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History of Architecture UNIT 4

Indo-Aryan style of temples


(Salient features of Orissa temples)

Classification of Hindu Groups Brahman Kshatria Vaisia Sudra

Classification of Age Groups Bramhacharya Grihasta Vanaprasta Sanyasa

Classification of Vedas Rig Yajur Sama Atharva

Classification of Directions North South East West

The Technical treatises in Sanskrit on the basic rules in the field of architecture and sculpture are called as the Shilpa Shastras and Vastu Shastras. For Orissan Temple, some Technical treaties for temple construction are Bhusan Pradip, Silpapothi, Silparatnakar, Silpasarini, Silpaprakash, Padmakesara, Deula Mapagunakara, Bhusan Prabesh, Soudikagama. The Mayamata and Mansara are the two well known treatises of South India on architecture and iconography respectively.

Source: Michell, G. (1977). The Hindu Temple. London: B.I. Publication.

CONCEPT OF HINDU TEMPLE

Source: Stella Karmisch, The Hindu Temple, 1976, New Delhi

TYPICAL ORISSAN TEMPLE ELEVATION

BHOGAMANDAP

NATAMANDAP

JAGAMOHANA

GRABHAGRIHA

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

THE ORISSAN HINDU TEMPLE PLAN

BHOGAMANDAP

NATAMANDAP

JAGAMOHANA

GRABHAGRIHA

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

The Orissan Hindu Temple

PIDA DEULA REKHA DEULA


KANAKAPAGA

ANARDHAPAGA

JAGAMOHANA

GARBHAGRIHA

RAHAPAGA

ANARDHAPAGA KANAKAPAGA RAHAPAGA KANAKAPAGA RAHAPAGA ANARDHAPAGA


Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Elements of Orissan Hindu temple


KALASA
MASTAKA

KHAPURI AMLAKA SHILA TRIPATI RAHAPAGA

KANAKAPAGA

ANARDHAPAGA

AMLA
GANDI

GARBHAGRIHA
BHUMI

AMLA BANDHANA UPPER JUNGHA


BADA

ANTARALA RAHAPAGA

BARANDI LOWER JUNGHA PRABHAGA BARANDA JANGHA PRABHAGA

REKHA DEULA PLAN

PITHA

REKHA DEULA ELEVATION

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

JAGAMOHAN ELEVATION

JAGAMOHAN PLAN

KALASA AYUDHA

ANTARALA KANAKAPAGA ANARDHAPAGA

MAST AKA

GHANTA KALASHA

PARAGHAR

GANDI
PIDHA

BANDHANA

BADA

UPPER JUNGHA BARANDI LOWER JUNGHA PRABHAGA

RAHAPAGA

PITHA

BARANDA JANGHA PRABHAGA

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Typical Orissan Temple Element Rekha Deula


Mastaka
Beki Tripati Amalaka shila Khapuri kalasha

Pidha Deula
Mastaka
Beki Ayadha Amalaka shila kalasha

Natya Mandap
Mastaka
Beki Ayadha Amalaka shila kalasha

Bhoga Mandap
Miniature Pidha Deula with out Brushava and having a decorated Entry Gate

Gandi
Bhumi Amalaka Ratha (on plan) Paga (on elevation)

Gandi
Para Ghara Ghanta kalasha Dopicha simhas

Bada
Pabhaga (foot), lower Jangha Bandhana (bond), Upper Jangha Baranda

Bada
Triratha/ pancharatha

Bada
Pillered Hall

Other Elements in Temple Complex


Anand Bazar Koili Vaikuntha Ponds Niladri Vihar Snana Bedhi

Pitha
Pabhaga (foot), Jangha Baranda

Pitha
Pabhaga (foot), Jangha Baranda

Pitha
Pabhaga (foot), Jangha Baranda

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Mahameghavahana Kharavela (50BC) The Satavahanas and the Murundas (3rd centaury ) The Durjayas (6th centaury )

The Royal Gangas (5th to 11th centaury AD) Mukundadeva (Chalukya family) (1560 AD)

Ashoka, The Great (262 BC)

Afgan (1572) Mughal (1607) Marathas (1751) British (1757)

Time Line of Periods VS Phases

Mature Phase Formative Phase


(6th century to the first half of the 9th century) (From middle of the 11th century till the 13th century)

Transitional Phase
(2nd half of the 9th century to the first quarter of the 11th century)

Phase of decadence
(14th to 16th century)
Source: Karmisch, S. (1977). The Hindu Temple. New Delhi.

Development of Temple Architecture In Orissa

Formative phase
(6th century to the first half of the 9th century)

Source: Karmisch, S. (1977). The Hindu Temple. New Delhi.

Mastaka

Gandi

Mastaka Gandi

Entrance porch

Bada pista Rekha Deula

Bada pista Pidha Deula


Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Mastaka

Gandi

Mastaka Bada Gandi Pista Bada Entrance Parshurameswar at Old Town, Bhubaneswar Rekha Deula Pista Pidha Deula
Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Transitional Phase
(2nd half of the 9th century to the first quarter of the 11th century)

Source: Karmisch, S. (1977). The Hindu Temple. New Delhi.

Mastaka

Mastaka

Gandi

Gandi

Bada Bada

Entrance porch

Pista Rekha Deula Shidheswar Temple, Bhubaneswar

Pista Pidha Deula


Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Mukteswar Temple at old town, Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Bramheswara Temple, , Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Bramheswara Temple, Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Megheswar temple , Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Mature Phase
(From middle of the 11th century till the 13th century)

Source: Karmisch, S. (1977). The Hindu Temple. New Delhi.

Mastaka

Gandi Mastaka

Gandi

Bada Entrance

Bada pista

pista Pidha Deula Rekha Deula

Rajarani temple at tankapani road, Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Rajarani temple at tankapani road, Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Mature Phase Mastaka

Gandi Mastaka

Natya Mandap Bhoga Mandap

Gandi

Bada pista Rekha Deula

Bada pista Pidha Deula

Lingaraj Temple Complex , Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Mature Phase

Lingaraj Temple Complex , Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Mature Phase

Lingaraj Temple Complex , Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Source: Photograph courtesy by Stella Karmisch, The Hindu Temple, 1976, New Delhi

Lingaraj Temple Complex , Bhubaneswar

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Jagannath Temple, Puri

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Jagannath Temple, Puri

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Jagannath Temple, Puri

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Sun Temple at Konark

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Phase of decadence
(14th to 16th century)

Source: Karmisch, S. (1977). The Hindu Temple. New Delhi.

Source: Photograph courtesy by Author

Source: Chand, D. S. (July-2005). Orissan Temple Architecture. Orissa Review, 49-51.

Source: Chand, D. S. (July-2005). Orissan Temple Architecture. Orissa Review, 49-51.

Parsurameswar Temple, Bhubaneswar

Sun Temple, Konark

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Mukteswar Temple, Bhubaneswar

Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneswar

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Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar HISTORY The temple is more than 1100 years old, dating back in its present form to the last decade of the eleventh century, though there is evidence that part of the temple was built during the sixth century CE as the temple has been emphasized in some of the seventh century Sanskrit texts. Fergusson believes the temple might have been initiated by Lelat Indra Kesari who reigned from 615 to 657 CE. The Assembly hall (jagamohana), sanctum and temple tower wer built during the eleventh century, while the Hall of offering (bhoga-mandapa) was built during the twelth century. The natamandira was built by the wife of Salini between 1099 and 1104 CE. By the time the Lingaraj temple was completely constructed, the Jagannath (form of Vishnu) cult had been growing in the region, which historians believe is evidenced by the co-existence of Vishnu and Shiva worship at the temple. The Ganga dynasty kings were ardent followers of Vaishnavism and built the Jagannath Temple at Puri in the 12th century. The temple is believed to be built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari, in 11th century CE. An inscription from the Saka year 1094 (1172 CE) indicates gifts of gold coins to the temple by Rajaraja II. Another inscription of Narasimha I from the 11th century indicates offer of beetel leaves as tambula to the presiding deity. Other stone inscriptions in the temple indicate royal grants from Chodaganga to villager.

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Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar INTRODUCTION 1. The Lingaraj temple is the largest temple in Bhubaneswar. 2. It is enshrined within a spacious compound wall of laterite measuring 520 ft (160 m) by 465 ft (142 m). 3. The wall is 7.5 ft (2.3 m) thick and surmounted by a plain slant coping. 4. Alongside the inner face of the boundary wall, there is a terrace to protect the compound wall against outside aggression. 5. The tower is 55 m (180 ft) high and the complex has 150 smaller shrines in its spacious courtyard. 6. Each inch of the 55 m (180 ft) tall tower is sculpted. 7. The door in the gate of the entrance porch is made of sandalwood. 8. The Lingaraj temple faces east and is built of sandstone and laterite. 9. The main entrance is located in the east, while there are small entrances in the north and south. 10. The temple is built in the Deula style that has four components namely, vimana (structure containing the sanctum), Jagamohana (assembly hall), Natyamandapa (festival hall) and Bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings). 11. The dance hall was associated with the raising prominence of the devadasi system that existed during the time. 12. The various units from the Hall of offering to the tower of the sanctum increase in height.

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

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MAIN ELEMENTS The Bhogamandapa (Hall of offering) has four doors in each of the sides. The exterior walls of the hall has decorative sculptures of men and beast. The hall has a pyramidal roof made of up several horizontal layers arranged in sets of two with intervening platform. It bears an inverted bell and a kalasa in the top. The Natyamandapa (festival hall) has one main entrance and two side entrances. The side walls of the hall has decorative sculptures displaying women and couples. It has a flat roof sloping in stages. There are thick pylons inside the hall. The Jagamohana (assembly hall) has entrances from south and north and has a 30 metres (98 ft) tall roof. The hall has a pyramidal roof made of up several horizontal layers arranged in sets of two with intervening platform as in the Hall of offering. The facade to the entrances are decorated with perforated windows with lion sitting on hind legs. The inverted bell above second unit is adorned by kalasha and lions. The Rekha Deula has a 60 m (200 ft) tall pyramidal tower over the sanctum. It is covered with decorative design and seated lion projecting from the walls. The sanctum is square in shape from the inside. The tower walls are sculpted with female figures in different poses.

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Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Orissa Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar

Konark Temple, Orissa 1. Located on the shoreline, now a little over 3 km from the sea, the temple takes the form of the chariot of Surya (Arka), the Sun God, and is heavily decorated with stone carving. 2. The entire complex was designed in the form of the God's huge chariot drawn by seven spirited horses on twelve pairs of exquisitely decorated wheels at its base. 3. The huge wheels carved at the base of the temple are one of the major attractions. The spokes of the wheels serve as sundials and the shadows cast by these can give the precise time of the day. 4. The pyramidal roof soars over 30 m (98 ft) in height. The temple complex also contains erotic sculptures similar to the temple in Khajuraho. 5. The entrance is guarded by two giant lions, which are each shown crushing a war elephant. Each elephant in turn lies on top of a human body. Here lion is represented as pride and elephant is represented as money. 6. The temple symbolizes the majestic stride of the Sun God. 7. At the entrance of the temple is a Nata mandir. This is where the temple dancers used to perform dances in homage to the Sun God. 8. All around the temple, there are various floral and geometric patterns. The temple is now partly in ruins, and a collection of its sculptures is housed in the Sun Temple Museum, which is run by the Archaeological Survey of India. The poet Rabindranath Tagore wrote of Konark: "Here the language of stone surpasses the language of man."

SUN TEMPLE AT KONARK, ORISSA 1250 AD

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

Konark Temple, Orissa

INDO-ARYAN STYLE: KHAJURAHO (950 -1050 AD) 1. Some Bargujar Rajputs moved eastward to central India; they ruled over the North-eastern region of Rajasthan, called Dhundhar, and were referred to as Dhundhel or Dhundhela in ancient times, for the region they governed. 2. Later on they called themselves Chandelas; those who were in the ruling class having gotra Kashyap were definitely all Bargujars; they were vassals of Gurjara - Pratihara empire of North India, which lasted from 500 C.E. to 1300 C.E. and at its peak the major monuments were built. 3. The city was the cultural capital of Chandel Rajputs, a Hindu dynasty that ruled this part of India from the 10-12th centuries. The political capital of the Chandelas was Kalinjar. 4. The Khajuraho temples were built over a span of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. 5. The Chandela capital was moved to Mahoba after this time, but Khajuraho continued to flourish for some time. Khajuraho has no forts because the Chandel Kings never lived in their cultural capital. 6. The whole area was enclosed by a wall with eight originates, each flanked by two golden palm trees. 7. There were originally over 80 Hindu temples, of which only 25 now stand in a reasonable state of preservation, scattered over an area of about 20 square kilometres (8 sq mi). 8. The erotic sculptures were crafted by Chandella artisans. 9. The temples, maintained by the locals, were pointed out to the English in the late 19th century when the jungles had taken a toll on the monuments. Today, the temples serve as fine examples of Indian architectural styles that have gained popularity due to their explicit depiction of sexual life during medieval times.

Left: plan of Kandariya Mahadev temple (11th century): (1) Garbhagriha, (2) Pradakshinapth, (3) Mandapa, and (4) Arthamandapa. Right: EastWest section of Kandariya Mahadev temple.

front elevation

north elevation

back elevation.

(a) Top: 9-Squares mandala. Bottom: sides of a 9-squares mandala are bumped up 1 pada along the cardinal directions. (b) Left: plan of Kandariya Mahadev temple. Right up: outer corner of 1 pada and development of a element having golden proportion with a quarter of the pada. Right bottom: outer corner of figure filled by the newly born element from a pada in its three sides and overlapped with the self similar but opposite pattern to get final fractal patterned plan of the temple.

Geometric operation of mandalas and that of some symbolic geometry for the development of the plan of Kandariya Mahadev temple.

(a) Repetitions of towers and their elements in the shikhara; and (b) whole form of shikhara is repeated in a part within another part (marked by red colour). Repetitions of tower above the mandapas (marked by green colour) create angle for upward eye movement to the summit of main shikhara.

Peaks of all self similar towers follow the rule golden sequence.

Whole in a part in the shikhara: (a) whole body of shikhara above the sanctuary; (b) self similar part of the whole shikhara; and (c) self similar smaller part of the whole shikhara.
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INDO-ARYAN STYLE: KHAJURAHO (950 -1050 AD)

INDO-ARYAN STYLE: KHAJURAHO (950 -1050 AD)

INDO-ARYAN STYLE: KHAJURAHO (950 -1050 AD)

BALCONIED PORCHES & HIGH PLINTH

DOMICAL CEILING & INTERIOR

DOMICAL CEILING & INTERIOR

INDO-ARYAN STYLE: KHAJURAHO (950 -1050 AD)

INDO-ARYAN STYLE: KHAJURAHO (950 -1050 AD)

Surya Temple at Modhera, Gujarat

Introduction
1. The Sun Temple, Modhera, at Modhera in Gujarat, is a temple dedicated to the Hindu SunGod, Surya. 2. It was built in 1026 AD by King Bhimdev of the Solanki dynasty. 3. In the present times, prayers are not offered in this temple. 4. According to the Skanda Purana and Brahma Purana, the areas near Modhera were known during ancient days as Dharmaranya (literally meaning the forest of righteousness). 5. This was the time when Somnath and the adjoining area was plundered by Mahmud Ghazni and reeled under the effects of his invasion. 6. The temple is partially in ruins after it was also finally destroyed by the Allauddin Khilji.

Suryakunda
1. This Suryakunda, also known as Ramakunda, is a large rectangular stepped tank measuring 53.6 x 36.6 meters under the east face of sabhamandap used to store pure water. Devotees were required to perform ceremonial ablutions here before worshiping the Sun God. 2. The Suryakund is a finest example of geometry. The organization of stone into composition gives shape to a dazzling pattern of art. 3. It is proportioned with innumerable stone steps leading devotees down to its base. 4. 108 miniature shrines are carved in between the steps inside the tank. Also number 108 considered to be auspicious by Hindus as Hindu rosary has same number of beads.

Reservoir deities 1. There are four terraces to descend to reach the bottom of the tank. Small pyramid-shaped steps are for each terrace. God and Goddess depicted in immortalized stone unfold the sculpture wealth: Lord Vishnu, Lord Ganesh, Lord Natraj, Sitlamata's presence a marvel created during Solanki era. 2. Two huge ornamental arches called Toran forms a gateway to the Sabha Mandap (assembly hall).

Sabha Mandap

This hall of religious gatherings is a magnificent pillared hall. It is open from all sides and has 52 intricately carved pillars representing 52 weeks in a year. The carvings depict episodes from the Hindu epics of Ramayan, Mahabharat and Krishna Lila (i.e., story of Lord Krishna).

Surya Temple at Modhera, Gujarat

PILLARS

Thank You
Presented By

Partha Sarathi Mishra


Asst. Prof. Lovely Professional University B Arch (ABIT-PMCA) M Arch (IIT Roorkee) email:- partha.16897@gmail.com