Section A Answer all questions 1.Diagram 1.1 shows an electric circuit.

(a) (i) Name instrument Q. Voltmeter

(ii) What is the function of R in the circuit? To control / change current

(b) Diagram 1.2 shows two types of ammeters, X and Y, that can be used in the circuit in Diagram 1.1

(i) Which ammeter is more sensitive? Ammeter Y. (ii) State one reason for your answer in 1(b)(i). Able to detect the smaller current // Able to detect smaller change of current

2. Diagram 2 shows a mercury thermometer which has not been calibrated.

(a) (i) State the physical change in the mercury when the temperature increases. Expansion of mercury // Increase in volume. (ii) Why is mercury used in the thermometer? Opaque / Conduct heat / Uniform expansion / high cohesive force / Does not stick to glass. (b) The length of the mercury column in the thermometer is 2.6 cm at 0 ºC and 22.6 cm at 100 ºC. (i) What is the difference in the lengths of the mercury columns at 0 ºC and at 100 ºC? 20 // 20 cm. (ii) When the thermometer is placed in hot oil, the length of mercury column is 16.9 cm. Calculate the temperature of the hot oil.

(16.9 − .9) 2 × 100 = .5° 71 C 20

3. Diagram 3 shows two loudspeakers connected to an audio frequency generator. Students are standing at positions where loud sounds can be heard.

(a) What type of wave is the sound waves? Longitudinal wave / mechanical wave. (b) Why are loud sounds heard by the students at that positions? Constructive interference take place // Anti nodal area.

(c) The distance between the two loudspeakers is 1.5 m. At 10.0 m from the loudspeakers, the distance between two adjacent rows of students is 4.0 m. Calculate the wave length of this sound wave.

1.5 ×4.0 10.0 λ = 0.6m


(d) The frequency of the sound wave is increased. (i) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent rows where loud sounds are heard? The distance between two adjacent row decreases. (ii) Give a reason for your answer in 3(d)(i). The wave length decreases //


1 x∝ f

4. Diagram 4.1 shows a submarine equipped with an optical instrument P. Diagram 4.2 shows the structure of the optical instrument P.

(a) Name the optical instrument P. Periscope.

(b) In Diagram 4.2, two glass prisms must be placed so that the object can be seen by the observer. The position of one of the glass prisms is as shown. (i) In box A in Diagram 4.2, draw and shade the second prism.

(ii) Explain why the prisms in optical instrument P are placed as in 4(b)(i). Total internal reflection can occur. (c) (i) In Diagram 4.2, complete the path of the light ray from the object to the observer’s eye.

(ii) State one characteristic of the image observed. Virtual / same size.

(d) The refractive index of the glass prism is 1.52. Calculate the critical angle of the glass prism.

1 sin c = 1.52 c = .13° 41

5. Diagram 5.1 shows the situation of a sheet of paper before and when air is blown. Diagram 5.2 shows the situation of the canopy before the lorry moves and when the lorry moves at high speed.

(a) What is meant by speed? Speed is the rate of change of distance with time.

(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2: (i) State two similarities for the situations in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2. 1. No air movement the paper and the canopy will not lift up. 2. Paper and canopy lift up when the air moves.

(ii) Compare the air pressure above and below the paper when air is blown. Air pressure above the paper is lower than that below the paper.

(iii) Relate the speed of the air to pressure of the air. As the speed of air increases, the air pressure decreases.

(c) Name the principle involved in 5(b)(iii). Bernoulli’s Principle.

(d) Diagram 5.3 shows an instrument used to measure the speed of air.

In Diagram 5.3, the levels of coloured water in the U-tube are same before air flows.

(i) Compare the speeds of air at P and at Q. The speed of air at P is higher.

(ii) Mark the water levels in the U-tube in Diagram 5.3 while air flows.

6. Diagram 6.1and Diagram 6.2 show a student throwing an iron ball in a shot put event using different throwing techniques. The angle of projection and the force used by the student in both techniques are the same.

(a) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. (i) Compare the distance of the hand movement to throw the iron ball. The distance in figure 6.2 is bigger / vice versa.

(ii) Based on the answer in 6(a)(i), compare the work done by the student between the two throwing techniques. The work done in diagram 6.2 is bigger / vice versa. (iii) If the force which acts on the iron ball is 20 N and the distance of hand movement is 0.5 m, calculate the work done by the student. W = 20 X 0.5 = 10 J (b) (i) Based on the answer in 6(a)(i), state the relationship between the energy gained by the iron ball and the distance of projection. As the energy increases, the distance of projection increases. (ii) State the principle involved. The principle of conservation of energy. (c) (i) Using Diagram 6.1, what happens to the falling time if an iron ball of a bigger mass is used? The time is the same. (ii) Give one reason for your answer in 6(c)(i). The height is the same / The mass does not influence the falling time.

8 Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 show two identical mirrors which are hung on the wall using strings, of the same length.

The two mirrors are in equilibrium state. Each mirror has a mass of 2 kg. Each string can withstand a maximum force of 15 N. (a) What is meant by equilibrium state? Zero net force when a body is stationary. (b) What is the weight of any one of the mirrors? 20 N.

(c) In the space below, draw a diagram of a triangle of forces that acts on the mirrors in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2.

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram 8.1

Diagram of a triangle of forces for Diagram 8.2

(d) T1 and T2 are the tensions of the strings that act on the mirrors in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 respectively. (i) In the space below, draw the scale drawings of the triangles of forces to determine the values of T1 and T2. [ Use the scale 1 cm : 2 N ]

Figure 8.1

Figure 8.2

T1 = 5.78 cm = 11.5 N

T2 = 7.05 cm = 14.5 N

(ii) Based on your answer in 8(d)(i), which is the most suitable method to hang the mirror? Give one reason for your answer. - The method in figure 8.1 - The tension of the string in figure 8.1 is less than the tension of the string in figure 8.2.

(e) If the string in Diagram 8.1 is cut, the mirror will fall down in 0.6 s. Calculate the final velocity of the mirror before it touches the surface of the floor.

v =u +at
1 v =0 + (0.6) =6ms − 10

Section B Answer any one question. 9 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show the light rays from two identical objects passing through the convex lenses, J and K. Both the lenses produce virtual images. F is the focal point for each lens.

(a) (i) What is meant by virtual image? The image that cannot be formed on a screen. (ii) With reference to Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the thickness of the lenses, the focal length and the size of image produced by the lenses J and K. Relate the size of the image with the focal length to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the power of the lens and the focal length. Len J is thicker // vice versa Focal length J is shorter // vice versa The image size produced by lens J is bigger As the focal length increases, the image size will decrease // vice versa As the power of lens, the focal length will decrease // vice versa

(b) Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays. Parallel light ray enter the lens / infinity Light ray is converged after entering the lens Light ray / energy is focused to a small area / focal point Light energy  Heat energy // heat energy causes an increases in temperature.

(c) You are given two convex lenses, P and Q, with focal length 40 cm and 5 cm respectively. Both the lenses are used to build a simple astronomical telescope at normal adjustment. (i) Using the two lenses, explain how you are going to build the simple astronomical telescope. P is the objective lens // Q is eyepiece lens Distance between the eye piece and objective lens is 45 cm The ray of light from the distant object is parallel // infinity The ray is focused on the focal point of the objective lens Light ray is parallel after the eyepiece lens The characteristic of image is virtual, inverted, bigger

(ii) Suggest modifications that need to be done on the telescope to produce clearer and bigger images. - Bigger eye piece power // Shorter focal length - Magnification = fo fe - The diameter of the objective lens is bigger - More light enter the telescope

Section C Answer any one question.

11 (a) (i) What is meant by specific latent heat of vapourization? The amount of heat required to transform 1kg of substance from liquid to gas without change in temperature

(ii) Explain why someone who is sweating feels cool when he is under a rotating fan. - Heat is absorbed by sweat - Sweat evaporates - As the speed of air increases The rate of evaporation increases Heat is lost to the surrounding

(b) A solid substance, of mass 0.05 kg, is heated using an immersion heater of 240 V, 0.1 kW. Diagram 11.1 shows the heating curve of the solid.

Calculate (i) the specific latent heat of fusion of the substance, m = 0.05kg, V = 240 V, P = 100 W, t = 3.6 – 1.0 = 2.6 min

Q = mL = Pt Pt 100(2.6 × 60) L= = = 3.12 ×105 Jkg −1 m 0.05
(ii) The specific heat capacity of the substance in liquid state. m = 0.05kg, V = 240 V, P = 100 W, t = 4.8 - 3.6 = 1.2 min, θ = 218 – 78 = 140


Pt 100(1.2 × 60) = = 1029 Jkg −1 °C −1 mθ 0.05 × 140

(c) You are asked to investigate the features of cooling material and the design of a car engine radiator as in Diagram 11.2 Explain the suitability of each features in Diagram 11.2 and then determine the most suitable car engine radiator to be used. Give a reason for your choice.

Characteristic 1) 3) 5) 7) High specific heat capacity High boiling point Big fan A large number of fin blades

Reason -Heats up slowly / store more heat -Slow to turn into vapour / volume of liquid decreases slowly -So that a lot of air can be sucked -Increases surface area / Release heat faster


R High specific heat capacity, high boiling point, a large fan and a large number of fin blades.


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