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# CIRCULAR MEASURE

1. RADIAN
1.1 Converting Measurements in Radians to Degrees and Vice Versa

S
Definition:  rad  A
r
where S is the length of the arc AB, S
r is the radius of the circle, and r
θ is the angle subtended at the centre O by the arc AB.

o
O r B
For the full circle, the circumference is 2πr and the angle is 360 .
2r
Therefore,  
r .
 2 rad
Hence, 2π rad = 360o => π rad = 180o

## For each of the following measurement in degree, change it to radian.

Example: 25.8o A (a) 30o =

## Since 180o = π rad

π 25.8
o
25.8  25.8 
180 O B
 0.4504 rad

[0.5237 rad]
(b) 45o = (c) 81.5o =

## [0.7855 rad] [1.423 rad]

o o
(d) 122.8 = (e) 154 20’ =

## [2.144 rad] [2.694 rad]

(f) 225o 36’ = (g) -50o =

## [3.938 rad] [-0.02773 rad]

Circular Measure 1
For each of the following measurement in radian, change it to degree.
Example: 0.75 rad (a) 0.6 rad =
Since π rad = 180o Q
180 P
0.75 rad  0.75 
π 0.75 rad
 42.97
O
Always use π = 3.142
[34.37o]
(b) 1.54 rad = 18
(c) rad 
5

[88.22o] [206.24o]
3 (e) 1.2π rad =
(d) 2 rad 
7

[139.13o] [216o]
π (g) -0.25 rad =
(f) rad 
3

[60o] [-14.32o]
1 (i) (1 + π) rad =
(h) - 2 rad 
3

[-133.67o] [237.29o]

Circular Measure 2
2. ARC LENGTH OF A CIRCLE
S
2.1 Arc Length, Radius and Angle  => S = rθ
r
For each of the following, find the length of the arc S given the values of r and θ.
Example: (a) r = 20 cm and θ = 0.6 rad
P
r = 10 cm and θ = 1.5 rad 10
Since S = rθ cm
= 10 × 1.5 S 1.5 rad O
= 15 cm

Q [12 cm]
(b) r = 15 cm and θ = 1.4 rad 
(c) r = 30 cm and θ = rad
6

## [21 cm] [15.71 cm]

(d) r = 10 cm and θ = 60 o
(e) r = 1.5 m and θ = 82.8o

## [10.47 cm] [2.168 m]

For each of the following, calculate the length of the radius r given the values of S and θ.
Example: A (a) S = 9 cm and θ = 1.5 rad
S = 4.5 cm and θ = 1.5 rad
Since S = rθ r
4.5 cm

4.5 = 1.5r
O 1.5 rad
4 .5
r
1 .5
= 3 cm B [6 cm]
(b) S = 4.5 cm and θ = 1.8 rad (c) S = 9 m and θ = 30 o

## [2.5 cm] [17.19 m]

(d) S = 15 cm and θ = 32.8o 
(e) S = 10 cm and θ = rad
8

## [26.20 cm] [25.46 cm]

Circular Measure 3
For each of the following, find the angle θ in radian given the values of r and S.
Example: A (a) r = 9 cm and S = 36 cm
r = 5 cm and S = 10 cm
Since S = rθ

cm
5

10 cm
10 = 5θ
10 O 
θ=
5
= 2 rad
B [4 rad]
(b) r = 7 cm and S = 5.6 cm (c) r = 20 cm and S = 0.7 m

## [0.8 rad] [3.5 rad]

(d) r = 1.2 cm and S = 20 cm (e) r = 3.5 cm and S = 112 cm

2
[16 cm] [32 cm]
3

For each of the following, find the angle θ in degree given the values of r and S.
Example: A (a) r = 10 cm and S = 6 cm
20

r = 8 cm and S = 20 cm
Since S = rθ
cm
8c

20 = 8θ
m

20 O
θ= rad
8
180
= 2 .5  B
 [34.37o]
= 143.22o
(b) r = 5 cm and S = 5.4 cm (c) r = 5.6 cm and S = 12 cm

[57.29o] [122.76o]
(d) r = 7.15 cm and S = 0.28 m (e) r = 5.6 cm and S = 3π cm

[224.34o] [96.43o]
Circular Measure 4
3. AREA OF SECTOR P
3.1 Area of Sector, Radius and Angle
r
Area of a circle, A = πr2

Area for a sector OPQ of angle θo, A   r 2 
360 O
 rad
Converting to radian,   r 2 r
2 rad
1 Q
A = r2θ, θ must be in radian.
2

For each of the following, find the area of the sector A given the values of r and θ.
Example: (a) r = 5 cm and θ = 0.8 rad
r = 3 cm and θ = 1.8 rad P
1
Since A  r 2
m
3c

2
1 O 1.8 rad
  3 2  1 .8
2
3c

= 8.1 cm2
m

Q
[10 cm2]
(b) r = 2.11 cm and θ = 1.78 rad 2
(c) r = 2.7 cm and θ = 1 rad
3

## [3.962 cm2] [6.075 cm2]

4 (e) r = 1.5 m and θ = 122.8o
(d) r = 12 mm and θ = rad
5

## [180.98 mm2] [2.411 m2]

3 (g) r = 13.2 cm and θ = 67.2o
(f) r = m and θ = 85o
5

## [0.2671 m2] [102.19 cm2]

Circular Measure 5
For each of the following, find the length of the radius r given the values of θ and A.
Example: θ = 1.2 rad and A = 15 cm2 (a) θ = 3 rad and A = 6 cm2
1
Since A  r 2
2
1
15   r 2  1.2
2
O
15 2
r 
2
r r
1 .2 1.2 rad
= 25
P Q
r = 5 cm

[2 cm]

## (b) θ = 1.4 rad and A = 118.3 cm2 

(c) θ = rad and A = 3π m2
6

[6 m]
[13 cm]
3 (e) θ = 102o and A = 215 cm2
(d) θ = 1 rad and A = 78.25 cm2
7

## [109.55 cm] [15.54 cm]

(f) θ = 65 and A = 78 cm
o 2
(g) θ = 102 and A = 1215 cm
o 2

## [11.73 cm] [36.94 cm]

Circular Measure 6
For each of the following, find the angle θ in radian given the values of r and A.
3 (a) r = 2.4 cm and A = 1.44 cm2
Example: r = 5 cm and A = 9 cm2
8
1
Since A  r 2
2
3 1
9   52  O 5 cm
8 2 B
75  2 

5 cm

8  25 _3
9 8 cm2
3
 rad A
4
[0.5 rad]
2 2
(b) r = 8 cm and A = 64 cm (c) r = 0.6 m and A = 3.24 m

## [2 rad] [18 rad]

For each of the following, find the angle θ in degree given the values of r and A.
Example: r = 4 cm and A = 16 cm2 (a) r = 15 cm and A = 50π cm
1
Since A  r 2
2
A
1 2 4c
16   4   m
2
O
16  2 

16 cm2
4 cm

16
= 2 rad
180
= 2 B
3.142
o
= 114.58

[80o]
(b) r = 8 cm and A = 48 cm2 (c) r = 3.2 m and A = 5 m2

[85.93o] [55.95o]

Circular Measure 7
2.2 Perimeter of Segments of a Circle

Example:
For the shaded segment in the given diagram beside, find its perimeter. A

cm
The perimeter of the shaded segment is the total length of the arc AB 10
and the chord AB.
O 1.2 rad
SAB = rθ
= 10 × 1.2 10
= 12 cm c m
To find the length of the chord AB, consider
the triangle OAB in the diagram beside. B
A
1
AB
2 m
 sin 0.6 rad 10c = Note:
10 ad
.6 r The length of the chord
1 180 O 00
AB  10  sin(0.6  ) .6 ra 
AB = 2r sin
2 3.142 10 d = 2
AB = 2 × 5.646 cm
= 11.292 cm
 perimeter of shaded segment = 12 + 11.292 B
= 23.292 cm

## 3.2 Area of Segments of a Circle

Example:
With reference to the sector in the same diagram beside, A
find the area of the shaded segment.
cm
10
The area of the shaded segment is the difference between
the area of the sector OAB and the triangle OAB. O 1.2 rad
1 2
Area of sector OAB = r θ 10
2 cm
1
  10 2 1.2 B
2
2
= 60 cm
To find the area of the triangle OAB,
please refer to the diagram beside. A
AC is perpendicular to the radius OB.
AC cm
 sin 1.2 rad 10 Note:
AO Area of triangle OAB
O 1.2 rad
 180  1
AC  AO sin 1.2   = r 2 sin 
 3.142  10 C 2
1 c m
Area of OAB   OB  AC
2 B
1
  OB  OA sin 68.75
2
1
  10  10  0.9320
2 Area of segment
 46.60 cm 2 1 1
 r 2  r 2 sin 
2 2
Area of shaded segment = 60 – 46.60
 r 2   sin  
= 13.40 cm2 1
2

Circular Measure 8
For each of the following diagrams, find
(i) the perimeter and
(ii) the area of the shaded segment.
(b)
(a) A
Q
m P
5c

0.8 ra

6 cm
O 0.5 rad 6
cm

d
5c
m
O
B

[Perimeter = 4.974 cm, Area = 0.2579 cm2] [Perimeter = 9.472 cm, Area = 1.489 cm2]
(c) (d)
P
O 4.2 cm A
60o
cm
3.8

4 .2 c

1 rad
m

O Q
3.8 cm
B

[Perimeter = 10.19 cm, Area = 1.145 cm2] [Perimeter = 8.599 cm, Area = 4.827 cm2]

Circular Measure 9