This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1 THE SENTENCE
As in all the other Germanic languages, sentences in Norwegian can be described schematically containing three fields: a prefield, midfield and backfield. The prefield contains only one element. More often than not it is the subject. If the sentence is a question the prefield is empty. The midfield and backfield can be subdivided in three fields each. The word order and content of the subfields is different for the different sentence types.
1.1 WORD ORDER
The basic word order in main clauses in Norwegian is as follows: Prefield Han he har has Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial kanskje maybe Backfield Verb lest read Object denne boka Adverbial i forrige uke.
this book.the in last week
I forrige uke har In last week has Har
han he du
kanskje maybe kanskje maybe
lest read lest read
denne boka. this book.the denne boka? this book.the
Immediately following the prefield in the midfield is the subfield Finite which contains the tensed main verb and the auxiliary verb. Then there is a position for the subject, if it is not placed in the prefield. The final element in the midfield is an optional adverbial. In the first position in the backfield we find the verb. Next follows the object, and finally an optional additional adverbial.
1.2 THE PREFIELD
In Norwegian almost all sentence elements can be in the prefield. Typically one will find the subject here, but adverbs also frequently occupy this position, and more rarely the object or a particle. Prefield Han He fant found han han han faktisk ballen. ball.the Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial faktisk actually faktisk Backfield Verb Object pengene Adverbial under senga.
money.the under bed.the pengene. pengene under senga. under senga.
Under senga fant Faktisk Pengene Ut out fant fant
kastet han threw he
If an element occurs in the prefield its position in the mid- or backfield remains empty. Apart from the Finite-subfield, all fields can be empty. Prefield Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Backfield Verb Object Adverbial
Vent! wait! Hun she sover. sleeps
The cleft-sentence offers the same freedom of choice with respect to what has to be said first in the sentence, with the exception of the sentence adverbial in (1d), where ‘*’ indicates ungrammaticality. Note that the subjunction is optional (indicated by the parentheses) when something other than the subject comes first. (1) a. Det var ham som faktisk fant pengene under senga. it was him that actually found monye.the under bed.the ‘It was him that actually found the money under the bed.’ b. Det var under senga (som) han faktisk fant pengene. c. Det var pengene (som) han faktisk fant under senga. d. * Det var faktisk (som) han fant pengene under senga.
1.3 THE FINITE FIELD
The verb in the finite field is always conjugated (tempus), generally by adding an ending to the stem, e.g. les-er ‘reads.’ In this way an utterance is anchored in a communicative context, i.e. before, simultaneously, or after it. Without this context it is impossible to ascertain whether an utterance is true or false. The sentence Per leser denne boka ‘Per is reading this book’ can only be true, if Per is actually reading the book at the time of speech. In contrast to English, the tensed verb is always the second element in the Norwegian main clauses. This means that only one element can precede the tensed verb in the prefield. If there is an auxiliary in the clause, this is placed in the second position of the prefield, and the main verb is placed in the backfield. Prefield Johan John har has Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial faktisk actually Backfield Verb funnet found Object pengene Adverbial under senga.
money.the under bed.the
(1) a.the away ‘John threw away the ball. Han hørte bilen. The order of the fields in the finite field is different in main clauses and in other types of sentences. If there are more pronouns or noun phrases in the sentence. the subject occurs either in the prefield or in the subject field of the midfield immediately following the finite field.’ Normally. If there is only a pronoun or a noun phrase together with the verb. Kanskje elsker Anneli . Det er vanskelig å forstå.’ The subject can also be an anticipatory element: det ‘it.12.9-1. John kastet ballen bort. the subject is the agent. 1. there’ that refers to the real subject which follows later on in the clause: (2) a. he heard car.Han fant faktisk pengene under senga.4 THE SUBJECT All simple sentences contain two main elements: a subject and a finite verb. The subject and the verb constitute the core of the sentence. John threw ball. Det var tre menn i hagen.the ‘There were three men in the garden.the ‘He heard the car. there were three men in garden. this pronoun or noun phrase is generally the subject.’ b. it is difficult to understand b. Prefield Anneli Anneli elsker loves Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Backfield Verb Object Adverbial meg. The subject is often a pronoun or noun phrase. see 1. the subject often undergoes an experience. me meg. If there is no action in the sentence.
(4) a. or deny or reveal the speaker’s attitude to what he or she is saying. Some pronouns have a separate subject case form: nominative. he has thus a chance ‘So he had a chance. Anna kan ikke bli med på festen Anna can not become with on party. (1) a. Hun elsker ham.the ‘Then the boys after all had presumably most likely not read the books. Han elsker henne.’ b. Så hadde jo formodentlig guttene nok ikke lest bøkene.’ c. highlight parts of a clause. They can combine clauses.’ . it may occur between the sentence adverbials: (3) a.the ‘Anna cannot come along to the party.’ b.the after-all presumably probably not read books. Du skal fremfor alt komme i tide.maybe loves Anneli me When the subject is either a noun phrase or a stressed pronoun.the ‘The boys had after all presumably most likely not read the books. you shall in-front-of all come in time.’ c. then had boys. he loves her b. Han har altså en sjanse.5 SENTENCE ADVERBIALS Sentential adverbials contribute something to the content of the clause. boys. Så hadde guttene jo formodentlig nok ikke lest bøkene. Så hadde jo guttene formodentlig nok ikke lest bøkene.the had after-all presumably probably not read books. Guttene hadde jo formodentlig nok ikke lest bøkene.E ‘You must above all be there in time. d. she loves him 1.
she won unfortunately Different kinds of words and phrases can function as sentential adverbials. Anna has now fortunately not bought dress.’ da ‘then. a negative clause is used.the ‘Anna has fortunately not bought the dress. and in the final position is the negation.’ Sentential adverbials most often appear in the Prefield or in the Midfield.d. but they may also occur in the Backfield. Han vil vel sannsynligvis ikke hjelpe.’ slik ‘such.’ preposition phrases: i hvert fall ‘in any case.’ .’ b.6 NEGATION When the speaker wants to deny that something is true.’ bare ‘just.’ 1. only.’ så ‘so.’ nå ‘now.’ selv ‘even.’ The most common sentence adverbs in written Norwegian are ikke ‘not.’ sammen ‘together. Anna Sannsynligvis har probably has møtt Anna. (2) a.’ knapt ‘hardly.’ or aldri ‘never.’ and subordinate clauses: så vidt jeg vet ‘as far as I know.’ participial phrases: ærlig talt ‘honestly speaking. often with negative adverbials such as ikke ‘not.’ også ‘also. Hun vant dessverre. the adverbial combining clauses comes first. For example single adverbs: kanskje ‘maybe. met Anna If there are more than one sentential adverbials in the Midfield. Next follow adverbials that express the speaker’s attitude. he will well probably not help ‘He will most likely probably not help. Prefield x Jens Jens Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Verb har sikkert møtt has surely met Jens Jens Backfield Object Adverbial Anna. Anna har nå heldigvis ikke kjøpt kjolen.’ hvor ‘where.
not under any circumstances will I accept this sentence. Anna Anna. If there is an auxiliary in the clause. and its position in the Backfield is empty. which is untensed. (1) a.If there are several sentential adverbials in the clause.E ‘After all you never arrive in time anyway. this is placed in the Midfield. the verb in Norwegian generally stands in the beginning of the verb phrase in the backfield. Han kunne sannsynligvis nok heller ikke nå det. Du kommer jo allikevel aldri i tide. it occupies the finite position in the Midfield. he could probably surely either not reach it ‘He probably couldn´t reach it either.7 THE VERB PHRASE As in English. Aldri har jeg sett noe så vakkert. you come after-all anyway never in time. Ikke et øye var tørt.’ b. stands in the verb position in the Backfield.the c. Ikke under noen omstendigheter vil jeg akseptere denne dommen. the negation always come in the final position. Anna . never have I seen anything so beautiful 1. and the main verb. Aldri ‘never’ can stand alone in the Prefield. However. if the main verb is tensed. not an eye was dry b. (2) a. Prefield Midfield x Finite Subject Adverbial Verb Jens har x møtt Jens has met Jens Jens møter meets Backfield Object Adverbial Anna.’ The negations ikke ‘not’ and knapt ‘hardly’ can only occur in the beginning of the clause if the clause modifies another phrase.
There are several groups of auxiliaries: modal auxiliaries (måtte ‘must.’ b.’ skulle ‘should.’ kunne ‘could’).’ bli ‘become’). and copula verbs (være ‘be.8 AUXILIARY VERBS Auxiliary verbs co-occur with the main verb and provide several ways of expressing time relations in the clause.’ There can be many different kinds of adverbials in the Backfield.’ b. I shall stop .’ være ‘be’). Hun har skrevet adressen opp i boka. As in English. Nå kaster hun ballen ut igjen.1 Modal auxiliaries Modal auxiliaries express the speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying. Jeg skal stoppe. * Jeg kommer ikke til København på søndag.’ c.the on table.8. he lays always two meters to ‘He always adds two meters. 1. Modals generally cooccur with the infinitive form of the main verb: (1) a. she has written address. the most important rule for the order of these is that the adverbials of place generally precedes the adverbials of time: (2) a.’ være ‘be’).the on Monday “You must lay the book on the table on Monday. passive auxiliaries (bli ‘become. you shall lay book.’ 1. Some verbs are closely connected to adverbial particles and prepositions. such as: opp ‘up’ and ut ‘out.the up in book. I come not to Copenhagen on Sunday ‘I’m not coming to Copenhagen on Sunday. tense auxiliaries (ha ‘have.the ‘She has written down the address in the book. Han legger alltid to meter til.The object always follows the verb.the out again ‘Now she throws the ball out again. now throws she ball.’ But they still always appear in the adverbial field: (1) a. Du skal legge boka på bordet på mandag. and after that comes the adverbials.
’ volition (4) . have to. want to. someone should help her b. I will ask you about a favour ‘I’m going to ask you a favour. capability (4) ‘must.’ necessity (3) ‘will. I am sure on that he can be here ‘I’m sure that he can be here.’ b. she must not go out today (iii) Capability or volition: (4) a. is said to. Anna kan svømme 1000 meter. be able to. Anna can swim 1000 meters b. may. Jeg er sikker på at han kan være her. Jeg vil ikke spise flere bananer.’ Infinitive skulle kunne måtte burde ville Present skal kan må bør vil Past skulle kunne måtte burde ville Perfect skullet kunnet måttet — villet Meaning ‘shall.’ b.’ necessity (3) ‘can.’ Modal auxiliaries can express: (i) Something the speaker thinks is possible: (2) a.’ necessity (3) ‘should. ha can be gone home but it is also possible that he is on attic. Jeg vil be deg om en tjeneste.‘I will stop. Hun må ikke gå ut i dag. will. men det er også mulig at han er på loftet.’ possibility (2). Noen bør hjelpe henne. ougth to.’ (ii) Something that the speaker thinks is necessary: (3) a.the ‘He may have gone home but it is also possible that he is in the attic. I want not eat more bananas ‘I don’t want to eat more bananas. Han kan være gått hjem.
(1) a. Norwegian like the other Germanic languages has auxiliaries that express time and the passive. .’ b. he is already arrived ‘He has already arrived. Time is expressed by the auxiliaries ha ‘have’ and være ‘be’ which denote that something is completed. it will be a big problem for us in future. Han er allerede ankommet.’ d. and ville ‘would’ and skulle ‘should’ which denote that something will happen in the future.the ‘It will be a big problem for us in the future.’ A verb in simple present tense may also express future: (2) Jeg reiser til Paris i morgen.8.’ followed by the past participle form of the main verb.’ 1. it ought can let itself do ‘It should be possible. he must can run faster ‘He must be able to run faster. I shall travel to Paris tomorrow ‘I’m going to Paris tomorrow. I travel to Paris tomorrow ‘I’m going to Paris tomorrow. Det burde kunne la seg gjøre. Several modal auxiliaries can co-occur: (5) a.The modal auxiliaries are generally positioned initially in the verb phrase.’ c. Han har kjøpt en ny bil. Det vil være et stort problem for oss i fremtiden. Han må kunne løpe fortere.2 Other auxiliaries In addition to the modal auxiliaries. he has bought a new car b.’ Passive is expressed by the auxiliaries bli ‘become’ and være ‘be. Jeg skal reise til Paris i morgen.
he can be become sent home by boss. he became driven over by a car yesterday ‘He was hit by a car yesterday.’ b.future Tense — passive As in the other Germanic languages. Han ble kjørt over av en bil i går. which has a tensed verb and functions as an assertion or a question: (1) a. passive Tense — active Tense — active .the his ‘He may have been sent home by his boss. Var du i York i forrige uke? .the yet ‘He has not read the book yet.’ b. different auxiliaries can be combined to express different aspects of the action’s process: (4) a.’ 1. he has not read book.(3) a. Forrige uke var jeg i York. Han har ikke lest boka ennå. she ought have could foresee problem.’ c. he is tormented by mosquitoes Infinitive være ha ville bli Present er har vil blir Past var hadde ville ble Perfect vært hatt villet blitt Meaning Tense — active. last week was I in York ‘Last week I was in York. Hun burde ha kunnet forutse problemet.the ‘She should have been able to foresee the problem.’ b. Han er plaget av mygg. There are three types of main clauses: 1. The proper main clause. Han kan være blitt sendt hjem av sjefen sin.9 THE MAIN CLAUSE The main clause is the most basic kind of utterance.
1 Declarative main clauses There are two types of declarative main clauses: positive (affirmative) and negative. he has bought book.’ b.the ‘He has bought the book. Har han ikke lest boka ennå? has he not read book. which has an imperative verb and functions as a demand: (2) a. Vær så snill! be so kind ‘Please!’ 3. Han har kjøpt boka. Åpn vinduet! open window. Positive: (1) a. Han hjelper sin kone. and expresses a surprise or astonishment: (3) a.were you in York in last week ‘Were you in York last week?’ d. which typically has the form of an embedded clause. For en flott kjole! for a nice dress ‘What a nice dress!’ b. The imperative main clause. he helps his wife Negative: .the yet ‘Hasn’t he read the book yet?’ 2.the ‘Open the window!’ b. Din store idiot! your big idiot ‘You big idiot!’ 1. The exclamative main clause.9.
1.’ b.9.the ‘He has not bought the book. and 1. he has not bought book. he closest threw himself out from balcony. pengene under senga.the under bed. which is then no longer the second element in the clause: (1) a. Han har ikke kjøpt boka. If any other element than the subject precedes the verb.’ b. Only a few adverbs may occur in front of the finite verb in addition to the subject. he just walked his way ‘He just walked away.the pengene. under senga. money. Under senga fant Faktisk Pengene fant fant .(2) a. Han nærmest kastet seg ut fra balkongen.’ 1. Han bare gikk sin vei.1 Affirmative main clauses As described in section 1. affirmative main clauses have the tensed verb in the Finite field as the second element of the clause.’ In declarative main clauses almost any element can occur in front of the tensed verb in the Finite field: Prefield x Han he fant found han han han faktisk Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Verb faktisk actually faktisk Backfield Object pengene Adverbial under senga.the ‘He almost threw himself out from the balcony. the subject generally follows immediately after the verb.This verb can only be preceded by one word or one phrase. he helps never his wife ‘He never helps his wife. Han hjelper aldri sin kone..1.3.
But this is only possible if the verb position in the Backfield is empty.the In most cases we find the subject in the prefield (in 6070% of the cases). Prefield Midfield Light pronoun x Han he Han he Han Han he Han he Finite hjelper helps hjelper helps hjelper har has har has henne her Subject field aldri never aldri.’ If the subject is the same in both clauses. Han så henne og han hjalp henne.’ deg ‘you.Ut out kastet han threw he ballen. If these light pronouns occur in their regular object position.’ henne ‘her.’ and den ‘it’ can be placed in front of the adverbial in the Midfield. he saw her and he helped her . helped her sin kone. his wife Adverbial Verb Object Adverbial Backfield Main clauses can be combined with conjunctions such as e.’ seg ‘himself/herselft/itself. generally personal pronouns such as meg ‘me. they get specific emphatic stress. Light pronominal objects. helped his wife hjulpet henne. even though they should be placed in the object position in the Backfield. ball.’ ham ‘him.g. hjulpet sin kone. Even less common is a predicative complement or a particle in this position. og ‘and’ and men ‘but. it may be deleted in the second clause: (2) a. never aldri aldri never aldri never henne. It is a little less common to find an adverbial in here (2030% of the cases) or the object (510% of the cases).
9. (2) Hvem banker på døra? Anne / Espen / .the Adverbial .’ 1. Norwegian has two types of questions: 1.1. They must always cooccur with the negation or in an interrogative clause: (1) Han har aldri noensinne sett henne. he has never ever seen her he has ever seen her 1. The word order is the same as for main clauses. / Nei. only without the prefield: Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Fant han found he Verb Backfield Object pengene? money.1 Yes/no-questions Direct questions that can be answered by yes or no are always introduced by a finite verb.. — * Han har noensinne sett henne..2 Negative main clauses Negative main clauses have the same word order as affirmative (positive) main clauses..2 Direct questions Like English. Words expressing something absolutive.’ hva ‘what.. he saw her and helped her 1.2.. is Peter here yes no 2.9.the Anne Espen .’ hvordan ‘how.. Yes/noquestions: (1) Er Peter her? Ja. Han så henne og ____ hjalp henne. who knocks on door.’ etc.’ når ‘when. such as noensinne ‘ever’ normally cannot occur in positive clauses.9. ‘Who is knocking on the door?’ ‘Anne/Espen/. Questions that are introduces by a wh-word such as hvem ‘who. The negation ikke ‘not’ is positioned in the adverbial field in the Midfield and is generally the last of the adverbials in this position.b.’ hvor ‘where.
’ hva ‘what. (1) a.the til deg? to you ennå? yet When several yes/noquestions are coordinated by the conjunction eller ‘or. If the second clause is a negation of the first one the negation ei ‘not’ is used: (1) Er han glad eller ei? (= Er han glad eller er han ikke glad?) is he happy or not is he happy or is he not happy 2.’ etc. Hvilken bok har du kjøpt? which book have you bought c. The word order is the same as for topicalised main clauses.2. Hva har du kjøpt? what have you bought ‘What did you buy?’ b.’ etc.’ hvor ‘where.) or a phrase that contains a wh word (hvilke bøker ‘which books. If only one constituent distinguishes the second clause from the first one.9.3 Imperatives .’ når ‘when. Hva for ei bok har du kjøpt? what for a book have you bought ‘What kind of book did you buy?’ 1.Skal shall Er is jeg I hun she kanskje maybe ikke not hente fetch kommet come boka book. There are two typical cases: 1.’ one can often leave something out in the second question.).’ hva for ei bok ‘which book.9. and the rest of the sentence can be reconstructed from the first sentence: (2) Skal jeg gjøre det eller Stina? (=Skal jeg gjøre det eller skal Stina gjøre det?) shall I do it or Stina (= ‘Should I do it or should Stina do it?’) 1.’ hvordan ‘how.1 Wh-questions Norwegian direct whquestions are always introduced by a whword (hvem ‘who.
Object he knew not who she had invited ‘He didn’t know who she had invited. Adverbial he came forward when she already had left ‘He arrived when she had already left. Verbs ending in a consonant form the imperative by deleting the ending -e from the infinitive. Han visste ikke [ hvem hun hadde bedt]. Ikke vær så dum! not be so stupid ‘Don’t be so stupid!’ The clause starts with the verb in its basic form. Åpn døra! open door. Verbs ending in a vowel have the same form in infinitive and imperative. (1) a.g. if the imperative is negated. The rest of the clause has the same word order as main clauses. adverbial.An imperative main clause generally expresses a demand or an order. e. [ At han var syk ] var åpenbart.the my is that we meet her on station.’ (1) b. the negation is generally in the initial position.’ spis-e ‘eat.’ 1.g. However.10 THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE The subordinate clause is a part of a main clause. It can have the function of subject.’ (1) d. and it can also be the modifier of a noun. predicative. (1) a. as in English. Jeg kjøpte et hus [ som var rødt ]. Han kom fram [ da hun allerede hadde dratt ].’ stå ‘stand. e. Predicative plan. Modifier of noun I bought a house that was red . Subject that he was ill was obvious ‘That he was ill was obvious. The subject or the receiver of the order is normally left out.’ (1) c.the ‘My plan is that we meet her at the station. kjøp-e ‘kjøpe. Planen min er [ at vi møter henne på stasjonen ].’ etc.’ sov-e ‘sleep. object.’ se ‘see. gå ‘go.’ (1) e.the ‘Open the door!’ b.
Eva hasn’t read yet. The first position is often empty.the my boka mi book. Subordinate clause: Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Verb har ikke lest has not read har lest has read lest read har lest has read lest read har lest has read Backfield Object Adverbial boka mi ennå. The second position (where the finite verb is found in main clauses) is the place for the introducing element. Subordinate clause: (book-the which Eva not my) ‘(my book) which Eva hasn’t read yet’ Note that the subject is always in the position after the introducing element. book.’ (boka mi) som Eva ikke c. and the finite verb as well as other verbs are positioned in the Verb field. .the yet my boka mi book. Main clause: Eva Eva ikke not ‘that Eva hasn’t read my book yet’ Har Eva ikke has Eva not ‘Hasn’t Eva read my book yet?’ b.’ at that b.the my has Eva not ‘My book. Subordinate clause: om if c. Main clause: Prefield Eva Eva a. Main clause: Eva Eva ikke not ennå yet ennå.’ Norwegian subordinate clauses normally have an introducing element (often a subjunction) and a special word order (unlike English).‘I bought a house that was red. yet ennå yet ‘if Eva hasn’t read my book yet’ Boka mi har Eva ikke book.the my boka mi book. Note also that the finite verb is placed after negation (and other sentence adverbials). Compare the word order in main clauses to that of subordinate clauses. (2) a.the my ennå yet ennå? yet ‘Eva hasn’t read my book yet.
’ The word order in at-clauses is normally the same as in other subordinate clauses. (1) Jeg tror [ (at) hun kan det].1. where.’ (2) b. hvor.10. hva.1.10. Prepositional complement I counted on that she should come on party. when. Subject that Karl came on party.1 Nominal clauses Nominal clauses have the same functions as noun phrases.the was nice ‘It was nice that Karl came to the party.2 Indirect wh-questions Indirect wh-questions correspond to ordinary main clause questions. Han meddelte at hun ikke kan komme. (1) a.the ‘I wonder who came to the party. Han visste ikke [ hva han skulle gjøre]. cf. why (in Norwegian hvem. [ At Karl kom på festen] var hyggelig. Nominal clauses are primarily at-clauses and interrogative clauses.10.1.’ 1.the ‘I counted on that she would come to the party. or complements of prepositions. I think (that) she knows it ‘I think (that) she knows it.’ 1.’ (1) c. he announced that she not can come ‘He announced that she can’t come. but it may sometimes also show the same order as in main clauses. Like noun phrases they occur primarily as subjects. hvorfor). how. what. når. where you ask for something with words like who. hvordan.1 At-clauses In at-clauses the introducing element is sometimes missing. (1) a. Jeg stolte på [ at hun skulle komme på festen]. Object I wonder on who that came on party. Hun meddelte at hun kan ikke komme.’ (1) b. Jeg lurer på [ hvem som kom på festen]. objects. she announced that she can not come ‘She announced that she can’t come. main Hva skulle han gjøre? . (2) a.
1. we talked with him that police.the that stands there away belongs-to bishop.’ (1) c. man.’ have you showered ‘Have you taken a shower?’ 1.the who stands there is my brother ‘The man standing over there is my brother. som ‘that’ is obligatorily inserted after the question word. (2) Jeg lurer på hvem som har stjålet sykkelen min.10.3 Indirect Yes/no-questions Indirect yes/no-questions correspond to ordinary main clause yes/no-questions. (like hvilket ‘which’ and hvis ‘whose’) also occur. Huset [ som står der borte ] tilhører biskopen.’ or sometimes hvorvidt ‘whether’ or i tilfelle ‘in case.the chased .the my ‘I wonder who stole my bike.2 Relative clauses Relative clauses are typically found inside noun phrases.’ 1.clause: he knew not what he should do ‘He didn’t know what to do.’ (1) b. In Norwegian they are normally introduced by som ‘that.’ but in formal written language a wh-phrase. (1) a. cf.’ what should he do ‘What should he do?’ (1) b. cf. main clause: Når er du født? I wonder on when you are born When are you born ‘I wonder when you were born. a proper name. Jeg lurer på [ når du er født].the ‘The house over there belongs to the bishop. Mannen [ som står der ] er min bror. following a noun. or a pronoun.’ ‘When were you born?’ If the questioned element is the subject. I wonder on who that has stolen bike. The introducing element is om ‘if.’ (1) Jeg lurer I på [ om du har dusjet]. house. main clause: Har du dusjet? wonder on whether you have showered ‘I wonder whether you have taken a shower. Vi snakket med ham som politiet jagde.10.
’ ettersom ‘because. sommeren [ da allting hendte] summer. he plays piano in morning.the which irritates me ‘He plays the piano in the morning.’ Compare § 3. cause.’ (3) b. .’ som ‘as. noe som gjør meg misunnelig. They function as adverbials. (3) a. and they are introduced by adverbs or subjunctions like når/da ‘when. har du kirken til høyre. intention. then. since. condition. Han spiller piano om morgenen.’ Relative clauses can also be used to modify the whole clause (instead of a noun phrase). which irritates me.’ fordi ‘because.’ for å ‘in order to. location.the when everything happened ‘the summer that everything happened’ (2) b. it was that idea that Eva came on ‘That was the idea that Eva came up with. hvilket irriterer meg.’ If the noun expresses time or location.7. neighbour.’ (2) a. der ‘where. huset [ der / hvor jeg bor] house.’ 1. (1) a. the relative clause may also be introduced with når.’ hvis ‘if. [ Når du kommer fram]. and that makes me envious. Det var den idéen [ som Eva kom på]. it was Eva who first came on idea.the there / where I live ‘the house where I live’ Relative clauses with som are also found in the so-called cleft construction.the has got new car something which makes me envious ‘My neighbour has got a new car. there. as well as noe som ‘something which.the ‘It was Eva who first came up with the idea.’ der ‘there.‘We talked to the guy that the police chased.’ hvor.3 Adverbial subordinate clauses Adverbial subordinate clauses express time.’ enn ‘than.’ (4) b. and other similar relations. Det var Eva [ som først kom på idéen]. In such cases the relative pronoun hvilket ‘which’ can be used. Naboen har fått ny bil.10.’ dit ‘there-to.’ (4) a. comparison. da ‘when.
h yo bough m yo it pay it ave u t ust u ‘If you have bought it. you must pay for it. (2) Har du kjøpt de betal d må du n e en. we became tired as it was very hot ‘We got tired as it was very hot. Hvis du vil. [ Hvis du vil]. if you want so can you bathe ‘If you want to.’ (1) e. you must pay for it. så kan du bade. Han er eldre [ enn jeg er].’ Conditional clauses are normally introduced by the subjunction hvis ‘if.when you come forward have you church.’ (3) b.’ Adverbial clauses that are placed in the first position of their main clause. he is older than I am ‘He is older than I am. The use of så contrasts with English. you can help her. Vi ble slitne [ ettersom det var veldig varmt].’ (1) d.’ (1) c. if you want can you help her ‘If you want to.the to right ‘When you get there. when you arrive so can we begin eat ‘When you arrive.’ 1. Når dere kommer. you have the church to your right. you may bathe.11 NON-FINITE CLAUSES .’ but they may also lack it.’ = H de betal d du har kjøpt må du vis n e en. are often followed by the word så ‘so’ in front of the finite verb. yo h bough m yo if it pay it u ave t ust u ‘If you have bought it. kan du hjelpe henne. In such cases they are formed like questions. så kan vi begynne spise. he is as old as I am ‘He is as old as I am. Han er like gammel [ som jeg er]. we can begin eating. (3) a.’ (1) b.
[ Å bli ranet] er en fæl opplevelse. (2) a.’ The infinitival marker å is always missing in the so-called ‘object with infinitive’ construction. Such clauses are normally introduced by the infinitival marker å ‘to.1 Infinitival clauses In infinitival clauses the verb is in the infinitive form. The verb is either an infinitive or a participle. they longed after to travel to coast.’ (1) a. it is nice to play bridge ‘It is nice to play bridge. (3) Vi hørte jentene [ synge bak låven]. en [ dårlig skrevet ] artikkel a badly written article ‘a badly written article’ 1. [ (Å) ] studere latin har jeg alltid drømt om.’ (1) b. (1) a. you need not to read book. Du trenger ikke (å) lese boka.Non-finite clauses are clauses without a finite verb. but are otherwise very similar to subordinate clauses introduced by at ‘that.the ‘They longed for travelling to the coast.’ (1) c.11. Det er hyggelig [ å spille bridge]. for instance in the beginning of a clause and after negation.’ The infinitival marker is sometimes missing.the ‘You don’t have to read the book. De lengtet etter [ å reise til kysten]. to study Latin have I always dreamt about ‘I have always dreamt of studying Latin. Vi begynte [ å forstå hans problem ]. . to get mugged is a terrible experience ‘To be mugged is a terrible experience. we began to understand his problem ‘We began to understand his problem.’ (2) b.’ (1) b.’ They never contain a subject.
an adverbial or an object is placed in the first position.11. It does however not apply to wh-elements of any kind.the has she not read ‘This book she hasn’t read. Bak bilen fant jeg en bøtte. en [ for meg svært opprivende ] hendelse a for me very agonizing event ‘an event that was very agonizing for me’ 1. behind car.2 Participial clauses In participial clauses the verb is either a present or a past participle. Glad ble hun ikke. They may contain adverbials. I morgen skal vi gå på kino.’ (1) b. Normally.’ (1) d. (1) a. happy became she not ‘She did not get happy’. Denne boka har hun ikke lest. (1) a. These clauses are normally used attributively (in front of a noun).1 Topicalisation Topicalisation is the traditional term for constructions where subjects occur in the first position of the clause.’ 1.the found I a bucket ‘Behind the car I found a bucket.the ‘We heard the girls singing behind the barn. in morning shall we go on cinema ‘Tomorrow we will go to the cinema.’ (1) c.12. this book.we heard girls. . en [ dårlig skrevet ] artikkel a badly written article ‘a badly written article’ (1) b. and also other elements that are not allowed in English.12 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS Keine Daten gefunden! 1.the sing behind barn.
’ The word det ‘it’ behaves as an ordinary subject. but the element that is the subject in the active voice is suppressed in the passive voice. One reason for topicalising an element is that this element is already known by the hearer and the speaker.the ‘The man opened the window.the had it occurred a fight ‘Between the brothers there had occurred a fight. Det hadde oppstått en krangel mellom brødrene. Another reason is to emphasize the element. it may have been a fly in soup. between brothers. I suppa kan det ha vært ei flue. (1) a.’ 1. At vi kommer vet Karl allerede. Active: Mannen åpnet vinduet. It may be missing or it may be expressed in an av-phrase (a by-phrase). in soup.’ (1) b. (1) a. that we come knows Karl already ‘Karl already knows that we are coming.’ .’ Note that the subject occurs directly after the verb when something is topicalised.the ‘There occurred a fight between the brothers.the ‘There may have been a fly in the soup. Mellom brødrene hadde det oppstått en krangel.the opened window. it had occurred a fight between brothers.’ (2) b. Both voices express the same event. ‘there’ is placed in the subject position or in the first position.2 Existential sentences If the subject contains new information it may immediately follow the non-finite verb and the word det. (2) a. Det kan ha vært ei flue i suppa. man.3 Passives A sentence may often have both an active and a passive voice.the may it have been a fly ‘In the soup.(1) e. For instance it is placed directly after the verb if something is topicalised.12.12. there may have been a fly. 1.
PASS for to sell.’ There are three sorts of passives in Norwegian.the became opened by man. Either one of the auxiliaries bli ‘become’ or være ‘be’ is used. Passive: Vinduet ble åpnet ( av mannen ). Bøkene selges på auksjon. Bøkene blir solgt på auksjon.the sell.(1) b.the become sold on auction ‘The books are sold on aution. or the verb takes on the s-ending.’ which has a wide range of uses. and can be used freely in all tenses.the are sold on auction ‘The books have been sold on aution. Bøkene ble solgt på auksjon.the ‘The window was opened by the man.the send.’ (4) b. Bøkene har blitt solgt på auksjon.the became sold on auction ‘The books were sold on aution.’ 1. Consider the following example. The most common passive is the one with the auxiliary bli ‘become. books. Bøkene sendes for å selges på auksjon.PASS on auction ‘The books are sent to be sold on auction. The meaning of the værepassive often depends on the meaning of the main verb.12.’ The s-passive is normally only used in the infinitive or the present tense.4 Middles . books. books. books.PASS on auction ‘The books are sold on auction. (4) a.’ Passives with the auxiliary være ‘be’ are less common. books.’ (2) b. window. books. where the meaning corresponds to that of the example in the perfect above: (3) Bøkene er solgt på auksjon. (2) a.the have become sold on auction ‘The books are being sold on aution.’ (2) c.
this book. Jeg tok den ikke opp.’ 1. which moves unstressed object pronouns to a position in front of the negation (or other sentence adverbials).6 Weak pronouns.’ This movement is only found if there is nothing (or only a verb particle) in between the negation (sentence adverbial) and the object. (1) a.12. Preposition intervenes: no object shift . which is typical of German and Dutch. Verb intervenes: no object shift I have not seen him ‘I haven’t see him. Ordinary object: no object shift I saw not Karl ‘I didn’t see Karl. and object shift Norwegian possesses a specific construction named object shift. Denne boka går det ( lett ) å lese. this book.’ (2) b. Jeg har ikke sett ham. a preposition or the like in between.12. 1. lacks the kind of free word order often called scrambling.’ (1) b. Jeg så ham ikke. Sentences like This book reads easily are translated with an adjectival construction: (1) a. Particle does not intervene: object shift I took it not up ‘I didn’t take it up. Jeg så ikke Karl.’ (1) b. Denne boka er lett å lese. clitics.Norwegian does not have middles of the sort found in English.the goes it ( easy ) to read ‘This book reads easily. but only with pronouns.5 Free word order (Scrambling) Norwegian. (2) a. the object stays in its normal position.the is easy to read ‘This book reads easily. just like English.’ (2) c. Jeg så ikke på henne. If there is a verb. This is not possible with ordinary noun phrases. Pronominal object: object shift occurs I saw him not ‘I didn’t see him.
an adjective. a noun phrase (John.’ 2 THE PHRASES Words belonging to different word classes function syntactically as heads in phrases. Ole er sjelden glad.store. or a preposition) which alone or together with optional modifiers constitute a verb phrase (run. an adverb phrase (always. following the sentential adverbials. 2.the in morning ‘I must buy a coat at the department store tomorrow. The overall structure of phrases is the same in Norwegian and in English. This phrase constitutes the last part of the sentence. or a prepositional phrase (at my door. b. wash the car). Mary's sister from Utah.’ (2) b. Jeg går og Lise sykler.1 THE VERB PHRASE The verb phrase has a verb as its head: He bought a book yesterday. men Kari ler av alt. like his father).’ . an adjective phrase (red. The modifying phrases may occur before and/or after the head word.’ eller ‘or. almost never). (1) a. In German and Dutch verb phrases the verb is in the final position (a). peace in our time).’ 1. an adverb. a noun. In many respects.I saw not on her ‘I didn’t look at her. Ole is seldom happy but Kari laughs of everything ‘Ole is seldom happy but Kari laughs at everything. Jeg må kjøpe ei kåpe på kjøpesenteret i morgen. the phrases in the Germanic languages have very similar properties. with Mary). Ich muss morgens im Warenhaus einen Mantel gekaufen. depending on language and phrasal type. A phrase consists of a head (a verb.13 COORDINATION AT THE CLAUSE LEVEL Norwegian uses og ‘and.’ and men ‘but’ in the same way as English to coordinate main clauses. I must buy a coat on department. I walk and Lise bikes ‘I’m walking and Lise is running a bike. whereas the verb phrase in Norwegian (b) and the other Germanic languages is verb initial: (1) a.
obj. now went he on train. Postponed phrases på fødselsdagen at birthday. The object predicative complement and the infinitive of the object with infinitive constructions share a position. ham him huset house.the Verb bør gi should give male paint se Ind. preceding a position where we find the subject predicative complement. Nå gikk han på toget.1 The order of elements in the verb phrase The order of elements in the Norwegian verb phrase is given in the scheme below. however. In Norwegian. the tensed verb (auxiliary or main verb) appears in the finite (second) position (§ 1. Obj Direct obj. followed by a field for bound content adverbials (Han bor i Lund ‘he lives in Lund’) and prepositional objects (Han ser på henne ‘he is looking at her’). This means that the tensed verb precedes sentence adverbials and negation. Nå har han nok gått på toget. Prep. the tensed verb (auxiliary or main verb) always appears in the finite (second) position in main clauses. Finally there is a field for free content adverbials and postponed phrases.’ d. 2. predicative.’ Norwegian differs from English in being a verb-second language.the ‘He has probably got on the train now. see the last example below for a case with both an indirect object and an associate subject. Examples (c-d) also illustrate the fact that the tensed verb precedes the subject (han) in topicalised sentences. this follows next.In main clauses.3) rather than in the verb phrase in all the Germanic languages (except English) (c-d): c. If there is an indirect object. now has he probably gone on train. the direct object or the associate subject.the ‘He got on the train now.1. Infinitive Subj predicative clause ei bok a book Bound adverbials. objects Free adverbials.the ham rødt red komme . Associate subj.
the snarest immediately av kongen by king.the hodet head. objects phrases med kniv with knife med kniv with knife framfor meg in-front-of me framfor meg in-front-of me snarest immediately ta take boka book.the ei katt a cat ei katt a cat fra ham boka from him book.see gå go him come til byen to town.the overrekkes henne nobelprisen is. Direct object. one immediately before the verb and one immediately after.the på bordet on table.1.given her Nobel Prize. Verb Particle subject.4) allow two different locations.the Free Bound adverbials. Obj Associate predicative.the Particles (see §2. adverbials. Postponed Prep.the fra ham from him snarest immediately .the opp up av off på bordet on table. Particle Infinitive Subj clause predicative hogge av cut hogge cut hoppe opp jump up hoppe jump ta take off hodet head.
In Norwegian.4.1.’ b. he was ill yesterday b. være is used as the copula.12. have is generally used to express the perfect tense and the pluperfect tense with all kinds of verbs (a-b). Leiv Eriksson is gone to America ‘Leiv Eriksson has gone to America. be may be used with intransitive verbs indicating a change of state (c): (1) a. bli ‘become’ is more common as a passive auxiliary. but in some dialects. it agrees with the subject in gender and number: (2) a.’ However.the ‘The Jomsvikings were captured by the Norwegians.the two times ‘Marie Curie has received the Nobel Prize twice.2 Be and Have All the Germanic languages make extensive use of verbs corresponding closely to the English be (Norwegian være) and have (Norwegian ha).2. Han var syk igår.’ c. Han er syk). Jomsvikingene var tatt til fange av nordmennene. Leiv Eriksson has gone to America ‘Leiv Eriksson has gone to America. De var syke igår. Leiv Eriksson er dratt til Amerika.the were taken to capture by Norwegians. In addition. Leiv Eriksson har dratt til Amerika. He has read the book. Marie Curie har fått nobelprisen to ganger. when the predicative is an adjective or a past participle. ‘be’ is also used as a copula (He is sick. Jomsvikings. see § 1.’ Be may also be used with a past participle as a passive auxiliary when the passive expresses the result of an action or a completed transition (d) d. Marie Curie has received Nobel prize. As auxiliaries. As a main verb. Compare English The book is on the table with Norwegian Boka er på bordet. they were ill yesterday . be and have are used to express voice. He is reading the book). tense. and aspect (He was killed.
’ innfinne seg ‘appear’). the reflexive behaves like a pronoun. 2. In this case. and often correspond to one verb in English: consider the Norwegian Jeg vegrer meg for å hjelpe ham.1.’ b. he turned page. all the Germanic languages (except English) have reflexive verbs.Whereas Norwegian sometimes allows the used of the auxiliary be in forming the perfect tense and the pluperfect tense with intransitive verbs (as in (c) above). kaste opp (maten) throw up (food.1.4 Verb particles Norwegian particle constructions correspond closely in almost all ways to English ones.4. Some verbs are only used together with a reflexive (oppføre seg ‘behave. as in He killed himself. which corresponds to the English I refuse to help him without a reflexive. the intransitive verb + reflexive combination in Norwegian generally corresponds to one verb in English. irrespectively of whether the verb is transitive or intransitive.’ As English does not have reflexive verbs. but with a different meaning (a -b): (1) a. the reflexive pronoun may be replaced by another pronoun or a full noun phrase.the ‘He turned the page.1. This is illustrated in (a-c): (1) a. where meg is the reflexive. Han vendte seg til henne.3 Reflexive verbs A reflexive pronoun may be the object of a transitive verb.): Han slet seg ut ‘he wore himself out. Thus it must precede a particle or particles (see § 2. gi opp (kampen) . English always uses the auxiliary have . others are either intransitive or reflexive (angre (seg) ‘regret’). 2. a combination of an intransitive verb + a reflexive. However. Han vendte bladet. he turned REFL to her ‘He turned towards her. They have a meaning of their own.the) ‘throw up the food’ b.’ With respect to word order. A third group of reflexive verbs can occur with an ordinary object instead of the reflexive.
kaste opp maten e. If there is a nominal object. Søknaden gikk igjennom. the particle must come beforethe object (f-g): d.’ Often the combination verb + particle corresponds to a prefixed verb with the same (j-k) or a related (l-m) meaning: j. k. However.the ‘He underlined the word. he lined under word.the had-to lay down down-lay company. kaste den opp throw up it up ‘throw it up’ However. Han streket under ordet. *kaste opp den g. application. the particle may either come before or after it (d-e). the position of the particle within the verb phrase depends on the form of the object. there are many constructions whose meanings are not matched in English and which must be learned like words: h. dele ut nobelprisen share out Nobel Prize. Sjefen måtte nedlegge bedriften boss. if the object is a pronoun.give up (fight.’ .’ l. kle på seg (ei kåpe) dress on REFL (a coat) ‘put on a coat’ Just as in English. Sjefen måtte legge ned bedriften. kaste maten opp throw up food.the) ‘capitulate’ c.the ‘award the Nobel Prize’ i.the went through ‘The application got through.the ‘The boss had to shut down the company.the up ‘throw up the food’ f.
Children like to hear fairy tales.’ d. the object either follows the main verb. Some verbs take two objects.’ e. The vikings were Scandinavian seafarers. the first object (her) expresses the one who gets what is expressed by the second object (the prize). he underlined word. In this case. Han holdt ikke kniven i hånda. However. he held it not in hand. the object is an obligatory nominal or sentential complement of certain verbs.m. nominal objects follow sentence adverbials. Han holdt den ikke i hånda. gods.1. all kinds of objects come before content adverbials such as adverbials of time. In Norwegian.the sacrificed vikings. an infinitival clause. Klostrene brygget øl i middelalderen. . one indirect and one direct object: The king gave her the prize.’ In main clauses.the’s meaning ‘He emphasized the meaning of the word.the to at blot ‘The vikings made offerings to the gods at the blot. It may be a noun phrase.’ With respect to the position of the particle in relation to nominal and pronominal objects.the brewed beer in Middle Ages. The Jomsvikings said that they were content to die. Han understreket ordets betydning. Gudene ofret vikingene til ved blot. monasteries. whereas pronominal objects come before such adverbials (d). Many nations feared them. a pronoun.the ‘He didn't hold the knife in his hand. and manner (e): c. including negation (c). English and Norwegian are the same.5 The object In Norwegian as in English. or it appears in the first position (a-b): (1) a.the in hand. Vikingene ofret gaver til gudene hvert år.the ‘He didn't hold it in his hand. 2.the ‘The monasteries brewed beer in the Middle Ages.’ b. he held not knife. place. or an embedded clause.
a prepositional phrase (c). are much more common in Norwegian than in English. Topicalised constructions with non-subjeccts in the initial position (such as (b)). Alfred Nobel var kjemiker.’ For den ‘it’ there is only one form.6 Predicative complements A predicative complement often expresse a quality or attribute of the subject or the object.the sacrificed gifts to gods.’ hun ‘she.the will raise ‘One result is that the prices will raise. Marie Curie is very famous ‘Marie Curie is very famous. in speech most people would use han). it agrees with the word it is a complement to (subject or object) in number and gender (ef): . or a subordinate clause (d): (1) a. 2. De valgte Bush til president.vikings.’ d. The corresponding subject forms are han ‘he. it appears in the first position (f): f. Ett resultat er at prisene vil stige. Marie Curie er svært berømt.1. cf. ham ‘him.the every year ‘The vikings sacrificed gifts to the gods every year. one result is that prices. they elected Bush to president ‘They elected Bush as president. It may be a noun phrase (a). Alfred Nobel was chemist ‘Alfred Nobel was a chemist.’ When the object is questioned.’ henne ‘her’ (ham is mostly used in writing.’ c. an adjective phrase (b).the about to die ‘What did the Jomsvikings think about dying?’ Object pronouns bear the specific ‘oblique’ case in Norwegian. or it tells us the identity of the subject or the object. Hva syntes jomsvikingene om å dø? what thought Jomsvikings.’ When the predicative complement is an adjective (or a past participle).’ b.
‘The Jomsvikings were fearless. but precedes content adverbials (g).7 Content adverbials In general. condition. Jomsvikings.the was scary-sg. Han hadde vært syk igår. he drives always carefully ‘He always drives carefully.’ . Den ser fin ut. or another adverbial (c): (1) a. there is no visible agreement in number and gender between the predicative complement and the subject or the object. the predicative comes between the verb and the particle (h): g.’ h. place.’ f. They may modify the verb (a). Han kjører alltid forsiktig. he had been ill yesterday ‘He had been ill yesterday.the were fearless-pl. 2.’ c.e. Han røyker ganske mye.1. Eventyret var nifst. Jomsvikingene var fryktløse.’ b. etc. time. When combined with particle verbs.’ English and Norwegian are very similar at this point. it looks nice PART ‘It looks nice. she is very fat ‘She is very fat.neut. Hun er svært tjukk. However. ‘The fairy tale was scary. an adjective (b). Content adverbials modify the event expressed in the sentence with respect to manner. Norwegian is like English with respect to its use of adverbials in the sentence.’ The predicative complement of the subject follows all verbs. fairy tale. in English. he smokes quite a lot ‘He smokes quite a lot.
whereas free adverbials that refer to time. and free content adverbials (e).Norwegian has two types of content adverbials. I want talk with you about this tomorrow ‘I want to talk to you about this tomorrow. their order depends on the function of the adverbial in the communicative structure of the clause. free content adverbials may appear to the left of the main verb in Norwegian: f. he missed her already ‘He missed her already. in contrast to English. he had been here then ‘He had been here then. it is placed after other adverbials (g). Jeg vil snakke med deg om dette imorgen.the without that boss. location. they had looked angrily at him ‘They had looked angrily at him. and imorgen is a free content adverbial: d.’ 2. duration. Jon worked at night. In sentences that include both. depending on how closely bound the adverbial is to the verb: bound content adverbials (d). as illustrated in (d). he has in some situations not spoken truly ‘He has in some situations not told the truth.2 THE NOUN PHRASE .’ e. Han savnet henne allerede. the bound content adverbial precedes the free content adverbial. Han hadde vært her da. and iteration often come before bound adverbials (i): g. Han har i noen situasjoner ikke snakket sant.’ h. In addition. or cause usually are found after the bound adverbials.the knew about it ‘Jon worked in the evening without his boss knowing it. where the underlined elements are bound content adverbials. Jon arbeidet på kvelden uten at sjefen viste om det.’ When there are several free content adverbials in the verb phrase. Finally. De hadde sett surt på ham.’ i. adverbials denoting time or cause usually follow other free adverbials (h).’ However. free adverbials denoting manner. When the adverbial is a subordinate clause.
they lived on 800 900 and beginning. the phrase may include other elements.’ d.900. It may also function as a possessor: (1) a. Torkjel kills man. Object: Torkjel dreper mannen. and prepositional phrases: the young man from Paris.900.’ f.’ c. The noun phrase prototypically functions as the subject or the object of the clause.the with hand. 9th.the ‘He couldn’t manage to lift the knife with his hand.’ .the ‘They lived in the 8th. Object of preposition: Han klarte ikke å løfte kniven med hånda. Subject: Vikingene levde på 800. such as determiners. adjectives.the ‘The vikings lived in the 8th. 9th. Object: Torkjel dreper ham.the of 1000 century.the of 1000 century. he managed not to lift knife. Torkjel kills him ‘Thorkell kills him. a possessor.og begynnelsen av 1000-tallet. and the beginning of the the 10th century. Subject: De levde på 800. or as the object of a preposition.og begynnelsen av 1000-tallet. its form varies according to whether it is the subject. Possessor: mannens oppfinnelse man. or has some other function: e. and the beginning of the the 10th century. In addition.the lived on 800 900 and beginning.’ b.the’s discovery ‘the man’s discovery’ Note that when a pronoun is the head of a noun phrase.the ‘Thorkell kills the man.The noun phrase has a noun or a pronoun as its head: the man. vikings.
but there is one striking difference.the about Tromsø ‘these two old books about Tromsø’ In Norwegian. 2. Possessive phrases come after a definite noun: Indefinite: possessor precedes head noun: Jons bok.2. disse.DEF bøkene Postnominal modifier om Tromsø books. etc. Determiners. determiners. denne. The word order of Norwegian noun phrases is usually very much like that of English (despite the definite suffix). Possessor: hans oppfinnelse his discovery ‘his discovery’ These different forms are referred to as different cases. as well as quantifiers and adjectives come before the noun. Object of preposition: Han klarte ikke å løfte kniven med den. and adjectives all agree with the head of the noun phrase in number and gender.’ h. like den. In addition. the adjectives also agree in definiteness with the head. det. quantifiers. There may be elements in front of or after the head noun. he managed not to lift knife.g.1 Noun phrase word order The overall order of elements in the Norwegian noun phrase is the same as in English. dette. while prepositional phrases and relative clauses come after it: Determiner Quantifier Adjective Head disse these to two gamle old. mi bok my book John’s book ‘John’s book’ ‘my book’ Definite: possessor follows head noun: .the with it ‘He couldn’t manage to lift the knife with it.
the my ‘my book’ 2. Noen liker mørkt øl bedre enn lyst. mange hunder. production of beer is often regulated by strong legislation . mye melk many dogs much milk (1) b. noe melk some dogs some milk (1) c.2. and a prepositional phrase or a clause following the head: (1) h. some like dark beer better than light ‘Some people like dark beer better than light. noen hunder.boka til Jon.’ (1) e.2 Indefinite noun phrases The indefinite noun phrase lacks any marker of definiteness. tre hunder. Alfred Nobel ville bli forfatter. Alfred Nobel would become author ‘Alfred Nobel wanted to become an author.the on TV ‘Old people often watch the Nobel Prize ceremony on TV. Produksjon av øl er ofte regulert av streng lovgivning. Han har gjort noe dumt. Norwegian noun phrases may lack a head (g): (1) g. boka mi book. or an indefinite pronoun (e-f) as head: (1) d.’ But in addition. Here are some examples of Norwegian indefinite noun phrases: (1) a. old watch often Nobel Prize ceremony.’ (1) f. Gamle ser ofte nobelprisseremonien på TV. Norwegian indefinite noun phrases may have a nominal head (d).the to John ‘John’s book’ book. melk three dogs milk As in English.’ All these three types of phrases may have an adjective in front of the head. he has done something stupid ‘He has done something stupid. Compare the definites the milk and the dog with the indefinites milk and a dog.
‘The production of beer is often regulated by strict legislations.’ (1) j. Han har gjort noe veldig dumt. he has done something very stupid ‘He has done something very stupid.’ (1) i. Noen av Jomsvikingene ble tatt til fange av den norske hæren. some of Jomsvikings.the became taken to captive by the Norwegian force.the ‘Some of the Jomsvikings where captured by the Norwegian force.’ The most striking difference between English and Norwegian indefinite noun phrases is that Norwegian more frequently allows the omission of the indefinite article: (1) k. Norge og Sverige var i union med hverandre til 1905. Norway and Sweden were in union with eachother till 1905 ‘Norway and Sweden were in a union together until 1905.’
(1) l. Nobel var kjemiker og oppfinner. Nobel was chemist and inventor ‘Nobel was a chemist and an inventor.’ 126.96.36.199 Indefinite noun phrases with a nominal head An indefinite noun phrase may or may not include a quantifier such as en, to, ingen, alle: (1) a. en medalje, to isbjørner a medal two polarbears
(1) b. ingen kake, alle hus no cake all houses The Norwegian indefinite article comes in three different genders: en, ei, et (masculine, feminine, and neuter, respectively: sometimes the masculine can be substituted for the feminine, and some writers do not use the feminine form at all). This indefinite article is only used in the singular. It behaves very much like a quantifier, and it does not co-occur with other quantifiers: (1) c. en gutt, ei kake, et hus a boy a cake a house
(1) d. * ei ingen kake, * et alle hus a no cake a all houses The number one is written like this: én (masculine), ei (feminine), ett (neuter). Note that the feminine form is written the same as the indefinite article, but it is pronounced with more stress. (1) e. én gutt, ei kake, ett hus one boy one cake one house Note that whereas the indefinite article is more or less always included in English indefinite noun phrases, it is frequently left out in Norwegian (cf.§ 2.2.5 Bare Noun Phrases): Jenta hadde kjole på seg. vs. The girl had a dress on. Mora mi er lege. vs. My mother is a doctor. In Norwegian, there is also a three-way gender distinction on nouns, which is also expressed on the articles. English does not have such a gender distinction. 188.8.131.52 Indefinite noun phrases with a pronominal head Indefinite pronouns (noe, noen)may be the head of indefinite noun phrases. These pronouns may stand on their own, or have an adjective following them: (1) a. Har det hendt noe? Has it happened anything ‘Has anything happened?’
(1) b. Noe merkelig hendte i går. Something strange happened yesterday ‘Something strange happened yesterday.’ Noe is singular and neuter, while noen can be plural or masculine/feminine or both. In either form, it can be used both in positive and negative contexts, and thus corresponds both to English some and any. (1) c. Har noen. Ja, jeg har noen. / Nei, jeg har ikke (søsken is plural) Have you any siblings yes I have some no I have not any ‘Do you have any sisters or ‘Yes, I have ‘No, I don’t have any.’ brothers?’ some.’ du noen søsken?
(1) d. Er det noen bank her? Jeg ser ikke noen. (bank is masculine) Is it any bank here I see not any ‘Is there a bank here?’ ‘I can’t see one.’
(1) e. Vi har kjøpt noe kjøtt. / Vi har ikke kjøpt noe kjøtt. (kjøtt is neuter) we have bought some meat we have not bought any meat ‘We have bought some meat.’ ‘We have not bought any meat.’ 184.108.40.206 Headless indefinite noun phrases A headless indefinite noun phrase looks like an ordinary headed indefinite noun phrase that lacks the head (pro)noun. In these phrases, some other element, like an adjective (gamle) or a quantifier (femti) is the most important part of the phrase: (1) a. Unge leser ikke vikingesagaer lenger. young read not Viking.sagas longer ‘Young people don’t read the Viking sagas anymore.’
(1) b. Han fylte femti i går. he turned fifty yesterday ‘He turned fifty yesterday.’ Such headless indefinite noun phrases are rare but are still much more common in Norwegian than in English. This is especially true of those noun phrases where an adjective is the most important element.
2.2.3 Definite noun phrases
The definite noun phrase is generally headed by a noun with the definite ending, and it may also contain an adjective inflected for definiteness. These noun phrases express definite meaning (so do names and pronouns, just like in English). A definite noun phrase with an adjective has a definite article like in English, but also has a definite suffix on the noun. Definite noun phrases with no adjectives usually do not have any article, just the definite suffix: (1) a. Isbjørnen var vennlig. Den lille isbjørnen var vennlig. polarbear.the was friendly the little polarbear was friendly ‘The polarbear was friendly.’ ‘The little polarbear was friendly.’
det høye treet the little bicycle.the we lay on the white beach. denne kniven.the ‘We have bought the house.2.the winner. and adjectives. den smarte mannen som oppdaget røntgenstråler the smart man.’ ‘We lay on the white beach. Norwegian expresses definiteness with a definiteness suffix attached to the noun.’ ‘We have bought the red house. Before the noun.the who discovered X-rays ‘the smart man who discovered X-rays’ In Norwegian. we have bought house. when the definite suffix appears in addition to a separate determiner. in most cases). alle landene.3.’ The main difference between English and Norwegian concerning definite noun phrases is that whereas English expresses definiteness with a prenominal definite article. while after the noun we may find prepositional phrases or clauses: (1) a. adjectives are inflected for definiteness in front of definite nouns (this inflection only consists of an -e suffix.(1) b. den lille sykkelen. we lay on beach.the ‘this knife’ ‘all the countries’ ‘the winner of the prize’ (1) b. quantifiers. den gode boka.the all countries. 2.the ‘the little bicycle’ ‘the good book’ ‘the high tree’ (1) b. or it may have elements in front of it or after it.the we have bought the red house. Vi lå på den hvite stranda. the suffix may appear to be redundant. a free definite article is included in front of the adjective in addition to the definiteness ending on the noun: (2) a.the ‘We lay on the beach. Vi har kjøpt det røde huset.1 Definite noun phrases with a definite nominal head A definite noun may stand alone in a definite noun phrase.the the high tree.the ‘the white horses’ . Vi har kjøpt huset. In such phrases.the the good book. vinneren av prisen this knife. Vi lå på stranda. However.the of prize.’ (1) c. de hvite hestene the white horses. there may be definite determiners.
Lorenz som la grunnlaget for etologi. the definite suffix still cannot be left out. such as quantifiers and adjectives may come before or after it.3 Definite noun phrases with a definite pronoun as its head A definite pronoun may function as a noun phrase by itself. Torkjel dreper mannen. a prenominal article needs to be included.2 Definite noun phrases with a proper name as its head A proper name may function as a noun phrase by itself. all we three are as brave as Jomsvikings.2.3.This is sometimes called Double Definiteness.the ‘All three of us are as brave as the Jomsvikings. such as definite determiners or adjectives: (1) a.the ‘Torkjel kills the man. denne uskyldige Maria my Maria this innocent Maria ‘my Maria’ ‘this innocent Maria’ Notice that the name does not get a definite suffix. (1) a.2. but other elements. Har du sett denne? have you seen this ‘Have you seen this?’ (1) b.the for ethology ‘Lorenz who laid down the foundation of ethology’ 2. However. Lorenz who laid foundation. In contrast to what we find in English.’ . adjectives are inflected for definiteness in Norwegian.3. Alle vi tre er like tapre som Jomsvikingene. 2. but it may also have elements in front of it. min Maria.’ (1) b. Prepositional phrases and clauses may follow the proper name in a definite noun phrase: (1) c. Torkjel kills man. When there is an adjective in the Norwegian definite noun phrase. These definite pronouns may be followed by prepositional phrases and clauses.
får en fin premie. it is more natural to gloss it in English as ‘the’ (here. or a possessive pronoun (min bil ‘my .’ In Norwegian the so-called proximal demonstratives (det/den ‘that. Han som tok prisen bør få æren. 2. vårt hus. he who took prize.’ de ‘those’) are identical in form to the preadjectival definite article.2.2 and 2.’ 2. that who comes first in goal gets a nice prize ‘He who wins. possessive noun phrases may either contain a noun phrase ending in ’s in front of the head noun (Jons bil ‘John’s car’).4 Definite noun phrases with no definite noun or pronoun as its head There are two types of definite noun phrases in Norwegian where the definiteness is not indicated on the head noun.3.4): (1) a. di bok.3.2. we from Tromsø drink often Mack.the ‘He who received the prize should be honoured. Han fylte femti i går.beer ‘We who are from Tromsø often drink Mack beer. Vi fra Tromsø drikker ofte mack-øl. Thus. Den som kommer først i mål. when a noun phrase consists only of a word like den.’ 2. deres biler ‘my car’ ‘your book’ ‘our house’ ‘their cars’ Secondly. nouns are not inflected for definiteness (cf.the should get honour. 2. he turned fifty yesterday ‘He turned fifty yesterday. As in English. and are also identical in form to pronouns. there are definite noun phrases which lack the head (cf.4). 2. in examples like the following: (1) e.(1) c.2.4 Noun phrases with possessors A noun phrase with a possessor is definite (cf.3. it could be understood to mean ‘it’ (pronoun) or ‘that’ (demonstrative). ‘the first’). When it is followed by an adjective as in den første.3): (1) b.2.2. First. but in English this often requires that ‘one’ be inserted: den grønne ‘the green one.’ (1) d. in definite noun phrases introduced by a possessor.2. gets a nice prize.’ Note also that Norwegian uses the definite pronoun den to refer to humans.2. min bil.
’ Bare noun phrases are much more common in Norwegian than in English. complement to a preposition. 2. The most commonly used possessive construction in Norwegian is the one with the possessive pronoun following a definite head noun. and it is followed by an indefinite noun.’ (1) b. Complement to a preposition: De hørte på radio. the possessive pronoun frequently follows the head noun in possessive noun phrases.5 Bare noun phrases A bare noun phrase has a nominal head without a definite or indefinite article. object. Note that Norwegian makes extensive use of reflexive possessives. or subject: (1) a. This construction is not possible in English. in Norwegian. Object: Min sønn spiller tennis. grammar is difficult ‘ Grammar is difficult. my son plays tennis ‘My son plays tennis. Subject: Grammatikk er vanskelig. he is chemist ‘He is a chemist. they listened to radio ‘They listened to the radio. and it also lacks other quantifying modifiers.2.’ (1) d. sin/si/sitt/sine. In both cases. 2. However. Predicative: Han er kjemiker.’ (1) c. the head noun is in the definite form (bilen min ‘my car’).6 Postnominal modifiers . the possessor marks the definiteness. In such phrases. Such noun phrases may have a number of different functions in Norwegian: predicative.car’).2.
or noun phrases: (1) a. Haakon Magnus’ 2. a prepositional complement (d). When there are no modifiers. the head constitutes the whole phrase. or an object (e): (1) a. Eventyr er veldig spennende.’ (1) b. . den bilen du ser der the car you see there ‘the car you see there’ (1) c. this is usually a degree element (b). These elements may be prepositional phrases. clauses. Vikingenes langhus var store.Postnominal modifiers are elements following the head noun. en kasse med frukt a box with fruit ‘a box of fruit’ (1) b. as in (a). some other type of adverbial (c).the’s long-houses were big ‘The viking’s long-houses were big. Norges kronprins Haakon Magnus Norway’s crown-prince Haakon Magnus ‘Norway’s crown prince. When the adjectival phrase contains a modifier. en kasse full av klær a box full of clothes ‘A box full of clothes’ (1) d.3 ADJECTIVAL PHRASES The adjectival phrase is a phrase with an adjective as its head. en kasse fylt med klær a box filled with clothes ‘A box filled with clothes’ (1) e. vikings. participial phrases. adjective phrases.
Alfred Nobel var en svært generøs mann. Alfred Nobel was a very generous. Hun var overraskende høy. Eirik var raskere enn Christopher. In these functions there is concord between the adjective and the noun it modifies in number (SG. Eirik var raskest av européerne.’ (1) c.the ‘Eirik was the fastest of the Europeans. Eirik was fastest of Europeans.’ (1) h. Jomsvikings. she was surprisingly tall ‘She was surprisingly tall.SG man ‘Alfred Nobel was a very generous man. Jomsvikingene var ikke redde for døden. he is not worth anything ‘He is not worth anything. in which case the basis for the comparison usually must be expressed in the complement of the adjective (f-h): (1) f.the were not afraid for death ‘The Jomsvikings were not afraid of dying. Han er ikke verd noe.’ Adjectival phrases are often used in comparative constructions.fairy tales are very exciting ‘Fairy tales are very exciting.’ (1) j. they were very generous.’ (1) d.PL ‘They were very generous. Eirik var like rask som Christopher.M.’ (1) e. Eirik was like fast as Christopher ‘Eirik was as fast as Christopher. Eirik was faster than Christopher ‘Erik was faster than Christopher.’ .’ Most adjective phrases can be used as premodifiers of nouns (attributes) or as complements of verbs (predicatives) (i-j).’ (1) g. PL) and gender (M for masculine gender): (1) i. De var svært generøse.
Vikingene seilte langsomt langs kysten.’ In Norwegian.1 Adjectival phrase word order In addition to the adjectival head. the adjectives agree with the noun they modify in gender.1. and definiteness. hvor how b.3.the ‘The vikings sailed slowly along the coast.1 Adjectival phrases functioning as predicatives or as adverbials The adjectival phrase can have modifiers both before and after the adjective. 2. vikings. . The following scheme summarises the possible word orders for adjectival phrases used predicatively or as adverbials: (1) Obj.The adjective may also function as an adverbial (k): (1) k. number.3. English does not show such agreement. juridisk legally c. meg nå me d. and another scheme for adjectival phrases that function as an adjective attribute. a Norwegian adjectival phrase may contain different kinds of modifiers. now absolutt tung heavy holdbar Adverbial absolutely tenable mer more helt totally fremmed strange overlegen superior uegnet unsuitable sin motstander his opponent for langturer for long-distance-trips enn før than before e. Adverbial Adverbial Adjective (head) Object a. The order of the head and the modifiers depends on the syntactic use of the adjectival phrase.the sailed slowly along coast. there is one scheme for adjectival phrases that function as a predicative or an adverbial. 2.
3.’ Free adverbials. en juridisk absolutt holdbar avtale ‘a legally absolutely tenable agreement.the very Adverbials of degree and manner are placed immediately in front of the adjective (a).’ Phrases that can occur in the final adverbial position when the adjectival phrase is used predicatively. as in Avtalen virker juridisk absolutt holdbar ‘The agreement seems legally absolutely tenable. including negation and other sentence adverbials. en veldig rik mann ‘a very rich man. that is. the Norwegian adjective phrase must end with the head. Han var helt overlegen sin motstander ‘He was totally superior to his opponent. 2. Bilen er uegnet for langturer ‘The car is not suitable for long distance trips.’ 2.’ Example (c) shows that there is an object position in front of the two adverbial positions.Immediately in front of the adjective we find adverbials of degree. juridisk legally absolutt rik rich holdbar absolutely tenable smart clever c. the adjective cannot have an object in front of it. In addition. Various kinds of free adverbials may be placed in front of these (b).’ An object may also be placed immediately after the adjective (d). The following scheme summarises the possible word orders for adjectival phrases used predicatively or as adverbials: (1) Adverbial Adverbial Adjective (head) a.’ Adjectival phrases such as the one illustrated in (c) are not possible in English. example (e) shows that there is an adverbial position to the right of the postadjectival object position.2 Adjectival phrases functioning as prenominal attributes When used attributively.1. may sometimes be placed in front of the adjective when the adjectival phrase is attributively used (c) en for alderen svært smart jente ‘a girl who is very clever for her age. are placed to the left of this adverbial position (b).3. Hvor tung er den? ‘How heavy is it?’(a) and manner (Han var skremmende energisk ‘He was frighteningly energetic’). veldig very b. Hun er meg nå mer fremmed enn før ‘She seems more strange to me now than before. in this use there are no postadjectival positions.’ Finally. for alderen svært for age.2 Comparison .
’ (1) b.2.When a comparison is expressed.the was as brave as his father ‘The Jomsviking was as brave as his father.’ (1) b.the ‘The Norwegians were not braver than the Jomsvikings. Jomsvikingen var like tapper som sin far. Nordmennene var ikke taprere enn jomsvikingene. Norwegian uses like Adjective som ‘as Adjective as’ (a).’ 2.2. or ikke Adjective-ere enn ‘not Adjective-er than’ (b): (1) a. 2.1 Equal comparisons For an equal comparison.’ 2.3. or the superlative form (b). is introduced by enn ‘than’ (a): (1) Isbjørner er farligere enn vaskebjørner.the ‘Eva is the shorter of the two girls. Lisa er den korteste blant dem. Eva er den kortere av de to jentene. Jomsviking.2 Unequal comparisons When the things compared are different. polar bears are dangerous-COMP than raccoons ‘Polar bears are more dangerous than raccoons. Lisa is the shortest among them ‘Lisa is the shortest among them.3. that is when we for example compare two persons of the same height. The postmodifying phrase indicating the standard against which the comparison is made. The objects that are compared are introduced in a postmodifying prepositional phrase beginning with av ‘of.3.’ The standard with which the comparison is made is indicated by a prepositional phrase with i ‘in’ (c): . Norwegians.2.’ or blant ‘among’: (1) a. the standard against which the comparison is made is usually added as a postmodifying phrase.3 Comparative and superlative When comparing only two objects. Eva is the shorter of the two girls.the were not braver than Jomsvikings. whereas when more than two objects are compared. the comparative form of the adjective is used. we can use either the comparative form (a). we have to use the superlative form.
4 ADVERB PHRASES .3. Norwegian often uses som så ‘than that’ to refer to the standard: (1) a. Han er rik nok til å reise he is rich enough rich to to travel ‘He is rich enough to go travelling. The norm to which these words refer can be indicated by an infinitive clause introduced by til å ‘to. nok may also occur after the adjective: (1) a.’ English does not have an expressions corresponding to som så in Norwegian.’ ‘No. in which case we use the referential pronoun det ‘it’: (1) b. This is also possible in Norwegian.the ‘Anna is the oldest girl in her class. 2. Anna er den eldste jenta i klassen. he is taller than that. as illustrated in (a) above.3. In such cases.’ As in Norwegian.(1) c. Jon må være to meter lang. Han er altfor rik til å reise. As illustrated in (b).4 Comparison with a definite norm Sometimes a comparison is made between an object and a definite standard or norm understood in the context.’ 2.5 Sufficiency and excess The words nok ‘enough’ and altfor ‘too’ are used to indicate sufficiency and excess. Nei han er lengre enn som så. he is too rich to to travel ‘He is too rich to go travelling.’ (1) c. Nei han er lengre enn det. Jon må være to meter lang.2. Anna is the oldest girl. he is taller than that. however.the in class.’ 2.2. In English we have to use a referential pronoun that.’ ‘No. too always has to be placed in front of the adjective in English. Jon must be two meters tall No he is taller than as so ‘Jon must be two meters tall. b. Han er nok rik til å reise.’ (a-c). In contrast to Norwegian. enough always has to follow the adjective in English. Jon must be two meters tall No he is taller than it ‘Jon must be two meters tall.
Han var alltid tapper.1 Adverb phrase word order When modifiers are included in addition to the adverb head. langt borte i skogen far away in forest. When a modifier appears. it is usually an adverb of degree or manner (b): (1) a. comparative phrases (enn tidligere in (c)). akkurat sånn som han gjør exactly so as he does . we find prepositional phrases (i skogen in (b)). and adverb phrases (mye in (c)). Maten her er veldig god. modifying verbs (b). he was always brave ‘He was always brave’ (1) b. mye mere enn tidligere ‘much more than before’ d. adjectives. participles. After the adverb head.The adverb phrase is a phrase with an adverb as its head. De bodde langt borte fra alle. and modifiers with clauses or infinitival phrases (som han gjør in (d)): (1) Premodifier Adverb head Postmodifier a.4. food. and adverbs (a). adjective phrases (langt in (b)). Very often there is no other element in the phrase (a). the structure of the modifiers generally determines their position. utsøkt vakkert ‘exquisitely beautiful’ b. Hun sprang veldig fort. she ran very fast ‘She ran very fast’ Some adverbs may also take prepositional or clausal complements: (1) c. but occasionally also a noun (d): (1) d.the ‘far away in the forest’ c. they lived far away from everyone ‘They lived far away from everyone’ The adverb phrase usually functions as an adverbial.the here is very good ‘The food here is very good’ 2. In front of the adverb head we find modifying participal phrases (utsøkt in (a)).
Nå har han sannsynligvis kommet hjem. In Norwegian. now has he probably come home ‘Now he has probably come home’ It may also appear as an attribute: (1) c. beslutningen om at pengene skulle gis til prominente personer decision. Han har bodd utenlands i flere år.5 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES The prepositional phrase is a phrase with a preposition as its head.the liked he well ‘This land way over the Atlantic pleased him’ 2.the there was quite rough ‘The climate there was quite rough’ (1) d. It prototypically consists of the preposition and its complement.the about that money. Klimaet der var ganske tøft. i langskip ‘in longships’ (1) b. climate. but it may also take a subordinate clause (b). this land. beslutningen om å gi pengene til prominente personer decision.‘exactly like he is doing’ 2. the preposition usually takes a noun phrase as its complement (a). or an infinitival (c): (1) a.4.the about to give money. he has lived abroad in several years ‘He has lived abroad for several years’ (1) b.the to prominent persons ‘the decision to give the money to prominent persons’ .the should be-given to prominent persons ‘the decision that the money should be given to prominent persons’ (1) c. Dette landet langt over Atlanteren likte han godt.the far over Atlantic.2 Syntactic function The adverb phrase prototypically functions as an adverbial: (1) a.
the for ‘What did Albert Einstein get the Nobel Prize for?’ 2. Usually the complement is found as the first element of the clause: (2) Hva fikk Albert Einstein nobelprisen for? what got Albert Einstein Nobel Prize. that was a sign on that Jomsvikings.Norwegian allows preposition stranding of all kinds of noun phrase complements.5. This means that the preposition may appear at the end of the clause.5.’ . oss kvinner imellom us women between ‘as one woman to another’ (1) b. året rundt year.’ bak meg ‘behind me. lacking a complement. This modifier is placed in front of the preposition: (3) midt framfor meg middle in-front-of me ‘right in front of me’ 2. a prepositional phrase may sometimes contain a modifier. Det var et tegn på at jomsvikingene ikke ville gi seg.’ Norwegian prepositions also take subordinate clauses as their complements: (1) a. the Norwegian preposition precedes its complement: (1) på tønner ‘in barrels’ Occasionally.’ med hvilken penn ‘with which pen.the not would give REFL ‘That was a sign that the Jomsvikings would not give in.1 Prepositional phrase word order As in all the Germanic languages. the preposition follows its complement. Certain prepositions are optionally placed behind their complement when they have a particular meaning or in lexicalised constructions: (2) a.2 Complement types The complement of a preposition is usually a noun phrase i stolen ‘in the chair.the round ‘all year round’ In addition to the preposition and its complement.
just as it does in Norwegian.’ til sjøs ‘at sea. Siden når begynte du å drikke øl? since when began you to drink beer ‘Since when did you start drinking beer?’ 2.3 Case assignment In Norwegian.’ framfor oss ‘in front of us. this newspaper is from before war.the to prominent persons ‘He decided to give the money to prominent persons.’av ham ‘by him. which means that the preposition is not immediately to the left of its complement.In addition.5. the complement of a preposition may be an infinitival phrase (b).4 Preposition stranding Norwegian prepositions may be stranded.’ til deg ‘for you.E ‘turn out to a man’ Pronouns show the non-nominative case after prepositions in English.the ‘This newspaper is from before the war. Denne avisen er fra før krigen. or an adverb phrase (d): (2) a. he decided REFL for to give money. Usually.’ hos henne ‘at her place.’ There are also a few expressions where the bare noun phrase has the ending -e: (1) a.E ‘be found. the complement is in the first position: .’ (2) c. and we can see traces of that in some more or less lexicalised prepositional phrases. The other traces of the case system found in some lexicalised expressions in Norwegian are not found in English.’ (2) b.’ Norwegian used to have a more complex case system. 2. only pronouns show case. Han bestemte seg for å gi pengene til prominente personer.’ over dem ‘over them. gå mann av huse go man of house. a prepositional phrase (c). komme til rette come to right.5. Most of these phrases consist of the preposition til ‘to’ + genitive of a bare noun phrase til skogs ‘to the forest. turn up’ (1) b. and they appear in the non-nominative form when following a preposition fra meg ‘from me.
it was Einstein they gave prize. rumour. Det var Einstein de ga prisen til.the about their bravery was not exaggerated ‘The rumour of their bravery was not exaggerated. and predicative complements (c): (1) a. Komitéen utnevnte henne til prisvinner. or in a relative clause (c): (1) b.the your must be-moved on ‘Your car needs to be moved.(1) a. Bygg kan man brygge øl av.2 Function Norwegian prepositional phrases function as adverbials (a). committee. where the subject in the passive clause corresponds to the complement of the preposition in the corresponding active clause (d) (cf the active clause Du må flytte på bilen din ‘You need to move your car’): (1) d.’ (1) b. who was awarded the prize in physics. attributes (b).5. car.’ (1) c.the in physics went to died of leukemia ‘Marie Curie.the to ‘It was Einstein they gave the prize to. Marie Curie who prize. beer.the appointed her to laureate ‘The committee appointed her a laureate. Bilen din må flyttes på.’ (1) c. prepositional phrases may be complements of prepositions (d) and appositions (e): . died of leukemia. barley can one brew beer of ‘Beer can be brewed on barley. Ryktet om deres heltemot var ikke overdrevent.’ A particular case of preposition stranding is found in certain passive clauses.’ In addition.the be-stored in barrels ‘The beer is stored in barrels.’ The preposition may also be stranded when the complement is clefted (b). Marie Curie som prisen i fysikk gikk til døde av leukemi.’ 2. Ølet lagres i tønner.
The Norwegian comparative subjunction phrase consists of a comparative subjunction (enn ‘than’ or som ‘as’) followed by a noun phrase or some other phrase that may function as a primary part of a clause: (1) a. Usually such constructions can be seen as reduced or truncated clauses.the as warmest ‘Now the summer is as warm as it gets. Jomsvikingene var taprere enn nordmennene. predicative subjunction phrases (b). he was always kind although he was strict ‘He was always kind although he was strict. The most common subjunction in Norwegian is selv om ‘even though’: (1) c.’ (1) e.(1) d.’ The predicative subjunction phrase consists of som ‘as’ followed by a noun phrase. Nå er sommeren som varmest. Han blir her til i neste uke.’ The Norwegian concessive subjunction phrase consists of a concessive subjunction and a complement.the up-button-ed went he in in room.2).the were braver than Norwegians.the ‘The Jomsvikings were braver than the Norwegians. and concessive subjunction phrases (c). or a participal phrase: (1) b.’ 2. with shirt.8. now is summer.the ‘With his shirt unbuttoned he went into the room. Med skjorten oppkneppet gikk han inn i rommet.6 SUBJUNCTION PHRASES Whereas subjunctions prototypically introduce embedded clauses (3.7 AGREEMENT PHENOMENA AT THE PHRASE LEVEL . an adjective. Han var alltid snill selv om han var streng. he stays here until i next week ‘He stays here until next week. There are three main types: comparative subjunction phrases (a). Jomsvikings. it is also possible to find them in front of constructions that lack a subject and a predicate (a).’ 2.
the ‘all the soups’ Neuter gender singular: (1) c. red cars ‘red cars’ de røde bilene. and adjectives/past participles agree with the head of the noun phrase in number and gender. for example rød ‘red. e. the red cars.the ‘red houses’ ‘the red houses’ alle ølene all beers. et rødt hus.0 INTRODUCTION – WORD CLASSES The words in a language like Norwegian are classified into different groups with something in common. The classification may treat their inflection.’ alle ‘all.’ du ‘you. their meaning. for example jeg ‘I. a red house ‘a red house’ det røde huset. Nouns are words that refer to persons.’ or words that specify which noun is referred to. all suppa a red car the red car.’ dere ‘you.’ norsk ‘Norwegian. for example denne ‘this.’ Adjectives are words that denote characteristics.’ noe ‘some. or their function.’ adelig ‘noble. en rød bil. den røde bilen.’ gift ‘married.’ den der ‘that.the ‘the red cars’ alle suppene all soups.the all soup. de røde husene. quantifiers.the ‘a red car’ ‘the red car’ ‘all the soup’ Masculine/Feminine gender plural: (1) b.the ‘all the beer’ Neuter gender plural: (1) d. animals.’ . or concrete or abstract things.’ Pronouns are words that replace nouns. which clausal element they constitute.’ lang ‘long.In Norwegian.the ‘the red house’ alt ølet all beer. there is phrase internal agreement (concord) within noun phrases: determiners. In addition.g.’ visse ‘certain.’ hund ‘dog. røde hus. the red house.’ hun ‘she.’ hus ‘house. røde biler.’ or løgn ‘lie. gutt ‘boy.the ‘all the beers’ 3. the adjective has different forms for definite and indefinite noun phrases: Masculine/Feminine gender singular: (1) a. for example Maria. red houses the red houses.
’ Conjunctions are words that conjoin words. etc. for example : ett ‘one.’ Numerals are words that state number or order. for example at ‘that. or clauses of the same kind: Henning og Lise ‘Henning and Lise. they lack all these characteristics.t conference. and eple is neuter. point of time.. and which can have a definiteness ending: stol-en ‘the chair.’ gi ‘give. which can be inflected in plural: stoler ‘chairs.’ synge eller spille ‘sing or play. They indicate position.’ nå ‘now.’ til tross for at ‘despite. which can be preceded by an indefinite article: en stol ‘a chair.’ ettersom ‘since.’ kunne ‘can/know. seng is feminine. Though. e ver e w he he (= ‘the new contribution to the conference’) . See article 3.’ undersøke ‘inspect.’ In Norwegian.1.Verbs are words that denote what happens. Nouns represent the main word of the nominal phrase. certain words constitute exceptions.’ puste ‘breathe.’ i (huset) ‘in (the house). for example på (stolen) ‘on (the chair).’ sikkert ‘certainly.’ ganske ‘fairly.’ tre ‘three.’ et eple ‘an apple’.’ dit ‘there. m de ti fra hus der borte. short words directly in front of a noun.’ 3. manner. nouns also are classified in different genders: the word stol is masculine. They represent space. etc. for example her ‘here.’ senger ‘beds.’ Subjunctions are words that introduce a subordinate clause. nye bidraget konferansen n el ann itt t l f Poland hous o th ne contribution. time.’ epl-et ‘the apple. for example springe ‘run. to rom .’ Prepositions are small.’ They may also occur before nouns with definitions. over ‘over’ (Hennings gamle hus ‘Hennings old house’).’ syttiseks ‘seventy-six. adjectives. mass nouns like melk ‘milk’ and vann ‘water’ normally lack the possibility to follow the indefinite article en/ei/et ‘a’ or to take plural ending.’ ofte ‘often.’ ville ‘want.’ sjuende ‘seventh.’ om ‘if. or adverbs.’ epler ‘apples’.4.t an old man my there.1 NOUNS – GENERAL A typical noun is a word that refer to a person or a thing. quantity.’ Lasse spiser men Lise sover ‘Lasse is eating but Lise is sleeping.’ seng-a ‘the bed. in principle.’ som ‘who/which.’ tredje ‘third.. phrases. for example under ‘under’ (den nye stolen ‘the new chair’).’ kanskje ‘maybe. The proper nouns are the ones that diverge the most. Adverbs are words that modify verbs.’ ei seng ‘a bed. it is possible to enlarge them with attributes before or after: (1) e gamm m Polen.
Sometimes also prefixes may be used. impudent person’ someone who is being impudent The endings above make the words into nouns. and neuter. compounds are very common. fisk-er: ‘fisherman’ somebody who’s fishing fisk-eri: ‘fishing’ the industry of fishing fisk-ing: ‘fishing’ the activity of fishing b. which has its own meaning.1. while others have a certain ending: -e. be-. frekk-het: ‘impudence’ something impudent frekk-as: ‘bold. Norwegian nouns can also contain a root with a special ending. and for-/fore-. (3) u-flaks u-vær for-svare be-tale mis-tolke van-ære ‘bad luck’ ‘bad weather’ ‘defend’ ‘pay’ ‘misinterpret’ ‘disgrace. feminine.1 Form Norwegian nouns are built up around a root. Other common prefixes aremis-. See 3. dishonour’ Norwegian nouns may also contain two roots. (1) stol gat-e ‘chair’ ‘street’ våp-en ‘weapon’ nøkk-el ‘key’ søst-er ‘sister’ The different types are inflected in different ways in the plural. The most common prefix is the negating u-.3.1. -en. They also decide how the words are inflected. -el or -er. Some of these nouns contains only one root. van-.1.2 Gender Norwegian nouns have three different genders: masculine. . and a neuter noun gets et. A masculine noun gets the indefinite article en. In these cases we are talking about compounds.3. Note that in contrast to English compounds are generally written as one word in Norwegian. Here are some frequent endings of this type: (2) a. Some examples are given below: (4) hus-båt båt-hus skrive-bord rød-vin ‘house boat’ ‘boat house’ ‘writing desk’ ‘red wine’ (4) gate-adresse koke-bok seilings-ulykke forsvars-minister ‘street address’ ‘cook book’ ‘sailing accident’ ‘minister of defence’ 3. a feminine noun gets ei. In Norwegian.1.
A masculine noun gets the ending -en/-n.the ‘the dragon’ seng-a bed.(1) Masc.1.: mann man (3) Fem. Indefinite article: en stol a chair Feminine: ei ku a cow Neuter: et eple an apple en mann a man ei kvinne a woman en hest a horse .1 Concord All the three genders have different indefinite and definite article. Note that they have the same form in the masculine and the feminine genders. Adjectives and pronouns within a noun phrase also show gender differences.: ku cow en viking a viking ei ku a cow (1) Neut. and a neuter noun gets the -et/-t. a feminine noun gets -a.: ku-a cow.the ‘the bed’ (2) Neut. Masculine: (1) a.the ‘the cow’ drag-en dragon. (2) Masc. and feminine when referring to females: (3) Masc.the ‘the house’ ‘the apple’ Nouns that denote human beings and animals are normally masculine when referring to males.: hest horse 3.2.: hus et hus house a house The definite article is an ending on the noun in Norwegian.: kvinne woman (3) Masc.: viking-en viking.the apple.: hus-et eple-t house.: viking viking (1) Fem.the ‘the viking’ (2) Fem.
the is brown. apple.’ When a noun is referred to by a pronoun. the pronoun det ‘it’ is used. Pronoun: noen stol-er some chairs brune ky-r brown cows brune eple-r brown apples disse eple-ne these apples.: en brun stol a brown chair d. Adjective: brune stol-er brown chairs g.1.b. If it is a neuter noun. this gender difference is not visible on adjectives and pronouns: f.the ‘this chair’ e.’ Kua er brun.NEUT apple ei brun ku a brown cow denne ku-a this cow.the ‘the chair’ ‘the cow’ c. If the gender is masculine or feminine.NEUT ‘The apple is brown. Pronoun: noen stol some chair eple-t apple.the ‘these chairs’ h.’ When the noun refer to a mann ‘man’ the pronoun han ‘he’ is used. cow.2.’ (2) Stolen er brun.2. gender is visible in another way.the ‘thie cow’ dette eple-t this apple.2 This kind of gender concord is absent from English.the cow.’ or den ‘it. Pronoun: denne stol-en this chair. it is possible to use some of the pronouns han ‘he. Definite article: stol-en ku-a chair. Indef.’ hun ‘she. . Pronoun: disse stol-ene these chairs. 3.the ‘the apple’ et brun-t eple a brown.2 Pronominal reference It is very common to refer to a noun with a personal pronoun. chair.the is brown ‘The chair is brown. In these cases Norwegian uses four different pronouns to refer to the noun.the ‘these apples’ disse kyr-ene these cows.the ‘these cows’ noen ky-r some cows noen eple-r some apples This type of congruence is also visible on adjectives after the verbs ‘be’ and ‘get.the ‘this apple’ noen ku some cow noe eple some apple In the plural.the is brown ‘The cow is brown.1. article + adj.’ Eplet er brunt. See 3.
the could not know who that should meet him ‘The boy couldn’t know who would meet him. indefinite. house.’ A common exception is that Norwegian speakers may use hun when talking about time. Gutten kunne ikke vite hvem som skulle møte ham. but on plural nouns. it is possible to use han ‘he’ or hun ‘she. boy.’ b.indefinite . queen. she is half seven ‘It’s half past six. three endings are visible.genitive). Singular . All three inflections are visible as endings on common. (1) Masc. Singular. and case (nominative . (2) — Hva er klokka? what is clock. When the noun refer to a thing or something inanimate.3 Inflection Norwegian nouns can be inflected in number (singular .the became not finished until they sold it ‘The house wasn’t finished by the time they sold it. definite nouns.indefinite). Dronninga ble glad for at avisen skrev om henne.1.the became happy for that newspaper.the must be-written before one can sell it ‘The book must be written before it can be sold. concrete nouns. definiteness (definite .plural).’ c. eple apple . and nouns in genitive.the ‘What time is it?’ — Hun er halv sju. book. 3. flue fly Neut.When the noun refer to a kvinne ‘woman’ the pronoun hun ‘she’ is used. and nominative nouns have no ending at all. Huset ble ikke ferdig innen de solgte det. Boka må skrives innen man kan selge den.nominative: stol chair Fem. If the noun refers to animals with a certain kind of personality.’ otherwise den ‘it’ is used also for animals in masculine or feminine.’ Han and hun are much more commonly used about things in spoken and (partly also) in written Norwegian than it is in English.’ d.the wrote about her ‘The queen was happy because the news paper wrote about her. the pronoun den ‘it’ is used. (1) a.
3.beds. The ending -er: Most nouns ending in a consonant belong to this group: prest prest-er ‘clergyman .the’s ‘the flies’‘ Thus the plural endings -er/-r and -ene/-ne come first.hands.indefinite .the ‘the apples’ eple-ne-s apples.’ seng .the’s ‘the chairs’’ flue-ne flies. singular or plural.klør ‘claw .1 Number Most Norwegian nouns are inflected in number.indefinite .the ‘the flies’ flue-ne-s flies.definite .’ bok . There are three different ways of forming plural in Norwegian.genitive: stol-er-s chairs’ flu-a-s fly.’ Some words get umlaut in plural.clergymen.’ or nouns with the ending -else: fristelse .’ .føtter ‘foot .Singular .genitive: stol-en-s chair.the ‘the chairs’ Plural .hender ‘hand .senger ‘bed . which means a change of the root vowel: fot .feet.tær ‘toe .’ linje linjer ‘line .’ tå .bøker ‘book .the ‘the apple’ eple-t-s apple.the’s ‘the chair’s’ (2) Plural .the’s ‘the apples’’ flue-r-s flies’ Plural .the ‘the chair’ ‘the fly’ Singular .definite .’ hånd .definite .the fly. above all monosyllabic words that end with a vowel: klo .claws.definite .nominative: stol-ene chairs.3.the’s ‘the apple’s’ Singular .lines.genitive: stol-ene-s chairs.’ The ending -r: Only a few nouns belong to this group.1.indefinite .the’s ‘the fly’s’ flue-r flies eple-r apples eple-r-s apples’ eple-ne apples.nominative: stol-en flu-a chair.genitive: stol-s chair’s flue-s fly’s eple-s apple’s eple-t apple.fristelser ‘temptation temptations.books.nominative: stol-er chairs Plural .toes. They are followed by the ending for genitive case -s.
and -et/-t in neuter.’ smil . (1) mannens hest man. genitive was used after the preposition til ‘to. The genitive endings are very easy to learn.the ‘apple’ ‘the apple’ 3. and Europa ‘Europe’ have a definite meaning in themselves and cannot co-occur with a definite article.sisters.the ‘book’ ‘the book’ eple eple-t apple apple.smil ‘smile .suggestions.’ and there are for that reason quite a few expressions with til ‘to’ followed by a genitive noun .’ No ending: Almost all neuter nouns that end in a consonant belong to this group: hus . namely to indicate possession and similar relations between two nouns or between two noun phrases.forslag ‘suggestion .’ 3. Maria.’ mønster . Proper nouns as Peter. The genitives have one single function.hus ‘house .3.3 Case Norwegian makes a distinction between two cases: nominative and genitive. (1) kjempe kjempe-n giant giant.’ forslag .the’s decision ‘today’s decision’ hus hus-et house house.1.houses.the ‘chair’ ‘the chair’ In ancient Norwegian.’ søster .søstre ‘sister .The ending -e: Most nouns ending in -er in singular belong to this group: baker bakere ‘baker .the’s room ‘the rooms of the house’ dagens beslutning day.patterns.3. the suffix -s is attached at the end of the word (after other endings).the ‘giant’ ‘the giant’ bok bok-a book book.the ‘house’ ‘the house’ stol stol-en chair chair. -a in feminine.1.smiles.bakers.the’s horse ‘the man’s horse’ min brors kone my brother’s wife ‘my brother’s wife’ Hennings bil Henning’s car ‘Henning’s car’ Jupiters måner Jupiter’s moons ‘Jupiter’s moons’ husets rom house.mønstre ‘pattern .2 Definiteness Norwegian nouns normally have one definite and one indefinite form. Indefinite nouns have no ending while nouns that are definite take the ending -en/-n in masculine.
2 Number Proper nouns are not inflected for number. Tromsø er vakkert. Bergen. such as Peter and Hedda.1.1 Gender Names of persons are always masculine or feminine nouns. Many of these expressions have a special meaning. Min Hedda my Hedda ‘my Hedda’ 3.GEN ‘on foot (only when it is referred to the movement)’ til sjøs to sea. (1) a.1. Names of persons are always in the singular. Tromsø is beautiful.’ Mitt Tromsø my.’ Filippinene ‘the Philippines. Mongolia Plural: Færøyene ‘the Faeroe Islands.with the -s suffix. in the same way as common nouns.’ 3. Singular: Oslo.GEN ‘by sea (only about sailors’ til bords to table.’ b. they can constitute the head of a noun phrase. Hedda is beautiful ‘Hedda is beautiful.4. and partly place names such as Norge ‘Norway’ and Tromsø. They are fundamentally devoid of meaning (even though Peter always must indicate a man and Hedda a woman).1.1. while place names can be either singular or plural. but they may have attributes both before and after them. and therefore they can be used only in special cases: (2) til skogs to forest.4. In writing proper nouns are spelled with an initial capital letter.NEUT Tromsø ‘my Tromsø’ . Hedda er vakker.GEN ‘to the forest’ til fots to foot. without attributes. Mjøsa.4.3 Syntactic function Proper nouns are very often used on their own. 3.4 Proper names Proper nouns are partly names of persons. Accordingly. while place names are normally neuter.GEN ‘to/at the table (only about meals’ 3.’ Alpene ‘the Alps.NEUT ‘Tromsø is beautiful.
1.’ and gammel ‘old.2. gutten fra Tromsø boy. min mann my husband b.’ liten ‘little/small.the ‘the lady with the hat’ d.’ vidunderlig ‘wonderful.’ and norsk ‘Norwegian’ are thus adjectives.the with hat. .4 Inflection Proper nouns are normally not inflected for number or definiteness. they can be inflected in the genitive.’ kritisk ‘critical.’ and aktuell ‘current. or nationality.’ Many adjectives are also derived by suffixes.(1) a. by adding the genitive suffix -s.’ rund ‘round. dama med hatten lady.’ ung ‘young. size. such as bra ‘good.the ‘the little girl’ min Espen my Espen den lille Karin the little Karin ‘the little Karin’ Lise med flettene Lise with plaits. (1) Henning-s bror Henning’s brother Eva-s stil Eva’s essay Lise-s idé Lise’s idea 3.’ Adjectives modify nouns.the from Tromsø ‘the boy from Tromsø’ 3.’ stor ‘big/large. form. den lille jenta the little girl.1 Form Adjectives often only contain a root.2 ADJECTIVES A typical adjective is a word that denotes a property.the ‘Lise with the plaits’ Hedda fra Narvik Hedda from Narvik ‘Hedda from Narvik’ c. such as colour. up-todate. So are the more abstract words farlig ‘dangerous. However. and they inflect in accordance with this noun (concord): (1) en stor hest a big horse ei god bok a good book et stort hus a big house Adjectives may also be inflected for comparison: (2) stor større størst big bigger biggest svak svakere svakest weak weaker weakest 3.’ stor ‘big/large.4. The words rød ‘red.
’ 3.PL cars Contrastive notes: The English group should note that concord is lacking in English . They are inflected for comparison taking the positive. such as -abel: riskabel ‘risky. number. and definiteness: (2) en stor bil a big car et stort hus a big. and the superlative forms: (1) stor større størst big bigger biggest They are also inflected for concord with the noun they are modifying in gender.NEUT house den store bilen the big. masculine’ -sk: engelsk ‘English’ -isk: erotisk ‘erotic’ statistisk ‘statistical’ årlig ‘annually’ -som: hjelpsom ‘helpful’ -et(e): klossete ‘clumsy’ -ende: levende ‘alive’ slitsom ‘tiresome’ Norwegian also has many words with the international (latin) suffixes.’ diskutabel ‘questionable.DEF car flere store biler many big. the comparative.2.’ intensiv ‘intensive.(1) -bar: merkbar ‘noticable’ -ig: lydig ‘obedient’ bærbar ‘portable’ -lig: mannlig ‘manly.2 Inflection Adjectives are inflected in two ways.’ and -iv: massiv ‘massive.
it can have neuter singular -t: stort. o becomes ø.The German and Icelandic groups should add that concord involves the category case.the det store huset the big house. or it can have -e: stor-e.3. and both the definite form and the plural has the ending –e. They are then inflected for gender. or u becomes y. Comparative and superlative forms express a comparison. (3 gamm eldr eldst ) el e olde olde old r st mindr minst e smal small smalle l er st liten bedr e g bette ood r bra b est b est dårli dårlige dårlig g re st bad worse worst Some adjectives are inflected for comparison with mer ‘more’ and mest ‘most.2.2 Concord Norwegian adjectives normally agree with the noun/pronoun they are modifying. Differences in gender are only found in singular. They can be in the positive. number.’ See the adjective phrase 2.2. In these cases the stem vowel is mutated (i-umlaut): a becomes e. (1) a.the to store hus two big houses .1 Comparison Norwegian adjectives are inflected for the comparison. or in the superlative.2. in the superlative the suffix -est is added. in the comparative. Therefore there are only three different types: the adjective can lack the ending: stor ‘big’. (1) svak svakere svakest weak weaker weakest sterk sterkere sterkest strong stronger strongest Some common adjectives form their comparative by adding -re and their superlative by adding -st. Comparative is formed by adding the suffix -ere.the ‘a big car’ ‘the big car’ b. en stor bil den store bilen a big car the big car. and definiteness.2 3. (2) lang lengre lengst long longer longest stor større størst big bigger biggest ung yngre yngst young younger youngest Some common adjectives have one root in its positive form and another root in its comparative and superlative forms. 3.the ‘the big cars’ de store husene the big houses. et stort hus a big house to store biler two big cars ‘two big cars’ de store bilene the big cars.2.
They constitute the nucleus or attribute of a noun phrase.3 PRONOUNS Pronouns are used to replace nouns or to identify them (to point them out). We identify the following types: (1) Personal pronouns: jeg meg min du I me my you Definite articles: den det de the the the Demonstrative pronouns: denne dette den this this that Reflexive pronouns: seg sin .’ 3. Bilene / husene er store. house.‘a big house’ ‘the big house’ ‘two big houses’ ‘the big houses’ The agreement that is illustrated in the two first examples is found in indefinite noun phrases.’ noen ‘some.’ Huset er stort. or pronouns expressing amount or number. it means that he/she believes that the listener knows which person or thing is being referred to.’ han ‘he.’ hun ‘she. but also when the adjective is a predicate.’ mange ‘many.’ Pronouns can be divided into groups in many different ways.. In this reading grammar.the are big ‘The house is big.’ etc.’ ‘The cars/houses are big. car.the is big cars.1 Definite pronouns When the speaker uses definite pronouns. (2) Bilen er stor. we sort them into the following four main types: Definite pronouns Interrrogative pronouns Quantitative pronouns Relational pronouns 3. Pronouns which identify a noun may for instance be demonstratives.the / houses.’ få ‘few.’ den her ‘this. any. such as hvem ‘who.the is big ‘The car is big. such as alle ‘all.3. like denne ‘this.’ hva ‘what.’ etc.’ du ‘you. Typical pronouns that replace a noun are the personal pronouns.’ interrogative. like jeg ‘I.
mine ‘my’ din. Jeg traff Henning.1.1 Personal pronouns Norwegian personal pronouns belong to first person (the speaker). Masc. dine ‘your’ hans ‘his’ hennes ‘her’ dens ‘its’ dets ‘its’ vår. irrespective age and status. dere ‘you’ 3. Fem. The subject form is used when the pronoun constitutes the subject.’ De . though. These three persons can be in the singular or in the plural. du is used almost exclusively to everybody.3. they can have different cases. vi ‘we’ 2.’ Norwegian personal pronouns are the following: (1) Singular: 1. and one possessive form. Henning traff meg. mitt. Henning met me c. the possessive form to denote possession and the object form in all other cases. våre ‘our’ deres ‘your’ deres ‘their’ Plural: 1. second person (the listener). du ‘you’ 3./Fem. or third person (the mentioned). de ‘they’ oss ‘us’ dere ‘you’ dem ‘them’ Previously a more polite form of du ‘you./Fem.himself/herself his/her Reciprocal pronouns: hverandre each other Relative pronouns: som hvilken that which 3. Neut. Masc. (1) a. . vårt. hun ‘she’ 3. was used. Additionally. han ‘he’ 3. I met Henning b./Neut. det ‘it’ meg ‘me’ deg ‘you’ ham ‘him’ henne ‘her’ den ‘it’ det ‘it’ min. den ‘it’ 3.the my ‘Henning ate up my ice cream. Masc. jeg ‘I’ 2. Since the 1970s. Henning spiste opp isen min. ditt. The have one subject form. one object form. Henning ate up ice-cream.
1. det in singular neuter.’ sko-ene ‘shoes-the.The pronouns han ‘he’ and hun ‘she’ only denote human beings and some animals.3. it sits a cat on stairs.the the three houses. Det sitter ei katt på trappa. it rains ‘It’s raining.the.1 3. (1) bilen den hvite bilen de mange bilene car.2 The pronoun det is used as a subject in clauses like the ones below.3 Demonstrative pronouns Norwegian has two demonstrative pronouns: denne ‘this’ and den ‘that.the the white car.the ‘A cat is sitting on the stairs. the definite article is generally a suffix to the noun: bil. Things and abstract phenomena are denoted with the pronoun den or det. and de in plural.2.: denne Singular neut.1. namely when an adjective. Det var hyggelig at du kom./fem.the the many cars. This article is den in singular masculine and feminine.the the red house.’ b. or a numeral precedes the noun. (2) a.the the soft beds. Det regner. Cf.en ‘car.the ‘the car’ ‘the white cars’ ‘the many cars’ senga den myke senga de myke sengene bed. however.the the soft bed.3. it was nice that you came c.the ‘the bed’ ‘the soft bed’ ‘the soft beds’ huset det røde huset de tre husene house.3.’ (1) a. Singular masc.2.’ huset ‘house. a pronoun.1.the ‘the house’ ‘the red house’ ‘the three houses’ See also section 2.the.’ In some cases.’ 3. den ‘it’ for masculine and feminine words. paragraph 3.2 Free definite article In Norwegian. this suffix has to be complemented with an independent article.: dette Plural: disse . det ‘it’ for neuter words.
the Norwegian noun is in the definite form: denne mannen ‘this man. boy.: den that this Singular neut.the ‘The boy saw his watch in the mirror. while the latter is inflected according to the number and gender of the nucleus: sin.the saw knee. Barnet har vasket seg.the ‘The girl saw her arm in the mirror.’ dette året ‘this year. child.’ disse årene ‘these years.the her in mirror.’ de husene ‘those houses.the saw arm. boy.’ f.’ 3. sitt.’ e.1.’ c.the saw watch.’ Many verbs demand a reflexive seg: .’ which refer to the subject in a clause.the saw feet. Gutten så seg i speilet. Jentene vasket seg. Gutten så føttene sine i speilet.the has washed REFL ‘The child had washed itself.the ‘The boy looked in the mirror.the his in mirror.’ g. (1) a.3.the his in mirror.’ b. The former is indeclinable.the his in mirror.’ det huset ‘that house. Jenta så armen sin i speilet. Singular masc.’ d. si.4 Reflexive pronouns Norwegian has a 3rd person reflexive. sine./fem. seg ‘REFL’ and sin ‘REFL. boy. Gutten så klokka si i speilet.’ den veien ‘that way.the ‘The boy saw his feet in the mirror. Gutten så kneet sitt i speilet. girl.: det that these Plural: de those When preceded by a demonstrative pronoun.the ‘The boy saw his knee in the mirror. boy.the saw REFL in mirror.’ den boka ‘this book.this b.the washed ‘The girls washed themselves. REFL girls.
3. REFL in others’ business Erik mixed ‘Erik interfered with other people’s business.10.3. Hedda regreted REFL ‘Hedda was sorry.2. Vi diskuterer ofte med hverandre.1.6 Relative pronouns Norwegian relative clauses are usually initiated with the subjunction som ‘that.1. huset hvis eier nettopp hadde dødd house.’ 3.’ and hvilken ‘which.’ The pronoun hvem ‘who’ refers to a person. Han har hva vi mangler. he has what we lack ‘He has what we lack.’ c. Erik og Hedda elsker hverandre. Norwegian has the relative pronouns hvis ‘whose.’ expressing possession.2 Interrogative pronouns Norwegian interrogative pronouns are primarily hvem ‘who.the whose owner recently had died ‘the house whose owner had died recently’ b.2 and 1.’ See sections 3.’ b.2.’ hva ‘what. However.8.(2) a.5 Reciprocal pronouns When the subject is in the plural. Eva og Jan låner ofte hverandres sykler. this use of these pronouns is rather formal.’ 3. (1) a. Erik blandet seg i andres affærer. and hva ‘what’ may be used when the relative clause lacks a word which can be referred to.’ 3. and a reciprocal action or state is described. and is rarely found in speech and informal writing. while hva ‘what’ refers to a thing or something abstract. we discuss often with each other ‘We often discuss with each other.3. In addition. Hvem ‘who’ may have the genitive form . Hedda angret seg. Eva and Jan borrow often each other’s bikes ‘Eva and Jan often borrow each other’s bikes. Erik and Hedda love each other b. the pronoun hverandre ‘each other/one another’ or hverandres ‘each other’s’ is used: (1) a.
It is inflected according to gender and number: hvilken/hvilket/hvilke ‘who/which. (2) a. Hva skjer på mandag? what happens on Monday The pronoun hvilken ‘which’ refers to persons as well as to things. Hvem snakket du med? who talked you with ‘Who did you talk to?’ c.’ Unlike hvem ‘who’ and hva ‘what.’ it requires a limited quantity to choose from. Hvilket er ditt hus? which is your house c. Hvem sine bøker er dette? who his/her books are this ‘Whose books are these?’ e. Hvilke er dine votter? which are your mittens ‘Which ones are you mittens?’ d. Hvilken er di kusine? which is your cousin ‘Which one is your cousin?’ b. Therefore hvilken ‘which’ is frequently an adjunct of a noun.hvems ‘whose. Hva har du kjøpt? what have you bought ‘What did you buy?’ f.the my ‘Who has stolen my slippers?’ b. Hvilken jente mener du? which girl mean you ‘Which girl do you mean?’ . Hvem har stjålet tøflene mine? who has stolen slippers. (1) a.’ but it is more common to use hvem followed by the reflexive pronoun sin/si/sitt/sine. Hvems bøker er dette? whose books are this ‘Whose books are these?’ d.
’ få ‘few. and samtlige ‘all’ normally just with indefinite form. To express the totality of a countable singular noun. however.’ hver ‘every.’ alt smøret ‘all the butter. The word all/alle ‘all’ can be combined either with indefinite or with definite form.the ‘all milk’ ‘all the milk’ begge spillerne both players ‘both players’ alle spillere all players ‘all players’ alle spillerne all players.’ begge ‘both. (1) a.1 Totality pronouns Norwegian uses the pronouns all/alle ‘all. Hver student må kunne dette.’ The words samtlige ‘all’ and begge ‘both’ are both used in the plural.3. The word all ‘all’ in the singular refers to uncountable nouns: all melka ‘all the milk.’ begge ‘both.’ It also occurs independently at the end of the clause. and it agrees in gender with this noun: hver mann ‘each man. .’ mange ‘many. 3. (1) all melk all melken all milk all milk.’ mye ‘much.’ hele dagen ‘the whole day. Common pronouns.’ and hele ‘whole’ to indicate that the set of referents is in its totality without exclusion.’ In general.3.’ and ingen ‘nobody’ belong to this group.’ hver kvinne ‘each woman. like alle ‘all.e.3 Quantitative pronouns Quantitative pronouns give information about share or quantity. the pronoun hele ‘whole’ is used: hele huset ‘the whole house. Hvilket hus er størst? which house is biggest ‘Which house is the biggest?’ f.3.the ‘the whole play’ samtlige spillere all players ‘all players’ 3.the ‘all the players’ hele spillet whole play.’ hvert hus ‘each house.’ This pronoun always occurs together with an indefinite noun in the singular. Hvilke biler er eldst? which cars are oldest? ‘Which cars are the oldest?’ 3.3.2 Distributive pronouns The most common distributive pronoun in Norwegian is hver ‘every/each.’ samtlige ‘all the…. Begge ‘both’ and hele ‘whole’ can only be combined with definite form.3. these words are used in the plural.
De kjøpte hver sine to aviser. Man kan ofte skylde på sin partner.’ In addition. boys.the ‘Ones/Your partner is often ones/your worst critic. there are many pronouns that consist of an interrogative and som helst ‘anyhow/anyway/any time’ etc. one can often blame on ones partner ‘One/you can often blame ones/your partner.. Vi betalte 50 kroner hver.’ If something is equally shared. we payed 50 Crowns each Other distributive pronouns are hver eneste ‘every’ and the combined forms hver og en ‘each’ and hver sin/hvert sitt’each.3. . Om noen prater med en i byen . it refers to a person.. The direct object form of the pronoun is en and the genitive form ens ‘ones. Ens partner er ofte den verste kritikeren.’ b.the got each his ice-cream ‘The boys were given an ice cream each. they bought each their two newspapers ‘They bought two papers each. Guttene fikk hver sin is.’ 3.’ The word man ‘one’ is often used instead of jeg ‘I.3 Generalising pronouns A very common pronoun in Norwegian is man ‘one/you.every student must could this ‘Every student must know this.’ (1) a.’ b. ones partner is often the worst critic.’ c.the ‘If somebody talks to you in town…’ c. they bought each their house ‘They bought one house each.3. hver sin ‘each’ is used to express this. (2) a. if somebody talks with one in town.’ Without further specifications.’ b. De kjøpte hvert sitt hus.
the stole a bike .3.5 The indefinite article The indefinite article in Norwegian is en in masculine. we have bought a new car b.(2) a. I will not live where that ever ‘I don’t want to live just anywhere. Jeg aksepterer hva som helst. who that ever can do this ‘Anyone can do this. (1) mange bøker få bøker many books few books mye vin lite vin much wine little wine mye epler lite epler much apples little apples Partly. Hvem som helst kan gjøre dette.’ 3. I accept what that ever ‘I accept anything. Vi har kjøpt en ny bil. mye vin mere vin mest vin much wine more wine most wine d. Jeg vil ikke bo hvor som helst. (1) a. Guttene stjal en sykkel.’ b.3.’ c. it is impossible to separate it from the numeral en/ei/ett. mange bøker flere bøker flest bøker many books more books most books b. it is unstressed. but in writing. boys.4 Multitude pronouns The most common multitude pronouns are mange ‘many’ and få ‘few.’ which refer to countable nouns and mye ‘much’ and lite ‘little. (2) a. lite vin mindre vin minst vin little wine less wine least wine 3. ei in feminine.3. Normally.’ which refer to uncountable nouns or nouns that indicate a quantity.3. these pronouns can be compared. and et in neuter. få bøker færre bøker færrest bøker few books fewer books fewest books c.
(2) a. (1) a. Vi har kjøpt nye biler.the ‘There is a book (lying) on the table. something has happened c.the ‘There are books (lying) on the table. it signifies a thing or a phenomenon. it refers to a person.’ b.3. .3. Lena wrapped them in in red papers ‘Lena wrapped them in red wrapping papers.’ c. it lies a book on table. Noe har hendt.’ When used independently in masculine and feminine. The plural form normally signifies persons. Lena pakket dem inn i røde papir. she placed a cross in square. we have bought new cars b. Det ligger ei bok på bordet. when used independently in neuter.’ f.’ c. someone has stolen slippers my ‘Someone has stolen my slippers. Lena wrapped it in in a red paper ‘Lena wrapped it in a red wrapping paper.’ e. Lena pakket den inn i et rødt papir.the ‘She ticked off the box. we drove passed a church ‘We passed a church.‘The boys stole a bike.6 Indefinite pronouns The most common indefinite pronoun is noen/noe ‘someone/something/anyone/anything. Hun satte et kryss i ruta. it lies books on table. Noen ble irriterte.’ d. Noen har stjålet tøflene mine. Det ligger bøker på bordet.’ 3. Vi kjørte forbi ei kirke.’ There is no indefinite plural article in Norwegian.
’ b.’ The pronoun is often used together with a noun.’ c. Kari behøver ikke noen penger.7 Negating pronouns The pronoun ingen/intet ‘nobody. he ran some kilometers ‘He ran a few kilometers. nobody knows what we shall do . Ingen vet hva vi skal gjøre. certain women believe that he comes to to fail ‘Certain (women) believe that he’ll fail. In neuter it refers to a thing or a phenomenon.’ 3. (1) a. (3) a.’ c. The neuter form is rather formal. Har du noen penger? have you any money ‘Do you have any money?’ d. any (more than nothing). Then it means ‘some.the ‘Some fishermen were talking on the bridge.3.’ They are normally only used in the plural.3. Han sprang noen kilometer.’ b. Visse (kvinner) tror at han kommer til å mislykkes. no/nothing’ can be independent.’ and visse ‘certain.’ adskillige ‘several. some men believe that he comes to to manage it ‘Some (men) believe that he’ll succeed. Adskillige (barn) håper at han kommer til å snuble. Noen fiskere stod og pratet på brua. Kari needs not any money ‘Kari doesn’t need any money.someone became irritated ‘Someone was irritated. and it is not very common in speech and in informal writing.’ Other indefinite pronouns in Norwegian are enkelte ‘some. Enkelte (menn) tror at han kommer til å klare det.’ (2) a. several children hope that he comes to to trip ‘Several (children) hope that he’ll trip. some fishermen stood and talked on bridge. and in masculine and feminine it then refers to a person.
’ c. we found nothing When the object is a negated pronoun (ingenting ‘nothing’) or a noun phrase with ingen (ingen sykkel ‘no bike’) it cannot be placed further to the right than the negation. (2) a. he had not seen anything 3. he had nothing seen * Han hadde kjøpt ingen sykkel. he had bought no bike Han hadde ingen sykkel kjøpt. we got no money The pronoun ingenting ‘nothing’ refers to things. However. Vi fant ingenting. he had not bought any bike c.’ It is also possible to combine a negative pronoun with a noun. Intet forslag kunne være dummere. the constructions in (4c).3. as illustrated by the ungrammaticality of (4a). Intet er mer ubehagelig enn en lungebetennelse. Ingenting har hendt.‘Nobody knows what to do. Ingen bok ble solgt.er ‘No suggestion could be more stupid.’ b. (3) a. but may be found in literary texts. no suggestion could be stupid. Han hadde ingenting sett.’ b. nothing is more unpleasant than a pneumonia ‘Nothing is more unpleasant than pneumonia. * Han hadde sett ingenting. Vi fikk ingen penger. he had no bike bought Han hadde ikke kjøpt noen sykkel. no book became sold ‘No book was sold. nothing has happened b.4 Relational pronouns . Han hadde ikke sett noenting. with the negation (ikke ‘not’) and a positive pronoun (noenting ‘something/anything’) or a noun phrase with noen (noen sykkel ‘some/any bike’). he had seen nothing b. are generally preferred: (4) a. The examples in (4b) are rarely used in speech.
’ likedan ‘similar.’ likedan ‘similar.4.the ‘the latest novel’ dette første forsøket this first try.3.3.’ samme ‘same. while the remaining ones agree with the gender of the noun: annen/annet/andre ‘other. Normally.1 Comparative pronouns The most common comparative pronouns are annen ‘other.’ or focus.’ likedan ‘similar. samme forslag ( som forrige gang ) same suggestion as last time c.4. (1) den siste romanen the last novel. such as selv ‘self. (2) a.’ and slik ‘such’ can be combined with a som ‘as/that’-phrase. et annet forslag ( enn dette ) an other suggestion than this b. They can express comparisons.’ slik/slikt/slike ‘such.the ‘this first try’ det siste forsøket the last try. such as samme ‘same. They include words such as første ‘first. et likedant / slikt forslag ( som Hedda presenterte ) a similar / such suggestion as Hedda presented ‘a similar/such a suggestion (as that Hedda presented)’ 3.’ Samme ‘same’ is principally indeclinable.’ midterste ‘middle.’ forrige ‘former.2 Ordinative pronouns Ordinative pronouns express succession in time or space.3 Perspective pronouns .’ neste ‘next.’ spatial comparisons.’ siste ‘last. while samme ‘same.’ etc.Norwegian has a number of relational pronouns.’ succession. they are indeclineable.’ 3. such as borterste ‘further.’ likedan/likedant/likedanne ‘similar.the ‘the last try’ neste gang next time ‘next time’ min forrige hustru my last wife ‘my former wife’ 3.’ (1) en annen bil an other car et likedant hus a similar house et slikt hus a such house (= ‘such a house’) Annen ‘other’ can be combined with a enn ‘than’-phrase. such as første ‘first.4.’ and slik ‘such.3.
the self ‘the king himself’ vi selv we self ‘we ourselves’ selve kongen self king.Perspective pronouns state position in proportion to something else.’ nedre ‘lower. It can also be definite.4.’ eneste ‘only.the ‘the very king’ selve det innerste self the innermost ‘the innermost itself’ . and a definiteness suffix).’ Selv ‘self’ can be indefinite. These pronouns can occur with both indefinite and definite nouns. i feil retning in wrong direction ‘in the wrong direction’ den feile retninga the wrong direction. and a number of pronouns that state position. they generally combine with an indefinite noun without any article. and then it precedes the noun: selve ‘self.the ‘the right place’ d.’ (1) kongen selv king.’ fremre ‘front. på / i høyre hånd on / in right hand ‘on/in the right hand’ den høyre hånda.the the middle lift.the ‘the right hand’ den søndre sida the southern side. (1) a.’ In addition.the thefurthercorner.’ blotte ‘mere.3.’ egen ‘own. They include høyre ‘right’ and venstre ‘left. and require double definiteness (both a prenominal definite article.’ hitre ‘the one nearer. the right hand.’ midterste ‘middle. (2) de nærmest stolen n e de ytre veggen n exterio the nearest chair. Otherwise they behave like an adjective.the ‘the wrong direction’ Most of the words mainly occur only in definite phrases. like øvre ‘upper. the words rett ‘right’ and feil ‘wrong’ belong to this group.the ‘on the southern side ‘on the south side’ c.the the wall.’ the points of the compass. på søndre side (= på sørsida ) on southern side on south-side. på rett sted on right place ‘on the right place’ det rette stedet the right place. and then it follows its noun.4 Focusing pronouns The focusing pronouns in Norwegian are selv ‘self.the r ‘the nearest chair’ ‘the further corner’ ‘the middle lift’ ‘the exterior wall’ de bortre hjørnet t de midterst heise n e n 3.the ‘the southern side’ b. Used in preposition phrases.
’ gi ‘to give.’ They are inflected for tense (present or past). verbs may have different forms in the infinitive and in the imperative. The infinitive generally ends in -e.’ falle ‘to fall. Root: gå go tro believe .’ kjøpe ‘to buy. Sometimes the weak egne occurs after the definite article. and they may also have a specific form for commands (the imperative).’ arbeide ‘to work. Norwegian verbs also have a passive form.4 VERBS Verbs denote events or actions: snø ‘to snow.4. The verbs kjøpe ‘to buy’ and gi ‘to give’ may be inflected for all these categories. Principally.The pronoun egen ‘own’ intensifies a phrase with a genitive attribute. (1) Present kjøper buy(s) gir give(s) Past kjøpte bought ga gave Imperative kjøp! buy! gi! give! Passive present kjøpes is-bought gis is-given 3. (2) min egen bil my own car hans eget forslag his own suggestion hennes egne romaner her own novels det egne forslaget suggestion (= the own ‘his/her own suggestion’) 3. (1) Imperative snakk! talk! bytt! change! kjenn! feel! syng! sing! Infinitive snakke talk bytte change kjenne feel synge sing Verbs may be formed in the following way: (2) a.1 Form In Norwegian.but only in the present tense. this pronoun always has strong inflection: egen/eget/egne.
Derivational prefix + root: be-høve need e. whereas the variant with the particle to the right is more natural and common in spoken language. Root + -e suffix: snakke talk kaste throw smalne become narrow c. which may be placed both before and after the verb. When the particle is placed after the verb. Root + derivational suffix: svartne become black.’ b. he pressed out mayonnaise.the went off ‘The light went off. .4.b.4. Hun ble oppsagt.’ Hun ble sagt opp. government. she became said up ‘She was fired.1.1 Compounding with particles Norwegian has verb particles.the from tube.’ The prefixed variant (to the left above) is more formal and common in written language. teacher. and we then get a stylistic difference. Han uttrykker seg bra. (1) a. it is prefixed to it.went ‘The government resigned. see paragraph 3. she became up.’ Han trykte ut majonesen fra tuben.presses REFL well ‘He expresses himself well.’ b.’ Sometimes both variants can be used in the same expression. like av-bryte have special properties. Regjeringen avgikk.1.the placed forward a hypothesis ‘The teacher put forward a hypothesis. light. it normally has a more concrete interpretation.1 3.’ Læreren satte frem en hypotese.the off. he out. Læreren fremsatte en hypotese. When the particle is placed before the verb.said ‘She was fired. and it is then often used in a more abstract sense. teacher.placed a hypothesis ‘The teacher put forward a hypothesis. Compound: støv-suge dust-suck ‘vacuum’ av-bryte off-break ‘interrupt’ for-akte despise Compounds with a particle and a verb root.the ‘He pressed the mayonnaise out of the tube.the forward. (2) a. blacken d.’ Lyset gikk av.
Knut kissed Else b. we danced a dance / a tango . Henning broke off speaker. Linda looked on Erik ‘Linda looked at Erik. If the object is a personal pronoun it occurs in the object form: meg ‘me.4. Henning broke off branch.the Henning avbrøt taleren. he talked with her about you ‘He talked to her about you. you gave me a book Du ga ei bok til meg. Linda kjører fort.’ 3. Erik talked with Linda about Else ‘Erik talked to Linda about Else. Linda så på Erik.’ oss ‘us.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs In Norwegian clauses. Else ga Knut ei bok.Often. only one of the variants is allowed. Henning off.the ‘Henning broke off the branch. I kissed you Du ga meg ei bok. Linda drives fast Hun kjører fort. (3) a. Henning off. Erik snakket med Linda om Else. she looked on him ‘She looked at him.the * Henning avbrøt greina. (3) a. we danced Vi danset en dans / en tango. Knut kysset Else. The verb may also have one or two objects and additionally they may have prepositional objects. she drives fast Hun så på ham.’ c.’ etc. Else gave Knut a book c. * Henning brøt av taleren. Else ga ei bok til Knut. Transitive verbs: (1) a. you gave a book to me b. there is always a subject. that is an object which means approximately the same as the verb. Verbs that take an object are called transitive. Else gave a book to Knut Intransitive verbs: (2) a.the ‘Henning interrupted the speaker.’ Some intransitive verbs may have a cognate object.’ b.’ Han snakket med henne om deg. Vi danset. Henning brøt av greina.broke speaker.’ Jeg kysset deg.broke branch.
for instance.’ b. (5) a.’ c.’ 3. They can be used to express. Henning regretted REFL ‘Henning regretted it.’ b. REFL they shaved they shaved patient. Eva vasket seg.3 Auxiliaries In Norwegian there are auxiliaries and modals of different kinds. she slept Hun sov sin skjønnhetssøvn.the ‘Eva washed herself.’ c.’ ‘They shaved the patient. Lise married REFL ‘Lise got married. It refers to the subject of the clause. De barberte pasienten. cf.4. This is seg in the third person. Henning angret seg. Lise giftet seg. cf.’ ‘She hid the refugee.b. Hun sov. cf. she slept her beauty. or to make the clause passive. Eva washed REFL Eva washed child. Lena må skynde seg. The Norwegian verbs used to express time are the following: (1) Infinitive skulle komme ha Present skal kommer har Past skullet kom hadde Past participle skullet kommet hatt future future past .’ Some verbs have a reflexive pronoun that cannot be exchanged for an ordinary object. (4) a.the ‘They shaved themselves. Lena must hurry REFL ‘Lena must hurry. Hun gjemte seg. REFL she hid she hid refugee.’ ‘Eva washed the child. time (tense).the ‘She hid herself. Eva vasket barnet.sleep Many verbs may take a reflexive pronoun. De barberte seg. Hun gjemte flyktningen.
Skal ‘shall’ is followed by the infinitive and it expresses future (often with a certain sense of intention). you have helped me To create a passive sentence. permission. have to’ ‘ought to’ ‘let. it expresses future (without any intention).the ‘She was sent to the hospital. she could not save REFL . he should run a lap b. Du kommer til å hjelpe meg.’ Norwegian also has several modal verbs.1. see paragraph 3. Kommer ‘comes’ is followed by til å ‘to’ and the infinitive. or the like.’ b. Hun kunne ikke berge seg. be able to’ ‘want to’ ‘must. she became driven to hospital. Du har hjulpet meg. obligation. you come to to help me ‘You will help me.’ which is followed by the past participle. The most common modal verbs are inflected like this.) The verb bli inflects in the following way: (3) Infinitive bli Present blir Past ble Past participle blitt (4) Hun ble kjørt til sykehuset. Du skal hjelpe meg. (5) Infinitive skulle kunne ville måtte burde la få Present skal kan vil må bør lar får Past skullet kunne ville måtte burde lot fikk Past participle skullet kunnet villet måttet — latt fått ‘shall’ ‘can. you shal help me ‘You will help me. permit’ ‘get to. Norwegian may use the verb bli ‘become. (Norwegian also uses the special s-form of the verb to make a clause passive in many cases. wish. be allowed to’ (6) a. and it expresses that something has happened.’ c. (2) a. They are always followed by the infinitive.9.4. These are used to express intention. Han skulle springe en runde. Ha ‘have’ is followed by a past participle.
is going to buy’ Future is also very often expressed by just the present form: . (1) Simple present kaster throw(s) kjøper buy(s) Simple past kastet threw kjøpte bought The other tenses are formed by using an auxiliary. or the auxiliary kommer ‘comes.4 Tense Norwegian expresses three tenses. is going to throw’ kommer til å kjøpe comes to to buy ‘will buy.’ Present uses the present tense of ha. (2) Perfect har kastet has thrown har has kjøpt bought Pluperfect hadde kastet had thrown hadde had kjøpt bought Future is formed with the auxiliary skal ‘will. is going to throw’ skal kjøpe shall buy ‘will buy.’ which is followed by til å and the infinitive. and the pluperfect uses the past tense of ha. past (before now). hadde.’ which is followed by the infinitive. har.’ 3.‘She could not save herself. and future (after now) by using special verb forms or by combining an auxiliary with a certain verb form. Only the present and past tenses have their own verb forms. we let them walk. ‘We will let them walk. The auxiliary ha is always followed by the past participle (which always ends in -t). (3) skal kaste shall throw ‘will throw. Skal normally expresses intention. is going to buy’ kommer til å kaste comes to to throw ‘will throw. which kommer does not.’ c. Vi lar dem gå. present (now). shall. Perfect and pluperfect are formed with the auxiliary ha ‘have.4.
’ hevde ‘maintain.’ huske ‘remember. The three most common ways to inflect verbs are shown below.the about e while ‘We close (will close) the shop in a while.5.4.’ kaste . kjøpe bygge sy 3.’ d. (1) Infinitive 1. Past participle: Vi har allerede hentet den.1 First conjugation The first conjugation has -et in the past tense. Imperative: Ikke hent bilen! not fetch car. he fetches not newspaper.’ 3.4. 3. The strong verbs change the stem vowel in the past.the ‘Don’t fetch the car. Most Norwegian verbs are inflected this way. gå Imperative spark! kjøp! bygg! sy! gå! Present sparker kjøper bygger syr går Past sparket kjøpte bygde sydde gikk Past participle sparket kjøpt bygd sydd gått ‘kick’ ‘buy’ ‘build’ ‘sew’ ‘walk’ See the following paragraphs.(4) Vi stenger butikken om ei stund. Past: Hun hentet den i går. trade.’ havne ‘end up. The different forms are illustrated with the verb hente ‘fetch’ below. Present: Han henter ikke avisen sin. claim.’ handle ‘buy.’ håpe ‘hope. she fetched it yesterday e.’ jobbe ‘work. (1) a.the his ‘He doesn’t fetch his newspaper. sparke 2.5 The conjugations The weak verbs in Norwegian have a -de or -te in the past form. arbeide ‘work.’ flytte ‘move. Infinitive: Vi kan hente Per. we have already fetched it Many other very frequent verbs are inflected in the same way. we can fetch Per b.’ c.’ hente ‘fetch. we close shop.
Imperative: Ikke bygg huset! not build house. count.’ b.’ 3. or -te.4.’ understreke ‘emphasize. arrive.’ koste ‘cost. I shall build it tomorrow ‘I will build it tomorrow.’ ramme ‘strike. Present: Han kjøper ofte bøker he buys often books ‘He often buys books.’ sikte ‘aim. speak.’ skaffe ‘provide.’ miste ‘lose. Infinitive: Vi skal kjøpe den i morgen. Imperative: Ikke kjøp bilen! not buy car.’ c. Infinitive: Jeg skal bygge den i morgen. Past: Hun kjøpte den i går.’ ønske ‘wish.the ‘Don’t build the house.the ‘Don’t buy the car.’ tyde ‘interpret.’ satse ‘bet. Past participle: De har allerede kjøpt den.’ samle ‘collect. they have already bought it (2) a.’ skade ‘hurt.’ stoppe ‘stop.’ vente ‘wait.5. she bought it yesterday e.’ passe ‘fit.’ virke ‘seem.’ (1) a. Present: Han bygger ofte hus he builds often houses ‘He often builds houses.’ c. want. lack.’ d.’ .’ mangle ‘miss.’ starte ‘start.’ åpne ‘open. we shall buy it tomorrow ‘We will buy it tomorrow. harm.’ sikre ‘secure. Below the verb forms are illustrated for kjøpe ‘buy’ and bygge ‘build.’ b.’ utvikle ‘develop. ensure.’ lede ‘lead.’ støtte ‘support.2 Second conjugation The smaller class of weak verbs in Norwegian contains two subclasses: The first subclass As in the first conjugation has imperative forms ending in a consonant and past tense forms in -de.’ lande ‘land.‘throw.’ snakke ‘talk.’ regne ‘rain.
’ kjenne ‘feel.’ føle ‘feel.’ velge ‘choose.’ mene ‘mean.’ trenge ‘need.’ feie ‘sweep.’ eie ‘own. think.’ b. e. Past participle: Han har allerede sydd den.’ spille ‘play.’ kjøre ‘drive.’ fortelle ‘tell. ha ‘have’ is inflected according to this conjugation.’ sydde ‘sewed’ — sydd ‘sewn’: (3) a.’ øve ‘practice. pose.’ tygge ‘chew. they get the ending -r: ror ‘rows. we shall sprinkle salt on it ‘We’ll sprinkle salt on it tomorrow.’ Several common verbs are inflected like bygge: behøve ‘need. Infinitive: Vi skal sy den i morgen. they sprinkled salt on it De har strødd salt på den.’ kjøpe ‘buy. they have sprinkled salt on it. .’ betale ‘pay.’ vare ‘last.’ bygge ‘build. she sewed it yesterday De strødde salt på den.’ syr ‘sews.’ stille ‘place. Both the infinitive and the imperative are identical to the stem ro ‘row.’ reise ‘travel. Imperative: Sy en bluse! sew a blouse Vi skal strø salt på den.’ øke ‘increase.’ hete ‘be called.’ lage ‘make.’ tape ‘lose.’ tenke ‘think.’ Strø salt på den! sprinkle salt on it De strør salt på den.’ finnes ‘exist.’ d.’ The second subclass This subclass contains verbs with stems ending in a stressed vowel.’ sende ‘send. know.’ bruke ‘use.’ like ‘like. he has already sewn it One of the most common verbs.’ leve ‘live. consider.’ føre ‘lead.d.’ klare ‘manage.’ synes ‘think. they sew a blouse ‘They are sewing a blouse.’ vise ‘show.’ The past and the past participle show the ending -dde and -dd: rodde ‘rowed’ — rodd ‘rowed.’ høre ‘listen.’ selge ‘sell.’ gjøre ‘do.’ sy ‘sew.’ skape ‘create. Present: De syr en bluse.’ tøye ‘stretch. we shall sew it tomorrow ‘We’ll sew it tomorrow.’ bøye ‘bend. Past: Hun sydde den i går. she built it yesterday e.’ In the present tense. hear.’ følge ‘follow.’ møte ‘meet. Past: Hun bygde det i går. Past participle: De har bygd det. they sprinkle salt on it ‘They are sprinkling salt on it.’ c. they have built it Several common verbs are inflected like kjøpe: begynne ‘begin.
Below you find examples of the verbs: velge ‘choose.’ . be.’ The following verbs are conjugated like drikke ‘drink’: binde ‘bind.5.’ stige ‘step.’ (5) Infinitive velge selge følge gjøre smørre burde Imperative velg! selg! følg! gjør! smørr! — Present velger selger følger gjør smører bør Past valgte solgte fulgte gjorde smurte burde Past participle valgt solgt fulgt gjort smurt — ‘choose’ ‘sell’ ‘follow’ ‘do’ ‘grease spread’ ‘ought to’ 3.’ gjøre ‘do. smear. make.’ fryse ‘freeze.’ springe ‘run.’ lyve ‘lie.2 Third conjugation The third conjugation includes several verbs which end in a consonant. (1) Infinitive bite skrive bryte synge drikke finne ta slå bære skjære ligge se komme sove Present biter skriver bryter synger drikker finner tar slår bærer skjærer ligger ser kommer sover Past beit skreiv brøt sang drakk fant tok slo bar skar lå så kom sov Past participle bitt skrevet brutt sunget drukket funnet tatt slått båret skåret ligget sett kommet sovet ‘bite’ ‘write’ ‘break’ ‘sing’ ‘drink’ ‘find’ ‘take’ ‘hit’ ‘carry’ ‘cut’ ‘lie’ ‘see’ ‘come’ ‘sleep’ The following verbs are conjugated like bite ‘bite’: drive ‘drive.’ selge ‘sell.’ sitte ‘sit.’ burde ‘ought to. They typically have a vowel change in the past tense. Some of them also have a vowel change in the past participle. Many of them are quite common.’ finnes ‘exist.’ følge ‘follow.4.’ The following verbs are conjugated like bryte ‘break’: flyte ‘float.’ synke ‘sink. rise. drift.’ smørre ‘grease.’ ride ‘ride.’ rekke ‘reach.’ skryte ‘boast. have time to.(4) Infinitive ha Imperative ha! Present har Past hadde Past participle hatt ‘have’ Sometimes the stem vowel is changed in the past forms of the verbs in the second conjugation.
Norwegian only has two modes: imperative and indicative. The imperative expresses a command. (1) Gå! ‘Walk/Go!’ Spring! ‘Run!’ Sitt! ‘Sit (down)!’
The indicative is the form that is used in all other circumstances. The indicative can be either present or past tense, see further paragraph 3.4.4.
3.4.7 Non-finite forms
The non-finite forms of a verb in Norwegian are infinitive, present participle, and past participle. The infinitive is preceded by the infinitival marker å ‘to’ or by an auxiliary. The present participle follows the verb være ‘be’ or bli ‘become,’ and the past participle follows the auxiliaries ha ‘have,’ være ‘be,’ or bli ‘become.’ (1) a. Infinitive: (å) fascinere (to) fascinate b. Present participle: (de) er fascinerende, (de) blir værende (they) are fascinating, (they) become staying ‘they are fascinating,’ ‘they are staying’ c. Past participle: (han) er fascinert, (hun) er dratt, (vi) ble sett (he) is fascinated, (she) is gone, (we) became seen ‘he is fascinated,’ ‘she has gone,’ ‘we were seen’ The auxiliary være ‘be’ is possible with the past participle of intransitive verbs. Often these verbs express some kind of movement or transition: (2) a. Han er reist. he is gone ‘He has gone.’ b. Jenta er sovnet. girl.the is fallen.asleep ‘The girl has fallen asleep.’ c. Pengene er forsvunnet. money.the is disappeared ‘The money has disappeared.’
The past participle form can also be used in passive clauses with passive, and then the auxiliary bli ‘become’ is used: (3) a. De ble avhørt. they became interrogated ‘They were interrogated.’ b. Sofaen blir flyttet fra rom til rom. couch.the becomes moved from room to room ‘The couch is moved from room to room.’ c. Pengene ble stjålet. money.the became stolen ‘The money got stolen.’ The past participle can also precede a noun. (4) ei (ny)bygd hytte, et (opp)spist smørbrød a (newly)built cottage, an (up)eaten sandwich When the present participle is used with the auxiliary være ‘be’ it denotes an experience. When it is used with bli ‘become’ on the other hand it expresses continuous aspect. (5) a. Filmen var skremmende. film.the was terrifying ‘The film was terrifying.’ b. Situasjonen var opphissende. situation.the was exciting ‘The situation was exciting.’ c. Hun ble gående aleine. she became walking alone ‘She ended up walking alone.’ d. De ble sittende i ro. they became sitting in peace ‘They kept sitting still.’ Present participle is mainly used before nouns. (6) en smittende latter, en arbeidende mann an infectious laughter, a working man
Norwegian verbs do not show agreement with the subject. All forms are the same, regardless of what subject is used. (1) Singular: Plural: 1. jeg røyker ‘I smoke’ vi røyker ‘we smoke’ 2. du røyker ‘you smoke’ dere røyker ‘you smoke’ 3. han/hun/det røyker ‘he/she/it smokes’ de røyker ‘they smoke’
In Norwegian many verbs may take an s-form. The -s is added to the inflected form of the verb and it either turns an active sentence into a passive one or it expresses reciprocity. (1) a. Passive: Døren åpnes plutselig. door.the is.opened suddenly ‘The door is suddenly opened.’ b. Reciprocity: De møttes. they met ‘They met each other.’ See the following paragraphs. Adding the -s to the inflected verb creates the s-form of the verb, so it will always be the last (rightmost) element. When the verb is in the present tense and ends in an -r, this -r disappears when adding the -s. (2) Active S-form Active S-form a. Infinitive: snakke, snakkes; synge, synges talk be.talked sing be.sung
b. Present: snakker, snakkes; synger, synges talks is.talked sings is.sung c. Past: snakket, —; sang, — talked sang d. Past participle: snakket, —; sunget, — talked sung 220.127.116.11 S-passive In Norwegian the s-form of the verb is a common way to create passive sentences. However, the –s-passive is only possible in the present tense. Compare the active sentences on the left below to the passive ones on the right.
grenene på treet on she sat on chair. The most common are: finnes ‘be. Vi snakkes hver fredag.the ‘She sat on the chair.S every Friday ‘We talk to each other every Friday.’ Passive Boka kjøpes ( av Henning ). Henning buys book.built by Lise ‘Lise builds the house.the ‘It is made of marble.the branches. but they may also denote time relations or more abstract relations.4. vasen i skapet in Henning lives in Tromsø vase.’ lykkes ‘succeed.the in cupboard. De møttes i Paris. exist.the is. book.5 Prepositions Prepositions denote a relation between two things.the ‘Henning lives in Tromsø. They are never inflected.’ ‘the branches of the tree’ . Typically.S in Paris ‘They met (each other) in Paris.’ 3.the is. we talk. (1) i: Henning bor i Tromsø.’ ‘one of the boys’ på: Hun satt på stolen.’ b. Lise builds house. Huset bygges ( av Lise ).’ See paragraph 1.12. they met. (1) a.’ Some verbs always have the s-form.’ ‘the vase in the cupboard’ av: De er lagd av marmor.’ ‘The house is built by Lise.(1) Active a.the house.the on tree. Lise bygger huset.2 Other s-forms The s-form of the verb may be used to express that the plural subject does things to each other (reciprocity). Henning kjøper boka.bought by Henning ‘The book is bought by Henning.4 on the passive construction. 3.’ b. The most common prepositions are the following. en av guttene of it is made of marble one of boys.the ‘Henning buys the book. they are short words that denote a local relation.9. These verbs have no s-less form with similar meaning.
’ ‘the book about Emil in Lønneberget’ fra: Hun er fra Salzburg.the with dog. dama med hunden with he wrote with pen. 3.’ The preposition av is often used in abstract contexts when a noun is derived from a verb salget av huset ‘the selling of the house.’ ‘the woman from Reykjavik’ The preposition i is often used in temporal expressions to denote the time of the day i kveld ‘tonight.’ The preposition til is used with verbs like gi ‘give’ and sende ‘send’: Gi den til Karin ‘Give it to Karin. around put it around neck.’ ‘the lady with the dog’ til: Vi reiste til Lund. moten for tiden for it was easy for Lise fashion.the lady. vessel. kvinnen fra Reykjavík from she is from Salzburg woman.’ The preposition med is sometimes used to express content of a case.the to Hedda ‘We went to Lund.’ The preposition om is often used in temporal expression to tell how long it is left until something will happen: Jeg kommer om tre timer ‘I will arrive in three hours.for: Det var lett for Lise.’ ‘the letter to Hedda’ om: Legg den om halsen.the from Reykjavík ‘She is from Salzburg.the for time.’ or when one wants to denote a member of a group: en av guttene ‘one of the boys.6 ADVERBS .the ‘It was easy for Lise.the book.the ‘He wrote with the pen.the about Emil in Lønneberget ‘Put it around your neck.’ See further paragraph 2.’ ‘the fashion of today’ med: Han skreiv med pennen. brevet til Hedda to we traveled to Lund letter. boka om Emil i Lønneberget about. or the like: ei flaske med melk ‘a bottle of milk.’ or how long something takes: arbeide i tre timer ‘work for three hours.5 on prepositional phrases.’ It is also used to express the agent of a passive clause: Prisen deles ut av kongen ‘The price is awarded by the king.’ The preposition på is sometimes used to express that something is a part of something else: beina på stolen ‘the legs of the chair.
or degree. Tiril drives fastest ‘Tiril drives the fastest.6. Henning kjører fortere enn Lise. Nå skal Espen lese. and they can be used to negate the clause. They express. adjectives. but a few of them may be inflected for comparison.1 Morphological properties Adverbs are normally not inflected. time. verbs. .’ Several of the adverbs that are inflected for comparison have a different root in comparative and superlative than they have in the positive form. Henning kjører fort. (1) a. 3. Albert is very old f. Henning drives fast b. Adverbs may modify clauses.’ e. (1) a.The word class of adverbs contains many different sorts of words. now shall Espen read ‘Now Espen will read. place. that is they have specific forms that denotes higher degree (comparative) and highest degree (superlative) in a comparison. Albert er svært gammel. for instance. Henning kan kanskje hjelpe deg. Linda bor her. Lena springer fort. Linda lives here c. Lena runs fast d. or other adverbs. Tiril kjører fortest. Henning drives faster than Lise c. or modify it in another way. this happens quite seldom Adverbs are normally not inflected. Henning can perhaps help you b. Dette skjer ganske sjelden. A few of them can however be inflected for comparison.
’ allerede ‘already.’ lenge ‘long. this way.2 Various types of adverbs Among the most common adverbs we find adverbs that denote or ask for time. like this/like that.’ når ‘when. for a long time. Among these suffixes we find: (2) -vis: gradvis forsøksvis -lig: egentlig virkelig ‘gradually’ ‘tentatively’ ‘actually’ ‘really.’ fort ‘fast.(1) Positive fort sakte lenge ofte mye lite nær gjerne vel/bra ille Comparative fortere saktere lengre oftere mere mindre nærmere heller bedre verre Superlative fortest saktest lengst oftest mest minst nærmest helst best verst ‘fast’ ‘slowly’ ‘long.’ straks ‘immediately. much‘ ‘little’ ‘near’ ‘willingly’ ‘well’ ‘badly’ Suffixes are often used to form adverbs.6.’ can be changed to av det. her ‘here. sånn ‘so.’ der ‘there.’ (1) a.’ hit ‘here. I leave now .’ ennå ‘yet.’ da ‘then. that way.’ nå ‘now.’ så ‘so. whom’ 3.’ dit ‘there. (3) dertil ‘to that. Hvor er du? where are you b. which.’ slik.’ hvordan ‘how. truely’ ‘somewhere’ ‘nowhere’ -steds: noensteds ingensteds Compounding is a productive way to form adverbs. place or manner. for a long time’ ‘often’ ‘very. Especially common are the prefixes der or sometimes her eller hvor followed by a preposition.’ hvor ‘where. Når when drar leave Jeg er her. Adverbs like derav ‘of that. I am here du? you Jeg drar nå. there’ deretter ‘afterwards’ derimot ‘on the other hand’ derfra ‘from there’ herav ‘of this’ hvorav ‘of (from) what.
drive in car.’ også ‘also.4.the ‘Let in the dog.’ minst ‘least.’ kanskje ‘maybe. for example.’ mindre ‘less.’ absolutt ‘absolutely.the is as big as yours.’ hvor ‘where. ‘This company is as big as yours.’ which denotes where something is placed.’ fram ‘forth.’ ganske ‘pretty. Hvordan gjør man dette? how does one this ‘How do you do this?’ ‘I’m leaving now. See further paragraph 2.’ opp ‘up. I am very/quite interested ‘I’m quite interested.’ mer ‘more. perhaps.’ jo ‘as we know. (4) a.’ bare ‘just. lay down weapons.’ like ‘as.’ ‘Drive out the car.’ ned ‘down. that.’ virkelig ‘really. Adverbs may also be so called verb particles.the ‘Drive the car into the garage. and normally not translated into English at all. The particle inn denotes direction and corresponds to inne ‘inside. take in dog.’ Man gjør slik. inn ‘in.’ sannsynligvis ‘probably.’ b. or credible. Hvor interessert er du? where interested are you ‘How interested are you?’ Jeg er svært/ganske interessert. much. They can also connect to something previously said. this company. false. Dette firmaet er like stort som ditt.’ egentlig ‘actually.’ vel ‘I think.’ ut ‘out. short words denoting.’ Adverbs also express that something is true.the ‘Lay down the weapons.’ (2) a.’ The last two adverbs are quite vague.the in garage. Kjør inn bilen i garasjen. one does such ‘You do it like this.’ bak ‘back.the drive forth car. svært ‘very. ikke ‘not. which follow the verb.’ .’ lite ‘little. direction.’ Legg ned våpnene. only.‘When are you leaving?’ c. Kjør fram bilen.’ så ‘so.’ (3) Ta inn hunden.’ Among the most common adverbs we also find some that denote or ask for degree.’ Some adverb of place are build by adding an -e to particles like these.1.’ mest ‘most.
the ‘We were down in the city.’ 3. come forth in light.the ‘Walk down to the city. car.’ e.’ d. Gå ned til byen. syv ‘seven’ åtte ‘eight’ ni ‘nine‘ ti ‘ten’ elleve ‘eleven’ tolv ‘twelve’ tretten ‘thirteen’ fjorten ‘fourteen’ femten ‘fifteen’ seksten ‘sixteen’ sytten ‘seventeen’ atten ‘eighteen’ Ordinal numbers: første ‘first’ andre ‘second’ tredje ‘third’ fjerde ‘fourth’ femte ‘fifth’ sjette ‘sixth’ sjuende. Bilen står her inne i garasjen. (1) Cardinal numbers: en ‘one’ to ‘two’ tre ‘three’ fire ‘four’ fem ‘five’ seks ‘six’ sju. Kom fram i lyset. Still deg framme på scenen.the ‘Place yourself in the front of the stage. syvende ‘seventh’ åttende ‘eighth’ niende ‘ninth’ tiende ‘tenth‘ ellefte ‘eleventh’ tolvte ‘twelfth’ trettende ‘thirteenth’ fjortende ‘fourteenth’ femtende ‘fifteenth’ sekstende ‘sixteenth’ syttende ‘seventeenth’ attende ‘eighteenth’ .’ c.7 NUMERALS Numerals indicate how many there are of something (cardinal numbers: for example tre ‘three’) or which one in an ordered set something is (ordinal numbers: for example tredje ‘third’).the ‘The car is here inside the garage.the ‘Come forth into the light. go down to city.’ f. place you forth on stage. we were down in city.the stands here in in garage. Vi var nede i byen.b.
’ They may also occur in front of nouns. that is without a noun.the ‘the four books’ c. Finally. Independently: alle tre all three Ordinal numbers: — b.the members was twelve ‘The number of members was twelve. both in indefinite and definite noun phrases. they may be used independently. Ordinal numbers do not occur as predicates. ‘milliard’ Am.nitten tjue. typically after the verbs være ‘be’ or bli ‘become.2 Morphology: cardinal numbers . (1) a. They may be predicates. tyvende tjueførste tjueandre trettiende trettiførste førtiende femtiende sekstiende syttiende åttiende nittiende hundrede tusende millionte — ‘nineteenth’ ‘twentieth’ ‘twenty-first’ ‘twenty-second’ ‘thirtieth’ ‘thirty-first’ ‘fortieth’ ‘fiftieth’ ‘sixtieth’ ‘seventieth’ ‘eightieth’ ‘ninetieth’ ‘hundredth’ ‘thousandth’ ‘millionth’ — 3. Indefinite noun phrase: en tredje gang a third time den fjerde boka the fourth book. number.1 Syntactic function Numerals can be used in three ways.’ tre hus three houses Definite noun phrase: de fire bøkene the four books.the ‘the fourth book’ den tredje the third (one) 3. and only rarely in indefinite noun phrases. ‘billion’ nittende tjuende. Predicatively: Cardinal numbers: Antallet medlemmer var tolv.7. tyve tjueen tjueto tretti trettien førti femti seksti sytti åtti nitti hundre tusen million miljard ‘nineteen’ ‘twenty‘ ‘twenty-one’ ‘twenty-two’ ‘thirty’ ‘thirty-one’ ‘forty’ ‘fifty’ ‘sixty‘ ‘seventy‘ ‘eighty’ ‘ninety’ ‘hundred’ ‘thousand’ ‘million’ Br.7.
’ eller ‘or’.7. Knut begynte å lese. (2) a. men Lise. kjører bil. 3.’ettersom ‘since’.’ b.The numeral en/ei/ett ‘one’ agrees with its noun. ettersom du er min venn. Henning sykler.8 CONJUNCTIONS. (1) Masculine: en bil a. these words introduce subordinate clauses.3 Morphology: ordinal numbers Ordinal numbers are uninflected.’om ‘if. Henning bikes but Lise drives car ‘Henning bikes but Lise drives a car. Han visste at han ville komme for seint. SUBJUNCTIONS. (2) Masculine: tjueen biler twenty-one cars Feminine: tjueen senger twenty-one beds Neuter: tjueen hus twenty-one houses 3. . Det er fint å seile. he knew that he would come too late b. Henning og Lise sykler Henning and Lise bike Subjunctions are words like at ‘that.FEM bed Neuter: ett hus a. (1) a.’ men ‘but. Du får den. AND THE INFINITIVAL MARKER Conjunctions are words like og ‘and.NEUT house Other numerals ending in -en do not agree in gender with the noun.MASC car Feminine: ei seng a. these words link elements of the same kind. Knut began to read b. (3) a. The masculine form is used with all nouns. you get it since you are my friend The infinitival marker is å and it introduces infinitival clauses.
skjønt hun har ingen selvtillit. men svært snille.’ They may connect two main clauses.’ The conjunction og ‘and’ can be emphasised by både ‘both. Lise og Henning er ganske livlige.1 Conjunctions All conjunctions connect two elements of the same kind. because.’ The conjunction samt ‘and (also)’ is mostly used to mark that something is separate from the other elements. (1) a. Vi arbeider og tenker på deg.’ b. as. although.’ samt ‘and (also). Lise sings and Espen plays b.the his ‘the old man and his dog’ b. Henning og Espen tar militærtjenesten. Copulative conjunctions are og ‘and’ and samt ‘and (also).’ eller ‘or.’ for ‘for.’ Conjunctions can also connect to phrases.’ skjønt ‘though.it is nice to sail 3.the went Lena and Jan as-well-as Lena’s cousin Per ‘Lena and Jan as well as Lena’a cousin Per went on the honey-moon. The Norwegian conjunctions are: og ‘and. Lise synger og Espen spiller.1.’ men ‘but.’ fordi ‘for. Eva is beautiful although she has no self-esteem ‘Eva is beautiful. (2) a.the ‘Henning and Espen are doing their military service.’ .’ (1) a. Eva er vakker.8. (2) På bryllupsreisen dro Lena og Jan samt Lenas fetter Per.service. on honey-moon.the and dog.1 Copulative conjunctions Copulative conjunctions connect elements of the same type without implying any difference between them. Lise and Henning are pretty lively but very kind 3. Henning and Espen take military.8. although she has got no self esteem. den gamle mannen og hunden hans the old man. we work and think on you ‘We are working and thinking of you.
anyway’ in the second.the is difficult but interesting ‘The book is difficult but interesting.3 Adversative conjunctions Adversative conjunctions express a contrast. I know not whether it is a man or a woman ‘I don’t know whether it is a man or a woman. Both Henning and Espen take military. whether you bike or walk plays no part ‘Whether you bike or walk doesn’t matter. men interessant.’ The expression can be emphasised with enten ‘either’ or the negation hverken ‘neither. There is only one conjunction of this sort in Norwegian: eller ‘or. In Norwegian men ‘but’ and skjønt ‘but.service. or by likevel or dog. skjønt spiser lite. he drinks a. still. both meaning ‘nevertheless.’ b. Boka er vanskelig. Om du sykler eller går spiller ingen rolle. Svein er riktignok tjukk.8. Han drikker mye. Jeg vet ikke om det er en mann eller ei kvinne.’ (1) a. book. Hverken Espen eller Henning må gå av.’ b. men likevel ganske flott.8. neither Espen nor Henning must go off ‘Neither Henning nor Espen must resign.’ 3. though’ are used.’ (2) a. Enten Espen eller Henning må gå av. .’ b.’ The expression may be emphasised by riktignok meaning ‘admittedly’ in the first part of the co-ordination.(3) Både Henning og Espen tar militærtjenesten. either Espen or Henning must go off ‘Either Henning or Espen must resign. (2) a.1.1.2 Disjunctive conjunctions Disjunctive conjunctions express an alternative. (1) a.lot though eats little ‘He drinks a lot though he eats little.’ 3.the ‘Both Henning and Espen are doing their military service.
(1) Eva var trøtt.’ til tross for at ‘although. Knut var bekymret. Eva was tired so she stayed home ‘Eva was tired. which. such as cause: ettersom ‘since’. he wants not because he manages not ‘He doesn’t want to because he is tired.8. for han hadde ingen penger. så hun ble hjemme.1. Knut was worried because he had no money 3.8. Norwegian uses for ‘for. Vi har riktignok mange venner. so she stayed at home.1.’ slik at ‘so that’ for at ‘in order to. etc.2.’ b.’ and om ‘if’ lack content almost entirely.2 The most common subjunctions Among the most common subjunctions in Norwegian are at ‘that. Han vil ikke. which.5 Conclusive conjunctions Conclusive conjunctions imply that the second part of the co-ordination is a conclusion or a consequence.’ om ‘if.2. 3.2 Subjunctions Subjunctions are words that introduce subordinate clauses. for han orker ikke.8.4 Explanative conjunctions Explanative conjunctions imply that the second part of the co-ordination is an explanation of the first one.’ 3.’ 3.’ som ‘that.’ (1) a. They are sometimes written as two or more words: fordi at ‘because.’ som ‘that. as. men kan dog ikke være helt sikre. we have admittedly many friends but can still not be quite sure ‘We admittedly have many friends but we still cannot be sure.8. Others denote a specific relation between the subordinate clause and its main clause.’ . The typical subjunctions at ‘that.1 Syntax and inflection Subjunctions are not inflected.8. time: mens ‘while’.Svein is admittedly fat but anyway quite handsome b.’ 3. whether’ and enn ‘than.
’ b. Han fortalte at han hadde fått ei tre kilo tung gjedde. he was so happy that he danced Som ‘that. the old house. and it is almost always preceded by an adjective modified by like ‘as. Det gamle huset. we will go for a picnic. (3) Vi vet hvem som har kjøpt den. In the latter case it is almost always preceded by an adjective modified by så ‘so. which was built in 1870. I know a girl that lives in Tønsberg c. we know who that has bought it ‘We know who has bought it. Jeg kjenner ei jente som bor i Tønsberg.’ Om is used to introduce conditional clauses or interrogative clauses. som er bygd i 1870.’ is used to introduce relative clauses or comparative clauses (and phrases). proposal.the that stands there away ‘the man standing over there’ b.the should demolish.the about that house.’ c. Han var så lykkelig at han danset. which.’ (2) a. as. he told that he had got a three kilo heavy pike ‘He told us that he had got a pike of three kilos. Forslaget om at huset skulle rives ble stemt ned. if it not rains then go we on picnic ‘If it doesn’t rain.At ‘that’ is used to introduce clauses that tell or report something. has been moved twice.’ (1) a.the that is built in 1870 has been moved two times ‘The old house.PASS became voted down ‘The proposal that the house should be demolished was turned down. (4) a.’ . Jeg har like dyre bukser som du har. I have as expensive trousers as you have Som is also used to double a questioned subject in a subordinate clause.’ d. har blitt flyttet to ganger. Om det ikke regner så drar vi på utflukt. which correspond to yes-no questions. who. or clauses that denote a consequence. In the latter case it is normally translated by ‘as’ in English. mannen som står der borte man.
’ Enn is used to introduce comparative clauses (or phrases). or later than the event of the main clause.’før ‘before.’ hvis ‘if.’ så vidt ‘insofar as. you have a better bike than I have b.’ (1) a.’ Conditional subjunctions: om ‘if.’ (3) Jeg hjelper deg om/hvis du vil. this is more interesting than I thought 3. that is that the event in the subordinate clause is simultaneous to. Hun smilte da han gikk. Temporal subjunctions: når/da ‘when.’ forutsatt at ‘provided that. Du har en bedre sykkel enn jeg har.’ (2) Han gikk ettersom hun ikke snakket med ham.8. They may for instance express time.’ mens ‘while. since. Dette er mer interessant enn jeg trodde.’ b. because.’ fordi (at) ‘because. earlier.’ siden ‘after. Eva spurte om vi ville være med. They are almost always preceded by a comparative adjective or an adjective modified by mer ‘more.the before we can go ‘You must help me with the laundry before we can go. In a similar way they can express that the subordinate clause constitutes a condition for or a reason to the event of the main clause. Eva asked if we wanted be with ‘Eva asked if we wanted to come along. I help you if you want ‘I’ll help you if you want me to.’ (5) a. Du må hjelpe meg med klesvasken før vi kan gå. he left since she not talked with him ‘He left since she didn’t talk to him. since. you must help me with laundry.’ av at ‘in that. The most common subjunctions are listed below. she smiled when he left Causal subjunctions: ettersom ‘as.’for (at) ‘because.b.2.’ .3 Subjunctions grouped according to their meaning Subjunctions may signal many different sorts of connections between the main clause and the subordinate clause.’ til ‘until.
’ liksom ‘as.the.’ (6) Han jobbet slik at han ble rød i ansiktet.the for that we shall manage it ‘We must sell the car.’ (8) a. we must sell car.’ b.’ (7) a.as.the notices it ‘We must help Henning without the teacher noticing.’ jo. we work to despite for that even if we not get any salary ‘We are working. in order to make it. we must help Henning without that teacher. (1) a. Vi må hjelpe Henning uten at læreren merker det.’ (slik/sånn) som ‘as.’ b.the ‘He worked so that his face became red. the harder they fall.’ Final subjunctions: for at ‘in order to. he worked such that he became red in face..’ It is used to introduce infinitival clauses. even though we don´t get paid.’ Comparative subjunctions: (like)..3 The infinitival marker The infinitival marker in Norwegian is å ‘to..’ selv om ‘although. Han ble reddet av at kameratene grep inn.’ 3.8. the bigger they are the harder fall they ‘The bigger they are. Han gjorde som de ba ham om å gjøre. without. Det er hyggelig å seile.the grabbed in ‘He was saved because his friends intervened.’ (4) Vi arbeider til tross for at / selv om vi ikke får noen lønn. Jo større de er.’ enn ‘than.’ som om ‘as if. desto hardere faller de.’ Descriptive subjunctions: av at ‘in that...’ skjønt ‘even though.Concessive subjunctions: til tross for at ‘though. he became saved of that friends.’ uten at ‘not that.som ‘as. he did as they asked him about to do ‘He did what they asked him to do.desto/dess/jo ‘the. ....’ Consecutive subjunctions: slik at ‘so that.’ (5) Vi må selge bilen for at vi skal klare det.
’ b.’ See further paragraph 1.1 on infinitival phrases. Vi ble lei av å synge. Han lovte å ikke synge.11. .’ c.it is nice to sail ‘It is nice to go sailing. he promised to not sing ‘He promised not to sing. we became tired of to sing ‘We became tired of singing.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?