Fans Reference Guide

4th edition, 2001

First Edition, September 1993 Second Edition, October 1997 Third Edition, August 1999 Fourth Edition, January 2001

Coordinated by: Scott Rouse, P.Eng., MBA. Ontario Hydro 1997

Revised by: Richard Okrasa, P. Eng., MBA. Ontario Hydro

Written by: Ralph G. Culham, P. Eng. Consulting Engineer for Technology Services Department, Ontario Hydro, 1993

Neither Ontario Hydro, nor any person acting on its behalf, assumes any liabilities with respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the use of, any information, equipment, product, method or process disclosed in this guide.

Making Energy Savings Good Business

Printed in Canada Copyright © 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001 Ontario Power Generation

FANS
Reference Guide

3rd Edition, 1999

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Fan Static Efficiency...................9 Backward-inclined ........................................3 Fans ...........4 Fan Static Pressure ................................................5 Fan Output Power .........................................................................................................................11 Radial ...........................................5 Fan Efficiency...............................................4 Fan Total Pressure Rise ...............................................................................................................................11 Forward-curved ..............................................................................7 Airfoil .................................................TA B L E OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..............1 DEFINITIONS ...................................5 System Curve..........................................................................................................16 Vanaxial .................................................................................................4 Total Pressure....4 Fan Velocity Pressure ............................................5 FAN TYPES ...............12 Propeller......................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Fan Duty .............................5 Performance Curve .............................................................................................................3 Blowers .........7 Centrifugal Fans..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 Special designs ..........3 Velocity Pressure.............................................................................4 Static Pressure ...........................................16 Tubeaxial.....21 i .....................12 Axial Fans.........................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................36 FAN PERFORMANCE CURVES ............................................................................................................43 Compressibility Factor...........44 FAN FORMULAE ...........49 Total Pressure........................49 Velocity Pressure...............52 Example 1........................................21 Centrifugal Inline Fans .........................................................................................................65 Fan Outlet Conditions..............................................................................59 Example 2...........................................................................................................................................43 Limitations ..........................................................................................................................................TA B L E OF CONTENTS Bifurcated Fans....................................39 FAN LAWS .............................................................................................................................................50 Fan Motor Power....................................................................................................................................................................65 System Effect Factors........25 Utility Fans ..........................................................50 Fan Power and Efficiency ..............50 Fan-System-Effect Factor ...............................................66 ii ..........48 Head and Pressure .............................................................................................................................53 AIR SYSTEMS ......................................................................................................................................25 Fan Designation and Arrangements ....................................................................................................................................................................................47 Density.....47 Fan Flow Rate ..25 Class Limits for Fans........33 Centrifugal Fans.....................34 Axial Fans..............................................60 FAN AND SYSTEM INTERFACE ................31 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION ...............................................21 Centrifugal Roof Exhausters .....

......135 GLOSSARY ....................................................................102 APPENDICES .....................................92 DC Motors..................................................................74 FAN NOISE ........................89 ELECTRIC MOTOR FAN DRIVE .........................................69 Pressure Definitions.........................96 Variable-Volume Fans ....115 Appendix C – Fan Outlet Loss Coefficients..........................................................81 FAN DUTY CONTROL ......................91 AC Motors .......................................................................................85 VIBRATION ISOLATION.....................................................................................................................109 Appendix B – Drive Loss Calculations..............................................93 ENERGY CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS .........................................................................95 Constant-Volume Fans ..........109 Appendix A – Density Calculations ...................72 Series Vs Parallel Operation..................................................................................................................................78 Example 3.......................................................139 iii ............................................................................................................................TA B L E OF CONTENTS Fan Inlet Conditions ...................................................131 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................91 Flywheel Effect.70 Parallel Fan Selection ............................................................................................97 Example 4.............................................................................77 Fan Sound Power......................119 CONVERSION TABLES .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS .............68 FAN SELECTION ...........................................................

. Typical Characteristics of Propeller Fans........................................... General Configuration and Component Terms for Centrifugal Fans ................ Drive Arrangements for Axial Fans with or without Diffuser and Outlet Box ..... Typical Characteristics of Backward-inclined Fans...............10 5....................................... Outlet Velocity Vector Diagram for Radial Blades...29 18..................24 14.............................................................. General Configuration and Component Terms for Axial Fans ......22 12...........................................17 9....................14 7.. Typical Characteristics of Centrifugal Roof Exhausters.......... Typical Characteristics of Airfoil Fans.........19 11...... Outlet Velocity Vector Diagram for Backward-inclined Blades..35 iv ................................................................. Airfoil ......... Typical Characteristics of Forward-curved Utility Fans........... Typical Characteristics of Radial Fans......................... Typical Characteristics of Backward-inclined Utility Fans ....................................................... Typical Characteristics of Centrifugal Inline Fans...... Outlet Velocity Vector Diagram for Forward-curved Blades ..........35 20..35 21...........................8 3.... Configuration of Bifurcated Fans ................................6 2...................23 13.....................................................................15 8.. Typical Characteristics of Vaneaxial Fans................................................... Typical Characteristics of Tubeaxial Fans ..................30 19.........28 17......................27 16... Operating Point ... Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans ..............................................26 15............13 6............ Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans ...................LIST OF FIGURES 1..18 10........9 4..................

......................................... Series Fan Operation........... Outlet Damper Fan Control ........ Velocity Vector Diagram for an Axial Fan without Inlet Guide or Diffusion Vanes at the Blade Tip ...................................475 rpm Intersecting Design Point A and Fan Static-pressure Curve at 983 rpm Intersecting Point B .................66 30.36 23..............................86 35....................... Pressure Flow Curves ..................72 32............... Design Operating Point Selection Range on a Typical Centrifugal Fan Performance Curve ....................................................................73 33..................LIST OF FIGURES 22..............................75 34.. Deficient Fan and System Performance ...........63 29...... Fan Static-pressure Design Curve at 1.......... Fan-outlet Velocity Profiles........................41 25....................... Velocity Vector Diagram for an Axial Fan without Inlet Guide or Diffusion Vanes near the Impeller Hub ....................................36 24...... Compressibility Factor ..........53 27................. Inlet Vane Control of a Fan................................. Fan Test-rig Setup ..................45 26............. Throttle Control of a Fan with a Two-speed Motor.....................................67 31......... Fan Static Pressure Curve Intersecting the Design Point A and the Maximum Design Point D .............................................88 v ..56 28........... Operating Point and System Curve..................................87 36........

.LIST OF FIGURES C1....... Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork ... Plane Symmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork.....123 C6.........................120 C3.. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork............. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork.....125 vi ..121 C4.. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork ...............124 C7.... Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork..........122 C5..........119 C2..... Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork...

................................................. Fan Laws ....... Typical VAV-fan Constants......104 8.... Typical Number of Fan Blades ................ Motor Load Efficiencies..46 2............ AFSW Centrifugal Fan at 70˚F and Standard Atmospheric Pressure.................................81 6..105 10.......... The Solution to Example 4 ..105 9...........................................79 4....... Specific Sound Power Levels and Blade Frequency Increments ..................................80 5.................83 7..........LIST OF TA B L E S 1..................................................................... Summary of Example 4 ................................................................................... Typical Manufacturer's Performance Data for a 24-in... Sound Correction Factors.................... Summary for Example 3 ...........................................................................................................................54 3......107 vii ........................

...................................114 A2..................................125 viii ................114 C1.................. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork................. Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork ........... Standard Atmospheric Data for Altitudes to 3...................... Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork .........................................LIST OF TA B L E S A1........................................................... Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork...................................122 C5....................... Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork ....120 C3....................000 m ............................................................................. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork ........................... Plane Symmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork .......119 C2.....121 C4............124 C7......123 C6........................... Density Calculations ..

sewage aeration. • Enhancing the performance of an existing air system with a new. Chapter 1: Introduction 1 . “bag” house.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION • Fans and blowers are the largest single type of user of electricity in industry. Issues such as indoor air quality and pollution control create a continuous demand for well-designed. retrofitting with a more efficient fan or blower and interconnecting ductwork will be the most appropriate way to reduce energy consumption. and ventilation. • Selecting the right size and type of fan and blower is fundamental to an energy-efficient system. Applications in all industries include: boiler combustion air supply. • The first step in any fan application is defining the needs of the system being supplied. drying. energy-efficient electronic control system offers significant potential for energy savings. efficient and cost-effective ventilation and blower systems. In some cases. dust and exhaust removal (pneumatic conveying). cooling industrial processes.

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Modified Bin Method on a spread-sheet program to determine annual energy consumption when fan power is a function of outdoor air temperature. • This guide demonstrates how to use the American Society of Heating. 1991 HVAC Applications Volume. This guide excludes life-cycle costing techniques as they are well documented in texts such as the ASHRAE Handbook. • Chapter 7 provides the formulae necessary to determine the energy consumption of a heating and ventilating fan system. • Because the personal computer is a popular design tool. Supporting handbooks and reference material are identified in the Bibliography. and some of these programs can be used for system design and selection. 2 Fans Reference Guide . a life-cycle costing analysis of a proposed system can be done.• This guide contains the information required to select an industrial or commercial fan and blower system. Hourly analysis programs determine energy use more accurately. This procedure is reasonably accurate relative to the time required to perform the analysis. particularly variable-volume fans. the formulae in this guide were designed to be used in a spreadsheet program. • Once the annual energy consumption is determined.

Sometimes higher pressure is achieved by a multistage impeller arrangement. • The proportion of static versus kinetic energy created and the inherent energy conversion efficiency depends on the type of fan (blade design). except it can produce a much higher static pressure. • The fan impeller converts rotational mechanical energy into both static and kinetic energy within the gaseous fluid. B LOWER • Similar to a fan. whereas blowers may transport a mixture of particulate and air. Chapter 2: Definitions 3 . • Engineering practice distinguishes fans and blowers for low pressure and centrifugal compressors for high pressure.CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS FAN • Device that causes flow of a gaseous fluid by creating a pressure difference by exchanging momentum from the fan blades to air/gas particles. • The gaseous fluid transported by a fan is most often air and/or toxic fumes.

apply below this demarcation with insignificant errors. assuming incompressibility. V ELOCITY P RESSURE • That pressure at a point in an airstream existing by virtue of the air density and its rate of motion. S TATIC P RESSURE • That pressure at a point in an airstream existing by virtue of the air density and its degree of compression. FAN T OTAL P RESSURE R ISE • The fan total pressure at outlet. minus the fan total pressure at inlet. 4 Fans Reference Guide .• The demarcation between blowers and compressors is set at a 7% increase in the density of the air from blower inlet to blower outlet. it converts velocity pressure to static pressure. FAN V ELOCITY P RESSURE • The pressure corresponding to the average velocity determined from the volume flow rate and fan outlet area. hence it is the sum of the static and velocity pressure (also called stagnation pressure). • Fan and blower definitions and formulae. Note: when moving air enters a closed area. T OTAL P RESSURE • That pressure at a point in an airstream existing by virtue of the air density and the degree of compression and rate of motion of the air. and is independent of the rate of motion of the air.

is equal to the product of the fan flow rate and the fan total pressure divided by a constant depending on the units. FAN D UTY • The range of operating points. P ERFORMANCE C URVE • The set of operating points defined by a particular fan design. Where the system and performance curves meet is the fan’s operating point. FAN E FFICIENCY • The fan total or mechanical efficiency is defined as the ratio of fan air power to fan-shaft input power. It is equal to the fan total efficiency times the ratio of fan static to fan total pressures Chapter 2: Definitions 5 . size. FAN O UTPUT P OWER • The fan output power or the useful power. giving the fan inlet volume flow at a rated fan pressure. S YSTEM C URVE • The set of operating points defined by the duct friction. bends. and speed. and other pressure losses that make up the connected system the fan must serve. FAN S TATIC E FFICIENCY • This is not a true efficiency but has been used traditionally in the fan industry. delivered by a fan to an incompressible fluid.FAN S TATIC P RESSURE • The fan total pressure rise diminished by the fan velocity pressure.

Fan Total Pressure or Fan Static Pressure Fan Performance Curve System Curve P Operating Point Volume Flow V Figure 1: Operating Point 6 Fans Reference Guide .

C ENTRIFUGAL FANS • Centrifugal fans are divided into four main subclassifcations according to impeller type: airfoil. and sewage aerators. radial and forward-curved. conveyors.Centrifugal fans have high pressure capability for applications such as boilers. • These general classifications are subdivided into groups with inherent performance characteristics to suit a specific application.CHAPTER 3 FAN TYPES • The two general classifications of fans – centrifugal and axial – are established according to the direction of flow through the impeller. • All other fans fall under a special design classification. Chapter 3: Fan Types 7 . baghouses. . .Axial fans have high volume capability for large duct size ventilation applications. backward-inclined. including mixed-flow fans.

Figure 2: General Configuration and Component Terms for Centrifugal Fans Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201–90 8 Fans Reference Guide .

• Due to the high operating speed. and relatively deep blades allow for efficient air expansion within the blade passages. an AF fan is the most expensive to construct and repair. the airfoil blades and the close tolerances. • The fan is in a scroll-type housing designed to efficiently convert velocity pressure to static pressure. but the most expensive. curved away from the direction of rotation. a close tolerance between the wheel and the housing inlet cone must be maintained. Rotation Figure 3: Airfoil Chapter 3: Fan Types 9 . • Air leaves the impeller wheel at a velocity of less than its tip speed. these fans rotate at the highest speed. • It is the most efficient centrifugal fan design at approximately 90%.Airfoil • The most efficient centrifugal fan design. • Airfoil (AF) have an impeller with typically 10 to 16 blades of airfoil contour (see Figure 2). • For a given duty. • To achieve high static-pressure efficiency.

24 in. 5 AFSW Centrifugal 1.000 8 10 12 se sp 0 40 20 80 60 static efficiency (se) 10 Fans Reference Guide static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) Figure 4: Typical Characteristics of Airfoil Fans .170 rpm 100 surge 4 3 hp 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 cfm x 1.

• For a given duty. Chapter 3: Fan Types 11 . • Best suited to applications that require low-to-medium static pressure and a large flow volume. R fans operate at medium speed. • The fan is in the same scroll-type housing as an AF fan. ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems and clean-air industrial applications where the power savings can be significant. specifically in commercial HVAC systems with moderate flow volume.APPLICATION • Usually commercial heating. They are being used increasingly in industrial process ventilation with wear liners. • The blades can be either straight radial or modified radial with a slight curve. Also used in industrial systems that require some tolerance to a corrosive or erosive environment. Backward-inclined • Backward-inclined (BI) or backward curved fans have an impeller with typically 10 to 16 blades of uniform thickness incllined or curved away from the direction of rotation. They are often equipped with removeable wear plates to extend the useful life of the fan impeller. APPLICATION • In systems that require low-to-high static pressure. • BI fans are slightly less efficient than AF fans at approximately 80%. Radial Fans • Radial (R) fans have an impeller wheel of high mechanical strength with typically six to 10 blades of heavy gauge material radiating out from the hub.

and primarily kinetic energy is transferred to the air. Forward-curved • Forward-curved (FC) fans have an impeller wheel made of light gauge material.) A XIAL FANS • Divided into three subclassifications according to impeller type: propeller. 26. APPLICATION • Generally in packaged and built-up. • These fans are the smallest of the centrifugal type and.• They are the least efficient fan at 50% to 60%. rotate at the slowest speed. except the tolerance between the inlet cone and the wheel is not as critical allowing lighter gauge material to be used. • The fan housing is a scroll design similar to the other centrifugal fan housings. 12 Fans Reference Guide . (See Figure 14. for a given duty. commercial and residential HVAC systems with low-to-medium static pressures and low air volumes. such as material handling of airborne particulate or where high static pressure is required. p. APPLICATION • Primarily in industrial systems in a corrosive or erosive environment. but they do not clog and are easily repaired. with typically 24 to 64 shallow blades with both the heel and the tip curved forward. • Air leaves the blade at a velocity greater than the tip speed. tubeaxial and vaneaxial. • FC fans are less efficient than AF and BI fans at approximately 70%.

24 in.000 8 10 12 static efficiency (se) static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) se sp Figure 5: Typical Characteristics of Backward-inclined Fans Chapter 3: Fan Types 13 . 5 4 3 2 1 0 BISW Centrifugal 1.170 rpm 100 surge hp 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 cfm x 1.

22 in. Radial 1.000 8 10 12 sp se 20 0 hp 100 80 60 40 static efficiency (se) 14 Fans Reference Guide static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) Figure 6: Typical Characteristics of Radial Fans .170 rpm 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 surge 2 4 6 cfm x 1.

Chapter 3: Fan Types 15 .Figure 7: General Configuration and Component Terms for Axial Fans Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201–90.

16 Fans Reference Guide . high volume. an orifice plate. • The efficiency of these fans is low. this results in higher performance than propeller fans. these fans are limited to low-pressure applications. Tubeaxial • Have an impeller with typically four to eight blades attached to a hub that is usually less than half the diameter of the wheel. • The blades can be AF construction or single thickness. • Because the greatest portion of the work transferred to the air is static energy. • The fan housing can be a simple ring or circular guard. ductwork systems.g.Propeller • Have an impeller with two or more BI blades that are usually made from single. or an inlet cone with close tolerance to the blade tips to create a venturi for optimum performance. light-gauge material attached to a small diameter hub. e. commercial and industrial systems.. • Tubeaxial fans are more efficient than propeller fans. • Because primarily kinetic energy is transferred to the air with little static energy. • The housing is a cylindrical tube with a close tolerance to the impeller blade tips. these fans can be used in applications where there is resistance to flow. APPLICATION • Low static-pressure.

24 in. 5 4 3 2 Propeller 870 rpm 100 80 surge 60 40 se 1 hp 0 0 sp 2 4 6 cfm x 1.000 8 10 12 0 20 static efficiency (se) Figure 8: Typical Characteristics of Propeller Fans Chapter 3: Fan Types 17 static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) .

24 in. 5 4 3 Tubeaxial 1.000 8 10 12 0 se 20 40 static efficiency (se) Figure 9: Typical Characteristics of Tubeaxial Fans 18 Fans Reference Guide static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) .770 rpm 100 80 60 hp 2 surge 1 sp 0 0 2 4 6 cfm x 1.

Figure 10: Typical Characteristics of Vaneaxial Fans Chapter 3: Fan Types 19 .

• Vaneaxial fans are the most efficient axial fan. ducted systems where the axial arrangement saves space and the downstream flow pattern is not critical. • The housing is a cylindrical tube with a close tolerance to the impeller blade tips. • The blades are either fixed. commercial. commercial HVAC systems. and industrial ventilation systems where the axial arrangement saves space. • Because stationary diffusion vanes downstream of the impeller convert rotary energy produced by the blades into static pressure (as in an axial blower or compressor). and the downstream flow patterns and efficiency are important. primarily static energy is transferred to the air. • Industrial systems where airborne contaminants collect on the impeller blades and require periodic cleaning. adjustable or controllable (variable pitch-in-motion). • The housing may include a set of inlet guide vanes and/or downstream diffusion vanes equal in number to the impeller blades and preferably of the AF type.APPLICATION • Low and medium static-pressure. • The discharge from the impeller has a rotative component. 20 Fans Reference Guide . APPLICATION • Low to high static-pressure. unless inlet guide vanes are used. Vaneaxial • Usually have short AF blades radiating from a hub greater than half the diameter of the impeller.

• Essentially axial fans with a special casing that allow the driving motor to be removed from the airstream while maintaining a direct-drive arrangement. APPLICATION • Commercial applications where high efficiency. Chapter 3: Fan Types 21 . APPLICATION • Generally used to extract sticky. Centrifugal Inline Fans • Have a direct-drive or a belt-driven AF or BI impeller mounted perpendicular to a rectangular or tubular casing with ample clearance around the blade tips. the casing may be plastic or coated. • The air discharged radially from the blade tips must turn through 90 degrees to pass through the fan exit. • In corrosive environments. corrosive or volatile fumes in industrial applications where it is critical to protect the motor from the airstream.S PECIAL D ESIGNS Bifurcated Fans • Air flows around the motor mounted directly on the fan shaft (see fig 11). low sound levels and space are prime considerations. • The mating flanges at each end of the casing are identical. but the casing diameter is increased in barrel fashion to allow passage of a similar cross section of air. concentric with the motor enclosure. which is in line with the impeller inlet.

Figure 11: Configuration of Bifurcated Fans 22 Fans Reference Guide .

24 in.000 8 10 12 static efficiency (se) static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) sp 0 se Figure 12: Typical Characteristics of Centrifugal Inline Fans Chapter 3: Fan Types 23 . 5 4 3 2 1 Centrifugal Inline 870 rpm 100 80 surge hp 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 cfm x 1.

000 8 10 12 20 0 static efficiency (se) Figure 13: Typical Characteristics of Centrifugal Roof Exhausters 24 Fans Reference Guide static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) . 5 4 3 2 Centrifugal Roof Exhauster 870 rpm surge 100 80 60 40 hp 1 0 0 2 4 se sp 6 cfm x 1.24 in.

and drive arrangements for both centrifugal and axial fans. inlet box position. discharge orientation. and a direct (or belt-driven) drive. Utility Fans • Utility fans are self-contained units consisting of either an FC or BI irnpeller.Centrifugal Roof Exhausters • Have a direct-drive or a belt-driven AF or BI impeller mounted in a multicomponent housing comprising of a curb cap with an integral inlet venturi. and air exits radially from the blade tips through a concentric discharge passage. Inc (AMCA) has devised standard designations for fan rotation. motor position for belt or chain drive. and a weatherproof motor hood. a fan shroud with drive-mounting support. APPLICATION • The down-discharge configuration is used for exhausting relatively clean air. APPLICATION • Commercial and industrial ventilation applications requiring low-to-medium air volumes and pressures. Chapter 3: Fan Types 25 . while the up-blast configuration is used for hot and/or contaminated air. FAN D ESIGNATION AND A RRANGEMENTS • The Air Moving and Conditioning Association.either discharging it down or blasting it up. • The fan shroud redirects the air . • The impeller has an inlet cone that allows mixed flow through the impeller-blade passages. a motor.

000 8 10 12 0 20 static efficiency (se) Figure 14: Typical Characteristics of Forward-curved Utility Fans 26 Fans Reference Guide static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) .22 in. 5 4 3 2 FCSW Utility 500 rpm 100 surge hp 80 60 40 se 1 sp 0 0 2 4 6 cfm x 1.

170 rpm 100 80 se 60 hp 2 sp 1 0 0 2 4 6 cfm x 1.22 in. 5 4 3 BISW Utility 1.000 8 10 12 20 0 40 static efficiency (se) static pressure (sp) / horsepower (hp) surge Figure 15: Typical Characteristics of Backward-inclined Utility Fans Chapter 3: Fan Types 27 .

28 Fans Reference Guide . 3 For belt drive or direct connection. 8 one-or two-stage For belt drive or direct connection. Motor on internal supports. 4 two-stage For direct connection. Impeller overhung. 9 motor on casing Arr. No bearings on fan. Drive through belt fairing. Two bearings on internal supports. Impeller Impeller overhung on motor shaft. Two bearings located either upstream or downstream of impeller Arr. Arr. 3 plus common base for prime mover. Arr. 1 Arr. 9 motor on integral base For belt drive. 1 plus common base for prime mover. Note: all fan orientations may be horizontal or vertical Figure 16: Drive Arrangements for Axial Fans with or without Diffuser and Outlet Box Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201–90. Impeller overhung. Impeller between bearings that are on internal supports. Arr. 4 Arr. Arr.Optional on all arrangements Inlet box Diffuser Arr. Drive through inlet. 1 two-stage For belt drive or direct connection. Arr. Motor on casing or on integral base. 7 For belt drive or direct connection. Arr.

Double Width DI. Arr. 9 SWSI For belt drive. two bearings. Arr.Single Width SI. Arrangement 3 plus base for prime mover. Prime mover base mounted or integrally directly connected. 3 DWDI For belt drive or direct connection. Bearings in bracket supported by fan housing Arr. 3 SWSI For belt drive or direct connection. Two bearings on base. Impeller overhung. 7 DWDI For belt drive or direct connection.Single Inlet DW.7 and 8 are also available with bearings mounted on pedestals or base set independant of the fan housing Arr.Double Inlet Arrangements 1. Arrangement 3 plus base for prime mover. Arr. two bearings. Arrangement 1 plus extended base for prime mover. with prime mover outside base. impeller overhung. Arr. Arr.SW. Arr. 8 SWSI For belt drive or direct connection. Chapter 3: Fan Types 29 . One bearing on each side and supported by fan housing. Impeller overhung on prime mover shaft. 1 SWSI For belt drive or direct connection impeller overhung. 7 SWSI For belt drive or direct connection. 10 SWSI For belt drive. One bearing on each side and supported by fan housing. Arr. Arr. Figure 17: Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201–90. Impeller overhung. 4 SWSI For direct drive. No bearings on fan. with prime mover inside base. 2 SWSI For belt drive or direct connection.3.

Single Inlet DW. Inlet box may be self-supporting. two bearings on base. 3 SWSI with Independent Pedestal For belt drive or direct.Double Width DI. Housing is self-supporting. 3 SWSI with Inlet Box and Independent Pedestals For belt drive or direct connection fan. Arr. Impeller overhung. two bearings on base plus exended base for prime mover. 30 Fans Reference Guide . 3 DWDI with Independent Pedestal For belt drive or direct connection fan. One bearing on each side supported by independent pedestals with shaft extending through inlet box. One bearing on each side supported by independent pedestals with shaft extending through inlet box. One bearing on each side supported by independant pedestals. Housing is self-supporting. Inlet box may be self-supporting Arr.SW. Arr. Impeller overhung. One bearing on each side supported by independant pedestals. Figure 18: Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201–90.Double Inlet Arr. Housing is self-supporting. Arr. 1 SWSI with Inlet Box For belt drive or direct connection.Single Width SI. 3 SWSI with Inlet Box For belt drive or direct connection. 3 DWDI with Inlet Box and Independent Pedestals For belt drive or direct connection fan. Housing is self-supporting. Arr. connection fan.

• Manufacturers identify the arrangements available for the fans in their product line. • The discharge position and the drive arrangement must be determined to fit the fan system properly.Class I is the lightest duty and Class III is the heaviest duty. it is important to ensure the duty point does not exceed the performance range for the fan class. • The choice of fan arrangement depends on the application – the environment of the airstream being handled and the size of the fans are primary considerations. • When selecting a fan. C LASS L IMITS FOR FANS • AMCA has adopted a standard that defines the operating limits for various classes of centrifugal fans used in general ventilation applications. expressed in terms of outlet velocity and static pressure. • There are three class limits for centrifugal fans . Chapter 3: Fan Types 31 .• Fan rotation is determined to be clockwise or counterclockwise by viewing the fan from the drive side. • The standard uses limits based on mean brake horsepower per square foot of outlet area.

• Axial fans produce total pressure from the change in velocity passing through the impeller. • Centrifugal fans produce total pressure from the centrifugal force of the air radiating out between the blade passages and by the kinetic energy imparted to the air by virtue of its velocity leaving the impeller. • The absolute velocity vector in the case of axial fans is the sum of the axial and tangential velocity components. • The rotating blades of the fan impeller convert mechanical energy into static and kinetic energy by changing the velocity vector of the incoming air. with none being produced by centrifugal force. • The absolute velocity vector in the case of centrifugal fans is the sum of the tangential and radial velocity components. which represents the static and kinetic energy imparted to the air by the impeller.CHAPTER 4 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION • All fans produce total pressure. Chapter 4: Principles of Operation 33 .

• Because the speed of the wheel is the same for each case. • If volume decreases. where w is the rotational speed of the impeller in radians per second and r is the radius of the impeller at the blade tip. • The relative tangential velocity vector indicated by Vt is projected from Vs in the direction of wr. the vector wr is constant. • As the pressure of the fan depends on the product of Vt and wr. at a given speed. Conversely. • The height of the diagram – indicated by the relative radial velocity vector Vr – is based on the volume of air flowing through the fan. 34 Fans Reference Guide . Vt increases with BI blades. • The tip speed component wr is perpendicular to the wheel radius. the vector Vr decreases and as the vector Vb does not change for a given blade. • The air velocity relative to the blade – indicated by Vb is nearly tangential to the blade as some slip occurs due to boundary layer effects. is constant for the R blade and decreases for the FC blade.C ENTRIFUGAL FANS • The operation of centrifugal fans can best be described by velocity vector diagrams. remains constant with R blades and decreases with FC blades. the largest will be an airfoil. These vector diagrams illustrate that. • The absolute velocity indicated by Vs is the resultant of Vb and wr. the pressure characteristic rises as volume decreases for the BI blade. the smallest fan selection will be a forward curved fan.

Figure 19: Outlet Velocity Vector Diagram for Backward-inclined Blades Figure 20: Outlet Velocity Vector Diagram for Radial Blades Figure 21: Outlet Velocity Vector Diagram for Forward-curved Blades Chapter 4: Principles of Operation 35 .

A XIAL FANS • The principle of operation can be described by the use of a velocity vector diagram. • The tip speed component wr is perpendicular to the axis and is shown as the blade section under consideration. The axial velocity remains nearly constant from blade root to tip. Figure 22: Velocity Vector Diagram for an Axial Fan without Inlet Guide or Diffusion Vanes near the Impeller Hub Figure 23: Velocity Vector Diagram for an Axial Fan without Inlet Guide or Diffusion Vanes at the Blade Tip 36 Fans Reference Guide . • Velocity diagrams for axial fans are drawn for a uniform axial velocity indicated by Va.

Chapter 4: Principles of Operation 37 . This is used in aerodynamic theory to calculate the circulation around the airfoil. • The mean relative velocity drawn to bisect Vt is shown as Vm.• The air velocity relative to the blade indicated by Vb is nearly tangential to the blade as some slip occurs due to boundary layer effects. • The relative tangential velocity vector indicated by Vt is projected from Va in the opposite direction of wr.

Chapter 5: Fan Performance Curves 39 . and power roof exhausters are tested mounted on a curb to exhaust vertically from a chamber. When selecting a fan. • Centrifugal. tubeaxial. • Propeller fans are normally tested in the wall of a chamber. and use the Fan Laws to correct the published performance to actual conditions. it is necessary to know the actual air inlet conditions (temperature. pressure. and vaneaxial fans are usually tested with an outlet duct with provision for restricting the flow at the discharge. • A fan is generally tested in a set-up that closely simulates how it will be installed in an air-moving system.CHAPTER 5 FAN PERFORMANCE CURVES • The manufacturer guarantees fan performance according to standard air conditions. • The most common procedure to develop a performance curve is to test the fan from shut-off conditions to nearly-free delivery conditions. density). • Fan performance curves are developed from data obtained from tests executed in accordance with AMCA and ASHRAE standards.

40 Fans Reference Guide . and at freedelivery the duct outlet is wide open. • Manufacturers usually publish fan performance curves at a density of 0. • At shut-off the duct is completely blanked off. Total pressure. it is possible to accurately predict the fan's performance at other speeds and densities. • Under these conditions and at the same fan speed. • Fan performance curves are plotted with the inlet flow rate (in cubic foot per minute or litres per second) on the abscissa. the flow is graduated to obtain sufficient data to define a corresponding performance curve.• A static.075 Ib/ft3 and an inlet temperature of 70˚F. test data is recorded while maintaining constant fan speed and air density. static pressure. • It is not practical to test a fan at every speed at which it can operate or at every inlet density it may encounter. fan horsepower and fan efficiency are plotted on the ordinate axis.and velocity-pressure measuring station is located within the duct downstream of flow straighteners. • For each test point. The measured pressures are corrected back to fan inlet conditions. • By using a series of equations referred to as the Fan Laws. the pressures are measured and the corresponding flow rate is determined.

Figure 24: Fan Test-rig Setup Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201–90. Chapter 5: Fan Performance Curves 41 .

3 governs the effect of changing size. speed or density on volume flow. volume flow or density on speed. • Fan Law No. p. pressure or density on volume flow rate. gas density. N. speed and power.CHAPTER 6 FAN LAWS • The Fan Laws relate the performance variables for any dynamically similar series of fans at the same point of rating on the performance curve. 1 governs the effect of changing size. caution should be exercised since the Laws apply only when all flow conditions are similar. volume flow rate. However. pressure and power level. rotational speed. L IMITATIONS • The Fan Laws may be applied to a particular fan to determine the effect of speed change. p. D. • Fan Law No. 2 governs the effect of changing size. • Fan Law No.total efficiency Ntj and power (shaft). Q. • The variables are fan size. Chapter 6: Fan Laws 43 . pressure. P. pressure and power.

. Kp.. 44 Fans Reference Guide . the chart on the following page may be used as follows: 1. • A fan selected without using compressibility will be larger in size than required and the fan input power will be understated. it is compressed and the outlet volume will be less than at the inlet. multiply the resulting power by Kp. return to step #1 using the new efficiency. • For applications where the fan pressure rise is more than 10î Wg. multiply the required pressure and flow by the compressibility factor. Kp from the chart for the required fan static pressure rise. • The compressibility effect is quite small when fan pressure rise is below 10” Wg. The fan laws as presented in this chapter do not account for this effect. For fan selection only. 5. Obtain the compressibility factor. C OMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR • As air travels through a fan. 3. If the actual efficiency is more than 5% different than what was estimated in step #1. The fan input power obtained using the fan laws for selection must be divided by Kp. 2.• These Fan Laws do not include correction for compressible flow. Estimate the total efficiency of the fan that will be selected. 4. When using equations 7 and 9 in chapter 7. and is customarily ignored below this threshold.

960 0.950 .970 .inches W. Figure 25: Compressibility Factor Fans Reference Guide 45 .G.990 .60 0.65 0.980 Kp .70 .55 0.50 0.Approximate Kp 1% 1.000 .940 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Fan Static Pressure Rise .

Table 1: Fan Laws Law No. 1a 1b 1c Formulae Q1 = Q2 x (D1/D2)3 x (N1/N2) p1 = p2 x (D1/D2)2 x (N1/N2)2 x r1/r2 P1 = P2 x (D1/D2)5 x (N1/N2)3 x r1/r2 Q1 = Q2 x (D1/D2)2 x (p1/p2)1/2 x (r2/r1)1/2 N1 = N2 x (D2/D1) x (p1/p2)1/2 x (r2/r1)1/2 P1 = P2 x (D1/D2)2 x (p1/p2)3/2 x (r2/r1)1/2 N1 = N2 x (D2/D1)3 x (Q1/Q2) p1 = p2 x (D2/D1)4 x (Q1/Q2)2 x r1/r2 P1 = P2 x (D2/D1)4 x (Q1/Q2)3 x r1/r2 P = Qp / (6362 ht) 2a 2b S ELDOM U SED 46 2c 3a 3b 3c 4 Source: ASHRAE Handbook. Fans Reference Guide . 1988 Equipment Volume.

unless otherwise identified. fans process moist air at temperatures and pressures other than standard conditions. Therefore.2 kg/m3 when SI units are used). Chapter 7: Fan Formulae 47 . • For fans processing moist air..3 (or 1. the air density must be corrected to obtain the actual fan performance. The air density at standard AMCA test conditions is 0. or relative humidity. • In most applications. the moisture content of an airstream is determined by measuring the wet-bulb temperature.7 psi.921 in.075 lbm/ft. 29.325 kPa) and a temperature of 68˚F (20˚C). is based on dry air at the standard atmospheric pressure of 14. • The formulae in this section are valid for incompressible flow D ENSITY • Fan performance data. The constants are given in this guide or in the referenced material. the dew-point temperature.CHAPTER 7 FAN FORMULAE • The following fan formulae require certain constants and parameters specific to each application.Hg (101.

the dew-point temperature is more reliable to determine moisture content. Field Performance Measurement of Fan Systems.• Wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures are most often determined at fan inlet conditions. Density./ft. ˚Fabs (K) TI = absolute temperature at plane 1.3 (kg/m3) r1 = density at plane 1. • EQUATION 1: When the gas density (P) at one plane is determined. (L/s) V = average velocity at reference plane.3 (kg/m3) Tx = absolute temperature at plane x. ft. when the dry-bulb temperature falls between 42˚F and l00˚F (5˚C and 38˚C).Hg (kPa) FAN F LOW R ATE • EQUATION 2: The flow rate at a reference plane. Appendix N. ft. lb. in. lb./min.(m/s) A = area of reference plane. ft. “Boyle’s Law”: P = constant or px = p1 Tr Tx rx T1 r1 where rx = density at plane x.Hg (kPa) p1 = absolute pressure at plane l. ˚Fabs (K) px = absolute pressure at plane x. in./ft. The fan flow rate is the primary performance parameter. Q = VA where Q = flow rate. may be determined by using the psychrometric density chart in AMCA Publication 203-90. using a sling thermometer.3/min.When the airstream exceeds 180˚F (82˚C). the density at any point in the fan system may be determined. Appendix A of this guide may be used with a scientific calculator or PC spread-sheet program.2 (m2) 48 Fans Reference Guide . The numerical method in Chapter 16.

414) • EQUATION 4: For a standard air density of 0. “water gauge”. 1983. 4005 ( 1. With gas or air. Source: Metric Conversion Handbook for Mechanical Engineers in the Building Industry 2nd ed. ft. and the term (rV2/2gc) refers to velocity pressure.075 lbm/ft. The SI density derived directly from the imperial equivalent would be a value of 1. • Velocity head is independent of fluid density.29) 1 The SI standard density of 1./min. 1097 ( 1. B) Chapter 7: Fan Formulae 49 .3 (kg/m3) V = mean fluid velocity. lbm/ft.3 (1. (m/s) cf = conversion factor.H EAD AND P RESSURE • The common unit is inches of water.20 kg/m3 is not an exact equivalent of the imperial standard density.2014 kg/m3. Public Works Canada. • Head is the height of a fluid column of water supported by gas flow. ft. 1983. R. (Ref. Buffalo: NY. while pressure is the normal force per unit area. V ELOCITY P RESSURE • EQUATION 3: Velocity pressure is not independent of density. (ed. as pressure measured in terms of unit area is not practical. pv = r(V/cf)2 where pv = velocity pressure. it is convention to measure pressure on a column of liquid. • The term (V2/2g) refers to velocity head. in. (m/s) cf = conversion factor.Wg (Pa) r = density. (Ref. A).20 kg/m3)1 Equation 3 becomes the following: Pv = (V/cf)2 where V = mean fluid velocity. Buffalo Forge Company./min. Source: Jorgensen.) Fan Engineering 8th ed.

PFo = Qpt cf where: PFo = output power. PFo. hp (W) Q = flow. in. fpm (m/s) for axial fans: Vo = inlet or outlet velocity based on area calculated from fan diameter. (L/s) 50 Fans Reference Guide .Wg (Pa) ps = static pressure. or outlet velocity based on outlet area.Wg (Pa) Co = fan-system-effect loss coefficient.3 (kg/m3) cf = conversion factor.3/min. SEF = Co r (Vo /cf)2 where SEF = fan-system-effect pressure loss. in.Wg (Pa) FAN -S YSTEM -E FFECT FACTOR ( AT INLET ) • EQUATlON 6: The fan-system-effect pressure drop. is determined from product of the flow and total pressure rise. in. lbm/ft.Wg (Pa) pv = velocity pressure. dimensionless r = density. Pt = Ps + Pv where pt = total pressure.414) and where for centrifugal fans: Vo = inlet velocity based on area at the inlet collar. in. fpm (m/s) FAN P OWER AND E FFICIENCY • EQUATION 7: The air horsepower.T OTAL P RESSURE • EQUATION 5: The sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure is total pressure. 1097 (1. ft. or fan output power.

Wg (pa) ht = total efficiency. hp (W) • EQUATION 9: The fan input power. When the formula is applied directly to imperial units. ft3/min. In strict SI terms.000) • EQUATION 10: The fan static efficiency is the product of mechanical efficiency and the ratio of static pressure to total efficiency. A (see p. in. (L/s) pt = total pressure rise. • EQUATION 8: The fan mechanical or total efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power. B (see p. the conversion factor to use is 6354 from Ref. in. hp (W) Q = flow. 6349.47).6 was derived from converting the metric form of the equation to the imperial equivalent utilizing the conversion factor in Ref. hs = (ps/pt) ht where hs = static effciency.6 ( 1.pt = total pressure rise. PFi = Q pt ht cf where PFi = input power.0. flow would be in m3/s and the conversion factor would be 1. hp (W) PFi = input power. 2 The conversion factor 6349. PFi. 6349.47). dimensionless PFo = output power. dimensionless ratio Chapter 7: Fan Formulae 51 . dimensionless ratio cf = conversion factor. ht = PFo/PFi where ht = mechanical (total) efficiency. is the measured power delivered to the fan shaft.Wg (Pa) cf = conversion factor.000)2 • The fan input power.6 (1.

dimensionless ratio cf = conversion factor.3/min.Wg (pa) pt = total pressure. in.ht = total efficiency. ft. hp (W) PMo = motor output power. hp (W) Q = flow. ft. (L/s) hs = static efficiency. dimensionless ratio ps = static pressure.6 ( 1. in. Wg (pa) • EQUATION 11: By substitution. in. the fan input power is also: PFi = Q ps hs cf where PFi = input power. dimensionless ratio hD = fan drive efficiency. 6349. 6349.000) FAN M OTOR P OWER • EQUATION 12 AND EQUATION 13: The fan motor output power. (L/s) ht = fan total efficiency.6 (1. hp (W) Q = flow. dimensionless ratio ps = static pressure.000) Q pt ht hD cf 52 Fans Reference Guide .Wg (Pa) cf = conversion factor.3/min. PMo = or PMo = PFi hD where PFi = input power.

000 cfm of air at 70˚F at a static pressure of 2. on the high-speed setting.000) E XAMPLE 1 • A large cafeteria at a manufacturing plant requires an exhaust fan to ensure proper indoor air quality for the patrons.800/1. Operating Point and System Curve Chapter 7: Fan Formulae 53 ..• EQUATION 14: The fan motor input power.200rpm motor and. Standard atmospheric conditions are assumed for this example. 1. dimensionless ratio cf = conversion factor. kW PMo = motor output power. Figure 26. This is identified as operating point A (see Figure 25). PMi = PMo hM cf where PMi = motor input power. The fan is to be equipped with a two-speed 1. single-width (AFSW) centrifugal fan with an inlet and outlet area of 4.3410 ( 1. 24-in.11 sq. airfoil.Wg.ft. hp (W) hM = motor efficiency. Positive exhaust is provided by a belt-driven.5 in. is required to deliver 10.

.1 1671 9.2 6.6 3.4 4 .2 1 .0 3.0 7.433 fpm 54 Fans Reference Guide . AFSW Centrifugal Fan at 70ûF and Standard Atmospheric Pressure Fan Static Pressure cfm.Example 1. V = Q/A = 10. calculate the motor size required.6 7. determine speed.4 5.5 8. p.6 2 .1/2Ó rpm bhp 1329 1353 1503 1534 1567 1601 4.8 5.2 3.8 4.2 5.1 7.2 4. std air outlet velocity 1Ó rpm bhp 963 1000 1188 1226 1267 1310 1.0 8. • EQUATION 15: Outlet velocity (rearrange Equation 2.6 1610 8.3 1482 6.1/2Ó rpm bhp 1465 6. 46).6 1640 9.6%. Assuming drive losses of 5.1 2.1 • Using formulae and manufacturers' catalogue data.2 6600 7000 9000 9400 9800 10200 1605 1703 2189 2287 2384 2481 • The velocity pressure of the fan must be established to determine the fan static pressure and the total efficiency of the fan.9 4.4 6.2 4.3 3.7 3Ó rpm bhp 1260 1288 1446 1479 1512 1546 4.8 2. the high-speed fan horsepower. Table 2.6 1703 10. and the corresponding fan total and static efficiencies.8 62 6.5 3 .5 3.000/4.5 3.1 7.11 = 2. Typical ManufacturersÕ Performance Data for a 24-in.1/4Ó rpm bhp 1003 1040 1223 1260 1301 1339 2.1/2Õ rpm bhp 1191 1222 1387 1420 1456 1494 3.

PMo = PFi/hD = 5. p.5” in. 49) ht = (Q pt)/(cf PFi) = (10. p.• Velocity pressure at the inlet & outlet (Equation 4..176 hp • Therefore a 7.83/(1 .6 x 5. Chapter 7: Fan Formulae 55 . hs = (2. • Total pressure (Equation 5.131” + . 50).5-hp motor is required.369” = 2. 47) pt = ps + pv = 2.pv1 = 2.429 rpm.83) x 100 = 67.5” .83 hp and from catalogue data the corresponding impeller speed is 1.131” • By interpolation.005)2 = 0. 47).369” = 2. pv = (V/4.Wg • Fan static pressure is ps = (p2 .53 = 57.5)/(6.Wg • EQUATION 16: Fan total efficiency (rearrange Equation 9.53% • Fan static efficiency (Equation 10.0. the fan power is 5.056) = 6. 49). p. p.369 in.p1).5) x 67.56% • Motor output power including drive losses (Equation 13.349.000 x 2.131/2. p.

and total and static efficiencies.429 x 1.800 = 953 rpm 56 Fans Reference Guide . • EQUATION 17: Air volume delivered by the fan on the low speed setting (rearrange Fan Law No.666 cfm • EQUATION 18: The corresponding impeller speed. determine the corresponding fan power speed. Q2 = Q1 (N2/N2) =10. la).000 x (1. determine the low-speed flow and total pressure to give operating point B (see Figure 26).Figure 27: Fan Static-pressure Design Curve at 1.200/1.800) = 6. 52.2 • Using fan laws and assuming constant density. Using formulae and the manufacturers’ data in Table 2.475 rpm Intersecting Design Point A and Fan Static-pressure Curve at 983 rpm Intersecting Point B Example 1.200/1. N2 = N1 (rpm2/rpml) = 1. p.

349.622/4.131 x (6. p.947/1.800)3 = 1. pv = (1. 50).666/4.6 x 1. p.11)/(6.Wg • Fan total efficiency (Equation 12.622 fpm • Velocity pressure (Equation 4.666 x 1.947 in.11) x 67.• EQUATION 19: The corresponding static pressure delivered by the fan (rearrange Fan Law No. p. 3b). and the corresponding impeller speed is 953 rpm.200/1.666/10. Pfi = 5.11 in.73hp • Outlet velocity (Equation 14. ht = (Q pt)/cf Pfi) = (6. p.164 in. using the fan laws. V = Q/A = 6. ps2 = psl (Q2/Q1)2 = 2. the fan power at point B is 1. 50).46% Chapter 7: Fan Formulae 57 .83hp x (1.Wg • By interpolation. 49). 47).16 = 1. pt = 0.35% • Fan static efficiency (Equation 10.11 = 1.000)2 = 0. hs = (0.73) x 100 = 67. 47). Alternately.005)2 = 0.35 = 57.73 hp from Table 2.Wg • Total pressure (Equation 5.947 + 0. p.

registers. • Pressure losses in system elements are therefore mainly related to turbulence and flow separation. humidifier distributors. • Components that contribute to system resistance include straight ductwork. • The pressure loss of each of the air system's elements may be calculated with manufacturers' data and the procedures in the ASHRAE Handbook.CHAPTER 8 AIR SYSTEMS • A fan provides the energy to overcome the resistance to flow through air-system components. the kinetic energy being dissipated by viscous shear in the air. elbows. dampers. fittings. Chapter 8: Air Systems 59 . • Most air systems operate in the turbulent-flow regime rather than laminar-flow conditions. filters. • A given rate of airflow through a system requires a specific total pressure generated by the system fan. 1989 Fundamentals Volume. acoustic silencers. A fan's performance is interdependent with the system elements. grilles and diffusers. bird screens. heat-transfer coils.

60 Fans Reference Guide .666 cfm. the resulting total pressure required for turbulent-flow systems.5 in.Wg at the design flow rate. from which the dirty maximum design operating system curve C is plotted (see Figure 27). • This gives a new design point C.5 in. • The filter specifies a maximum dirty pressure loss of 1.5” Wg. It is assumed that the fan is plenum mounted and hence the inlet velocity pressure is ~ 0” Wg.Wg and clean-filter losses are 0. the total system static losses are 3. • When the fan is set at low speed.Wg at the design flow rate.• EQUATION 20: If the flow rate is changed. • This second design point is point B on curve in Figure 27. the flow rate is 6.5 in.Wg at the design flow rate of 10. • The required static pressure of the fan is 2.0 in.000 cfm. and fan static pressure = pressure rise of 2. E XAMPLE 2 • The exhaust system in Example 1 has a filter bank to protect the heat-recovery coil. (Æp2/Æp1) = (Q2/Q1)2 • Figure 25 (p. This identifies the design operating point A from which the design curve A is plotted. • Example 2 shows the effect of the relationship in Equation 20.51) shows the characteristic system curve plotted in a parabolic fashion according to the relationship established in Equation 20. which means in the dirty condition.5 in. from the Fan Laws shown in Example 1.Wg. The duct-system and coil static losses are 2.

p.37 Pt = 3.5 + 0. p.349. p.584 rpm. fan power.2 hp from Table 2.6 x 8.20) x 100 = 74. Example 2.6%. 47). determine for operating point C.20/(0. and fan total and static efficiency on the high-speed setting under dirty filter conditions identified as point D on the system curve (see Figure 27). 49). determine the actual air volume.16 • Fan power exceeds standard motor service factor of 1.2 • Using Fan Laws. Chapter 8: Air Systems 61 .000 x 3. and the corresponding fan total and static efficiencies.3% • Fan static efficiency (Equation 10. • Total pressure required (Equation 5. hs = (3.50/3. and the corresponding impeller speed is 1.1 • Using formulae and manufacturers' catalogue data (table 2.87 in.87) x 74.15. 52). p. the speed.87)/(6. the fan power at point C is 8.Wg • Fan total efficiency (Equation 16. • By interpolation. the highspeed fan power.3 = 67. Assuming the same drive losses of 5.5) =1. calculate the motor service factor . SF = PFi/(hD x PMo) = 8.Example 2. ht = (10. = 3. 53).944 x 7.2% • EQUATION 21: Motor service factor.

53). V = 9. p. p.35)/( 6.35 in H20 • Fan total efficiency (Equation 16.312 x 3. • Outlet velocity (Equation 15.Wg • EQUATION 23: Static pressure.349. 53).9% • Fan static efficiency (Equation 10. p. Q2 = Q1/N1/N2) = 10.11 = 2. pt = 3.5/ ( 10.312 cfm = ps1/Q1/Q2)2 = 3.49) = ( 3.7% 62 Fans Reference Guide .47).03/3.312)2 = 3.266/4. pv = ( 8.000/(1.000/9.6 x 6.03 in. p.005)2 = 0.32 = 3.584/1.475) = 9.56) x 100 = 74.03+0.56 hp from catalogue data.312/4.32 in H20 • Total pressure (Equation 5.• EQUATION 22: Actual air volume delivered by the fan at a constant speed of 1.475 rpm (rearrange Fan Law la). p.9 hs = 67.266 fpm • Velocity pressure (Equation 4. ht = ( 9. ps2 • By interpolation. the fan power at point D is 6.47).35) x 74.

Figure 28: Fan Static Pressure Curve Intersecting the Design Point A and the Maximum Design Point D Chapter 8: Air Systems 63 .

• The difference between Point 1 and Point 4 projected on the abscissa is the deficiency in flow. • Since no allowance was made for system effect. • To compensate for the deficiency. with the fan selected to operate at Point 2. the actual operating condition is Point 4 – at the intersection of the fan pressure-volume curve and the actual system curve. • Figure 28 illustrates deficient fan and system performance with the calculated system-design pressure and flow shown as Point 1. Chapter 9: Fan and System Interface 65 . • If these conditions are not matched in the actual installation.CHAPTER 9 FAN AND SYSTEM INTERFACE S YSTEM E FFECT FACTORS • A fan is normally tested with open inlets and straight duct attached to the outlet. the performance of the fan degrades. a system effect factor equal to the pressure difference between Points 1 and 2 must be added to the calculated system-pressure losses. This must be allowed for when selecting the fan. This results in uniform airflow into the fan and efficient static-pressure recovery at the fan outlet.

Other system-effect factors are beyond the scope of this guide. Figure 29: Deficient Fan and System Performance FAN O UTLET C ONDITIONS • System-effect factors must be calculated and added to the system resistance losses whenever 100% recovery at the outlet of a fan cannot be achieved. velocity is based on the area of the inlet collar and the outlet area. • For centrifugal fans. for axial fans. • Appendix C explains how to determine Co (the system effect factors For SWSI centrifugal fans). but are covered in AMCA Publication 201-90. it is based on the fan diameter. 48.• The fan system-effect factor is the product of Co times the velocity pressure and is calculated using Equation 6. 66 Fans Reference Guide . p.

fan outlets are connected directly to a larger duct or plenum without a transition. based on the highest velocity of the fan outlet.5 diameters or more for a velocity of 2. This causes a pressure loss of up to one velocity head (V2/2g). Figure 30. Chapter 9: Fan and System Interface 67 . Add one duct diameter for each additional 1.000 fpm (5 m/s).• Complete recovery can be achieved if the outlet effective duct length is 2. Fan-outlet Velocity Profiles Reprinted with permission from the Air Movement and Control Association from Publication 201-90 • In some cases.500 fpm (13 m/s) or less.

whereas a counter-rotating vortex at the inlet slightly increases fan flow and pressure and substantially increases fan power. FAN I NLET C ONDITIONS • To achieve rated fan performance. adequate distance must be maintained in front of the inlet to allow for unobstructed flow. air must enter a fan uniformly over the inlet area in an axial direction without prerotation. in the same direction as the impeller rotation. • For fans installed in cabinets or adjacent to walls.• The highest velocity is in the blast area of a centrifugal fan (the area between the cutoff and the scroll). and in the swept area of an axial fan. • The most common cause of reduced fan performance is nonuniform flow into the inlet of a fan. • Turbulence and uneven flow into the fan impeller is typically caused by an elbow at the inlet of a fan. • A spin. reduces fan flow and pressure. 68 Fans Reference Guide . • The system-effect factor can be eliminated by including an appropriate length of straight duct between the elbow and the fan inlet. • The ideal inlet condition allows air to enter axially and uniformly without spin. • System-effect Co factors for inlet conditions that cause spin are not available because of the multitude of variations.

g. speed power. tables or PC-based computer programs. and system-effect factors (according to ASHRAE methods). Chapter 10: Fan Selection 69 . • The fan size. flammability) • permissible noise levels • attitude of fan and space available • type of fan required • type of drive and accessories • speed capability of motor driver. • The fan can be selected once the system-pressure-loss curve is known. • The system-pressure-loss curve is defined by accounting for the system flow.. erosion. resistances. e.CHAPTER 10 FAN SELECTION • Fan selection involves consideration of the following: • volume flow rate and variation • fan total or static pressure and system effects • air density • air temperature • environment (corrosion. and noise spectrum is determined using one of the many methods available from fan manufacturers.

• Computer selection programs allow a designer to evaluate the various fan options for optimizing system efficiency and performance, obtain noise-level data, and plot the fan performance curve quickly. • The performance data in fan tables is based on arbitrary increments of flow rate and static pressure, and shading may be used to indicate an AMCA fan-class demarcation. • Fan Laws cannot be used to obtain adjacent data points because each data point represents a different point of operation on the fan performance curve. • Intermediate points of operation can be determined by interpolation, as the listed data points are close enough for reasonable accuracy for fan selection. • Using a performance curve in conjunction with a computer program or tables is very important, particularly in VAV systems which have more than one point of operation. • Using the performance curve optimizes fan selection to avoid operation close to, or in, the stall region and maximize efficiency throughout the operating range. P RESSURE D EFINITIONS • When using performance tables or charts, it is important to understand what definition of pressure has been used by the fan manufacturer. There are three possible ways to state the fan's pressure requirement: Fan Total Pressure, Fan Static Pressure and Fan Static Pressure Rise.

70

Fans Reference Guide

• These definitions arise from Bernoullí’s equation which is used to calculate system friction losses. The relationship between any two points (1 and 2) in a system is given below: V1 1096
2

Ps1 +

r1 = Ps2 +

V2 1096

2

r2 + Friction Loss

The Friction Losses in this equation must be overcome by the fan. • Fan Total Pressure is defined as Fanpt = Ps2 + V2 1096
2

r2

-

Ps1 +

V1 1096

2

r1

• Fan Static Pressure is defined as V1 1096
2

Fanps =

Ps2 -

Ps1 +

r1

• Fan Static Pressure Rise is defined as Dps = Ps2 - Ps1

• The inlet and outlet velocities (V1 and V2) in these equations are taken to be at the terminals of the fan manufacture’s supply, which may include silencers, inlet boxes, outlet diffusers, etc. The velocities may not be identical to those in the adjacent ducts. The most common definition in North America is Fan Static Pressure for centrifugal fan and Fan Total Pressure for axial flow fans. The Europeans use Fan Total Pressure almost exclusively for all fans.
Chapter 10: Fan Selection 71

P ARALLEL FAN S ELECTION • Selecting parallel fans with a characteristic pressure reduction left of the peak pressure point typical of FC fans requires careful consideration. • When these fans are operated in parallel, a fluctuating load condition may result if one of the fans operates to the left of the peak static point on its performance curve. • Figure 31 shows the pressure flow curves of a single fan (curve A-A) and the same fan operating in parallel with an identical fan (curve B-B).

Figure 31: Design Operating Point Selection Range on a Typical Centrifugal Fan Performance Curve

72

Fans Reference Guide

• Figure 31 shows point BD1 – 4. for all systems stable operation occurs with a system resistance curve below C-C.700 cfm at a static pressure of 2.Figure 32: Pressure Flow Curves • The figure-eight curve plots possible combinations of volume flow at each pressure value for the individual fans. • Points to the right of B-C are the result of the fan operating to the right of its peak rating point.Wg – can be satisfied with each fan operating at 2. • For points of operation to the left of B-C it is possible to satisfy system requirements with one fan operating at one point of rating while the other fan operates at another.350 cfm at 2.1 in static pressure.1 in. Fans Reference Guide 73 .

e. S ERIES V S P ARALLEL O PERATION • In any 2 stage arrangement. the static pressure is doubled for any given volume for two identical fans in series. 74 Fans Reference Guide .• The system curve can also be satisfied at point BD2 by one fan operating at 1. and for comparison (b) connected in parallel. each fan will consume the horsepower at point D. Strictly speaking. whereas in parallel each fan will take the power shown at point E. The density of the gas passing through each stage will be different. For simplicity of discussion. in series. However.350 cfm at a static pressure of 1. one fan is under loaded while the other fan is heavily loaded. so it follows that the volume handled by each stage will be different. but operation can be unstable under such conditions. are the static pressure curves for two of these fans (a) connected in series. the static pressure curve for the two fans in series will be slightly higher than that shown since there is only one velocity head to be deducted from the combined total pressure from 2 stages in order to compute the combined static pressure available.Wg and the second fan operating at 3. the same mass flow per unit time must be handled by each stage (if there is no leakage). • In Figure 33.9 in.150 cfm at the same static pressure. and surge can occur in the system. Also shown. • Figure 33 shows the static pressure and horsepower curves for a single fan. system B passes through P. • With fan selection at point BD2. i. the intersection of the combined series and combined parallel curves. either combination will give the same volume on this system. • This is because the system curve D-D passes through the combined performance curve at two points.

Two fans in parallel will always produce more volume than they will connected in series. it is advisable to plot pressure volume curves for both series and parallel connection if maximum possible flow is desired. The power absorbed by each fan should also be carefully noted. The two fans in series combination will always produce more volume than the parallel configuration.System A Static Pressure Two Fans in Series D System B System C Static Pressure Horsepower One Fan P Static Pressure One Fan Static Pressure Two Fans in Parallel Volume Flow Figure 33: Series Fan Operation • On any system to the left of point P. Fans Reference Guide 75 . Whenever a second fan is to be added to one existing on a given system to increase flow. On any system to the right of point P.

This noise is proportional to the product of the pressure squared and the flow. • The noise from a fan is predominantly from aerodynamic sources and includes factors such as lift. Chapter 11: Fan Noise 77 . rotation.CHAPTER 11 FAN NOISE • Fan noise is an important criteria for the proper selection of fan type and size for an application. • The noise generated by a fan depends on the fan design. and wake. the volume flow rate. • The only valid basis for comparison is the actual sound power levels generated by the different fan types when they are operating at the required system flow and pressure. total pressure. the recommended practice for a selected fan type is that the fan size and speed be selected so operation falls at or near the peak efficiency point of the fan performance curve. and efficiency. and fan selection should not be based solely on fan tip speed. • For constant-volume systems. vortex shedding. • Low outlet velocity does not necessarily relate to lower sound power.

• If test data is not available. • The data is presented as sound power levels in eight octave bands and as weighted overall sound level. 78 Fans Reference Guide . • The sound power generation of a specific fan at its operating point should be obtained from manufacturers' AMCA test data or from manufacturers' computer fan-selection programs. FAN S OUND P OWER • Fans generate a tone at the blade passage frequency. The octave band to which the BFI is added depends on the type of fan and the impeller speed. which is also advantageous for energy conservation. and variable-pitch fan blades – generate less noise as the fan modulates to the no-flow operating point. and the number of decimals to be added is the blade frequency increment (BFI). • The other modulation systems – variable-speed motors and drives. • Fan selection criteria for VAV systems include two other factors: the efficiency and stability of the fan through the entire range of modulation. the octave-band sound power levels can be estimated using the following procedure. • Fan selection for VAV systems is a compromise between fan surge and fan inefficiency. Maximum sound levels occur at approximately 75% open VIVs. and the narrower the range of modulation the more acceptable the compromise will be. and the acoustic impact of the modulation system.• A fan is normally quietest when selected within the most efficient operating range. • Variable inlet vanes may generate significant low frequency noise as the vanes modulate to the close position and require additional attenuation with a corresponding increase in system pressure drop.

cfm (L/s) Chapter 11: Fan Noise 79 . Lw where Lw Kw Q = Kw + 10 log Q/cf1 + 20 log p/cf2 + C = estimated sound power level (dB re 1 pW) = specific sound power level = flow rate. rpm (r/s) = conversion factor 60 ( 1 ) Table 3: Typical Number of Fan Blades Impeller Size/Drive No. and over Under 24 in. • EQUATION 25 : Estimating sound power levels at actual operating conditions.• EQUATION 24 : Blade frequency Bf = N x no. 10 12 52 6 12 Belt drive Direct drive 6 4 6 • Blade frequency can be estimated using data from Table 3. of blades cf where Bf N cf = blade frequency. of Blades Fan Type CENTRIFUGAL Airfoil and Backward-inclined Forward-curved Radial AXIAL Vaneaxial Tubeaxial Propeller 24 in. Hz = impeller speed.

40 in. Hz Fan Type CENTRIFUGAL Airfoil and backward-inclined Forward-inclined Radial blade and Pressure blower Axial Vanaxial Tubeaxial Propeller Cooling tower 40 in.000 4. and over Under 40 in. Sound correction factor is selected from Table 5. to 40 in. 1 (249) • Estimated sound power level is calculated for all seven bands with KW selected from Table 4.000 2. The BFI is added to the octave band in which the blade passage frequency falls. 80 Fans Reference Guide . If the total sound power level being radiated is desired. All 40 in. in.p C cf1 cf2 = fan pressure rise. and over Under 40 in.000 BFI Note: These values are the specific power levels radiated from either the inlet or the outlet of the fan. 32 36 47 45 55 63 32 38 43 39 48 57 31 36 39 42 48 58 29 34 33 39 45 50 28 33 28 37 45 44 23 28 25 32 40 39 15 20 23 30 38 39 3 2 8 Impeller Size 63 125 250 500 1. 1 (0.472) = conversion factor.Wg (Pa) = correction factor for point of operation. KW (dB re 1 pW) Octave-band Centre Frequency. Table 4: Specific Sound Power Levels and Blade Frequency Increments Sound Power Level. Under 20 in. dB = conversion factor. and over 20 in. and over Under 36 in. All 39 37 41 40 48 36 39 39 41 51 38 43 43 47 58 39 43 41 46 56 37 43 39 44 55 34 41 37 43 52 32 28 34 37 46 6 5 5 36 in. add 3 db to each of the above values.

static efficiency of 60. but at a static pressure and flow of about 55% WOcfm.Table 5: Sound Correction Factors Correction Factor. • Determine the sound power level in seven octave bands by assuming the number of impeller blades to be 10 and by estimating the off-peak.Wg. for Off-peak Operation Static Efficiency % of peak 90 to 100 85 to 89 75 to 84 65 to 74 55 to 64 50 to 54 E XAMPLE 3 Correction Factor dB 0 3 6 9 12 15 • The fan in Example 1. p. 51.000 cfm. at static pressure of 2. • From manufacturers' data. • A simple method to calculate the off-peak.Wg static pressure and 6.5 in.000 cfm at 4. is to determine the static efficiency of the fan operating at the same impeller speed.6-bhp power. Chapter 11: Fan Noise 81 . the operating point close to the 55%-WOcfm line is 7.5 in.9% and impeller speed of 1. static-efficiency correction factor with reasonable accuracy.475 rpm. is operating at its design condition of 10. C. static-efficiency correction factor.

2 x 100 = 81% • From Table 6. • The additional sound power levels due to the volume flow rate and pressure are given by Equation 25.000 x 4. the off-peak correction factor C is 6 dB. Bf =1. p.349 x 6. efficiency correction factor suggests that a more efficient fan should be selected for the given duty.000 + 20 log 2.6 = 0.752 • Static efficiency as a percentage of peak is as follows: 60. Lw = Kw + 10 log 10.• EQUATION 26 : Peak static efficiency given by rearranging Equation 11. p. 73.5 6. 82 Fans Reference Guide . • BFI is given by Equation 24. p. • The magnitude of the off-peak. 49.475 x 10/60 = 246 • The closest octave band is 250 Hz.9/75. h2 = QPs cf PFi = 7.5 + C = Kw + 40 + 6 = Kw + 54 dB • The specific sound power levels (KW) for Table 6 are obtained from the second line of Table 4. 73.

KW (dB re 1 pW) Octave-band Centre Frequency.• A larger fan would allow for operation closer to the surge line at a slower impeller speed.000 33 54 2. Table 6. Hz 63 KW Equation 11 BFI Total dB 90 93 36 54 125 38 54 250 36 54 3 93 89 86 82 74 500 34 54 1. but with less ability to cope with higher system static pressures at the design flow.000 28 54 4. lower power and lower noise levels.000 20 54 Chapter 11: Fan Noise 83 . Summary for Example 3 Sound Power Level.

Chapter 12: Fan Duty Control 85 .6:1 and input power of less than 15 kW.CHAPTER12 FAN DUTY CONTROL • Fans are required to perform over a range of flows and pressures called. • Magnetic or hydraulic slip couplings can be used in systems with power greater than 15 kW. “The Duty Cycle”. • For HVAC systems with infrequent changes in flow rate and/or where control is a secondary consideration. • Where a system requires continuously varying flow rates over speed ranges of 2. an adjustable-speed pulley drive is satisfactory and can improve system efficiency. • The type of fan control should be selected on the basis of cost. However these couplings have an inherent power loss since the torque from the motor is transmitted unchanged to the impeller. a two. the precision of control required and the frequency and magnitude of system flow changes. can have a significant energy cost. How the fan is controlled to achieve the required range. in spite of the difference in rotational speed.or threespeed motor is a low-cost solution.

with the potential for precise control. is a fan discharge damper.• The most efficient method of speed control. • The simplest. • Mechanical methods of volume control are often used in commercial and industrial HVAC systems. the damper artificially increases system resistance and the fan works along its system curve. Outlet Pressure unstable region Higher system resistance curve as outlet damper closes Volume Flow Figure 34: Outlet Damper Fan Control • Single fan performance curve • Multiple system resistance curves 86 Fans Reference Guide . most inefficient method of control. is the electronic adjustable speed drive (see figure 32).

Chapter 12: Fan Duty Control 87 . • There is no advantage other than initial cost to using an outlet damper. • Figure 33 shows discharge-damper control sequenced with motor-speed control. Figure 35: Throttle Control of a Fan with a Two-speed Motor • Inlet-vane control can provide precise flow control. down to about 40% of the full flow rate. the discharge damper can be used with multi-speed motors. Its use should be avoided.• To provide a broader range of flow control at lower energy penalties. • This control device rotates the inlet airflow the same as the impeller and so reduces the work done by the impeller. or with adjustable speed drives.

centrifugal-fan performance. this maintains high efficiencies over a wide blade-pitch range. Used in HVAC only. • Figure 31 shows the effect of inlet-vane control on BI. Figure 36: Inlet Vane Control of a Fan 88 Fans Reference Guide . • The flow rate from variable pitch-in-motion vaneaxial fans can be dynamically regulated by varying the attack angle of the impeller blades.• Another inlet-control device is a cone that varies the effective fan-inlet area as a Function of the axial distance the cone is positioned from the fan inlet.

• Most fans are shipped statically and dynamically balanced but corrosion. frequency of vibratory force (disturbing frequency). erosion. • Therefore. consider fan isolation when designing the installation. or correct the fan balance. • The transmission of vibration to a building structure involves vibratory force. • The degree of fan isolation and balancing depends on the floor span. and to avoid resonance.CHAPTER 13 VIBRATION ISOLATION/ FAN BALANCING • All rotating machinery have critical speeds called resonant frequencies where excessive vibration can cause damage. It is necessary to have each fan and foundation installation checked to avoid these speeds. and the fan type. dust and airborne contaminants collecting on the impeller may cause imbalance over time. the natural frequency of the isolator should be different to the disturbing frequency. • It is important to select vibration isolators to compensate for floor deflection. size. and stiffness of isolator and floor. natural frequency of isolator and floor. Chapter 13: Vibration Isolation / Fan Balancing 89 . speed and power.

Isolation will only reduce the transmission of forces due to imbalance. • Consider resilient.• Use the "Vibration Isolator Selection Guide" in the ASHRAE HVAC Applications Volume Handbook to determine the base and isolator type and minimum deflection. 90 Fans Reference Guide . Note: The best vibration isolation design will not compensate for a resonant frequency problem. inertial bases for fans in critical areas or in long buildings of light construction. • Install flexible duct connectors at the inlet and at the discharge to reduce transmission to the duct work. structural steel or concrete.

This must be corrected to represent the apparent inertia as seen by the motor when the fan operates at a different speed from the motor. Therefore it is advisable to start centrifugal fans with dampers closed.CHAPTER 14 ELECTRIC MOTOR FAN DRIVE • The AC electric motor is the main type of prime mover used to drive fans and there are many types.) Chapter 14: Electric Motor Fan Drive 91 . • The selection of a high-efficiency motor is important. • Additional resistance to starting will be air power consumed by the fan. F LYWHEEL E FFECT • The time to accelerate a fan to operating speed depends on the fan/impeller inertia (flywheel effect) and the starting characteristics of the electric motor. R is called the radius of gyration. • The fan/impeller inertia is given as WR2 in the industry. • Excessive starting time raises the temperature of the motor windings beyond acceptable levels. but the starting motor current and torque are more important. (Axial fans should have dampers open.

• The characteristic starting-torque curves of the fan motor and the maximum allowable time for acceleration (usually about 10 seconds) are available from manufacturers. • The available acceleration torque is the difference between the motor torque and the fan torque. AC M OTORS • Polyphase (usually three-phase) AC motors are almost always used in fan applications that require more than 2 hp. • The AC induction motor, usually with a squirrel-cage rotor and no external connections, is the most suitable for three- phasepower fan drive as it is inexpensive and reliable. • It is a constant-speed motor with a flat torque characteristic in relation to motor speed. • However, its starting current is high – as much as seven or eight times higher than the running current. • The extra starting current for fans with low inertia and large motors can cause problems with electrical supply and demand. Special consideration must be given to reducing the starting current. • It is usual to reduce the starting voltage at start-up and step up the voltage until the fan reaches running speed. • Another solution is to use a wound-rotor induction motor in which the polyphase windings of the motor are connected to an external resistor via slip rings. • Starting torque and starting current can be controlled by adjusting the external resistance. • Small fans requiring less than 2 hp usually use single-phase power supply.
92 Fans Reference Guide

• Single-phase induction motors are non-self starting; to start the motor, a second starting phase is created by connecting an extra stator winding through a capacitor. • The starting capacitor displaces the phase of the current and is disconnected after running speed is obtained, and a different size capacitor is used for running. • Shaded pole motors are generally unsuitable for fan drive, because of their inherent poor starting torque. DC M OTORS • Sometimes DC motors are preferable for fan drive, particularly in applications requiring speed modulation. • The series motor is most suitable, because it has moderate starting current and self-regulating, stable operating characteristics.

Chapter 14: Electric Motor Fan Drive

93

CHAPTER 15

ENERGY CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS
EXAMPLE: Building Ventilation • Note: This procedure involves many calculations that are easily done using a spreadsheet computer program. • It is often necessary to estimate the energy consumption of a fan, particularly for life-cycle costing. The energy costs are usually determined for a period of a year. • EQUATION 27: Estimating the energy consumption of a fan involves integrating the fan shaft input power divided by system efficiencies over time. E=∑
1 n

PFi t(n) hDt(n) x hMt(n) x hVt(n) x cf

x t(n)

where: E PFi t(n) hDt(n) hMt(n) hVt(n)

= energy consumption, kWh = fan shaft input power for time period, hp (W) = drive efficiency for time period, dimensionless ratio = motor efficiency for time period, dimensionless ratio = variable-speed drive efficiency for time period, dimensionless ratio
Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis 95

the fan power varies as a function of the outdoor-air temperature. • When energy use is a function of outdoor-air temperature.cf t(n) = conversion factor. Appendix B outlines the procedures for estimating drive efficiencies. The procedure for using Equation 27 depends on the fan being analyzed. • In the absence of such a program. C ONSTANT.000) = time at fan motor power. kWh PFi b(n) = fan shaft input power at bin temperature. Motor efficiencies are obtained from manufacturers' data. When time-ofuse energy rates apply. then the weather data can be separated into on-peak and off-peak periods. the procedure is straight forward as the energy consumption is integrated over one time period. 1. dimensionless ratio 96 Fans Reference Guide . the annual energy consumption can be determined using a computerized.VOLUME FANS • For a constant-volume fan processing a gas at a constant temperature rise. 49). • EQUATION 28: Total energy consumption: E=∑ 1 n PFi b(n) X t b(n) hDb (n) x hMb (n) x cf where: E = energy consumption.3410 ( 1. a reasonable assessment can be made by using ASHRAE bin weather data. • For a constant-volume fan processing outdoor-air. hours • The fan shaft input power is calculated by Equation 11 (p. hourly analysis program. kW hDb (n) = drive efficiency at bin temperature.

= fan-shaft input power at bin temperature.VOLUME FANS • For an AF or BI centrifugal fan with variable-inlet vanes (VIVs). which estimate the part-load conditions when the system curve originates at the apex of zero flow and zero static pressure.3 (kg/m3) = standard air density. the load profile of the fan system and the design point of the fan (with the VIVs completely open) must be determined or estimated. hp (W) = fan-shaft input power at standard conditions. hours = conversion factor. • From the full-load design point. This is necessary to determine which constants are used in the following equations.hMb (n) t b(n) cf = motor efficiency at bin temperature. the fan flow as a percentage of wide-open cubic feet per minute (WOcfm) must be determined from the fan curve or a computer program.000) • EQUATION 29: The fan shaft input power at each temperature bin when a constant-volume fan processes air of varying temperature: PFi b(n) where: PFi b(n) PFi s rb rs VARIABLE . hp (W) = actual bin density. dimensionless ratio = time at temperature bin. 1.3410 ( 1. lbm/ft.3 (kg/m3) = PFi s x rb rs Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis 97 . lbm/ft.

%WOcfm = percentage design fan load.c = constants determined from table closest to design WOcfm • EQUATION 33: The fan-shaft input power in horsepower at the design point is determined from manufacturers' data and corrected for VIV losses. cfm (L/s) • EQUATION 32: Percentage fan-shaft input power at each load point.• EQUATION 30: Load profile expressed in terms of WOcfm. hp = fan input power at design. including the design point. PFi c where: PFi c PFi d fP 98 = PFi d x fP = corrected fan-shaft input power at design. %WOcfm Qd = flow at design. %hp %Q(n) = percentage fan load for load point. % • EQUATION 31: Percentage design fan load. %WOcfm a. cfm (L/s) QWOcfm = flow at WOcfm.b. %hp(n) = c + a x exp (%Q(n) x b) where: %hp(n) = percentage fan power for load point. %Q(n) where: %Q(n) %Qd Lf(n) = %Qd x Lf(n) 100 = percentage fan load for load point. hp = fan power correction factor Fans Reference Guide . %WOcfm = load factor for load point. %Qd = Qd QWOcfm x 100 where %Qd = percentage design fan load.

hp Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis 99 . PFi (n) where: PFi (n) PFi c %hp(n) %hpd rn rd cf • EQUATION 36: To determine the fan motor input power. fP where fP %Qd =1+ 1.933 994 x exp (0.3 (kg/m3) = design air density used to determine hpd. %hp = percentage fan power at design. LfM = PMo(n) PM where LfM PMo(n) PM = motor load factor. lbm/ft. %hp = actual density at load point.• EQUATION 34: Typical fan power correction factor. hp (W) = corrected fan input power at design. the motor efficiency at each load point must be determined as a function of the load factor. dimensionless ratio = fan motor output power at load point.0 (745.70) • EQUATION 35: The fan input power at each load point. 1. hp = nominal nameplate rating of motor. hp = percentage fan power for time period. dimensionless ratio = %WOcfm at design = PFi c x %hp(n) x rn x cf %hpd rd = fan shaft input power for time period.026 075 x %Qd) 100 = fan power correction factor. lbm/ft.3 (kg/m3) = conversion factor.

kWh Fans Reference Guide . hp (W) = drive efficiency at load point.000) • The total energy consumption in kilowatt-hours is then determined by adding the product of the time in hours and the fan motor input power in kilowatts at each load point.1.• EQUATION 37: Fan motor output power (derivative of Equation 13. 50). PMo(n) where: PMo(n) PFi(n) hD(n) = PFi(n) hD(n) = fan motor output power. p. dimensionless ratio • EQUATION 38: The fan motor input power at each load point considering the part load efficiencies by combining Equation 13 (p. hp = fan-shaft input power at load point. kW = fan-shaft input power at load point. dimensionless ratio = motor efficiency at load point. E=∑ (PMi(n) x t(n)) where: E 100 1 n = energy consumption. 50) and Equation 14 (p. hp = drive efficiency. PMi(n) where: PMi(n) PFi(n) hD(n) hM(n) cf = PFi(n) hD(n) x hM(n) x cf = fan motor input power at load point. • EQUATION 39: Total energy consumption.3410 (1.50). dimensionless ratio = conversion factor.

Wg (Pa) = static pressure at design. 49).3 (kg/m3 ) = conversion factor.PMi(n) t(n) = fan motor input power for load point. p. %sp %Q (n) = percentage fan flow at load point. Ps(n) = Psd x %sp(n) x rn x cf %spd rs where: Ps(n) Psd %sp(n) %spd rn rs cf = static pressure at load point. dimensionless ratio Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis 101 . lbm/ft.b = constants determined from table closest to design WOcfm • EQUATION 41: The fan static pressure at each load point. %sp = actual density at load point.84) • EQUATION 42: The fan static efficiency at each load point (rearrange Equation 11.Wg (Pa) = percentage static pressure at load point. 1. in.0 (248. in. %sp(n) = a x %Q (n)b where %sp(n) = percentage fan static pressure at load point. lbm/ft. %sp = percentage static pressure at design. hs(n) where: hs(n) = Q(n) x Ps(n) PFi (n) x cf = static efficiency at load point. %WOcfm a. kW = time at load point. hours • EQUATION 40: Percentage static pressure at each load point including the design point.3 (kg/m3) = standard density used to determine psd.

3/min. 6349. in. • One proposed system is two exhaust fans of 40. VAV. hp (W) = conversion factor.000) • EQUATION 43: Fan speed at the design point determined from manufacturers' data and corrected for VIV losses. Analysis has determined the welding booth requires a minimum of 40. Ontario. The shop is located in Toronto.Wg (Pa) = fan-shaft input power at load point.168 903 x ln %Qd 100 = fan-speed correction factor.000 cfm each and a roof-mounted. (L/s) = static pressure at load point. rpm = fan speed correction factor • EQUATION 44: Typical fan speed correction. doubling the exhaust volume to 80. NFc where: NFc NFd Nf = NFd x Nf = corrected fan speed with VIVs.000 cfm of exhaust air for contaminate control. ft.Q(n) Ps(n) PFi (n) cf = flow at load point. makeup-air system with a blow102 Fans Reference Guide = 1 + -41.6 ( 1. at 176m above sea level. and is to operate three shifts a day year round. dimensionless ratio = %WOcfm at design . To remove excess heat in warm weather. • A ventilation system is required for a new welding shop at a manufacturing plant. rpm = fan speed at design without VIVs.329 73 + 11.000 cfm has been considered. Nf where: Nf %Qd E XAMPLE 4 • Uses the energy-analysis formulae in this chapter and the density-calculation formulae in Appendix A.

075 lb/ft3. The makeup-air unit fan delivers a maximum of 80. • To determine the annual energy consumption of the make-upair fan.-diameter. • The fan requires a 100-hp motor.000 cfm at an outdoor temperature of l3˚C to the maximum volume of 80. and motor-efficiency data is in Table 8. 54-in. the control sequence would be as follows: • One exhaust fan and the makeup-air unit start and run continuously. The supply air should be reset from the minimum volume of 40. Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis 103 . DWDI centrifugal fan with VIVs and a glycol heating coil. The VIVs in the unit modulate and provide makeup airflow as determined by a calibrated velocity pressure sensor in the supply duct.000 cfm at a static pressure of 4. Whenever the system must operate.8˚C. • Also included is a roof-mounted gravity relief damper to prevent overpressurization of the zone.5 in. When the VIVs are fully open.through. the second exhaust fan starts and runs continuously. at 0.000 cfm at an outdoor temperature of l9˚C.Wg. use ASHRAE Metric Bin Weather Data and a PC spreadsheet program using the modified bin method to simplify calculations. A normally-open control valve on the heating coil is modulated to maintain a minimum supply-air temperature of 12. considering density flow variation.

000501 2.033279 0.037477 41.036628 0.50 %sp %Q a b 0.012019 2.009782 0.50 41.50 42.997487 1.50 41.000341 2.013297 0.042180 0.25 41.751074 2.015668 1.007228 0.000808 1.052399 42.847918 1.251667 1.000751 2.004959 2.915869 0.462608 3.055539 0.028756 0.022564 0.078326 0.Table 7: Typical VAV-fan Constants %WOcfm Dependent Variable %hp Independent Variable %Q Constant a b c 50 55 60 65 1.996321 104 Fans Reference Guide .999086 %WOcfm Dependent Variable %hp Independent Variable %Q Constant a b c 70 75 80 85 2.001993 1.00 39.50 %sp %Q a b 0.017582 2.50 41.274535 0.048141 0.068488 0.

Table 8: Motor Load Efficiencies
Motor Size 25 100 hp 89.05 50 91.86 75 93.50 100 93.05 115 92.83 125 92.70 Load Factor Percentage

Table 9: The Solution to Example 4
GIVEN PARAMETERS Elevation, m Standard Density (r), Ib/ft3 Flow (Q), cfm Static Pressure (ps), in.Wg FAN SELECTION PARAMETERS Power (PFi d) at Std Cond, bhp Speed (NFd) at Std Cond, rpm Max Flow (Qmax) at zero pressure, cfm %WOcfm (%Q), % Maximum Static Pressure (Ps max) in.Wg Motor Power (PM), bhp Motor Efficiency (hM). % 74 693 130300 From performance curve at 693 rpm Q/Qmax From performance curve at 693 rpm Nominal motor size Peak efficiency at 75% load contÕd VALUE 176 0.075 80000 4.5 REMARKS

61.40 5.5

100 93.5

Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis

105

Table 9: The Solution to Example 4 (contÕd)
VAV FAN CONSTANTS %WOcfm Variables %hp %Q Constants a b c %sp %Q a b CALCULATED PARAMETERS Station pressure (Pb), kPa Drive efficiency (hD). % Percent power at design using (%hpd) Percent pressure at design using (%spd) VIV correction factor (fp) VIV correction factor (Nf) Corrected power (PFI C) bhp Corrected speed (NFc), rpm 99.261 4.00 93.249 81.500 1.09245 1.04400 80.841 723 Interpolated Equation B1, p. 109 Equation 32, p. 92 60%WOcfm Equation 40, p. 95 60%WOcfm Equation 34. p. 93 Equation 44, p. 96 Equation 33. p. 92 Equation 44, p. 96 1.847918 0.055539 41.50000 0.022564 2.000808 Data from Table 7 60 Value nearest Q/Qmax

Summary • In reviewing the output from the spreadsheet program, it is apparent that the fan operates at a static efficiency of only 16% for over 6,000 hours a year. Therefore, the proposed control scheme and system arrangement is not very efficient and another scheme should be considered. Also, the ductwork would have to be doubled in size for this arrangement, which would add to the installation cost.
106 Fans Reference Guide

Table 10. Summary of Example 4
Tdb 1 34 31 28 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 4 1 -2 -5 -8 -11 -14 -17 -20 Twb 2 25 23 21 19 18 15 13 11 8 5 3 0 -5 -7 -10 -13 -16 -19 -22 Hr 3 8 42 186 352 742 630 644 969 588 811 621 1731 488 461 274 138 56 13 5 PWS 4 3169.211 2810.437 2487.663 2197.793 2064.288 1705.445 1497.808 1312.737 1072.839 872.485 758.030 611.212 401.763 338.193 259.902 198.518 150.676 113.618 85.096 Ws 5 0.02051 0.01812 0.01599 0.01408 0.01321 0.01087 0.00953 0.00834 0.00680 0.00552 0.00479 0.00385 0.00253 0.00213 0.00163 0.00125 0.00095 0.00071 0.00053 W 6 0.01672 0.01477 0.01307 0.01159 0.01155 0.00922 0.00830 0.00752 0.00598 0.00471 0.00438 0.00345 0.00133 0.00133 0.00084 0.00046 0.00016 -0.00007 -0.00025 Rho 7 0.0684 0.0693 0.0702 0.0711 0.0718 0.0728 0.0737 0.0745 0.0755 0.0765 0.0773 0.0783 0.0794 0.0803 0.0813 0.0823 0.0833 0.0843 0.0853 Lfn 8 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 75.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 %Qn 9 60 60 60 60 60 60 45 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 %spn 10 81.50 81.50 81.50 81.50 81.50 81.50 45.83 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 20.36 psn 11 4.11 4.16 4.21 4.26 4.31 4.37 2.49 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.19 1.20 1.22 1.23 1.25 1.26 1.28 %hpn 12 93.25 93.25 93.25 93.25 93.25 93.25 64.00 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 51.28 PFin 13 73.78 74.73 75.68 76.62 77.40 78.48 54.50 44.18 44.76 45.33 45.85 46.42 47.09 47.62 48.19 48.78 49.36 49.96 50.57 Seff 14 70.13 70.13 70.13 70.13 70.13 70.13 43.10 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 15.93 PMon 15 76.85 77.84 78.83 79.81 80.63 81.75 56.77 46.b2 46.63 47.22 47.76 48.35 49.05 49.60 50.20 50.81 51.42 52.04 52.67 Lf 16 0.768 0.778 0.788 0.798 0.806 0.818 0.568 0.460 0.466 0.472 0.478 0.484 0.491 0.496 0.502 0.508 0.514 0.520 0.527 M eff 17 0.935 0.934 0.934 0.934 0.934 0.934 0.924 0.915 0.916 0.916 0.917 0.917 0.918 0.918 0.919 0.919 0.920 0.920 0.921 PMin 18 61.31 62.12 62.92 63.72 64.38 65.30 45.83 37.50 37.97 38.43 38.85 39.31 39.85 40.28 40.75 41.22 41.69 42.17 42.66 En 19 491 2609 11704 22428 47770 41136 29515 36337 22325 31167 24124 68045 19449 18569 11165 5688 2335 548 213 395619

TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (kWh) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description Bin dry-bulb temperature, ûC. Bin mean coincident wet-bulb temperature, ûC. Bin hours of occurrence, h. Saturation pressure, Pa.; Equation A6 and Equation A7, ûC. Saturation humidity ratio, dimensionless; Equation A9. Humidity ratio, dimensionless; Equation A11. Density, Ib/ft.3; Equation A14 and Equation A15 converted to IP units. Load factor derived from example control sequence. Percent fan load; Equation 30. Percent fan static pressure; Equation 40. Column 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Description Fan static pressure, in.Wg; Equation 41. Percent fan power; Equation 32. Fan-shaft input power, bhp; Equation 35. Fan static efficiency, %o; Equation 42. Fan motor output power, bhp; Equation 37. Motor load factor; dimensionless ratio; Equation 36. Motor efficiency; Equation derived from a regression analysis of Table 8 data (alternatively linear interpolation can be used). Fan motor input power, kW; Equation 38. Fan energy consumption, kWh; Equation 27 (product of columns 3 and 18).

Chapter 15: Energy Consumption Analysis

107

• EQUATION A2: The density (p) of moist air is the ratio of the total mass to the total volume. V is the total mixture volume.32 ft-lbf /lb-mol-F(abs) or 8. • EQUATION A1: Moist air obeys the perfect gas equation.31441 J/(g-mol)-K]. p = (ma + mw)/V Chapter 16: Appendices 109 .D ENSITY C ALCULATIONS Moist Air Parameters for Density Determination • Moist air is defined as a binary mixture of dry air and water vapour. p V= n R T where: total pressure (p) is the sum of the partial pressure of dry air (pa) and the partial pressure of water vapour (pw). the total moles (n) is the sum of the number of moles of dry air (na) and the number of moles of water vapour (nw). The maximum amount of water vapour at saturation in moist air depends on the temperature and pressure. T is the absolute temperature and R is the universal gas constant [1545.CHAPTER 16 APPENDICES A PPENDIX A .

W) to: Ws(p. The saturation pressure in SI units 110 Fans Reference Guide . f = xw/xws | t. W = mw/ma • The saturation humidity ratio (Ws) is the humidity ratio of moist air saturated with water (or ice) at the same temperature and pressure.where: ma mw = mass of dry air = mass of water vapour • EQUATION A3: The humidity ratio (W) of a given moist air sample is defmed as the ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air. while the pressure (p) is constant. • EQUATION A4: Relative humidity (f) is the ratio of the mole fraction of water vapour in a given moist air sample to the mole fraction in a saturated air sample at the same temperature and pressure. can bring air into saturation adiabatically at the same temperature (twb). by evaporating into moist air at a given dry-bulb temperature (t) and humidity ratio (W).td) = W • The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature (twb) is the temperature at which water (liquid or solid).p • EQUATION A5: The dew point temperature (td) is the temperature of moist air saturated at the same pressure (p) and with the same humidity ratio (W) as that of the given sample of air. Density Calculations • The numerical method for calculating the density of moist air is a multistep process and initially involves determining the watervapour saturation pressure. It is defined as the solution td(p.

In(pws) = C8/T + C9 + Cl0T + C11T2 + C12T3 + C13In(T) where: C8 = -5. K • EQUATION A8: Saturation pressure in IP units: pws(IP) = 0.674 535 9 E-3 = 6. Pa T = absolute temperature.864 023 9 E-2 C11 = 4.176 476 8 E-5 C12 = -1.677 843 E-3 = 6.163 501 9 • EQUATION A7: The saturation pressure over water for the temperature range of O˚C to 200˚C.800 220 6 E-3 C9 = 1. • EQUATION A6: The saturation pressure over ice for the temperature range of -l00˚C to O˚C.074 782 5 E-9 = -9.221 157 Ol E-7 = 2. 1989 Fundamentals Volume.445 209 3 E-8 C13 = 6.545 967 3 and where for both equations: pws = saturation pressure.391 499 3 C10 = -4.392 524 7 = -9. In(pws) = C1/T + C2 + C3T + C4T2 + C5T3 + C6T4 + C7In(T) where: C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 = -5.020855 pws(SI) Chapter 16: Appendices 111 .484 024 E-13 = 4.at the wet-bulb temperature is calculated by the following Hyland and Wexler formulae published in the ASHRAE Handbook.

0.pws) where: Ws p pws = saturation humidity ratio.where: pws(IP) = saturation pressure. ˚F (˚C) • EQUATION A12: The humidity ratio.093 . lbf/ft.62198 pw/(p . W = 0.501 + 1. lbf/ft2 (Pa) • EQUATION A10: The humidity ratio using the wet-bulb temperature.4.pw) where: W p pw = humidity ratio.2 (Pa) = partial pressure of water vapour.240 (tdb .2. lb/ft2 pws(SI) = saturation pressure.2 (Pa) 112 Fans Reference Guide . W = ( 1. dimensionless = total pressure. dimensionless Ws = saturation humidity ratio. dimensionless tdb = dry-bulb temperature.twb) 1.(tdb .twb) • EQUATION A11: or in SI units: W = (2.556 twb) Ws(wb) -0. lbf/ft2 (Pa) = saturation pressure.805tdb .501. Ws = 0.twb) 2. dimensionless = absolute pressure.186twb where for both Equation A10 and Equation All: W = humidity ratio.381 twb) Ws(wb) . lbf/ft.444 (tdb .093 + 0. ˚F (˚C) twb = wet-bulb temperature. Pa • EQUATION A9: Saturation humidity ratio.62198 pws/(p .

Chapter 16: Appendices 113 . lbm/ft. dimensionless • EQUATION A15: Density is determined by the inverse of the volume.055 J/kg.K) = absolute temperature. r = 1/v where: r = density.p where: f pw pws = relative humidity. ˚F(abs) (K) = total pressure.352 ft.2 (Pa) = saturation pressure.2 (Pa) • EQUATION A14: Volume. dimensionless = partial pressure of water vapour.6078 W) p where: v Ra T p W = volume. v = RaT ( 1 + 1 . Table A2 outlines which equations must be used with the appropriate parameters. lbf/ft2 (Pa) = humidity ratio. ft. (m3/kg) = gas constant for air.F(abs) (287.• EQUATION A13: Relative humidity using the perfect gas relationships: f = Pw/Pws | t. lbf/ft. 53. lbf/ft.3 (kg/m3) • The equation to use to determine density depends on the measured parameters.lbf/lbm.3/lbm.

000 3.000 m Altitude m 0 500 1.2 8. p pw = pws | td W v r tdb.5 47. p To Obtain pws | twb Ws | twb W v r Use Equation A6 or Equation A7 Equation A9 Equation A10 or Equation A11 Equation A14 Equation A15 Equation A6 or Equation A7 Equation A12 Equation A14 Equation A15 Equation A6 or Equation A7 Equation A13 Equation A12 Equation A14 Equation A15 Comments Using twb Using pws | twb Using ps | twb Using W Using v Using td Using Pws | td for Pw Using W Using v Using tdb Using pws Using pw Using W Using v tdb. 1989 Fundamentals Volume Table A2.874 79.000 ft.54 23.9 Pressure in.19 26.562 Temperature ûC ûF 15.108 Source: ASHRAE Handbook.6 -4. Density Calculations Given Parameters tdb.921 28.Hg 29.8 53.281 6. p Pws | tdb Pw W v r 114 Fans Reference Guide .0 59. f.0 35.640 3.461 89.325 95.000 2.0 11. td.Table A1.562 6.495 70.3 2. Standard Atmospheric Data for Altitudes to 3. twb.47 20. 0 1.70 kPa 101.5 23.

D RIVE L OSS C ALCULATIONS • Power transmission losses must be considered in energy consumption analysis whenever a direct-drive system is not used. In addition.2 . However. there is a range for each motor size where typically the losses increase as speed increases. these losses diminish logarithmically as the motor size increases. or the mean drive loss can be determined by the following equations: • EQUATION Bl: Fractional horsepower motors: LD =9. % PM = nominal rated motor output power.0.A PPENDIX B . and variable-speed drives including eddy current clutches and electronic and mechanical variable-speed devices.651 27 In PM • EQUATION B2: Motors from 1 to 10 horsepower: LD = 9.0 where for all applicable equations: LD = drive loss in percent of motor output. losses for the common drive systems can be estimated with suitable accuracy. • Determining precise drive losses involves laboratory testing procedures. V-belt Drives • Expressed as a percentage of motor output. hp Chapter 16: Appendices 115 . belt drives (including V-belts and rubber chain). using the methods in this appendix.867 47 In PM • EQUATION B3: Motors from 10 to 100 horsepower: LD = 6. The value of the drivebelt loss can be determined by the graph in AMCA Publication 203-90.4-4. The types of drive systems with losses include hydraulic and gear drives.4 -1.477 724 In PM • EQUATION B4: Motors over 100 horsepower: LD = 4.

• Fan motor output power is determined using Equation B5. If the manufacturer does not supply this data.745 70) Rubber Chain Drives • Relatively new drive method that is more efficient than V-belt drive systems. the part-load drive efficiency can be determined by multiplying the full-load design drive efficiency by the part-load correction factor. Drive losses occur due to the bending forces as the belt rotates around the pulleys.0 + (0.0 (0.LD/l00) where: PMo PFi LD cf = motor output power.0 . % = conversion factor. Electronic Variable-speed Drives • Manufacturers publish the part-load efficiencies and power factor of their electronic variable-speed drives as a function of output speed at constant load and. bhp (kW) = fan shaft input power. 1. Ask the manufacturer for the drive losses.• EQUATION B5: Actual motor output power: PMo = PFi/cf(1. The drive pulleys are ribbed and the belt is toothed to prevent slippage. as a function of output speed with load reducing with the cube of the speed change. bhp = drive loss in percent of rated motor output power. in the case of fan systems.203 176 x 1n Nfv) where: cfv = variable-torque drive correction factor.0. or assume that LD = 2. • EQUATION B6: cfv =1. dimensionless ratio 116 Fans Reference Guide .

the output of the variable-speed drive can be determined by. PVi = PFi /hV hD hM where: Pvi PFi hV hD hM = variable-speed drive input power.Nfv = speed fraction of variable-speed drive. • EQUATION B8: Variable-speed drive input power. dimensionless ratio = drive efficiency at full-load design. dimensionless ratio = drive efficiency. dimensionless ratio hV = hvd x cfv 100 • EQUATION B7: Variable-speed drive efficiency. dimensionless ratio = motor efficiency. Data on motor part-load efficiency at reduced speed may be difficult to obtain. where: hV hvd = part-load drive efficiency. % • The part-load efficiency of the motor must be considered to determine the input power to the variable-speed drive. dimensionless ratio • For installed systems where the input load and power factor can be measured.phase power: PVo = (E I pf hD)/cf Chapter 16: Appendices 117 . In the absence of this data use the part-load efficiency at full rated speed. hp (kW) = variable-speed drive efficiency. hp (kW) = fan-shaft input power. • EQUATION B9: For single .

ask the manufacturer for the drive efficiencies. then the actual fan input power must be determined by laboratory tests. hp (kW) E = average of the measured phase volts I = average of the measured phase amps = conversion factor.phase power: PVo = (√3 E I pf hD)/cf where for both equations: PVo = variable-speed drive output power.• EQUATION B10: For three . dimensionless ratio hD = drive efficiency. 118 Fans Reference Guide .70 ( 1. 745.000) pf = power factor. dimensionless ratio Other Drive Systems • For systems such as eddy current clutches and hydraulic couplings. If this data is not available.

18 0.24 0.36 0.35 0.25 0.59 0.56 A1 / A2 2.55 0.5 0.33 0.22 0.52 3.51 0.27 0.ASHR) Table C1.50 0.0 0.43 0.33 0.38 0.17 0.34 0.0 0.42 0.A PPENDIX C .FAN O UTLET L OSS C OEFFICIENTS ( REF.63 0.31 0.5 0. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork Chapter 16: Appendices 119 .21 0.54 0.37 0. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.0 0.65 2.51 4.24 0.25 0.27 0.43 0.53 3.5 0.50 Figure C1.46 0.44 0.20 0.

5 0.67 0.31 0.58 0.0 0.0 0.67 0.78 A1 / A2 2.72 0.53 0.37 0.80 0.5 0.5 0.32 0.0 0. Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork 120 Fans Reference Guide .51 0.65 0.76 3.70 0.72 0.75 0.54 0.42 0.34 0.51 0. Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet Without Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 1.76 Figure C2.64 0.64 0.74 0.85 2.75 4.65 0.50 0.70 0.75 3.Table C2.

13 0.09 0.23 0.24 2.44 3.15 0.10 0.5 0. Plane Symmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.29 0.11 0.13 0.21 0.06 0.48 4.10 0.05 0.5 0.16 0.16 0.0 0.39 3.0 0.5 0.13 0.07 0.16 0.24 0.09 0.34 0.14 0.34 A1 / A2 2. Plane Symmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork Chapter 16: Appendices 121 .35 0.08 0.07 0.16 0.13 0.32 0.Table C3.11 0.19 0.0 0.11 0.50 Figure C3.

30 0.18 0.5 0.14 0.10 0.26 0.0 0.0 0.21 0.25 0.44 Figure C4.31 A1 / A2 2.13 0.5 0.18 0.12 0.15 0.16 0. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork 122 Fans Reference Guide .15 0.11 0.11 0.43 4.23 0.17 0.12 0.41 3.14 0.10 0.Table C4.18 0.10 0.23 0.35 0.21 2. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.0 0.08 0.09 0.15 0.5 0.38 3.35 0.33 0.11 0.

29 0.20 0.16 0. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.15 0.14 0.05 0.21 0.11 0.11 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.5 0.15 0.23 A1 / A2 2.13 0.10 0.07 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.15 2. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork Chapter 16: Appendices 123 .23 0.33 3.0 0.0 0.22 0.14 0.18 0.09 0.18 0.28 3.Table C5.35 4.26 0.16 0.12 0.06 0.15 0.14 0.36 Figure C5.28 0.

46 0.14 0.54 A1 / A2 2.34 0.17 0. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.26 0.0 0.0 0. Plane Asymmetric Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork 124 Fans Reference Guide .22 0.49 0.35 0.66 Figure C6.16 0.64 3.44 2.5 0.18 0.39 0.61 3.37 0.5 0.32 0.18 0.11 0.0 0.5 0.36 0.51 0.24 0.29 0.Table C6.15 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.30 0.19 0.40 0.66 4.51 0.28 0.14 0.

Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork C0 q degree 10 15 20 25 30 1.42 2.25 0.33 0.53 0.62 0.59 3.53 A1 / A2 2.38 0.56 0.0 0.10 0.64 0. Pyramidal Diffuser at Fan Outlet With Ductwork Chapter 16: Appendices 125 .5 0.48 0.58 0.0 0.44 0.42 0.0 0.23 0.64 3.69 Figure C7.21 0.Table C7.5 0.67 4.36 0.23 0.49 0.31 0.40 0.5 0.24 0.18 0.55 0.58 0.43 0.

15 t (ûC) = TK .15 Chapter 17: Conversion Tables 127 .8 T(K) = TûR /1.8 û ûR or F(abs) K K K ûC T(ûR) = tûF + 459.273.67) /1.67 T(K) = (tûF + 459.8 T(K) = tûC + 273.CHAPTER 17 CONVERSION TABLES From ûF ûF ûF ûR or F(abs) ûC K ûC To Multiply by TûC = (t F Ð 32)/1.

280 8 fps 196. 128 SI to lP 1 mm 1m 1 mm2 1 m2 0.3 1 gal.2 10.3 0. 3.3 16.317 I 4.3 1 kg/m3 specific v ft3/Ibm 1 fps 1 fpm 1 Ibf 1 Ibf. 3. 0.16 mm2 mass 1 Ibm 1 ft. US 0.355 8 N.2 0.315 ft.224 81 Ibf 0. 1 ft.018 kg/m3 m3/kg m3 1 kg volume 1 m3 1 1I 1I density 1 Ibm/ft. 1 ft.737 56 Ibf.2046 Ibm 35. Imp.2808 ft.m Fans Reference Guide . Imp.264 17 gal.ft.785 4 I 16.039 37 in.2 25.453 59 kg 0.018 ft3/Ib.028 317 28.035 315 ft.2 2.3 0.062 430 Ibm/ft. US 0.m velocity 0.85 fpm 0.092 903 m2 1 ft.ft.448 2 N 1.00155 in.062 43 1 m3/kg 1 m/s 1 m/s force 1N torque 1 N.400 mm 0. 1 gal.764 ft.219 97 gal.304 80 m/s 0. 0. 1 in.546 1 I 3.Inch/Pound (IP) to Metric (SI) length 1 in.005 0800 m/s 4.2 0.304 80 m area 645.

850 gpm (US) 0.018 6 in. work 1 Btu 1 kWh 1 ft.986 1 kPa 248.) 15.lbf 1 Btu/h 1 hp 1.145 03 psi 20.036 psi 3.340 5 hp (electric) 1 hp = 550 ft-lb/sec Note: 1 2 Water and mercury at 20˚C (68˚F) M = 103 in Mbh Chapter 17: Conversion Tables 129 .293 07 W 746.947 85 Btu 0.055 1 kJ 3600.Inch/Pound (IP) to Metric (SI) flow rate 1 cfs 1 cfm 1 gpm (Imp.317 m3/s m3/s 1 m3/s 1 m3/s 1 L/s 1 L/s pressure / head 6.00 W 1 kW 1 kW 1 kJ 1 MJ 1J SI to IP 35.Wg(1) 1 in.) 1 gpm (US) 1 psi 1 psf 1 ft.334 88 ft.315 cfs 2.Wg 0.Wg(1) 1 in.894 8 kPa 0.355 8 J power 0.296 12 in.063 09 L/s 1 psi = 27.075 77 L/s 0.412 2 MBh (2) 1.118 9 cfm 13.Hg(1) 28.376 9 kPa 1 kPa 1 kPa 1 kPa 1 kPa 1 kPa energy.047 88 kPa 2.84 Pa = 0.0 kJ 1.Hg (1) (1) (1) 0.885 psf 0.737 56 ft.lbf 3.8 in Wg 0.Wg 4.277 78 kWh 0.471 95 0.198 gpm (Imp.

7 psia. “gauge” = pressure measured above local atmospheric pressure.. includes atmospheric pressure • p sig. not including atmospheric pressure ) 130 Fans Reference Guide . “absolute” i. ( i.e.e.in.in. 101 kPa psia = pounds/sq.= pounds/sq..• Atmospheric pressure (standard) 14.

% load factor Chapter 18: Abbreviations and Symbols 131 . dimensionless ratio amperage natural logarithm value for calculating system effect factors specific sound power level.2 (m2) blade frequency constant system effect coefficient.CHAPTER 18 ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS A BBREVIATIONS A Bf C Co cf cfm cfs D E fp I In K Kw LD lf = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fan outlet area. kWh fan power correction factor. dB re 1 pW drive loss. ft. dimensionless conversion factor cubic feet per minute cubic feet per second fan size or impeller diameter energy consumption.

Lw m N Nf P p pB pf PFi PFo PMi psia psig pt Pvi PMo ps pv Pvo pws Q R r rpm SF SEF
132

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

sound power level, dB re lpW mass, lbm (g) rotational speed, rpm (r/s) fan speed correction factor, dimensionless ratio power, hp (kW) pressure, in.Wg (Pa) or psi (kPa) barometric pressure, in.Hg (kPa) power factor, dimensionless ratio shaft power input to the fan, hp (kW) air power output of the fan, hp (kW) motor input power, kW pounds per square inch, atmospheric pounds per square inch, gauge fan total pressure rise, in.Wg (Pa) variable-speed input power, hp (kW) motor power output to the fan drive, hp (kW) fan static pressure rise, in.Wg (Pa) fan velocity pressure, in.Wg (Pa) variable-speed output power, hp (kW) saturation pressure, lb/ft.2, Pa volume flow rate at inlet conditions, cfm (L/s) universal gas constant, Ft-lbf/lb-mol.F(abs)(J/g-mol.K) radius, ft., in. (m, cm) revolutions per minute service factor system effect factor

Fans Reference Guide

T t tb td tdb twb V Va Vb Vm Vr Vs Vt W Wg Ws %hp %sp S YMBOLS ˚C dB ˚F g hp

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

thermodynamic temperature, ˚R (K) customary temperature, ˚F (˚C) time at temperature bin, hours temperature differential dry-bulb temperature, ˚F (˚C) wet-bulb temperature, ˚F (˚C) velocity, ft./min. (m/s) axial velocity component velocity relative to blade mean velocity component radial velocity component absolute velocity tangential velocity component humidity ratio, dimensionless water gauge saturation humidity ratio wide open cubic feet per minute, % percent fan power for load point percent static pressure for load point degree Celsius decibel degree Fahrenheit gram horsepower

WOcfm =

Chapter 18: Abbreviations and Symbols

133

in.Hg K kPa L/s m/s Pa pW ˚R rad/s W ∆t hM hD hV hs ht q v r ∑ f w

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

inch of mercury kelvin kilopascal (103 x pascal) litre per second metre per second pascal picowatt degree Rankine radian per second watt temperature difference motor efficiency, dimensionless ratio drive efficiency, dimensionless ratio variable-speed drive efficiency, dimensionless ratio static efficiency of fan, dimensionless ratio total efficiency of fan, dimensionless ratio plane angle volume, ft.3/lbm (m3/kg) density, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3) summation of relative humidity rotational speed, rad/s

134

Fans Reference Guide

Ill. Atlanta. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). • ASHRAE. Arlington Heights. Report TC 4. n. • AMCA. Publication 203-90. Atlanta. 60004-1893. Simplified Energy Analysis using the Modified Bin Method. 30 West University Drive. Handbook.CHAPTER 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY • Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA). 1990. Atlanta. Publication 201-90. 1987. Fans and Systems.d. Handbook. • ASHRAE. Chapter 19: Bibliography 135 . Avallone and T. 1990. • E. Field Performance Measurement of Fan Systems. Handbook. Atlanta. 1991. 1989 Fundamentals Volume. Toronto International Airport. • ASHRAE. Arlington Heights. 1991 HVAC Applications Volume. (708)394-0150. 1983. • American Society of Heating. • ASHRAE. Metric Bin Weather Data. Baumeister. Atlanta.A. 1989. New York: McGraw-Hill. l988 Equipment Volume.. I . 9th ed. Ill. MARKS' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. 1988.

Schofield. Vane Axial – Response Control and Preset Pitch Fans. 1983. Fab (BI/AF) R. Ont.. 1989. Wis. Catalogue VR. • Greenheck Fan Corp. Bulletin F107-B. Catalogue SD-APR. Inline Fans – Models SQ and BSQ. Schofield. Buffalo. Kitchener. Sidewall Propeller Fans – Belt Drive. Wis. • Greenheck Fan Corp.: Canada Blower/Canada Pumps. • Greenheck Fan Corp. 1989.. 1989. Wis. Catalogue TAB/TAD 2 R. Wis.. Schofield. Schofield. Wis. • Greenheck Fan Corp. Schofield. 1989. Utility Fans – Forward Curved and Backward Inclined. Schofield. Wis. (ed. • Buffalo.. 136 Fans Reference Guide . 1989. • Greenheck Fan Corp. Centrifugal Fans . Schofield. Wis. 1986.Computer Selection Program. Sidewall Propeller Fans – Direct Drive..: Canada Blower/Canada Pumps. 1987.Backward Inclined and Airfoil Single and Double Width. Wis. Wis.Models G and GB. 1987. • Greenheck Fan Corp. 1986. Wis.) Fan Engineering. Type BL Centrifugal Fans. Catalogue G/GB R.. 89-M. Catalogue DSQ/BSQ R. R. Ont. • Greenheck Fan Corp. High Pressure Type HL Industrial Exhausters. Catalogue Cent. Schofield.. Schofield. • Greenheck Fan Corp. Schofield. Industrial Fans – Open Radial & Radial Tip. 1990. Bulletin FI115A. Catalogue SFD/SFB 3-86 M. Catalogue SPF-M. Tubeaxial Fans – Direct and Belt Drive. Centrifugal Roof Exhausters .• Buffalo. Kitchener. 1989. • Jorgensen. • Greenheck Fan Corp. 8th ed. NY. 1986.. Buffalo Forge Company.. CAPS. VP R M. Catalogue IF 1-86 M. • Greenheck Fan Corp..

Chapter 19: Bibliography 137 . 2nd ed. CDS – Customer Direct Service Computer Selection Program. • The Trane Company.. 1983. Wis. La Crosse.1. catalogue PL-AH-FAN-000-DS-6-1083. Wis. Centrifugal Fans – Sizes 12-89 Single and Double Width.• Public Works Canada. n. La Crosse. • The Trane Company. Metric Conversion Handbook for Mechanical Engineers in the Building Industry. Vol 10.d. 1983..

Compare relative humidity. absolute zero temperature • zero point on an absolute temperature scale. (Compare ordinate. the mass of water vapour in a specific volume of the mixture.CHAPTER 20 GLOSSARY abscissa • horizontal coordinate of a point in a plane Cartesian coordinate system obtained by measuring parallel to the x-axis. also called coefficient of viscosity. absolute (dynamic) viscosity • force per unit area required to produce unit relative velocity between two parallel areas of fluid unit distance apart.) absolute humidity • in a mixture of water vapour and dry air. Chapter 20: Glossary 139 . absolute (thermodynamic) temperature • temperature as measured above absolute zero.

Note: Spatial nonuniformities of airflow that are steady in time give rise to harmonic excitation at frequencies that are integer multiples of the rotation rate of the fan. air power (operational) • power required to move air at a given rate of flow against a given resistance.) to the passage of air within a system of airways or an apparatus. cleansed. representing an adiabatic change (k is the ratio of the specific heat at a constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume). adiabatic process • thermodynamic process during which no heat is extracted from or added to the system. TIme excitations of the airflow give rise to random excitation.adiabatic exponent • exponent k in the equation pvk = constant. air • ambient local atmospherical air supply at fan intake. cleanliness and distribution to meet the requirements of a conditioned space. airflow resistance • deterrent (due to friction. etc. air change • introduction of new. air-conditioning system • assembly of equipment for air treatment to control simultaneously its temperature. humidity. 140 Fans Reference Guide . or recirculated air to a space. change of direction. The ratio of air power to input power of a fan or blower is termed efficiency. aerodynamic excitation • time varying loads acting on the blades of a fan due to nonconformities of the air flow.

It comprises both real and reactive power.. ambient air • surrounding air (usually outdoor air or the air in an enclosure under study). and Air Conditioning Engineers.g. ANSI • American National Standards Institute apparent power • product of the volts and amperes of a circuit.. dust. Chapter 20: Glossary 141 .000 and designated in kilovoltamperes (kVA). for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps. This product generally is divided by 1. Refrigerating. baghouse fan • an exhaust fan for conveying smoke.air power (theoretical) • power required to drive a fan or blower as though there were no losses in the fan or blower (100% efficiency). into filters for pollution control. etc. algorithm • prescribed set of well defined rules. a full statement of an arithmetical procedure for evaluating sine X to a stated precision. ARI • Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. e. ASTM • American Society for Testing and Materials. ASHRAE • American Society of Heating. or process.

in which the annual (or monthly) energy use of a building is calculated as the sum of the energy used for all the outdoor temperature bins. cell (in a cooling tower) • smallest tower subdivision that can function as an independent heat exchange unit. which is different for each bin. 142 Fans Reference Guide . device or system is designed or constructed.169 262 ft. It allows heat pump (or other heater or cooler) performance. British thermal unit (Btu) • the mechanical equivalent energy of a Btu is approximately 778.balance pressure • pressure in a system or container equal to that outside. to be accounted for. or past which the fluid moves. Each cell may have one or more fans or stacks and one or more distribution systems. capacity • maximum load for which a machine. The heat energy of a Btu is approximately that required to raise the temperature of a pound of water from 59˚F to 60˚F. It is bounded by exterior walls or partitions. bin method • energy calculation method. apparatus. lb. brake horsepower (BHP) • actual power delivered by or to a shaft (from the use of a brake to measure power). boundary layer • region of retarded fluid-flow near the surface of a body moving through the fluid. usually used for prediction.

water-cooling tower. cooling tower • heat-transfer device in which atmospheric air cools warm water. particulates and odours. tower through which air movement is effected by one or more fans. • mechanical-draft. conditioned air • air treated to control its temperature. usually at a control location.central fan system • mechanical indirect system of heating. purity. formed into helical or serpentine shape. compressor • device for mechanically increasing the pressure of a gas. pressure and movement. generally by direct contact (evaporation). in which the air is treated or handled by equipment located outside the rooms served. ventilating or airconditioning. coil • cooling or heating element made of pipe or tube that may or may not be finned. compressibility • ease with which a fluid may be reduced in volume by the application of pressure. cleansed air • air that has been treated to remove pollutants. relative humidity. and is conveyed to and from the rooms by means of a fan and a system of distributing ducts. Chapter 20: Glossary 143 . control/controller • manual or automatic device for regulating a system or component in normal operation.

144 Fans Reference Guide .counterflow • in heat exchange between two fluids. or other component will vibrate in resonance. design conditions • specified environmental conditions. e. design working pressure • in the U. the design pressure is greater than the maximum working pressure. the maximum working pressure for which an apparatus has been designed. In some countries. inlet or duct. critical speed • The speed at which a fan.. duct. design airflow • required airflow when the system is operating under assumed maximum conditions.e. the opposite direction of flow.. or generally through a confined cross section by varying the cross-sectional area. the coldest portion of one fluid meeting the coldest portion of the other. including diversity.S. decibel • unit of air sound pressure and sound power. i. required to be produced and maintained by a system.. damper • device used to vary the volume of air passing through an outlet. temperature and humidity. dew point • temperature at which water vapour has reached saturation point (100% relative humidity).g.

air unmixed with or containing no water. if that motion were converted to a static pressure. isolation of its vibration by devices external to the unit. 2. without contaminants or pollution. equivalent length • resistance of fittings or appurtenances in a conduit through which the fluid flows.dry air (definition for HVAC applications) • 1. in fact. dynamic pressure • additional pressure exerted by a fluid due to motion. adds a loss. external vibration isolation • in an air-handling unit. evasé • a diffuser duct section on fan outlet to regain static pressure. fan • device for moving air by two or more blades or vanes attached to a rotating shaft. duct system • series of ducts. Note: Composition of dry air is defined in ISO 2533-1975. dry-bulb temperature • temperature of air indicated by an ordinary thermometer. As the diffuser. elbows and connectors to convey air or other gases from one location to another. also expressed in length/diameter units. expressed in length of straight conduit of the same diameter or shape that would have the same resistance. as in a fluid jet impinging on a surface. Chapter 20: Glossary 145 . air without entrained water vapour. the fan total efficiency is reduced.

etc. safety. variable inlet vanes. fan free-discharge area • area where the fan chamber meets the discharge scroll. (the outlet boundary). 146 Fans Reference Guide . scroll) • the part of the casing of a centrifugal fan or compressor that receives fluid forced outward from the impeller or diffuser and leads it to the discharge. Used in fan system-effect calculations. vibration isolation bases. sound attenuators.) fan coil (convector) unit • fan and a heat exchanger for heating and/or cooling assembled within a common casing.fan air density • density of air corresponding to the absolute pressure and absolute temperature at the fan inlet when the fan is operating. isolation. (Compare fan shroud. wear. fan blast area • fan scroll outlet area less the area of the cutoff. fan appurtenances • accessories added to a fan for control. inlet screens. (inlet boxes. diffusers. outlet dampers. static pressure regain. inlet box dampers. fan boundary (inlet and outlet) • interface between the fan and the remainder of the system. fan casing (volute. fan curve • diagram giving the pressure/volume characteristics of a fan. at a plane perpendicular to the airstream where it enters or leaves the fan. and the power it requires. wear protection. belt guards. turning gears).

(Compare fan casing. or through the housing. fan power • power input at the fan shaft. fan propeller • propeller or disc-type wheel within a mounting ring or plate. (Compare impeller. fan pressurization test • test for determining the air leakage of a building using a faninduced pressure difference.fan inlet (outlet) area • area of the fan or fan equipment for connection to attached ductwork. and including driving mechanism supports for either belt-drive or direct connection. Chapter 20: Glossary 147 .) fan shroud • protective housing that surrounds the fan and that may also direct the flow of air. It may include static and mechanical efficiency curves. fan nodal line • The point of zero displacement on any component vibrating at its natural frequency.) fan sound power • sound power radiated into a duct. fan (constant speed) performance curve • graphical representation of static or total pressure and power input over a range of air volume flow rate at a stated inlet density and fan speed. or the total of the power input to the fan shaft and the power loss attributable to the power transmission device.

148 Fans Reference Guide . or from an orifice. fan torsional excitation • type of excitation in which external force is applied to the fan shaft in the form of torque pulsations. to minimize contraction losses. fan wheel cone • inlet ring. filter mixing box • in air-handling units. fan total pressure • arithmetic difference between fan-outlet total pressure and faninlet total pressure. impeller rim annular plate. flow velocity • velocity (local or average) of a fluid in a pipe. including control dampers. flow nozzle • tube specially shaped to increase the discharge velocity of the fluid. a combination filter section outside-/ return-air mixing plenum. fan wheel • revolving part of a fan or blower. impeller shroud.fan static pressure • difference between fan total pressure and fan discharge velocity pressure. duct or canal. or conical ring on the air inlet side of a centrifugal fan to which the impeller blades are fixed.

horsepower • work done at the rate of 550 ft. gauge pressure • pressure above atmospheric pressure. a building. Note: The terms head and pressure are often mistakenly used interchangeably. In fluid statics and dynamics. or associated with. Is usually given graphically by curves showing the relationship of the response to the excitation (and. expressed as a function of the frequency of the excitation.e. where applicable. i.7 W). at the head. fan or compressor outlet.) HVAC systems • provide either collectively or individually the processes of comfort heating. head • energy per unit mass of fluid divided by gravitational acceleration. (745. ventilating and/or air conditioning within. full-load amperes • current that a rotating machine will draw from the power line when the machine is operating at rated voltage..lb/sec. (See also brake horsepower. Chapter 20: Glossary 149 . head pressure • operating pressure measured in the discharge line at a pump. phase shift or phase angle) as a function of frequency. a vertical linear measure.frequency response • normalized motion response of a fan to a known excitation. speed and torque.

(heat or mechanical work) work done by a force of one newton acting over one metre. impeller (rotor. compressor or pump) that moves fluid. J = W·sec.) impeller reaction • ratio of the variation of the fluid pressure in the impeller to the total variation of pressure in the device. 2. spring isolation of all moving parts within the unit that support the fan sled. internal vibration isolation • in an air-handling unit. (See also fan. 150 Fans Reference Guide . iterative procedure • process which repeatedly executes a series of operations until some prescribed condition is satisfied. wheel) • rotating part of a device (fan. intermediate pressure (interstage pressure) • pressure between stages of multistage compression. pound and other designations. blower. the noise frequency resulting from the rotational speed of the impeller times the number of blades. (watt second). J = N·m.hydrostatic pressure • pressure exerted by a fluid at rest. Btu. joule (J) • 1. gallon. IP units (inch-pound units) • units using inches. as opposed to SI units in the metric system. Examples are foot. impeller running noise frequency • in a turbomachine. horsepower. (electric work) work done by one ampere flowing through a resistance of one ohm for one second.

on which the triple point of water is 273. kinematic viscosity • ratio of absolute viscosity to density of a fluid.kelvin temperature • SI absolute temperature scale (K).15K ( 1 K = 1˚C). laminar flow (streamline) • fluid flow in which all the particles move in substantially parallel paths. Kelvin is 1/273. Chapter 20: Glossary 151 . occurs at low Reynolds numbers. mixing box • compartment in which two air supplies are mixed together before being discharged.16 of the temperature of the thermodynamic triple point of water. operating load point • actual system operating capacity at the time of taking an instrument reading. adjust by small increments and decrements. noise reduction (NR) • difference between the average sound pressure levels. vary a voltage or other variable with a signal. or sound intensity levels of two spaces – usually two adjacent rooms called the source room and the receiving room respectively. noise (NC) criteria curves • curves that define the limits that the octave-band spectrum of a noise source must not exceed if a certain level of occupant acceptance is to be achieved. 2. modulate • 1.16K and the boiling point is approximately 373.

turbine.) outdoor air • air outside a building. performance. the normal force exerted by a homogeneous liquid or gas. prime mover • engine. one of the three states of matter. position in a cycle. on the wall of the container. output • capacity. per unit of area. in thermodynamics. pitot tube • small bore tube inserted perpendicular to a flowing stream with its orifice facing the stream to measure total pressure.ordinate • the Cartesian coordinate obtained by measuring parallel to the y-axis. liquid. outlet area • gross overall discharge area of a given component in an air distribution system. or gas. pressure • thermodynamically. 152 Fans Reference Guide . solid. (Compare abscissa. represented by the equation pvn = constant (n is the polytropic exponent). phase • 1. Describes the process in a fan. polytropic process • one in which heat is being exchanged with the surroundings. duty. net refrigeration produced by a system. or air taken from outdoors and not previously circulated through the system. water wheel or similar machine that drives an electric generator. 2.

psychrometer • instrument for measuring relative humidities with wet. reactive power • portion of apparent power that does no work. real power • energy. centrifugal. such as capacitors. measured by watt-hour meters and expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh). diaphragm. rating standard • standard that sets forth a method of interpreting the results of tests of individual units.or work-producing part of apparent power. Chapter 20: Glossary 153 . positive displacement. in relation to a product manufactured in quantity. such as motors.and drybulb thermometers. and forcing the fluid out through an exhaust port. The product of real power and length of time is energy. reciprocating and rotary. It is measured commercially in kilovars. Main types are air lift. drawing a fluid into itself through an entrance port. at specified conditions. Rankine temperature • absolute temperature scale conventionally defined by the temperature of the triple point of water equal to 491. pump • machine for imparting energy to a fluid causing it to do work.68˚R. It is supplied by generators or by electrostatic equipment. It is measured commercially in kilowatts. with 180 divisions between the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water under standard atmospheric pressure (l˚R= 11˚F). Reactive power must be supplied to most types of magnetic equipment.

the pressure at which vapour and liquid. can exist in equilibrium. specification • precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material. standard air (SI) • dry air at 20˚C and 101. standard air (IP) • dry air at 70˚F and 14. relative humidity • ratio of the partial pressure or density of water vapour to the saturation pressure or density respectively. sensor • device or instrument designed to detect and measure a variable. characterized by aerodynamic blockage or the breakaway of the flow from certain passages between the blades. dry air has a mass density of 1. system or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied.075 lb/ft3. saturation pressure • for a pure substance at a given temperature.325 kPa absolute. product.reheat • application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature desired for maintaining the temperature of the conditioned space. stall region • performance zone where unstable operation occurs. and barometric pressure of the ambient air. at the same dry-bulb temperature. Under these conditions. Under these conditions. or vapour and solids. 154 Fans Reference Guide .204 kg/m3.696 psia. dry air has a mass density oF 0.

temperature profile • graph representing the distribution of temperatures in a plane section of a body or a space.stratified airflow • layers of air. 2. usually at different temperatures or different velocities. of a specific unit or system of a given class of equipment. throttling • 1. or over a period of time. stratified fluid flow • form of low velocity. system effects • usually conditions in a distribution system that affect fan and pump performance and related testing. Chapter 20: Glossary 155 . or other aspects of operation. testing standard • standard that sets forth methods of measuring capacity. an irreversible adiabatic process which consists of lowering pressure by an expansion without work. of a fluid. flowing through a duct or plenum. Can also affect the performance of other components (such as filters). thermal transfer fluid • fluid circulated through closed circuits to transfer heat from one location to another. together with a specification of instrumentation. procedure and calculations. two-phase flow in horizontal pipes. and balancing work. adjusting. reduction in fluid or current flow by adding resistance. so that the free surface of the liquid remains level between a gaseous and liquid phase above and below it respectively. thermal watt • heat power expressed in watts.

517 W). total pressure • in fluid flow. turbulent (eddy) flow • fluid flow in which the velocity varies in magnitude and direction in an irregular manner throughout the mass. variable air volume (VAV) • use of varying airflow to control the condition of air. in contrast to constant flow with varying temperature. variable flow • throttling control of water during a cooling or heating process. usually gas-liquid flows. velocity head • height of fluid corresponding to the kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid divided by gravitational acceleration. 156 Fans Reference Guide . turbine • fluid-energized acceleration machine for generating rotary mechanical power from the energy in a fluid stream.ton (of refrigeration) • time-rate of cooling equal to 12.000 Btu/h (approximately 3. turning vane (air splitter) • curved strip of short radius placed in a sharp bend or elbow in a duct to direct air around the bend. the sum of static pressure and velocity pressure. two-phase flow • simultaneous flow of two phases of a fluid. valve • device to regulate or stop the flow of fluid in a pipe or a duct by throttling.

property of a fluid to resist flow or change of shape. the pressure due to the velocity and density of the fluid. vena contracta • smallest cross-sectional area of a fluid stream leaving an orifice. venturi • contraction in a pipeline or duct that increases the fluid velocity to lower its static pressure. viscous flow • 1.000 voltamperes. divided by two (rv2/2). laminar flow or streamline flow. The practical unit of apparent power is kilovolt-ampere (kVA). expressed by the velocity squared times the fluid density. in a plane section. 1. Chapter 20: Glossary 157 . Used for metering and other purposes that involve change in pressure. It causes fluid friction whenever adjacent layers of fluid move in relation to each other. velocity profile • graph that represents. the velocity distribution in a flowing fluid. followed by a gradual expansion to allow recovery of static pressure. property of semifluids. 2. type of gas flow in which the average free path of gas molecules is much smaller than the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the pipe conveying the substance.velocity pressure • in a moving fluid. 2. voltampere (VA) • basic unit of apparent power. fluids and gases by which they resist an instantaneous change of shape or arrangements of parts. viscosity • 1.

water column (wc) • tubular column located at the steam and water space of a boiler to which protective devices. P = EI = I2R. when the heat of vaporization is supplied by the air. • tables of W. difference are available to show % relative humidity (% of maximum). the work done or energy generated by one ampere induced by an emf of one volt. energy flow at the rate of one joule per second.B. 2.. designation that water is the fluid in a manometer. If W. This difference indicates the amount of humidity in the air. temp. gauge glass with attached fittings that indicates water level within a vessel. = D.B. and D.B. 2. such as gauge cocks. water gauge (Wg) • 1.B. water gauge and level alarms are attached. then you have 100% humidity. 158 Fans Reference Guide . • wet-bulb temperature is lower than dry-bulb temperature. wet-bulb temperature • temperature indicated by a psychrometer when the bulb of one thermometer is covered with a water-saturated wick over which air is caused to flow to reach an equilibrium temperature of water evaporating into air. watt (power) (W) • 1. temp.

H15-A6 Toronto. additions and/or comments call or write to: Scott Rouse Project Manager Ontario Power Generation 700 University Avenue. Ontario M5G 1X6 Telephone (416) 592-8044 Fax (416) 592-4841 E-Mail srouse@ontariopowergeneration.OTHER IN-HOUSE REFERENCE GUIDES: • • • • • • • Adjustable Speed Drives Energy Monitoring & Control Systems Lighting Motors Power Quality Power Quality Mitigation Pumps COMMENTS: For any changes.com .

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