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The Farmers' Handbook
This Volume's Authors : Ms Hom Maya Gurung, Mr Bipin Vaidhya, Mr Laxman Rana, Mr Chris Evans Translated from Nepali by Chris Evans Edited, Designed & Produced by: Chris Evans & Jakob Jespersen Proof reading: thanks to Mike Feingold, Margaret Evans, Ted Albins, Rupert Greville, Jakob Jespersen, Andy Langford, Looby Macnamara Photos: Jakob Jespersen, Chris Evans Addional photo credits are given in Volume Five Cover illustration: Mr Motilal Phauja Typing: Chris Evans Computer Coordination: Graphics Edge, Kathmandu Published by: Chris Evans, Jakob Jespersen...... Distributors: .......... (see p.8 for address) Printed by: Format Printing Press, Kathmandu...... First Edition (Nepali) printed June 2001, 7500 copies This Edition......... Farmers' Handbook, ISBN 99933-615-0-X This Volume One: ISBN 99933-615-1-8 The Farmers' Handbook is about techniques for sustainable farming, and this is the first of 5 volumes. There are 4 techniques presented here. In five volumes there are a total of 44 techniques and approaches. This Farmers' Handbook is meant for education and awareness raising as well as practical gardening uses. It is permitted to photocopy for such purposes, but please remember that photocopying can cause pollution to the environment, is expensive, and does not give a good quality.
Introduction to this Volume Diet & Nutrition
1 2 3 4
.............................. Household Hygiene ..........................
Hay Box Stove ............................................... 5
Chapters are separated by a yellow page
The Farmers' Handbook this Volume's Introduction
This is the first of five volumes in the Farmers' Handbook. In all there are forty techniques and approaches shown, of whch three are in this first volume. Here, we introduce you to some technologies used inside the house. The titles of these are given on the previous contents page. This Farmers' Handbook provides information about sustainable farming methods, and can also be used as a resource to run literacy programmes. Information about these, and how the Handbook can be used, is provided in volume five. A list of new and/or difficult words and their explanation is also provided in volume five.
The main aim of this handbook is to help farmers make their own farms more successful. This is done by providing information about using simple methods which strengthen, rather than damage the environment, and help to create sustainable livelihoods for future generations.
The techniques described in the handbook are the results of research made by the farmers of Surkhet and Jajarkot districts of Mid-Western Nepal. We believe these methods will also work well for farmers of other countries. However,around the world there are diverse climates and soils, and so we expect that small changes will need to be made in the techniques according to this diversity. Similarly, it may be necessary to change plant species according to climatic region, but their function will remain the same. For example, the chapter on the Living Fence describes the use of thorny plants as a barrier. In the low altitude, hot Tarai of southern Nepal, "Babool" (Acacia nilotica) is suitable for this. But this does not grow in the higher elevations. Here, species such as wild pear, wild blackberry and Sea Buckthorn make a good living fence.
Evaluation & Feedback
Comments and questions about the techniques and approaches described in this handbook will be most welcome. Suggestions for improvement will be used for future editions of this handbook and other similar publications.
Structure of the Handbook
Inside the handbook each method is descibed in a separate chapter, or chapter. All methods are descibed in the same way:-
2. Diet & Nutrition
• "What is?" - the method is defined and described. • "Why?" - the benefits of using this method are then • • • • •
described. The main part is then "How to?" make or do the method; In the "How To" section the centre pages show colour pictures about the method. After describing how to create the method, how to maintain, care for, manage and/or operate it is described. After this, there is an interview with an experienced farmer who has built and used the method. Finally, information is given about other chapters in the Handbook which are directly connected to this method. There are minor changes to this structure as necessary.
3. Household Hygiene
4. Improved Stove
5. Hay Box Stove
com.co. Hill Agriculture Research Project (HARP). Box 8975 EPC 849 Kathmandu Nepal tel: +977 1 5549774 firstname.lastname@example.org. ICIMOD.org.permaculture. MSNepal.uk email@example.com www.Box 8132.uk Permanent Publications The Sustainability Centre East MeonHampshire GU32 1HR tel: +44 1730 823311 firstname.lastname@example.org email:.uk www.O. Kathmandu.org. GTZ Food for Work.O.atasia.permaculture. Helvetas Nepal. ActionAidNepal.uk Permaculture Association UK BCM Permaculture Association London WC1N 3XX Tel: +44 845 4581805 email@example.com Distributor and main contact addresses Nepal Permaculture Group P.np Funding Support Support for the production and printing of The Farmers' Handbook has come from Methodist Relief & Development Fund (UK). Nepal Tel: +977-1.org. .Appropriate Technology Asia P.
you can also help others to be strong. Chapter 2 . A nutritious diet is not just available from expensive foods. If the family is sick it needs constant expense and can cause much worry. Besides this.What is The Farmers' Handbook . . This chapter gives information about what foods are needed for our bodies.Diet & Nutrition Diet and Nutrition ? In order to live. grow and to protect us from various diseases we need a good. where these foods are available. nutritious and balanced diet helps to protect and release the family from sickness. Nutrition is found in various types of food. A good. A healthy family also makes a healthy and strong homestead. We can also obtain and prepare a nutritious diet from easily available local and even wild foods. nutritious diet. and simple ways of increasing the quality of our diets. Everyone wishes for themselves and their family to remain in good health."Inside The House".
spread on the skin and are difficult to heal.Why Do we need nutrition ? Common problems of poor diet in the home and village If people do not get the needed amounts of the necessary foods they can suffer from malnutrition and anaemia. for example: • Crying . for growing. emaciated Mr Bipin Vaidya. for our whole life long. hands. Surkhet. Nutritious food. 1. To give strength. poor skin colour. Marasmus – swollen face. we need a nutritious diet. and help our bodies to produce other important elements which we need to keep us healthy.continuously crying and lack of appetite • Wounds . • • • • helps us to remain healthy helps to protect us from disease helps our bodies to grow helps us to build a strong household The Authors of this Chapter Ms Hom Maya Gurung Health Technician.lethargic. pregnant women and lactating mothers are especially at risk from poor nutrition.M. "Inside The House" 2. Nutritious foods provide us with energy. Anaemia . and to protect or help cure us from illness and disease. Malnutrition. If any of these elements are deficient in the body. we can become weak and sick. children. Babies under five years. yellowish skin.. help to build and maintain muscle and organs. Nepal The Farmers' Handbook. tongue and nails. U. Nutrition Programme. poor skin texture Chapter 2 .N. feet From the time we are in the mother's womb. Himalayan Permaculture Group. boils. in brief. Kathamndu. There are several symptoms of malnutrition.Diet & Nutrition 2 3 .cuts. there are many types of nutritious elements needed in the body. Nepal Kwashiorkor – thin. etc.
Crops grown without chemicals are more nutritious. Who has special needs ? For example. etc.3. Cretinism Goiter To and EnerEnerT o be Clever and getic use Iodized Salt 4 The Farmers' Handbook. spongy-like spot in the eye (Whit's spot) • Blindness One leaf of Colocasia ("Taro") can provide three children with their daily needs for vitamin A How to get nutrition ? For Health through nutrition we need to pay attention to three things: 1. "Inside The House" To get health from nutrition we need both knowledge and resources. Vitamin "A" Deficiency Vitamin A is essential for eyesight. pregnant and lactating mothers. Iodine Defficiency Goiter . poor limb use.Diet & Nutrition 5 . Without this knowledge. 2. we can sometimes loose many nutrients in preparation. We need to know how to prepare and serve the right foods It's not enough to have the right foods. We need to have the right foods Foods are best if crops are grown using sustainable agriculture methods. we need to know how to prepare and cook them.unable to see in half light • Eyes dry out • A pale.swelling on the throat Cretinism . 4. or sick people should have extra of some foods. We need the knowledge to select the right foods What to eat and how much to eat ? We need to know how much of what type of food different people need. 3.mentally handicapped. There are several symptoms of this deficiency: • Night Blindness . Chapter 2 .
information is given first about the function of different foods. so nutrition can be divided into three types of food. and when sick people are recovering. Growth foods are called Proteins. babies become weak. before and after childbirth. Foods which Protect the Body(Vitamins & Minerals) The body always needs protection from damaging things. grain crops and orchards. according to function. Foods Which give Energy (Carbohydrates) When there is much physical work. Food for the body's growth Food to protect the body (fruits) Food to protect the body (vegetables) 2. while vitamins and minerals help protect the body from disease. 1. These vitamins and minerals are found in fruit and vegetables. The most important nutrients of our diet can be divided into these groups: In this chapter. The centre colour pages show examples of the different foods in each group. from page 20 to 22 more detailed information on nutrition is given. After that. "Inside The House" Chapter 2 . Malnourished children also need more energy foods. and this can cause them many problems in the future. Food for Energy 3. \ 6 The Farmers' Handbook. Foods Which Help the Body to Grow (Proteins) Healthy babies grow fast But if food for growth is not available. the body needs more energy. When recovering after being ill. In vegetables and meat there are various nutrients.Types of Food Just as farming can be divided into various types of crop. if nutritious food is not available people can become weak and and catch other diseases more easily.Diet & Nutrition 7 . At this time. such as livestock. energy foods (carbohydrates) help to get better.
8 The Farmers' Handbook. without needing lots of extra work. It is also possible to make a balanced diet from foods common in the villages.A Mixed Diet A mixed diet means many different kinds of food are eaten together. What. "Inside The House" Watercress Amla for sale collected from the forest Chapter 2 . ferns. are all very nutritious. is this Poor People's Food ? There are many nutritious types of food for good health available in the villages. millet.often more than highly bred "developed" vegetables. It is not enough for the body eating just to stop hunger. watercress. But many cultures regard these as "poor people's food" and so eat them less. are also available. watercress.Diet & Nutrition 9 . hazel. such as grains. Free Nutrition from the Forest Community and private forest provides many types of direct and indirect benefits. firstly they are cheap or even free of cost. pulses. chestnut. A balanced diet is always needed. suckling mothers and babies are in special need of a balanced diet. If you eat such foods. amla. blackberry. fruits like berberis. Relatively expensive foods like fish and meat are not essential for a balanced diet. Pregnant women. Nettles. bamboo shoots and wild yams are examples of some vegetables that can be found in the forest. Mushrooms. It is also possible to grow many of these on the edges of farmers' fields to increase the supply. and also these foods can provide many types of essential nutrients for the body . etc. buckwheat. green vegetables. These include nutritious food available from the wild. Similarly. walnut. spices and fruit. or to enjoy the taste. ferns. etc. pumpkin shoots. Because there are many types of nutritious elements in a mixed diet it is well balanced.
along with vitamin B. Vitamin B also increases. only a little water and time is needed but the benefits are huge. so at this time vitamin deficiency symptoms are common. vegetables or fruit are less available. "Inside The House" Chapter 2 . • Unprocessed wheat flour has more nutrients than processed white rice flour • Sprouted pulses are very high in nutrients. In the spring. • When eaten together. don't add too much water which otherwise you'd have to throw it away. After 4-5 days the sprouted pulses are ready to eat. grain and pulses provide the same benefits as eating meat There are more vitamins in rice which has been de-husked less This is like getting free increase in benefits! There are many types of vitamins which provide more or less nutrients according to the time. But sprouted pulses can be made at any time and so can solve deficiency problems. nutrients can be lost. Why not use easy methods like this? Soak pulses for a day in water. • Millet contains more calcium than most other grains. Pulses can increase their content of vitamins A and C by up to 10 times when sprouted. 6f_ • Rice de-husked by hand or pre-boiled contains more vitamin B than rice dehusked in a mill. Pulses 10 + Grains = More Benefits • If you wash green leaf vegetables after they have been cut.How to Preserve Nutrients in Food During Cooking • Cooking potatoes with their skins and in peices as large as possible will save vitamin C. Always wash before cutting. and iron and calcium minerals which are in food can be more easily absorbed by the body. • Don't scrub rice before cooking it as this prevents vitamin B from being washed away • When cooking rice. 11 The Farmers' Handbook. then wash and drain them every day. For this increase.Diet & Nutrition .
buttermilk. maize. yoghurt. pineapple. but3 ter. cauliflower. ❁ Fruit . beans. sugar cane.potato.pumpkin.meat.mango. peas. ❁ Sweet Foods . honey. cress. sweet potato. mustard. etc. ❁ Pulses . ❁ Oily Foods . papaya. tomato. ❁ Seeds .Diet & Nutrition 2 Foods for the Body's Growth ❁ Animal ProdSalt ucts . lemon. etc. amaranth.nettle. @ 2 For a Balanced Diet you need to eat food from these 3 groups # 3 # 3 Foods to Protect the Body ❁ Green Leaves . peach. cream. yam.peanut. etc. fenugreek. broad leaf mustard. sweet pepper. eggs. amla. rice. apricot. mung bean.! Energy Foods 1 ❁ Grains . taro. orange. etc.Ghee. grams. ❁ Dairy Products milk. etc. barley. sugar. "Inside The House" 13 . chick peas. wheat. buckwheat. lambs quarters. lichi. cheese. etc. 12 ! 1 The Farmers' Handbook. berberis. beans. ladies finger. Chapter 2 . pumpkin shoot.soya. plum. fat. ❁ Roots . fish. vegetable oil.millet. pumpkin seeds. walnut. etc. raspberry.sweet potato. radish leaf. guava. carrot. sesame. taro. ❁ Vegetables . spinach.
and if she is malnourished she should also eat an extra one and a half handfuls of grain. radish. many vegetables can be grown in only a short time. a handful of green leaf vegetables. a normally active pregnant women should eat an extra handful of grain. leaf vegetables. • Leafy vegetables can be dried in the shade to keep their nutrition and colour. and at least one extra piece of fruit per day more than her usual diet. Making pickles and oils allows these vegetables to be stored and eaten all year round.Diet & Nutrition 15 . etc. "Inside The House" Chapter 2 . then a monsoon. One to two years after childbirth (still suckling) the mother should be eating an extra one and a half handfuls of grains and an extra half handful of pulses. In places where there is a long dry season without irrigation. half a handful of pulses. A pregnant women who has a heavier workload should eat an extra one and a half handfuls of grain. and absorbtion of oil improves digestability. which improves digestion of grains.• Partially fermented vegetables increase the amount of iron and calcium available. Six months after childbirth the mother should eat an extra one and a half handfuls of grains and an extra one handful of pulses. e. Additions to the Normal Diet Sometimes it is necessary to eat more than the recommended daily diet. A woman who has just given birth should eat an extra handful of grain. This prevents loss of vitamin A. • when cooking leaf vegetables add a little oil. At this stage she should also be eating one extra handful of green leaf vegetables and one extra piece of fruit. a handful of green leaf vegetables. For example. and at least one extra piece of fruit per day more than her daily diet. tomatoes. • Making pickles means vegetables can be kept for a long time and increases their nutrition.g. Good Food and a Healthy Family 14 Whose responsibility ? The Farmers' Handbook. cucumber. keep the pan covered and don't over cook. half a handful of pulses.
So it is much better to feed mothers' milk rather than powdered milk. It is even better to give the water skimmed off washed or cooking rice. and just after childbirth should eat at least 3-4 times a day. it can lead to many problems in the future. Also. This tree has many benefits. young leaves can all be used as vegetables. you can store and use the powder made in the lowlands. Its flowers. • A baby with diarroea should be fed more liquids. old people cannot digest much food at one time and only eat a little. sugar and water should be given. Its seed helps to purify water. a malnourished child should be fed a banana every day. pods and newly sprouted. Pursuade it to drink more liquids. A malnourished child should be given a spoonful of honey or sugar a day.• After childbirth a mother should drink 5 teaspoons of "Jwano" (Trachyspernum ammie) each day. For example. An oral rehydration mixture of salt. Drumstick Leaves In sub-tropical areas the Drumstick (Moringa) tree is found [this may have other names in your area]. So they need a mixed meal 34 times a day. "Inside The House" 17 . If this is not given. The leaves are especially nutritious and can be dried and made into a powder. 2 full meals and 2 snack meals. 16 The Farmers' Handbook. This provides more energy. • It is better to feed a child little and often. It's leaves are good for livestock fooder and the flowers are good for bees. • Once a baby stops drinking its mother's milk it should be given extra food. Without nutritious food it's not possible to keep healthy • While a mother is pregnant. It can be grown easily and quickly from cuttings.Diet & Nutrition • Always feed a malnourished child extra food. One teaspoon of this leaf powder provides daily vitamin needs for one person. upland areas where drumstick isn't found. • The best milk for suckling infants is the mother's own milk. Never stop feeding a sick child. • Similarly. Chapter 2 . In cooler.
Diet & Nutrition 18 The Farmers' Handbook. It gives nutrients for energy. they'll eat it themselves. "Inside The House" 19 .Super Flour Maize Wheat 3 one part Soya bean one part two parts Maize. wheat and soya bean flour mixed into super flour gives a balanced and nutritious meal. growth and protection together Clean the maize. 4 Store the flour in an airtight vessel. Chapter 2 . wheat and soya bean Then grind the baked grains and pulses separately. 1 5 2 6 Bake each of them separately Once they're used to it. Then you can use the processed super flour for several days. Make the superflour into a porridge and feed to children above the age of 6 months.
infected gums • slow healing of wounds & sores unhusked grain and its flour. peas. peanuts. • loss of appetite • tingling feet • burning sensation on soles of feet •sore on tongue • sore in corners of mouth • bleeding gums. "Inside The House" Chapter 2 . fatty meat. fava bean. cane extract. digestive juices • helps to make up energy needs if lacking in other foods Vitamin A • keeps skin soft • helps to prevent disease from spreading • eye disease green leaf veg(night blindness. berberis. soya bean. oranges. Marasmus. beans. lemons. etc. walnuts. meat. meat amla. effects of deficiency and which foods provide them is also given.The various types of food and nutrients needed for good health are given below. fish. coriander leaf. kin. etc. potatoes (all energy foods exept oils) cow pea. pumpkin seeds. kidney. soyabean 20 Oil/Fat The Farmers' Handbook. radish • less ability to leaf. (all growth foods) Food type What does it do? • keeps eyes healthy Deficiency Symptoms What is it found in ? Carbohydrate (energy) • gives the body strength & vigour • maintain a balanced body temperature • assists growth & development • used for growth & development • growth & maintenance of muscle • making hormones.Diet & Nutrition . watercress. pumpbetween nose. amaranth. maize. rice. yam. Marasmus.g. liver. lack of digestive juices Vitamin B group Vitamin C • malnourishment (crying. Information about the function of different elements. persimmon. Food type What does it do? Deficiency Symptoms • malnourishment (crying. fish. eggs. butter. etable & yellow dry eyes) fruit or vegetables. Kwashiorkor What is it found in ? wheat. millet. ghee (purified butter). fish. sugar. red blood cells. sprouted grains & pulses 21 Protein (growth) • anaemia. peanuts. barley. milk. pulses. potatoes. carrot. etc. guava. raspberries. mustard fight off disease leaf. green leaf vegetables. A • helps in cell formation vegetable oils. ear & throat spinach. Kwashiorkor. ripe • disease spreads papaya. fresh green leaf vegetables.) • increases appetite • helps nerve growth & function • helps digestion of carbohydrates • joining muscle fibres • helps wounds heal • helps uptake of iron and calcium • gives energy • rough skin • helps in the body's take up of Vit. e.
fermented vegetables. "Inside The House" 23 .millet. pulses. fermented ness vegetables. millet. beaten ness. crumbling bones milk & milk products. malnourished Sano Babu at twelve years old. green leaf vegetables. pulses. Now let's hear her story.Diet & Nutrition æ Æ calcium (a mineral) • helps bone. meat. with his mother and 2 younger brothers Chapter 2 . nutritious food. fish 22 The Farmers' Handbook. lamb's quarters. lazi. It was so hard to feed him at that time.Food type What does it do? Defficiency Symptoms What is it found in ? Iron (a mineral) • making blood. • retarded liver. This is how Sano Babu's life improved with a mother's love & care. Mrs Thuli Dhimnan Iodine (a mineral) •helps body's growth • helps brain & nervous system • gives heat from energy use At two and a half years of age Sano Babu was nothing but skin and bone. Champi village Mrs Thuli Dhimnan's son Sano Babu was malnourished as a baby. grains. After only a few days he started to gain weight. etables. keeping muscle healthy • protection against disease • anaemia green leaf veg• dizzyness. breathless. and good. weakness. spasticism • mental disorders. Lalitpur district. sprouted pulses. still birth food cooked in iron pots • goitre • cretinism. After that Sano Babu's two younger brothers were also born but they didn't have the same problems as their older brother. fish.rice. Sano Babu at two and a half year old. Burunchuli VDC. fish. iodized salt Farmers' Experience From Nepal. teeth formation & growth • prevents muscle contraction & wasting • helps blood clotting • poor bone/ teeth formation. At that time he wouldn't eat and Mrs Thuli Dhimnan could hardly even walk. dull • lack of body's growth • paralysis seafood. growth of babies eggs. • miscarriage. Then I started to feed him superflour porridge with his other food.
many diseases can strike. Everyone knows the effects of too much smoke in the kitchen but what to do ? Now let's learn about an easy and successful method. However.Subjects Related to Nutrition Good benefits can be had from the information in this book about nutrition. If the kitchen and house is dirty. Kitchen Garden and Polyculture Vegetable Growing Chapters These chapters give information about how to produce good vegetables with less work. In this chapter information is given about easy methods to keep the house clean. this information is also linked to other methods. Hygiene Inside the House Chapter Improved health isn't only about good food. air layering. For extra benefits let's read. Fruit Related Chapters Information on how to produce and grow improved fruit species at home is given in these chapters about the fruit nursery. Grihasthi Communications Read On ! . stone grafting. Improved Stove Chapter In Nepal 95% of households use firewood for cooking food. learn and practice other related chapters. top grafting. fruit seedling planting and integrated fruit orchards. budding. grafting.
wind and rain. After The text on the wall says "Always using any tools or cover the lid of the water pot". . equipment it's very important that they are cleaned and stored in their right place. So all members of the household should know about how to keep the house clean. The home is also our place to live and sleep.House Hygiene House Hygiene ? The house shelters us from the sun. The house is also where we keep food. and water containers are kept in the home. pans and clothes necessary for our lives. clean household which is enjoyable and hygienic to live in. There should be a custom of sweeping and plastering. Chapter 3 . pots.What is The Farmers' Handbook . farm tools such as hooks."Inside The House". ropes. Often. spades. And everyone needs to cooperate to make a good.
we do most work with our hands. If there's dirt on the floor it can spread to where the plates. water. The Authors of this Chapter Ms Hom Maya Gurung Health Technician. are. etc. dogs can come and lick plates in the house. So when cooking. So before preparing food and eating it we should always wash our hands well with soap.flies and invisible bacteria like to live in dirty places. Wherever this is done becomes dirty. In this way dysentery. cook just the right amount and don't leave food to be eaten later. This starts to digest their new meal 2 Then the fly eats the old remains and the new food. food. stomach ache. So disease can start in the kitchen and on the food there. Himalayan Permaculture Group.House Hygiene 2 1 2 The Farmers' Handbook. if the previous meal for the fly was faeces. Pathways of spreading disease flies dogs dirty hands dust • Dogs licking plates :. Surkhet. Can we stay healthy by eating that food ? Chapter 3 . This attracts flies which carry the dirt to our food.Why Keep the House Clean ? • Eating stale (old) food :. ash or oil seed cake. On the right side the child is sick and the bacteria are present in the faeces. So. it is mixed with the food on our plate for the fly to eat it. • Eating food without washing hands :. "Inside The House" 3 .it's important to eat clean and fresh food to stay healthy. and the disease is spread. Doing this work makes our hands dirty. • Allowing dogs to eat babies' faeces :. typhoid. • Going to the toilet :.it's wrong to use just any place as a toilet.after eating waste meat. gastro-enteritis.dogs shouldn't be allowed to eat babies' faeces because it's possible that the dog can then go and lick food plates. Many diseases can come from this. worms. bones or even excrement. Problems leading to not keeping the house clean • Dirty Kitchen :. Old food can upset the stomach. On the left side the bacteria get into the other child's plate and food. Nepal Mr Lal Bahadur Budhathoki Rural Livestock Health Programme How do Flies Eat ? 1 Flies vomit up the remains of their last meal onto our food. colds and flu can spread.
Read these as you see the pictures. The containers it is put in must also be clean and have a good fitting lid. Grains and Pulses :.fruit is clean on the tree but as soon as we pick it. Dirty utensils used to transfer or serve food will also make the food dirty. 1 1 ! 2 How bacteria can move in the kitchen 3 4 5 Water :. etc. From here arrows point lead to the person's mouth. It's not enough just to use clean water.just like 4 & 5 above. springs or drinking water taps. carrot and coriander are often eaten raw.if possible do not use water from streams or rivers. the cups. it quickly becomes dirty. Before eating. Milk :. so must be washed in clean water. 6 4 5 3 2 6 4 The Farmers' Handbook. hands should be clean. In the upper part of the picture are small drawings of where the food comes from.House Hygiene 5 . Finally. and the container these are put in must also be very clean. "Inside The House" Chapter 3 . will become dirty if left uncovered. Grinding stones used for making pickles should be kept clean (see page 13). glasses. Vegetables such as radishes. The hands and udder should be washed along with the milk bucket. used for eating should also be very clean. If chemicals are used in the garden vegetables should be washed well in water. Plates. Fruit :. and fruit should be washed or peeled .milk is clean inside the cow's udder but if the person milking has dirty hands this will make the milk dirty. The milk should be boiled and put in a clean container with a clean lid.cooked grains and pulses etc. to drink from must also be clean. Use clean water if making buttermilk or other dairy products. plates. Vegetables :. Keep utensils off the ground. The numbers given to the pictures below correspond to descriptions on the next page. vegetables can become dirty. bowls etc. Use water from wells.The picture below shows how bacteria can enter our bodies.
or if possible. Bacteria Bacteria enjoy dirty. dark and moist seen places so if we want to be protected from possible harm. anywhere in the house or courtyard. These micro-organisms can be beneficial or harmful. If attention is paid to all these things.House Hygiene 7 . without micro-organisms there would be no humus made. If harmful bacteria get into wounds. 6 The Farmers' Handbook. while in the stomach. except by the chickens! If the hands have a wound then use soap to wash and keep it covered when preparing. cooking or eating of food. Before and after any preparation. etc. should be kept clean.Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that the eye cannot see. and often damage them. etc. Usually. and before touching food or food containers. if there were no micro-organisms we could not digest our food. Food should remain covered when not in use and old food should not be eaten. they can make us very sick. In the soil. As for harmful bacteria. dry and as well aired as possible. hands should be clean. pans. clothes. close up bedding. soil. or into our stomach. breaking them up and rotting them down. "Inside The House" Let's see How to keep the house clean How many mistakes can you see in this picture? In a well managed house keeping the pots and the kitchen clean is easy Chapter 3 . then harmful bacteria can't enter and harm our bodies. animals (livestock/pets). cooking or eating food. Hands should be washed after touching hair. they usually live on living tissues. No spitting in the kitchen. and helping in uptake (digestion) by plants' roots. beneficial bacteria live off dead things. kitchen pots.
The text on the wall says "Always cover the lid of the water pot" in Nepali. dry and light kitchen there is less fear of disease Water containers should always be covered. Then.House Hygiene 8 9 . The grinding stone should be covered when not in use. "Inside The House" Chapter 3 . A basket for keeping pots made from local resources.In a clean. this is the way to pour water Dirt can also get into the milling stone so this should also be covered The Farmers' Handbook.
The opening of the water container should always be covered with a clean lid. :cutting hooks. Below are some things to pay attention to for cleaning the house well. digging tools. in a rack or cupboard. etc.House Hygiene 11 . should be stored in a cupboard. plates. Water containers should also be kept in a clean and easily usable place in or near the kitchen. etc. Putting away cutting hooks. rack or woven basket in a corner of the kitchen. Also. The grinding stone should be cleaned and put away after use. pans. etc. ropes. to prevent dust getting from clothes or bedding into the food these should be kept in a separate place. 1. Putting away clothes. digging tools. ropes. should be stored in a place easy to see and access by all the family (except babies). etc. "Inside The House" Chapter 3 . Putting away pots. 2. pans.pots. etc.In a well managed House: Pots and pans are cleaned and put away in the right place Food is covered and put away How to clean the House ? Cleaning and managing inside the house isn't difficult. :. :clothes and bedding should be stored away from the kitchen otherwise dust and smoke can make them dirty. The grinding stone is covered and put away The floor is kept clean and freshly plastered or swept 10 The Farmers' Handbook. Farm tools used every day are also kept clean and in the right place 3.
Many types of dirt can get into the uncovered drinking water container. For example. then while sweeping or doing other work dirt can get onto it. After the grinding stone has been used. While sweeping the house. Make a string to tie the lid to the container. first measure the lid of the water container. and if it is left uncovered. etc. If water is dirty it can cause all sorts of diseases such as diarrhea. "Inside The House" The Grinding Stone The grinding stone is a tool used many times a day in the kitchen. If the grinding stone is left out unwashed then these bacteria can then get into the spices etc. The water container's lid can be home made. clean cloth or even a plate made of leaves. This can then cause illness such as diarrhea. For this. which could then get into the water inside the container. it should be washed and stored in a clean place. Chapter 3 . worms. dust can blow into drinking water containers. The lid of the container should never be put on the floor otherwise it could get covered in dirt.Water Containers Drinking water should always be kept clean. If this is not possible (for example. if it is too big). This dirt can contain harmful bacteria. again wash the stone with clean water. the water container should always be covered. stomach aches. we can protect ourselves from big diseases. and other types of illness. plastic bag. So we should get into the habit of always washing the grinding stone before use. for example to grind spices for pickle. worms. dry it and store it covered or upright against the wall of the kitchen. then the stone should be kept covered by a large lid or bowl. 12 The Farmers' Handbook. colds and flu. Another method is to use a small plate or bowl to cover the lid. and make a lid from wood or thick tree bark to fit the opening. If we pay attention to the small ideas given above. we are grinding on the stone. dysentery.House Hygiene 13 . After use. and drinking that dirty water can then cause sickness. After it has been used. Being aware of some simple things can help to protect us from these diseases. We may bring dirt into the house from outside.
then what other work will we be able to do ? æ Chapter 3 . Ratadada village and a member of "Hariyali" women's group. I keep the pots and pans clean and covered. I always wash the grinding stone.House Hygiene 15 Æ . Gumi VDC. I put the dust swept out of the house into a sweepings pit. I became a member of the local Women's Group and learned a lot. compared to other times of the year. If we can't keep ourselves clean. so they can't get dirty. Farmers' Experience From Nepal. Now let's read about what she says Mrs Atimaya Sunuwar ! It's easier and cheaper to prevent disease than to cure it. how can we run a good household ? 14 The Farmers' Handbook. and clean it each day.Other things to pay attention to During the monsoon there is much more rain. it gets very muddy everywhere and it's a much busier time for farmers. Surkhet district. so everywhere gets much more dirty. "Inside The House" Mrs Atimaya Sunuwar In 1998. this makes good compost too. I use a bowl to keep the drinking water container covered. but first I started keeping the house clean. So we should pay much more attention to hygiene at this time. and they only seem difficult if you don't have the habit of doing them. There's lots of benefits when we keep the house clean. Let's pay attention to this !! If we don't keep the house clean we can cause many types of health problems. These things are easy. Mrs Atimaya Sunuwar has seen the benefits of good house hygiene. Apart from keeping the house clean. But if we are always sick. It's the same for cleaning and putting away farming tools such as the cutting hook and digging tools. If we can stay healthy all household work is easier.
Information about building and correct use of the pit latrine is given in this chapter. Diet and Nutrition Chapter Many diseases can be prevented by a healthy diet. In this chapter.Subjects Related to House Hygiene Improved Stove Chapter In Nepal 95% of households use firewood for cooking food. information is given about the benefits provided by different types of food. Grihasthi Communications Read On ! . Waste Water Chapter This chapter gives information on how to get irrigation for the garden from domestic waste water. Everyone knows the effects of too much smoke in the kitchen but what to do ? Now let's learn about an easy and successful method. Sweepings Chapter Information about making good compost from sweeping the house and yard is given in this chapter. Pit Latrine Chapter Everyone has a responsibility to use a proper toilet.
What is an The Farmers' Handbook . The stove turns our hard-earned farming produce into tasty and wholesome food. . A well managed stove helps in other work also. In this chapter. Surkhet district. and from there to the household. a useful method is given to help solve these problems. smoke in the kitchen will cause health problems and a lot of firewood will be used. and helps to remove smoke from the kitchen. The improved stove can be cheaply made from local resources. Nepal The stove is the heart of the household. Chapter 4 . which can bring big improvements in the kitchen. This method is called the improved stove."Inside The House". If the stove isn't good.Improved Stove Improved Stove ? Mrs Chitramaya GhartiMagar's improved stove. while using less firewood.
take out the pan and the food is ready to eat. etc. and from time to time you need to let the smoke into the kitchen (see page 22 for more information). Can cook 2 items at a time 4. Differences between traditional and improved stoves Traditional Stove or Tripod 1. These are :- Why make an Improved Stove ? Improved Stove 1. vegetables. Uses a lot of firewood 2.Improved Stove 10. Doesn't make kitchen dirty 8. Smoke stays in kitchen 6. Food cooks slowly 3. due to the conserved heat in the box.There are some disadvantages of the improved stove. Food cools quickly 2 11. After a while. Large pieces of firewood can't be used. No fear of small children falling in fire 9. Small children can fall in the fire 9. Wind can make the fire jump 10. This also helps to conserve nutrients in the food. pulses. Cooking makes the pots black with soot Other methods to reduce firewood use While cooking. Food cooks quickly 3. Food stays hot longer The Farmers' Handbook. Pots kept cleaner during cooking 1. keeping the lid on pots helps to reduce firewood use. and covered well. there is no fire.) is brought to the boil on a normal stove. As soon as food (rice. but the food slowly keeps cooking. Uses less firewood 2. Can only cook one item at a time 4. covered by a lid straw cloth lid of the pot food inside (just boiled) straw basket or box Chapter 4 . the pan is removed and placed in the hay box. The stove gives less light and direct heat in the kitchen. 3. This can be made in a basket or box filled with tightly packed straw. "Inside The House" 3 . Makes kitchen utensils dirty with soot 8. Stove made from local resources 12. Here. Can't make tripod from local resources 12. Another method of conserving fuelwood is called the "Haybox". Don't need tripod 5. No harm to health 7. 2. Smoke goes outside 6. as in the picture below. Smoke damages health 7. This takes 20-30 minutes longer than on a stove. The stove needs good maintenance. Stove not affected by wind 11. Cost of tripod 5.
the hole to allow smoke out should be out of the wind. "Inside The House" 5 . Materials needed to make an improved stove bowl brick making form (see p.Improved Stove This Chapter's Author: Mr Laxman Rana Community Service Group. see the pictures on the next page Chapter 4 . map out the height of the kitchen's wall.8) cooking pans stones digging tools soil straw or husk On this stove unleavened flat bread can be made over the mouth of the firebox. Nepal 4 The Farmers' Handbook. Making bricks using a wooden form or mould Things to consider when making an improved stove get all the materials and tools ready first. map out the stove according to the needs of the family.How • • • • • To make an improved stove ? Making the Improved Stove An improved stove uses a chimney to pass the smoke out of the kitchen. like dough. with water to make a stiff texture. Surkhet. Making bricks using mud "pancakes" In this method only clay. First mix the clay and the husk. water and a small bowl are needed. straw or rice husk. allow for a place to clean the stove. Making bricks using mud "pancakes" 2. as well as smoke going outside string 1. or straw cut into 2 inch lengths. Dahachaur 4. There are 2 ways of making a chimney to do this :1.
Making bricks from clay "pancakes" 1 The pancakes should be 8 inches in diameter 8i 2. Making a chimney using a wooden form or mould nc he s One village will need only one of these forms Materials needed to make the form 2 The bowl should be 4 inches in diameter measuring tape One 3inch nail Eighteen 2 inch nails round piece of wood hammer saw timber Place the bowl upside down on the pancake and press down. like this 3 length 4-5 feet. width 7 inches.Improved Stove 6 7 . thickness half to one inch The upturned bowl will cut the clay 4 make 30-35 pancakes like this This will make a hole the same shape and size as the bowl 5 le 7 ngt in h ch es Cut the timber into pieces as shown here w 7 in c i d t h hes one piece 2 pieces of length 7 inches and width 4 inches The Farmers' Handbook. "Inside The House" Chapter 4 .
as shown here • mix the clay.Improved Stove 9 . husk or straw and water • wash the form well • scatter a little husk or straw in the form so it sticks to the wet wood Now put the clay mix into the Form 8 The Farmers' Handbook.Join the 3 pieces of wood with nails. width 4 inches On the underside of the form make an 'X' between the 4 corners to find the centre Holding the round piece of wood on the other side. "Inside The House" Chapter 4 . like this Now put the round piece of wood in the form diameter 4 inches length 3 inches Saw 2 pieces of wood as shown below length 15 inches. nail in the long nail to hold it in place Making bricks in the Form Join the pieces with nails.
"Inside The House" 11 .Improved Stove 10 The Farmers' Handbook. gently lift the form off 2 To make the chimney. 12-13 bricks like this are needed Make 2 bricks looking like this Rice husk. or chopped straw Make 1 brick without a hole for the top of the chimney 3 Husk or straw mixed to a thick paste Chapter 4 .Scrape off the excess clay to make level Let's see 1 How to make an improved stove Turn the form upside down and tap gently The form used to make the chimney Leaving the clay brick on the ground.
leaving holes for pots and a path for smoke .4 Cleaning the Form 5 Starting to build the stove 7 Pressing the clay/straw mix into the form Smoke leaves here 8 Bridging stone over the firebox hole Build up the stove.Improved Stove 13 . "Inside The House" Chapter 4 . f p n f 6 Chimney brick after removing from the form 12-13 of these bricks Bridging stones Red arrows show pathway for smoke Yellow lines show empty spaces left inside the stove 2 bricks like this 12 1 brick without a hole The Farmers' Handbook.
estimate the best place for the stove. "Inside The House" Mark out the areas and pathways for firewood. the stove is allowed to dry out and can then be used 14 The Farmers' Handbook. fire and smoke Chapter 4 .Improved Stove 15 . and map out with the types of pots to be used and a chimney brick If using the clay pancakes for the chimney. use them to measure Put firewood here Now start to build the chimney with bricks made with the form (or clay pancakes) 10 11 Mark out according to the measurements After plastering.Holes for pots Hole for smoke 9 Cooking area prepared In the below pictures is the process of building the stove in drawings First.
Improved Stove 17 .5 inch gap Use an iron rod if available. "Inside The House" Chapter 4 . This sends the flames right up to the base of the pot Between the hump and base of the pot a 1. This sits inside the pot's hole and allows smaller pots to rest on it This shows the inside when a fire is burning smoke going out Continue to build up the walls fire burning in clay hump the stove Note: the pots should sit down in the hole (see page 22) 16 The Farmers' Handbook.Start to build the walls according to the measurements Cooking area finished Inside the stove looks like this Iron rod Below the second pot-hole a small hump is made.
the hole from the chimney and the hole going outside should fit exactly 3 1 2 1 If using the clay pancake bricks they look like this 18 The Farmers' Handbook. "Inside The House" Chapter 4 .Now use a string to measure the hole going outside After placing 1213 of these bricks the level of the hole is reached First chimney brick 3 Place the chimney bricks like this 2 This is the way the top 3 bricks are placed (see p.Improved Stove 19 .20) After placing the top 3 bricks.
and allow it to dry out.The method to place the top 3 bricks is shown below Brick 3 seen close up Brick 3 Brick 1 seen close up Brick 1 Hole to the outside Finally. "Inside The House" Chapter 4 . plaster the stove.Improved Stove 21 . Then it is ready to use Brick 2 Brick 2 seen close up 20 The Farmers' Handbook.
Therefore.Things to pay attention to when using the stove In this picture the stove is being used correctly .the pot is low in the hole where more flames reach the base. If the pots are the wrong size for the hole then. stored grain and seed. every few days smoke needs to be let into the house. stones or clay Cleaning the Improved Stove • • • • • watch if smoke is passing or not watch if food is cooking fast or slow clean the chimney every week or 2 (see below) plaster the stove daily (do not use dung) measure how much firewood is used Once every 2 weeks wrap cloth on the end of a stick to 1 clean the chimney 2 stick with cloth 3 Open the stove to remove the dirt and soot 4 A well made stove. This is due to using the wrong size pots for the hole.Improved Stove 23 . 22 The Farmers' Handbook. But this can cause another problem in that the smoke helps to control various pests which otherwise can damage timber. In this way food cooks slowly. But this allows more smoke into the kitchen. Smoke. used correctly. In this picture the stove is not used well . and smoke can escape. the flames do not reach close. will not let smoke out into the kitchen. as in the diagram.because the pot does not sit low in the hole. put 3 small stones under the pot to draw the flames up where they heat the base of the pot. protects the timbers from these pests. "Inside The House" Re plaster Clean from the outside also Chapter 4 .
To make this stove stone. We didn't have a form in our village. The form also uses more clay. the food stays warm a long time left on the stove. rice husk and a form to make the chimney is all that's needed. and member of "Ritu Laligurans" and "Hariyali" women's group Mrs Chitramaya Gharti Magar has made an improved stove. Surkhet district. Because smoke affects our health it's important to make the smoke go outside. There are no flies and the food can't burn.From Nepal. æ Æ Grihasthi Communications Farmers' Experience Mrs Chitramaya Gharti Magar . There's no smoke from my stove. I want teach others in the village how to make the stove. Once cooked. Dahachaur . Now. Also. and it uses less firewood. so I used a bowl to make 35-36 clay pancakes. so I made up this method.4. so time is saved collecting fuel as well as helping to protect the forest. Making the pancakes needs less clay and you don't need the form. Now let's read about what she says. clay. In the imMrs Chitramaya proved stove less firewood is also Gharti Magar used. the pans don't get so black with soot.
Hay Box . and then immediately placed in a box packed with straw. The food continues to cook even though it is not on a stove. while the box and straw stop the heat from escaping. Booklet 5. Food such as rice. and to save waste. After some time the pan is removed and the food is ready to eat. Farmers’ Handbook. “Inside the House”. and covered. because the heat in the pan is enough to keep cooking the food. to taken out of a hay box conserve fuel use in the home. In this booklet we describe how to make and use a hay box out A pan of cooked rice of locally available resources. pulses andvegetables are brought to the boil on a traditional stove.What is a Hay Box? The need of today is to conserve. recycle and use resources efficiently. To do this many types of stove have been developed and taught around the world. in order to save fuel in cooking. One method of cooking while saving fuel is called the Hay Box.
rice is brought to the boil. advisor. Materials needed to make a Hay Box Lid for box Bamboo basket ("box") Straw/hay (or wool. wool. so there is more time for other activities • The hay box can be made from local resources • It doesn’t require much skill to make and use. kerosene. The size of the “box” should be about 4-6 inches wider than the width of the pot. we find this easiest to use.) • Because food is not boiled for a long time. the packing of the hay box (hay. Nepal www. they last longer • Less time is spent cooking. Once the traditional stove has brought the food to the boil. In this booklet we show how to use a traditional bamboo basket to make the “box”. a wooden box.Hay Box 3 . gas. many vitamins are saved • Because pots are in the flames less.designedvisions. packed in the hay box and covered. Himalayan Permaculture Group. It will continue to cook itself and will be ready in about 20 minutes longer than on a normal fire. cottoon. Because in Nepal the bamboo basket is available everywhere.com 2 The Farmers’ Handbook “Inside the House” You can make a Hay Box in your own home for your own use. electric. cardboard box or even an old fridge or drum can be used. cotton) Cooking pots Towel or blanket Booklet 5 . etc) keeps the heat in and this is enough to keep the food cooking. This booklet’s author Chris Evans. straw. There’s no need for any special skill. for example. etc. This may take 10-20 minutes longer than if using a direct flame. But instead. In this way.Why Advantages of using the Hay Box Use a Hay Box? How to make a Hay Box ? • Food can be cooked with less fuel (wood.
wool or cotton can also be used. Keep some straw aside to cover the pot later. leave enough space in the basket for the pot to be placed. such as rice. Start to cook your usual food.Hay Box 5 . etc. But whatever food you are cooking. dried grass.. Once the box is ready. wool or cotton can also be used.Method Straw. Keep a towel or blanket ready. While packing. Instead of straw. 3 Booklet 5 . 4 The Farmers’ Handbook “Inside the House” While packing. hay etc. Let’s see Pack straw tightly into the bamboo basket. The box is now ready for use. on your traditional stove. vegetables. use the stove just to bring it to the boil. dried grass. How to make the Hay Box 1 2 In the pictures on the next 4 pages we use the example of cooking rice in the hay box. Instead of straw. as you would normally do. leave enough space for the size of pot you will be using. is packed tightly into whatever type of box or container is available. As soon as the food is boiling it is removed from the stove and placed in the hay box. the cooking can begin in the kitchen.
cover the pot and remove it from the stove. The Farmers’ Handbook “Inside the House” Cover it all with sacking or a blanket. 7 In a few minutes the food will start to boil.4 In the kitchen. 5 8 Pack more straw on top to completely fill the box. Place the wrapped pot in the middle of the packed straw. start to cook your usual food in the usual way. 6 Then completely wrap the pot in a blanket or towel. 9 Booklet 5 . Then.Hay Box 6 7 .
completely wrap the pot in a thick towel or blanket. Maintenance 11 How to use the Hay Box After a short while the food in the pot will start to boil. blanket lid of pot food just boiled straw/hay etc. place a rock or heavy object to weigh down the lid. lid of the box straw/hay etc. basket or box 12 Here the rice is cooked perfectly.10 Finally. you can remove the food to eat.Hay Box 8 The Farmers’ Handbook “Inside the House” 9 . and it will stay warm. In 20-30 minutes the food in the pot will finish cooking by itself. and finally place a weight on the lid. The food will cook by itself inside the box in 20-30 minutes. Cover it with more packed straw to completely fill the box. After this. or you can leave it there for 3-4 hours or until you are ready to eat. Then. Booklet 5 . cover the pot and take it off the stove. After this. Then. you can remove the food whenever you are ready to eat. Cover the box with a lid. Put the pot in the middle of the packed straw.
food cooks and stays warm for a long time. so the food is more nutritious.Hay Box 11 . It works in the same way that freshly boiled tea is kept hot for a long time inside a thermos flask. Nutrients in the food are also saved.Inside the box with its lid and tightly packed straw. vitamins are not lost in over-cooking. that can make our lives easier as well as helping to protect the environment Æ 10 The Farmers’ Handbook “Inside the House” Booklet 5 . Farmers' Mrs Shivakala Experience Rokaya From Humla district capital Simikot Mrs Shivakala Rokaya is a member of Jolimungra Vegetable Growers Group. Another way of saving fuel in cooking Just by keeping the lid on the pot while cooking saves a lot of fuel. I can start cooking then go off to the fields or the forest and just at the time when I start to feel hungry come home and the food is ready. She's made and used a hay box let's read about her experience. hot and fresh in the hay box. æ Good Food & Healthy Family Whose Responsibility ? I find this hay box really easy to use and very benefiMrs Shivakala Rokaya cial. I reckon that it saves about the same amount of fuelwood that I'd use to cook the vegetables each meal. I boil the rice in the pot and skim off the excess water. then wrap the whole pot with rice and lid in a thick cloth and place inside the hay box. Another benefit of using the hay box is that because the food is not boiled for a long time. I really like methods like this. and it's cooked in just half an hour.
information is given about the benefits provided by different types of food. For extra benefits let’s read. Hay Box Chapter ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Improved Stove Chapter In Nepal 95% of households use firewood for cooking food. Everyone knows the effects of too much smoke in the kitchen but what to do ? Now let’s learn about an easy and successful method. However. this information is also linked to other methods. learn and practice from other related chapters. Diet and Nutrition Chapter Many diseases can be prevented by a healthy diet.Read On ! Subjects Related to the Hay Box Good benefits can be had from the information in this book about the hay box. Grihasthi Communications . In this chapter.
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