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02/19/2014

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S E C T I O N 15.

5

829

15.5 EXERCISES
Preliminary Questions
1. Which of the following is a possible value of the gradient ∇ f of a function f (x, y) of two variables? (a) 5 (b) 3, 4 (c) 3, 4, 5 2. True or false? A differentiable function increases at the rate ∇ fP in the direction of ∇ fP . 4. You are standing at a point where the temperature gradient vector is pointing in the northeast (NE) direction. In which direction(s) should you walk to avoid a change in temperature? (a) NE (b) NW (c) SE (d) SW 5. What is the rate of change of f (x, y) at (0, 0) in the direction making an angle of 45◦ with the x -axis if ∇ f (0, 0) = 2, 4 ?

3. Describe the two main geometric properties of the gradient ∇ f .

Exercises

2 3 1. Let f (x, y) = xy 2 and c(t) = 1 2t ,t . (a) Calculate ∇ f and c (t).

In Exercises 9–20, use the Chain Rule to calculate d f (c(t)) at t = 1 and dt 9. f (x, y) = 3x − 7y , 10. f (x, y) = 3x − 7y , 11. f (x, y) = x 2 − 3xy , c(t) = (cos t, sin t), c(t) = (t 2 , t 3 ), c(t) = (cos t, sin t), c(t) = (cos t, sin t), c(t) = (e2t , e3t ),

d f (c(t)). dt

(b) Use the Chain Rule for Paths to evaluate t = −1. 2. Let f (x, y) = exy and c(t) = (t 3 , 1 + t). (a) Calculate ∇ f and c (t).

t =0 t =0 t= π 2

t =2

d (b) Use the Chain Rule for Paths to calculate f (c(t)). dt (c) Write out the composite f (c(t)) as a function of t and differentiate. Check that the result agrees with part (b). 3. Figure 14 shows the level curves of a function f (x, y) and a path c(t), traversed in the direction indicated. State whether the derivative d f (c(t)) is positive, negative, or zero at points A–D . dt
y 8

12. f (x, y) = x 2 − 3xy , 13. f (x, y) = sin(xy), 14. f (x, y) = cos(y − x), 16. f (x, y) = xey ,

15. f (x, y) = x − xy , c(t) = (t 2 , t 2 − 4t), c(t) = (t 2 , t 2 − 4t),

c(t) = (et , e2t ), t = ln 3 t =4 t= π 4 t =1 t =0

t =0

17. f (x, y) = ln x + ln y , 18. g(x, y, z) = xyez ,

c(t) = (cos t, t 2 ),

19. g(x, y, z) = xyz−1 , c(t) = (et , t, t 2 ),

c(t) = (t 2 , t 3 , t − 1), t = 1 c(t) = (t 2 , t 3 , t, t −2),

4

D

C
−10

−20

B

20. g(x, y, z, w) = x + 2y + 3z + 5w , t =1

0

A

0 10 20 30

In Exercises 21–30, calculate the directional derivative in the direction of v at the given point. Remember to normalize the direction vector or use Eq. (4). 21. f (x, y) = x 2 + y 3 , v = 4, 3 ,
4 8 x

−4 −4 0
FIGURE 14

23. f (x, y) = x 2 y 3 , v = i + j, P = 1 6,3 24. f (x, y) = sin(x − y),
xy −y 2

22. f (x, y) = x 2 y 3 ,

P = (1, 2)

v = i + j, P = (−2, 1)
π v = 1, 1 , P = π 2, 6

4. Let f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2 and c(t) = (cos t, sin t). d (a) Find f (c(t)) without making any calculations. Explain. dt (b) Verify your answer to (a) using the Chain Rule. In Exercises 5–8, calculate the gradient. 5. f (x, y) = cos(x 2 + y) 7. h(x, y, z) = xyz−3 x 6. g(x, y) = 2 x + y2 8. r(x, y, z, w) = xzeyw

25. f (x, y) = tan−1 (xy), v = 1, 1 , 26. f (x, y) = e , 27. f (x, y) = ln(x 2 + y 2 ), 29. g(x, y, z) = xe−yz , v = 12, −5 ,

P = (3, 4) P = (2, 2) P = (1, 0) P = (2, 1, 3)

28. g(x, y, z) = z2 − xy 2 , v = −1, 2, 2 ,

v = 3i − 2j,

v = 1, 1, 1 , P = (1, 2, 0)

30. g(x, y, z) = x ln(y + z), v = 2i − j + k , P = (2, e, e)

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