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The DEM collision model extends the DPM model in Fluent to model dense particulate flows. The model can be used with Dense DPM to account for effect of blockage of particles on primary phase solution. This is useful for modeling applications such as bubbling fluidized beds, risers, pneumatic conveying systems, and the flow of slurries. The DEM models is especially useful • • When dealing with a wide particle size distribution When dealing with relatively coarse meshes
This document is a tutorial on the use of the DDPM model where collisions are modeled through DEM model.
This tutorial will not cover the mechanics of using the Dense DPM or DEM models. It will focus on the application of these models. For more information refer the ANSYS FLUENT User's Guide and Theory Guide. This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1 from the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 Tutorial Guide, and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.
In this tutorial we will model a bubbling fluidized bed and determine its behavior for a given superficial velocity. A rectangular bed of size 0.2m * 0.2m * 0.4m is initially charged with particles, and the superficial velocity of the gas is 0.5 m/s. The pressure drop across the bed is monitored. Schematic of the problem is shown in Figure.1. From the classic fluidization curve, if the superficial velocity of the inlet fluid is small, the bed is not fluidized and behaves like a packed bed. As the velocity of the fluid is increased, the bed begins to fluidize. One of the classical ways to understand the phenomena is the fluidization curve; here the pressure required to pump the fluid at the inlet is studied as a function of the superficial velocity. Under packed bed conditions, there is a linear increase in the pressure as the superficial velocity is increased. However, this increase begins to taper off as the condition of incipient fluidization is reached, and the pressure reaches a constant value (in a time averaged
B. after you read in the mesh.2 Starting ANSYS FLUENT using FLUENT Launcher in the ANSYS FLUENT 14.vw to the working folder.inj and view-0. Figure.0 User's Guide. Enable DoublePrecision in the Options list.msh. Copy the files bed. It will be left upon the user to try with different superficial velocity to obtain the fluidization curve. Note: For more information about FLUENT Launcher see Section 1. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. In other words < ܲ >௧ × ܣ௧ = Buoyant weight of bed In this tutorial we will perform simulations for a given superficial velocity where a bed is fluidized. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. C. . Therefore.sense). it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. 92Kparcels.1: Schematic of problem description Preparation A.1. This constant pressure at fluidization conditions is sufficient to maintain the buoyant weight of the bed.
General Transient Step 3: Models a) Multiphase model..Setup and Solution Note: All entries in setting up this case are in SI units. Ensure that the minimum volume reported is a positive number.. II. Edit… Select Eulerian multiphase model. Retain other defaults and click OK. Step 2: General a) Check the mesh.msh. unless otherwise specified. Enable Dense Discrete Phase Model.2: Multiphase Model Panel . b) Enable the transient solver by selecting Transient from the Time list. Figure. File Read Mesh. III. General Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Step 1: Mesh a) Read the mesh file bed. Models Multiphase I.
• Disable Accuracy Control. Enter 200 for Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iteration. VI. VIII. Figure. III. Set the following under Numerics tab.3: Discrete Phase Model Panel c) Define Injection. Enter 1e-8 for Stop Time (s). Click OK to close Set Injection Properties panel. IV. Enable DEM Collision under Physical Models tab.b) Discrete Phase Model. Select phase-2 under Discrete Phase Domain. III. Make sure that Unsteady Particle Tracking is enabled. II. • Select implicit as Tracking Scheme. Select file under Injection Type. IV. VI. V. VII. Disable Track with Fluid Flow Time Step and enter 0. Click Close to close Injections panel. Click OK to close DPM panel. V. Click File… button and select 92Kparcels. Define Injections… Create I.0002 for Particle Time Step Size (s). Models Discrete Phase Edit… I. Make sure that Update DPM Sources Every Flow Iteration. Set Drag Law as Wen-Yu under Tracking Tab. II.inj file from working folder. .
Figure. IX. Select dem-anthracite – dem-aluminum from Collision Pairs. V. Select dem-anthracite – dem-anthracite from Collision Pairs. Retain spring-dashpot as Normal Contact Force and set friction-dshf for Tangential. VII. Models Discrete Phase I. Change spring-dashpot: k as 100 and retain other settings. X.4: Set Injection Properties Panel d) Set DEM collision laws.5: DEM Collision Settings Panel . Retain spring-dashpot as Normal Contact Force and set friction-dshf for Tangential. II.5. Click OK to close the panel. Edit… DEM Collisions… Select dem-anthracite and click Set… This will open DEM Collision Settings panel. IV. Click Close to close DEM Collisions panel. VI. Change spring-dashpot: k as 100 and spring-dashpot: eta as 0. III. VIII.Figure. Click OK to close DPM panel.
Go to DPM tab and select Discrete Phase BC Type to reflect and DEM Collision Partner as dem-aluminum. Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions a) Set boundary conditions for inlet. V.5 for Velocity Magnitude (m/s) and click OK to close the panel. Select phase-1 from Phase drop down list and click Edit….225 kg/m3. Select inlet from zone list and click Edit… while phase is mixture. Go to DPM tab and select Discrete Phase BC Type to reflect and DEM Collision Partner as dem-aluminum. Phases Phase-2 I. Step 7: Solution Methods Solution Methods a) Select Green-Gauss Node Based from Gradient. b) Specify Operating Density to be 1. b) Set boundary conditions for outlet.. This will open Pressure Outlet panel for mixture phase. I.. Step 5: Operating Conditions Define Operating Conditions… a) Enable Gravity and set Z component as -9. Edit.Step 4: Phases a) Set phase-2. c) Retain default settings for wall. II. . I. Select outlet from zone list and click Edit… while phase is mixture. II. Enter 0. Deselect Volume Fraction Approaching Continuous Flow Limit and click OK. Click OK to close this panel.81 m/s2. IV. III. This will open Velocity Inlet panel for mixture phase. Click OK to close this panel. III.
Volume Fraction: 1 IV. Pressure: 0.b) Select QUICK for Momentum and Volume Fraction Spatial Discretization. Enable Plot and Write.6: Surface Monitor Panel Step 10: Solution Initialization Solution Initialization a) Initialize with default settings. . Discrete Phase Sources: 1 Step 9: Monitors Monitors a) b) c) d) Surface Monitors Create… Create monitor of Area-Weighted Average of Static Pressure on inlet surface. Momentum: 0. Click Initialize. I.9 II. Figure.2 III. Set X Axis as Flow Time and Get Data Every 1 Time Step. Click OK to close the panel. Step 8: Solution Controls Solution Controls a) Set Under-Relaxation Factors for variables as given below.
8. We would then set post-processing parameters which would be used to save image files at specific intervals as entered in Step 11. In the second stage.7: Execute Commands Panel Figure.7 below. we . First we will perform calculation for single time step to inject all particles in the domain.Step 11: Calculation Activities Calculation Activities Execute Commands Create/Edit… We will define four commands in this step which will save images of particle tracks colored by particle velocity magnitude at specified interval. a) Set Defined Commands to 4. c) Set settings for saving images as shown in Figure. These images can be clubbed together to create animation. b) Set execute commands as shown in the Figure. File Save Picture… Figure.8: Save Picture Panel Step 12: Run Calculation Run Calculation We will perform this step in three stages.
Make sure Filled and Node Values are enabled. a) b) c) d) e) Set Time Step Size (s) as 0.vw from working folder. case will be run for two more seconds without Execute Commands. Set Number of Time Steps as 1. Select Lighting Method as Gouraud.9: Particle Tracks Panel . k) Click on Filter by… button and select Y-Coordinate and set Filter-Min. Make sure that Light On and Headlight On are enabled. Graphics and Animations Contours Set Up… h) Set Light settings.10.001. Name it as y=0. In the last stage. Click Calculate. Display Views… Read… f) Create iso-surface of y-coordinate=0. Surface Iso-Surface… g) Display contour of phase-2 volume fraction on iso-surface y=0.would run the calculation for two seconds of flow time with Execute Commands enabled.9. Figure. l) Click Display. Graphics and Animations Particle Tracks j) Click on Attributes… button under Track Style and select Parcel Diameter as shown in Figure. Display Lights… i) Set particle track settings as shown in Figure.11. Read view-0 from file view-0. Set Reporting Interval as 5. Filter-Max as shown in Figure.
11: Particle Filter Attributes Panel m) Save the case file as fbed-first-t-step.13 shows plot of pressure drop across the bed. p) Run calculation for 2000 time steps. q) Save case and data as fbed-final. . Step 13: Results a) Figure. n) Run calculation for 2000 time steps.gz.gz and fbed-final. Notice that results are close.cas. Notice that mean value is close to the pressure drop equivalent for buoyant weight of the bed which is 981 Pa. o) Disable Execute Commands by setting Defined Commands to 0 under Execute Commands panel. b) Figure.cas.dat.10: Particle Sphere Style Attributes Panel Figure.gz. contour plot of DPM Concentration and Particle tracks from the final data file.12 shows contour plot of secondary phase volume fraction.Figure.
13: Monitor plot for pressure drop across the bed . Particle Tracks colored by secondary phase volume fraction Figure. A. Contour plot of secondary phase volume fraction B. Contour plot of DPM Concentration C.Figure.12: Results from final data file.
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