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for windows for light and air circulation. Mostly it appears in school buildings in the outer passage where the parapet walls are built to a height of about 1m for protection leaving the remaining portion. Even in the basement for light and air circulations the gaps are provided. This creates a captive column vide the sketch shown below. In most of the earthquake that took place the captive columns created damages by breakage of the column on the unsupported height.
Sometimes addition of “nonstructural elements” will lead to an “accidental”mechanism. In this case, a heavy masonry wall was placed in direct contact
2L=5k if L is same for V design.RangaRajan. This means the shear is increased to 5 folds. a sufficient gap between the masonry and the column should be provided to allow free movement of the column. SOLUTIONS: It is clear from the sketch the shear force caused by such an arrangements leads to high value for which the ties or the section has to be increased but increasing the dimension along the height of column is not a practical solutions but adding extra ties will be of good solution. creating an artificially short story. If walls are to be placed in the manner shown. If the opening is with 20% of the height then Vactual =2 Mp/L’ =k /. The shear demand in the columns increases accordingly. In the previous postings this aspect was discussed and some practical solutions were proposed. T.with the columns. .