning in and of itself. 3. The Quranic wording should hint at the Ishaari meaning. 4. There should be a strong connection between aayah and the Ishaaree meaning.

C. Other Conditions
1. It should not be claimed to be the primary meaning of the verse 2. It should not be far-fetched 3. It should not contradict the Shariah or logic 4. it should not affect the Shariah

D. Major Ishaaree Tafseer

1. Gharaaib al-Quran 2. Rooh al-Maani 3. Tafseer al Qurana al-adheem by at-Tustaree

Module 20 Shiite Tafseer

A. Shite Tafseer
1. Differ on legitimacy of the political and spiritual succession to the Prophet. 2. Twelve imamers and seven imamers (ismailis) 3. Ismailis reject the literal meaning of texts and give them esoteric meanings. 4. Nusayrees declared Alee to be God incarnate and Druze one of the Faatimid rulers of Egypt.

B. The Twelve Imamers

1. Religion needs on going definitive interpretation. Only imams qualified to do so. 2. Regard the imams to be super humans. 3. The twelfth imam disappeared in a childhood. Contacts with devotees. 4. Hatred for Sahabah except few.

C. The attitude of Shites to the Quran

1. Dispute the Uthmani codex. 2. Accusation of tahrif, edition, deletion and addition. 3. Accusing sahabah of mininterpreting. 4. The Quran contains hidden meanings, only exegete could decipher 5. The Quran teaches principles while tradition expounds their details.

D. Principles of Shite's Exegesis

1. Interpret verses to refer to imams 2. Authority to interpret reserved for Alee, his descendants and the imams. 3. The Quran is full of symbols and codes. Allegories. 4. Characterised by a radical anti Sunni bias. 5. Designed to support the shite doctrine of imaamate and concepts. 6. Mahdee will eventually reveal the true text and uncover its original intention.

E. Famous books of Shi'ite Tafsir

1. Fu'raat Al-Kufi 2. Al-Ayyaashee 3. Al-Qummee 4. Al-Nu'maanee 5. Haqaa'iq Al-Tafsir Qur'aani - ascribed to Jafar Saadiq 6. Tafsir Al-Askaree 7. Tibyaan - Al-Toosi 8. Majmaa Al-Bayaan - At-Tabarsi 9. Rawd Al-Jinaan - Abul Futuh Al-Raazee

F. Summary
1. Early Shi'ite tafseer consisted almost exclusively narrations from their imams 2. The most important belief of 12vers only imams can interpret the Quran.

3. Murtada, Taoosee and Tabarsee considers uthmani codes incomplete but no falsification. 4. The sahabah had changed the Quran 5. The Quran made general statements while details left to 12 imams.