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Chapter 6

**Scaling Laws in Miniaturization
**

In this era of “think small,” one would intuitively simply scale down the size of all components to a device to make it small. Unfortunately, the reality does not work out that way. It is true that nothing is there to stop one from down sizing the device components to make the device small. There are, however, serious physical consequences of scaling down many physical quantities. This chapter will present, with a selected cases, the scaling laws that will make engineers aware of both positive and negative physical consequences of scaling down machines and devices.

Content

● Scaling

in Geometry

● Scaling in Rigid-Body Dynamics ● Scaling in Electrostatic Forces ● Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces ● Scaling in Electricity ● Scaling in Fluid Mechanics ● Scaling in Heat Transfer

Multi-functional and Low cost consumer products has become more strong than ever. This effort has been intensified in recent years as market demands for: Intelligent. or cannot be scaled down at all! . Some physical systems either cannot be scaled down favorably.WHY SCALING LAWS? Miniaturizing machines and physical systems is an ongoing effort in human civilization. The only solution to produce these consumer products is to package many components into the product – making it necessary to miniaturize each individual components. Miniaturization of physical systems is a lot more than just scaling down device components in sizes. Robust.

Scaling laws thus become the very first thing that any engineer would do in the design of MEMS and microsystems. .

Types of Scaling Laws 1. Scaling in Geometry: Scaling of physical size of objects 2. Scaling of Phenomenological Behavior Scaling of both size and material characterizations .

. ● Volume leads to the mass and weight of device components. ● Surface is related to pressure and the buoyant forces in fluid mechanics. ● Volume relates to both mechanical and thermal inertia. Thermal inertia is a measure on how fast we can heat or cool a solid. For instance. surface pumping by using piezoelectric means is a practical way for driving fluids flow in capillary conduits. It is an important parameter in the design of a thermally actuated device as described in Chapter 5. When the physical quantity is to be miniaturized.Scaling in Geometry ● Volume (V) and surface (S) are two physical parameters that are frequently involved in machine design. the design engineer must weigh the magnitudes of the possible consequences from the reduction on both the volume and surface of the particular device.

we will have: The volume: The surface: V ∝l 3 S ∝l S/V = ℓ-1 2 A 10 times reduction in length → 103 = 1000 time reduction in volume. Since volume.Scaling in Geometry If we let ℓ = linear dimension of a solid. but → 102 = 100 time reduction in surface area. S relates to buoyancy force: S/V ≈ 10-4/mm S/V ≈ 10-1/mm So. an elephant can never fly as easily as a dragonfly!! . V relates to mass and surface area.

we have: I yy y = 1 ρbc 3t 12 A 50% reduction in size would result in the following: ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ 1 ρ ⎢⎜ b ⎟⎜ c ⎟ ⎜ t ⎟⎥ = ⎢ ρbc 3t ⎥ = I yy I 'yy = 12 ⎢ ⎦ 32 ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎦ 32 ⎣12 Meaning a factor of 32 times reduction in required torque to rotate the mirror!! . Thus. M = ρ(bct) with ρ = mass density of the mirror material (a fixed value).Example 6. c But the mass of the mirror.1: Example on scaling law in geometry of a MEMS device What would happen to the required torque to turn a micro mirror with a 50% reduction in size? y Torque required to turn the mirror: yy t where Iyy = mass moment of inertia of the mirror about y-axis determined by the following expression: τ ∝I b I yy = 1 Mc 2 12 in which M = mass of the mirror and c = width of the mirror.

one needs to understand the effect of reduction in the size on the power (P). • In the case of miniaturizing these components. force (F) or pressure (p). • The resolution to the above issues is on the inertia of the actuating part. • Power is the source for the generation of forces.Scaling in Rigid-Body Dynamics • Forces are required to make parts to move such as in the case of micro actuators. • An engineer needs to resolve the following issues when dealing with the design of a dynamics system such as an actuator : The required amount of a force to move a part. and the time (t) required to deliver the motion. • The inertia of solid is related to its mass and the acceleration that is required to initiate or stop the motion of a solid device component. . How fast the desired movements can be achieved. How readily a moving part can be stopped.

It is important to know how size (scaling) affects the required forces (F).Scaling in Rigid Body Dynamics Rigid body dynamics is applied in the design of micro actuations and micro sensors. and hence v ∝ (ℓ)t-1. we have: where vo = the initial velocity. But velocity.g. in which t is the required time. the scaling of dynamic force. s ∝ (ℓ). From particle kinematics. v = s/t. The dynamic force (F) acting on a rigid body in motion with acceleration (a) (or deceleration) can be computed from Newton’s 2nd law: F = M a The acceleration (a) in the Newton’s law can be expressed in the following way In scaling: Let the displacement of the rigid body. and thus power (P) in the performances of these devices. By letting vo = 0. e. in which ℓ = linear scale. F is: . micro accelerometers (inertia sensors). we may express: s = vo t + 1 2 at 2 2 sM t2 a= 2s t2 F = Ma = ∝ (l)(l3) t − 2 Thus.

P ∝ 1/A (= (ℓ)-2 for order 2). a -2 -1 0 1 Time.5 -1 0. α in the scaling of a quantity in linear dimension.Trimmer Force Scaling Vector William Trimmer in 1989 defined a force scaling vector.5 1 0. t 1.5 0 Power density. .e. P/Vo -2. For example: Weight. W ∝ V (= (ℓ)3 for order 3). F 1 2 3 4 ⎡l1 ⎤ ⎢ 2⎥ l F = [l F ] = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢l ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 4 ⎢ ⎣l ⎥ ⎦ Acceleration.5 2 1 2 3 4 In which “order” means the index. The +ve or –ve sign of the order indicates proportional or reverse proportional in scaling. Pressure. F as: l He was able to relate this vector with other pertinent parameters in dynamics as: Order Force scale. (ℓ)α. i.

one must make sure that the power used to drive the device or system is properly scaled down too. power density. is used. which is equals to the force required to move a mass by a distance.Scaling in Rigid-Body Dynamics – Cont’d Trimmer force scaling vector-cont’d ● Power density (P/Vo): When scaling down a MEMS or a microsystem. ● The above expression is used to derive the “Force-scaling vector” as shown in the next slide. F = force. rather than power. these relationships can be expressed as: Fs = V o tV o in which. s = the displacement of the mass moved by the force. and t = time during which the energy is produced or consumed. and energy is related to work. ● Power is defined as energy produced or spent by the device per unit time. ● In the design practice. P . Mathematically.

5⎤ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ −1 ⎥ l⎥ l ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ −4 = 3 [ l ] = 0 .5 ⎢l ⎥ ⎢l ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 4 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l l ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (6.5 [l F ][l1] {[l1][l3][l− F ]} [l3] 1 2 = [l1.5 F ][l− 4] = [l F ]1.10) .Scaling in Rigid-Body Dynamics – Cont’d Trimmer force scaling vector-cont’d The power density: P Vo = 1 1 .5 [l− 4] ⎡l ⎤ ⎡l− 2.

5 ) = (10)0.16 times reduction in power density (P/Vo).5 = 3. Solution: Since W ∝ V (= (ℓ)3 .3 times. The reduction of power consumption is 3. we get: ● There will be no reduction in the acceleration (ℓ0).5) = 3. Since the volume of the component is reduced by a factor of 10.16/10 = 0. ● There will be (ℓ0.Example 6. the power consumption after scaling down reduces by: P = 3. . so it involves Order 3 scaling.16 reduction in the time to complete the motion. ● There will be (ℓ0.2 Estimate the associate changes in the acceleration (a) and the time (t) and the power supply (P) to actuate a MEMS component if its weight is reduced by a factor of 10. from the table for scaling of dynamic forces.16 Vo.

V We will use a linear scaling for the voltage: V ∝ l1 from which we get the scaling of the Potential energy. εr ∝ l0 and W.Scaling in Electrostatic Forces L W d V When two parallel electric conductive plates is charged by a voltage → Electric potential field The corresponding potential energy is: Let ℓ = linear scale of the electrodes. U to be: Gap. d U∝ ( l0)( l0)( l1)( l1)( l1) 2 l 1 5µm 10µm = ( l 3) Scaling: A 10 times reduction of linear size of electrodes → 103 = 1000 times reduction in Potential energy!! . we will have: εo . V can be approximated by the Paschen’s effect illustrated as: Break down voltage. L and d ∝ l1 1 ε ε WL 2 U = − CV 2 = − 0 r V 2 2d The scaling of voltage.

we may conclude that electrostatic forces: Fd.Scaling in Electrostatic Forces – Cont’d Electrostatic forces in misaligned electrodes are obtained by: Fd L d F Fw FL d =− ∂U =− ∂d 2 1 ε 0 ε r WLV 2 d d 2 ∝ l2 V Fw = − FL = − W ∂U = 2 ∂W 1 ε o ε r LV 2 2 ∝ l2 ∂U =− ∂L 2 1 ε 0ε r W V d = ∝ l2 So. . and FL ∝ l2 Scaling: A 10 times reduction in electrode linear dimensions → 102 = 100 times reduction in the magnitude of the electrostatic forces. FW.

B F Faraday’s law governs the induced force (or a motion) in the wire under the influence of a magnetic field. L Electromagnetic Force DC current.Scaling in Electromagnetic Forces Electromagnetic forces are the principal actuation forces in macroscale. or traditional motors and actuators. the length of the conducting wire. i Magnetic Field. in which l = L. What the above scaling means is that reducing the wire length by half (1/2) would result in reduction of F by 24 = 16 times. F is generated when a conducting wire with passing electric current. Working principle: An electromagnetic force. . dΦ as illustrated: Conducting wire of length. This is the reason why electromagnetic forces are NOT commonly used in MEMS and microsystems as preferred actuation force. whereas the reduction of electrostaic force with similar reduction of size would result in a factor of 22 = 4. One may find that the scaling of electromagnetic force follows: F ∝ l4 . i subjected to an emf is exposed to a magnetic field B with a flux.

the length and across-sectional area of the conductor Resistive power loss P= V2 R ∝ (l )1 where V is the applied voltage. Ratio of power loss to available power ( l )1 −2 = 3 = (l ) E av (l ) P . and E is the electric field strength ∝ (l ) . Electric field energy U= 1 2 ε E ∝ (l )− 2 2 −1 where ε is the permeativity of dielectric .Scaling in Electricity ρL A Electric resistance R= ∝ (l )−1 in which ρ. L and A are respective electric resistivity of the material.

C Inductance. 34: Electric Quantity Current. V Resistance. Inc. R Capacitance.. ‘Classical Magnitudes and Scaling Laws. New York. L Power. P Index. 1992 Chapter 2. John Wiley & Sons.’ p. α in ℓα 2 1 -1 1 1 2 . i Voltage. Eric Drexler.Scaling in Electricity From “Nanosystems.” K.

we can derive: ∆P = − 8µ V ave L a 2 Leads to: ∆P/L∝ a -3 Scaling: A reduction of 10 times in conduit radius → 103 = 1000 times increase in pressure drop per unit length!! . Volumetric Flow.17): π a 4 ∆P Q= 8µL Leads to: Q ∝ a4 Meaning a reduction of 10 in conduit radius → 104 = 10000 times reduction in volumetric flow! B. Q: From Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation in (5.Scaling in Fluid Mechanics Two important quantities in fluid mechanics in flows in capillary conduits: L Flow in a Q ∆p Flow out A. ∆P: From the same Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation. Pressure Drop.

How fast heat can be conducted in solids: This issue is related to Fourier number defined as: ( )( )( ) ( ) t = F o L2 ∝ (l2 ) Fo = αt L 2 Leads to: α Scaling: A 10 times reduction in size → 102 = 100 time reduction in time to heat the solid. .51) indicates the thermal conductivity. How conductive the solid becomes when it is scaling down? This issue is related to thermal conductivity of solids. Equation (5.Scaling in Heat Conduction Two concerns in heat flows in MEMS: A. k to be: 1 k = CVλ ∝ l −3 l1 l 3 = l1 3 B.

End of Chapter 6 .

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