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(1) BranchLine Coupler - Quadrature

Zo 2

Zo λ/4 90°

NOTE This device is sensitive to load mismatches. (2) Lange Coupler (Quadrature)

Output φ90°

Coupled

Broadband coupling 3dB → ≈20dB Quadrature

λ/4 Input Directive

To calculate the finger dimensions and spacings, we need to calculate the even and odd mode line impedances:-

C = 10

Coupling coefficien t 20

Z 0e =

4C − 3 + 9 − 8C 2 2C (1 − C ) /(1 + C ) 4C + 3 − 9 − 8C 2 2C (1 + C ) /(1 − C )

Z0

Z 0o =

Z0

Armed with these line impedances the finger widths and spacings can be read from the graph plotting coupled micro-strip line data against even and odd mode line impedances.

1

Sheet 2 of 13

Even and odd-mode characteristic impedance design data for coupled micro-strip lines. Example Lange coupler for use at 7.5GHz, 3dB split into 50 ohms. Coupler made from Alumina 0.508mm thick, Dielectric constant 8.8. Determine S and W of fingers.

C = 10

-3(dB) 20

= 0.707

2

Z 0e =

4 * 0.707 − 3 + 9 − (8 * 0.707 )

**2 * 0.707 (1 − 0.707) /(1 + 0.707 ) 4 * 0.707 + 3 − 9 − (8 * 0.707 )
**

2

* 50 = 176.2Ω

Z 0o =

2 * 0.707 (1 + 0.707) /(1 − 0.707)

* 50 = 52.6Ω

2

Sheet 3 of 13

~176ohms

~52ohms

From the graph we read S/d ~ 0.075 and W/d = 0.08 The thickness of substrate = 0.508mm so the dimensions of the fingers are:Width = 0.04mm and Spacing = 0.038mm. One quarter wavelength on this material is 4.15mm long (50 ohm line is 0.5mm wide). To check our rough design we can enter the parameters into the ADS MLANGE model and analyse.

3

Sheet 4 of 13

ADS simulation setup

MSub

MSUB MSub1 H=0.508 mm Er=8.8 Mur=1 Cond=1.0E+50 Hu=1.0e+033 mm T=0 mm TanD=0 Rough=0 mm

Term Term1 Num=1 Z=50 Ohm MLANG Lang1 Subst="MSub1" W=0.0406 mm S=0.0381 mm L=4.35 mm

Term Term4 Num=4 Z=50 Ohm

Term Term2 Num=2 Z=50 Ohm

Term Term3 Num=3 Z=50 Ohm

S-PARAMETERS

S_Param SP1 Center=7.5 GHz Span=800 MHz

The Lange length was increased by 0.2mm to centre the response shown below:-

4

Sheet 5 of 13

-2.960

m1 freq=7.501GHz dB(S(4,1))=-2.963

m1

phase(S(4,1))

**m3 freq=7.502GHz phase(S(4,1))=-0.129
**

4

-2.965

2

dB(S(4,1))

-2.970

m3

0

-2.975

-2

-2.980 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

-4 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

freq, GHz

freq, GHz

-86

-3.065

phase(S(3,1))

-3.070

-88

dB(S(3,1))

m4

-90

-3.075

-3.080

m2

-92

-3.085 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

-94 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

freq, GHz m2 freq=7.502GHz dB(S(3,1))=-3.081

m4 freq=7.501GHz phase(S(3,1))=-90.053

freq, GHz

5

Sheet 6 of 13

(3) Lumped Quadrature (90 degree) Coupler This lumped element hybrid provides a 3dB split with a 90 degree phase shift. It’s bandwidth is very narrow being approximately 1-2%. The element values are given by:-

C1 =

1

ωZ

; L =

R

ω 1 + ωC1.Z

L

; Co =

1

ω 2L

− C1

2C

2C

1

3

C

C

4 2C L

2C

2

(4) Lumped 180 degree Coupler This lumped element hybrid provides a 3dB split with a 180 degree phase shift. It’s bandwidth is approximately 20%. The element values are given by:-

1 = ωL = 1.414Zo ωC

2C

L

2C

1

3

L

L

4 2C C

2C

2

L

6

Sheet 7 of 13

Wilkinson Power Divider & Passive Dividers (In Phase)

Microstrip The wilkinson power splitter provides a 3-dB split with no phase shift. In microstrip form the two arms are usually made from quarter wavelength lines with an impedance of 70.7 ohms in a 50-ohm system.

Zo. 2

Zo

Zo λ/4

2.Zo

Zo

Lumped The bandwidth of the lumped Wilkinson is approximately ½ of the micro-strip version.

C

L 2

2R 1 L 3 2C 2C

C

R = 2 * Zo L= R 1 [H] ; C = [C] 2πf 2 2πfR

7

Sheet 8 of 13

Passive (6dB power split) A resistive splitter provides a broad-band power split, but has a greater insertion loss through each port (6dB) and only has 6dB of isolation between output ports.

R

2

R/3

1

R/3

R/3

R

R

3

Hybrid Ring

**in phase B λ/4 λ/4 A λ/4 C Input at A D B C 3λ/4
**

Signal Flow Graphs 2 - Port

antiphase

outputs A 0 B 1∠-90° 1∠-90° C 0 1∠-90° 0 1∠-90° D 1∠-270° 0 1∠-90° 0

1∠-90° 0 0

D 1∠-270° 0

B1 = S11.a1 + S12.a2 B2 = S21.a1 + S22.a2

8

Sheet 9 of 13

a1

S21

b2

S11

S22

b1

S12

a2

“Value” of outgoing wave at each node ie b1 or b2 is equal to :∑ (branch value) x ingoing node ∴ b1 = S11.a1 + S12.a2 b2 = S21.a1 + S12.a2 Couplers (1) Microstrip Backward Coupler

Coupled

Directive (Isolated)

Input

λ/4

Output

We use a similar design process for designing this coupler as used with the Lange coupler in that we need to calculate the odd and even mode line impedances given a particular coupling coefficient:-

C = 10

Coupling coefficien t 20

Z 0e = Z 0

1+ C 1− C 1− C 1+ C

Z 0o = Z 0

9

Sheet 10 of 13

And once we have found the line impedances we can again read off the values of W and S from the Normalised even and odd mode characteristic impedance design data for edge coupled strip-line graph. Note This type of coupler can only be used for loose couplings, as the track spacing becomes too narrow at low coupling factors to be manufactured. Example:- Design a 15dB Microstrip directional coupler for 7.5GHz, using Alumina substrate 0.508mm thick and a dielectric constant of 8.8.

-15

C = 10 20

= 0.1778 1 + 0.1778 = 59.8ohms 1 − 0.1778 1 − 0.1778 = 41.8ohms 1 + 0.1778

Z 0e = 50 *

Z 0o = 50 *

Using the graph below we can read off the values of S and W

~60ohms

~42ohms

10

Sheet 11 of 13

From the graph we read off S/d = 0.85, therefore S = 0.508*0.85 = 0.43mm And W/d = 0.9, therefore W = 0.508*0.9 = 0.46mm. ¼ Wavelength @ 3GHz in this material = 10.5mm These values were entered into the ADS model for a coupled line namely and analysed. ADS schematic for analysing coupler circuit.

S-PARAMETERS

S_Param SP1 Start= Stop= Step=

MCLIN CLin1 Subst="MSub1" W=0.46 mm S=0.4 mm L=4.45 mm Term Term2 Num=2 Z=50 Ohm Term Term4 Num=4 Z=50 Ohm

Term Term1 Num=1 Z=50 Ohm Term Term3 Num=3 Z=50 Ohm

11

Sheet 12 of 13

Analysed results

-0.1865

-0.1870

dB (S (2, 1))

m1 freq=7.501GHz dB(S(2,1))=-0.188

Through path

-0.1875

-0.1880

m1

-0.1885 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0

freq, GHz

**m2 freq=7.495GHz dB(S(3,1))=-15.295
**

-10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20 7.0 7.2 7.4

Coupled Output

-20.2 -20.4

Directivity

m3 freq=7.507GHz dB(S(4,1))=-20.837

dB (S (3, 1))

m2

dB (S (4, 1))

-20.6 -20.8 -21.0 -21.2 -21.4 -21.6

m3

7.6

7.8

8.0

7.0

7.2

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.0

freq, GHz

freq, GHz Isolation -36.132

Eqn Isolation=m3+m2

(2) Lumped Coupler (loosely coupled)

This lumped approximation of the microstrip backward wave coupler gives ~ 10% bandwidth for 20dB directivity.

Input

L

L Output

C

Cc L Isolated L

Cc

Coupled 2C

C

12

Sheet 13 of 13

L=

Zo 2πf

;

C=

1 2πf .Zo

; Cc ~

10 (CF/20) 2πf .Zo

Note Cc <

0.18 2πf .Zo

CF < - 15dB

(3) Lumped Coupler (3dB) The power split for 3dB ± 1dB is ~ 20% bandwidth although the 90 degree split (between the two output ports) is broadband.

Input

L

L Output

C

C/2 L Isolated

C/2 L

C/2

Coupled 2C

C

L=

Zo 2πf

;

C=

1 2πf .Zo

13

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