CONTENTS

Declaration
Acknowledgement
Abstract
List of Figure
List of Table
List of Abbreviation
Page
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1: General 2
1.2: Objectives 3
1.3: Scope of the Studies 4
1.4: Methodology 4
1.5: Organization of the Thesis 5

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1: Overview 7
2.2: Tunnel 8
2.3: Tunnel Construction 8
2.3.1: Cut and Cover Tunnel 9
2.3.2: Immersed Tube Tunnel 9
2.3.3: Bored Tunnel 11
2.4: Tunnel Construction Methods 13
2.4.1: Classical Methods 14
2.4.2: Mechanical Drilling and Cutting 19
2.4.3: Cut and Cover Method 20
2.4.4: Drill and Blast 21
2.4.5: Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Method 21
2.4.6: New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) 24
2.4.7: Immersed Tunnel 28
2.4.8: Special Methods 29
2.4.8.1: Double-deck tunnel 30
2.4.8.2: Artificial tunnels 30
2.4.8.3: Hazards 30
2.4.8.4: Pipe jacking 31
2.4.8.5: Box jacking 31
2.5: Previous studies of tunneling in Dhaka 31

Chapter 3: CUT AND COVER METHOD AND
GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION 35
3.1: Cut-and-Cover Tunnel Method 36
3.2: Type/Process 37
3.2.1: Conventional Method 37
3.2.2: Bottom-up Method 37
3.2.3: Top-down Method 38
3.2.4: Cast-in-place Method 38
3.3: Soil Characterization 39
3.4: Sample Soil Profile 42

Chapter 4: GEOMETRY OF THE EARTH RETENTION SYSTEM AND
ITS ANALYSIS 45
4.1: Introduction 46
4.2: Geotechnical Study 46
4.3: Earth Retention System 47
4.3.1: Type of Bracing System 48
4.4: Factors Influencing Earth Retention System 49
4.5: Design of Earth Retention 50
4.5.1: Soil Parameter 50
4.5.2: Pressure Diagram 51
4.5.3: Strut Load 54
4.5.4: Side-Wall Design 55
4.5.5: Wale Design 56
4.5.6: Strut Design 57
4.6: Geometry of the Earth Retention 58
4.7: Analysis Results 60

Chapter 5: ANALYSIS OF THE EARTH RETENTION SYSTEM BY
COMPUTER AIDED ASSESSMENT 62
5.1: Introduction 63
5.2: Advantage of Computer Aided Assessment 63
5.3: Method of Analysis by STAAD-Pro 64
5.3.1: Preparing Input File 64
5.3.2: Sending Input File to the Analysis and Design engine 65
5.3.3: Reading Results and verifying them 65
5.4: Model Creation and Analysis 66
5.4.1: Creating Structure and Meshing 66
5.4.2: Placing Bracing and Wales 67
5.4.3: Putting Supports 69
5.4.4: Defining Plate property 69
5.4.5: Defining Properties for Struts and Wales 70
5.4.6: 3D View 71
5.4.7: Application of Load 73
5.4.8: Analysis 75
5.4.9: Post Processing 76
5.5: Analysis Results 79
5.5.1: Moment Diagram of Side-wall 79
5.5.2: Displacement of Side-wall 85
5.5.3: Effect of Stiffness of Bracing 90

Chapter 6: CONSIDERATION OF EARTHQUAKE EFFECT IN TUNNEL 96
6.1: Introduction 97
6.1.1: Cut-and-cover structures 99
6.2: Perform of Underground Facilities during Seismic events 99
6.3: Seismic Design vs. Conventional Design 100
6.4: Seismic Design Philosophy for Tunnel Structures 101
6.4.1: Design Earthquake Criteria 101
6.4.1.1: Maximum Design Earthquake 102
6.4.1.2: Operating Design earthquake 103
6.4.2: Ground motion parameters 103
6.4.2.1: Acceleration, velocity, and displacement
amplitudes 103
6.4.3: Evaluation of Ground response to Shaking 105
6.4.3.1: Ground Failure 105
6.4.3.2: Ground Shaking Deformation 106
6.4.4: Seismic Design Loading Criteria 109
6.4.4.1: Loading criteria for MDE 109
6.4.4.2: Loading criteria for ODE 112
6.4.5: Step-by-step Design Procedure 113
6.5: Histories of Seismic Performance of Underground Structures 116
6.5.1 Underground structures in the United States 116
6.5.2 Underground structures in Kobe, Japan 118
6.5.3 Underground structures in Taiwan 118
6.5.4 Bolu Tunnel, Turkey 119
6.6: Summary of seismic performance of underground structures 121

Chapter 7: COMPARISON OF RESULTS & CONCLUSION 122
7.1: Comparison of Result obtained by manually and by Computer
Computer Aided Assessment 123
7.2: Result Discussion 127
7.3: Conclusion 127

REFERENCES
Appendix A: Steel table and interaction diagram ii
Appendix B: Bending moment diagram of Side-wall vii
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Typical Cross-Section of a Tunnel 14
Figure 2.2: English Method 15
Figure 2.3: The Australian Method 16
Figure 2.4: The Rove Tunnel near Marseille measured 22 x 15, 40 m, and was
excavated with multiple drifts 17
Figure 2.5: Multiple faces Excavation 18
Figure 2.6: Mechanical Drilling Machines 19
Figure 2.7: During construction of a Tunnel on Cut and Cover Method 20
Figure2.8: A typical rail tunnel section with its components 23
Figure 2.9: Schematic construction sequence for TBM 23
Figure 2.10: A shield machine at factory ready to transport out to the site 24
Figure 2.11: The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) 26
Figure 2.12: Cheaper way for tunneling 26
Figure 2.13: NATM support tubes installation (double layer) 27
Figure 2.14: NATM support tubes installation (single layer)
NATM support system sketch 27
Figure 2.15: Immersed Tunnel 28
Figure 2.16: Artificial Tunnel 30
Figure 3.1: London Transport Museum Showing Cut and Cover Methods
Used to Construct the London Underground 33
Figure 3.2: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (1 of 4) 40
Figure 3.3: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (2 of 4) 40
Figure 3.4: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (3 of 4) 41
Figure 3.5: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (4 of 4) 41
Figure 4.1: Pressure distribution diagram in Braced Cut 53
Figure 4.2: Pressure distribution and share force diagram in Braced Cut 55
Figure 4.3: Geometry of the Earth retention (Elevation) 59
Figure 4.4: Geometry of the Earth retention (Cross-section) 59
Figure 4.5: Geometry of the Earth retention (3D view) 60
Figure 4.6: Shear force and bending moment diagram by Manual calculation 61
Figure 5.1: Meshing side wall 66
Figure 5.2: Struts of Braced-cut 67
Figure 5.3: Struts and Wales of Braced-cut 68
Figure 5.4: Putting support of the side wall 69
Figure 5.5: Property of plate 70
Figure 5.6: Defining Strut and Wale property 70
Figure 5.7: All steel property 71
Figure 5.8: 3D view of strut 71
Figure 5.9: 3D view of struts with wales 72
Figure 5.10: 3D view of Braced-cut 72
Figure 5.11: Load Defining 73
Figure 5.12: Load Distribution on side wall 74
Figure 5.13: Analysis 75
Figure 5.14: Vertical Moment (Mx) of side wall 76
Figure 5.15: Horizontal Moment (My) of side wall 77
Figure 5.16: Tabular output result of Plate Moments 78
Figure 5.17: Plate-431 in Braced-cut 79
Figure 5.18: Plate orientation of Plate-431 80
Figure 5.19: Plate property of Plate-431 81
Figure 5.20: Corresponding Bracing of Plate-431 and its axis 81
Figure 5.21: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid ² 10 82
Figure 5.22: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid ² 11 83
Figure 5.23: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid ² 12 84
Figure 5.24: Horizontal Displacement of side wall 85
Figure 5.25: Displacement Graph ² Middle of the Plate 86
Figure 5.26: Displacement Graph ² Middle Bracing 87
Figure 5.27: Displacement Graph ² Side Bracing 88
Figure 5.28: Displacement Graph ² Between Bracing 89
Figure 5.29: Displacement of side wall using W12x45 bracing 92
Figure 5.30: Displacement of side wall using W12x72 bracing 93
Figure 5.31: Displacement of side wall using W12x96 bracing 94
Figure 5.32: Displacement of side wall using W12x120 bracing 95
Figure 6.1: Cross sections of tunnels 98
Figure 6.2: Deformation modes of tunnel due to seismic waves 108
Figure 6.3: Normalized structure deflection, circular vs. rectangular tunnels 115
Figure 6.4: Section sketch of Daikai subway station 118
Figure 6.5: Slope Failure at Tunnel Portal, Chi-Chi Earthquake, Central Taiwan 119
Figure 6.6: Bolu Tunnel, remining of Bench Pilot Tunnels, showing typical floor
heave and buckled steel rid and shotcrete shell 120
Figure 7.1: Local vertical moment at side wall 123
Figure 7.2: Local horizontal moment at side wall 124
Figure 7.3: Vertical Moment by Manual calculation 125
Figure 7.4: Vertical Moment by STAAD.Pro (Middle of the Side wall) 125
Figure 7.5: Vertical Moment by STAAD.Pro (Middle Bracing) 126
Figure 7.6: Vertical Moment by STAAD.Pro (Side Bracing) 126








LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Mechanical Drilling and Cutting-Crushing Strength of rock 19
Table 3.1: Anticipated Ground Classes 40
Table 4.1: Different cases based on soil type for design of earth retention 47
Table 4.2: Case-I soil parameter for design of earth retention 51
Table 5.1: Maximum Axial force of different Bracing 90
Table 5.2: Maximum Bending moment of side wall using different Bracing 91
Table 5.3: Maximum Displacement of side wall using different Bracing 91
Table 6.1: Ratio of peak ground velocity to peak ground acceleration at surface
in rock and soil 104
Table 6.2: Ratio of peak ground velocity to peak ground acceleration at surface
in rock and soil 104
















LIST OF ABBREVIATION

Ag = gross area
Ast = steel area
Cu = cohesion
DL = effects due to dead loads of structural components
E1 = effects due to vertical loads of earth and water
E2 = effects due to horizontal loads of earth and water and
EQ = effects due to design earthquake motion
fC· = ultimate concrete strength
fS = allowable strength of steel
H = depth of soil
Hs = depth of sand layer
h = thickness of diaphragm wall
Ka = coefficient of active pressure
Kp = coefficient of passive pressure
LL= effects due to live loads,
MA, MO, MP, MQ, MD = Moment at point A, O, P, Q, D
Mn = nominal bending moment of concrete
MU = ultimate bending moment of concrete
n· = a coefficient of progressive failure
P = load
Pa = apparent pressure
PC, PS = load on concrete and steel
qu = unconfined compressive strength
RA, RB, RC, RD = reaction at point A, B, C, D
S = section modulus
U = required structural strength capacity
ǃ1 =load factor
f = angle of internal friction
ʌg = reinforcement ratio
s = stress
g = unit weight of soil
gd = dry unit weight
gsat = saturated unit weight
g· = effective unit weight
gc = saturated unit weight of clay layer
gs = saturated unit weight of sand layer
gfield= angular distortion at field
gsurface= angular distortion at surface
Dfield = lateral raking deformation at field
Dsurface = lateral raking deformation at surface




























CHAPTER 1 .
INTRODUCTION


















1.1 General
Traffic jam has a common phenomenon of our day to day life. Number of
population is increasing at a geometric rate while the capacity of the road and road
network has not been expanded to accommodate the growth. With the growing of
population the number of vehicle is also growing. The growing number of vehicle
generates daily traffic congestion, pollutes air and creates conflicts with the
pedestrians. The traffic became a real nightmare by in effective transportation
system at the surface. The Analysis of the road system make sound decision about
the traffic management, better traffic control, more roads and flyover, and more
lanes in existing roads is unlikely to eliminate the existing traffic problem.
Underground Metro system has been very popular and effective for eliminating
traffic congestion. Subway has been used successfully in the crowded cities of the
world such as Tokyo, New York, London etc. Metro rail system believed to be one of
the most superior with respect to volume of mass transport. Underground medium
is a space that can be provided the setting for activities or infrastructures that are
difficult, impossible, environmentally undesirable or less profitable to install above
ground. Considering this aspects it would be one of the best solution to control
transportation problem in Bangladesh.
The various advantages of metro rail system are:
y Environment friendly
y Less noise pollution
y Less effect of seismic wave
y No emission and Temperature control
y No traffic congestion
y No interruption
y Capacity of passenger is high
y Safe transport system
A tunnel can be constructed by either Cut-and-Cover method or using Tunnel
Boring Machine (TBM). However, the method causes disturbance to land traffic and
ground deformation around deep excavation which can damage adjacent buildings
and utilities. Peck (1969), Goldberg et.al. (1976), Mana (1978), Clough and O· Rourke
(1990) and Long (2001) have indentified factors influencing the ground deformations
due to excavation. A very crucial part of tunnel construction is Earth Retention.
Design of earth retention is major concern for tunnel design.

1.2 Objective
The objective of our study is to review the details of analysis of cut and cover
method for tunnel construction. Different earth retention such as anchored sheet
pile, braced cut and diaphragm wall are examined for their applicability with in the
soil condition. The main objective of our study is described below:
1. To compare the internal forces of earth retention system obtained by 3-D
computer modelling & analysis (using software STAAD Pro) and those
obtained by manual calculation (inspired by the book of Peck-Henson).
2. To study in detail of the previous and advanced methods of tunnelling.
3. To review the cut and cover method that has been widely used for ground
tunnelling and investigate the internal structural forces of earth retention
system in cut and cover method.
4. To study the influence of different parameters of earth retention system.
5. To study the stiffness of the lateral bracing, displacement on side wall.
6. To study the analysis on moment diagram at different grid of earth
retention compare the analysis results.


1.3 Scope of the Studies
1. The scope of studies was calculating different side wall moment by
manual and computed aided assessment analysis method. The scope
extends up to using computer based software name STAAD Pro.
2. Analysis of different wall moment was done by graphical process under
same loading condition.
3. Analysis of different wall moment value curve was shown by Microsoft
Excel.

1.4 Methodology
For constructing any sub-structure the first and most important step is geotechnical
study. So for designing the earth retention for tunnel construction, first step is to
determine the soil parameters of the location where tunnel will be constructed. Then
at the second step is to determine the pressure diagram via Peck (1969) and draw the
pressure diagram. After drawing the pressure diagram at third step we design the
earth retention system. Then at fourth and final step we determine its controlling
perimeters of the structure such as moment distribution, displacement graph, shear
force distribution, controlling moment and shear force etc from which we can obtain
structural design.
In the fourth step the structural analysis of the earth retention is done by the
following methods:
1. Manual analysis method.
2. Computer aided analysis method.
All this methods provides us the controlling design perimeters such as controlling
shear force and moment and the distribution of moment and shear. This data can
then be used to design the structure i.e. determine the structure thickness,
reinforcement requirement and detailing etc. some of which are also directly
obtained from one of more of the above stated analysis methods.
In Manual analysis method the design analysis of the earth retention is done
manually by following a series of simple equations. Calculation is done by rough
estimation. Calculation in this method is easy but great attention is required.
In Computer analysis method various designing software such as STAAD Pro,
ETABS, SAFE etc are used to analyze the structure.
Usually the moment and shear distribution and sometimes section detail and
reinforcement detail of the structure are shown in output. In this method a very
accurate result is obtained by using numerical approximation principal of
mathematics where the result of very complex indeterminable interrelated equations
is obtained by successive approximation by using the result of one analysis into the
next until the result meets a required perception value. Calculations in this method
are both complex and very lengthy and require aid of computer.

1.5 Organization of the thesis
The thesis is arranged in a systematic way to present the above objectives. Chapter 2
deals with the literature review which includes features of possible methods of
tunneling and previous studies of tunneling in Dhaka. In Chapter 3 reviews
available cut and cover methods for ground tunneling, it also discussed about the
Geotechnical characterization of sub-soil. Chapter 4 discusses the details of analysis
of earth retention system. Chapter 5 reviews the design and analysis of earth
retention by computer aided assessment (STAAD Pro). Chapter 6 discusses the
consideration of earthquake for tunnel designing. And at last the result analysis and
conclusion is discussed in Chapter 7.

































CHAPTER 2 .
LITERATURE REVIEW















2.1 Overview
Dhaka is one of the most densely populated cities in the world with its present
population of over 13 million. The percentage of roads is far below the standard
limit (only 7.0% instead of 30%). The deteriorating traffic conditions are affecting the
city's efficiency performance and are being considered as a major impediment for
economic growth and development of Bangladesh, causing frustration among the
residents and prompting popular demands to find urgent solutions. This has
prompted to the introduction of Metro rail in order to improve the public transport
system of the city which was also reflected in Strategic Transport Plan (STP 2005) for
Dhaka city.
The tunnel/underground train system would drastically cut down traffic congestion
by diverting much of its load through the underground network. It would enable
the city populations to travel anywhere to anywhere within the city without having
to wait for other transports. The existing system of transportation creates heavy
pollution by emitting CO2, CO, Pb to make have made the environment toxic, hot
and humid. The underground railway, in contrast, makes no emission. It would
make the city environment human friendly.
In tunnel construction Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) method is very slow and
costlier (4-5 times) than Cut and Cover (CC). If we use TBM, we have to use cut and
cover for the stations, which is another drawback of TBM. The selection of the
construction method depends on the soil condition, economic condition and depth.
As there is always a chance for future expansion, we must use the shallow depth,
keeping the provision for future expansion. India has used (CC), and will use TBM
for going under the Ganga River. Our soil is suitable for (CC). In our study we
analysis the earth retention system using braced-cut of cut and cover method for
tunnel construction. Now we are discussing about methods of tunneling.

2.2 Tunnel
A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings
for egress, commonly at each end.
A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some
tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations
or are sewers. Other uses include routing power or telecommunication cables, some
are to permit wildlife such as European badgers to cross highways. Secret tunnels
have given entrance to or escape from an area, such as the Cu Chi Tunnels or the
smuggling tunnels in the Gaza Strip which connect it to Egypt. Some tunnels are not
for transport at all but rather, are fortifications, for example Mittelwerk and
Cheyenne Mountain.
In the United Kingdom, a pedestrian tunnel or other underpass beneath a road is
called a subway. In the United States that term now means an underground rapid
transit system.
The central part of a rapid transit network is usually built in tunnels. Rail station
platforms may be connected by pedestrian tunnels or by foot bridges.

2.3 Tunnel Construction
Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The
method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the
ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of
the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape
of the tunnel and appropriate risk management.
Following recent introductions such as the Munich Re wording and the
TunnellingCode of Practice it may therefore be of interest to detail the engineering
basics of the three different types of tunnelling i.e.:-
1) Cut and Cover Tunnel ² where a trench is excavated, the tunnel
constructed in the trench then backfilled over to original ground level.
2) Immersed Tube Tunnel ² similar to a cut and cover tunnel except that the
trench is under water (e.g. river estuary/sea) and the precast tunnel
elements are floated into position then sunk in the trench and joined
together before backfilling.
3) Bored Tunnel ² where a hole is bored through existing ground,
constructed in situ. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section

2.3.1 Cut and Cover Tunnel
The ´cut and coverµ method is often preferred for the construction of shallow
tunnels. The normal procedure is to excavate the site in open ground and protect the
sides by forming embankments or by close/secant piling or sheet piling. If it is
important for the site to be reinstated as soon as possible then the ´top downµ
method could be used e.g. by inserting the piles along the line of the outside of the
proposed ´tunnel wallsµ then excavating only sufficient ground to construct the
´tunnel roofµ spanning between the rows of piles. The site (and any services, etc)
above the ´tunnel roofµ may then be reinstated. Commencing at one (or both) end(s)
the ground beneath the ´tunnel roofµ can be excavated at leisure and the tunnel
constructed.

2.3.2 Immersed Tube Tunnel
The first immersed tube tunnel to be constructed in the UK was the Conwy Tunnel
almost 20 years ago and other immersed tube tunnels now exist in Medway and
Cork. The method of construction comprises:-

y Pre-fabrication (in a casting basin) of the tunnel sections ² usually of
reinforced concrete but sometimes of steel.
y Flooding the casting basin and floating the units out and into position
over the pre-dredged trench.
y The trench has a prepared bed with foundation pads supporting jack legs.
y The units are sunk into position on the jack legs.
y They are joined together using e.g. Gina gaskets.
y Sand is injected beneath the units to take their weight.
y The jacks are removed.
y The settlement rate monitored to ensure uniformity.
y Then: backfilling around and over the units -
bulkhead removal
ballast infill
ballast tank removal
joint sealing completion ² steel plates and rubber gaskets
placing of carriageway and services
painting and finishing

The Gina gaskets are air filled steel gaskets from which the air is pumped out thus
using atmospheric pressure to ´compressµ the units together to form a water-tight
seal. The gaskets curve in and out towards top and bottom and are allegedly named
after the actress, Gina Lollobrigida, who was ´somewhat admiredµ by their design
engineer who perceived ´design similaritiesµ between actress and gasket. During
the construction of the Conwy Tunnel, severe flooding of the River Conwy occurred
before the sand injection had been completed beneath the units and the Insurance
Market·s recollection of this project concerns paying for divers using garden rakes to
remove tree branches, drowned sheep, etc, washed under the units during the flood.

2.3.3 Bored Tunnel
The method of construction of the third type of tunnel, the bored tunnel, depends on
the nature of the ground and may comprise either rock tunneling or soft ground
tunneling. Modern methods of rock tunneling utilize:-
I. multi-boom drilling machines
II. full face and boom cutter excavation machines for all but the hardest
rock, or
III. Controlled blasting by milli-second delay detonating.

Where it is necessary to drill and blast, the holes are drilled in the tunnel face to a
depth of about 2 meters to insert the charges. The holes are drilled at about 1 meter
centers but no charges are placed in the drilled holes at the centre of the tunnel face
² these are there just to create a void. The next ring of holes around the centre is
drilled at an angle and the charges in them are the first to be detonated so that the
rock collapses inwards and away from the tunnel face. The next charges to be
denoted are those in the rock surrounding the void created in the centre and
likewise they cause that rock to collapse inwards. The next charges to be detonated
are those in the next layer of rock surrounding the centre -- and so on!

The spoil is removed by truck and, where necessary, temporary support provided to
the sides and roof by timber struts or rock bolts. If required, a permanent lining may
be constructed ² this could be for (a) cosmetics, (b) frost protection or (c) ground
with ´time dependentµ stability. The lining could comprise insitu concrete (with
steel lining if in a high pressure water tunnel for a hydro-electric scheme), pre-cast
concrete segments, cast iron or sprayed concrete/shotcrete/gunite. For the
temporary supports mentioned above, rock bolts are now more common than
timber struts. There are several types but basically they are just a reinforcement rod
surrounded by epoxy mortar. Initially they look like long sausages containing
compartments of the epoxy resin and filler and when the rod is ´screwed up the
sausageµ it mixes the resin and filler to form the mortar and hence the bond.(It is
possible to obtain ´sausagesµ containing mortar with different setting times so that
the rod can be anchored at its extremity then stressed before the rest of the mortar
sets to produce pre-stressed bolts).

The normal length of rock bolts is between 3 meters and 6 meters and their use is
very conducive to sprayed concrete linings where mesh reinforcement is usually
inserted before spraying on the concrete. This is the basis of NATM (the New
Austrian Tunneling Method) where a thickness from about 100mm to 300mm is
used depending on the ability of the ground to support itself. NATM was originally
used in rock ground but is now used in soft ground, providing it is self supporting.
It is a subject in itself but basically the design varies depending on the observations
made as construction proceeds - there are several standard designs and the one
adopted depends on the conditions encountered.

The above rock tunneling methods are used from hard rock to weak fissured rock
but, for projects in decomposed rock, e.g. the Hong Kong Metro, or ´softµ ground,
then soft ground tunneling methods may be necessary. Such methods include:-
y Excavation by (powered) hand tools.
y Excavation by hand tools using shields.
y Excavation by machines with shields.

The method adopted will depend on (a) the ground conditions e.g. type of
soil/presence of ground water and (b) the size of the tunnel. (The longer the tunnel
the more likely it is to be economical to bring in a tunnel boring machine (TBM).
Similarly the larger the diameter of the tunnel the more danger there is of collapse
and hence the more advisable it is to use a TBM).
In cohesive soils (soft and hard clays, soft marls and weakly cemented sands)
tunneling is relatively easy as the ground is sufficiently self supporting to enable
prefabricated linings to be erected immediately behind the excavation.

In cohesionless soils or subaqueous ground, however, to overcome the poor
conditions it will be necessary to:-
1. Use compressed air.
2. Stabilize the ground by:-
i. freezing (by pumping in either very cold brine solution or liquid
nitrogen)
ii. grouting/chemical injection, or
iii. de-watering, or
3. Use a full face machine.

A type of full face TBM now in common use in poor ground conditions is an EPBM
(earth pressure balancing machine) ² this reduces the risk of collapse of the tunnel
face by balancing the extraction rates from the plenum chamber (via a screw
conveyer) against the rate of advance controlled by the thrust rams. Another
advance in tunneling is the use of radar ² in the Elbe Tunnel in Hamburg the
Employer insisted that a radar device be inserted in the head to detect old bombs,
etc, and recent research is producing more sophisticated methods in this field.

2.4 Tunnel Construction Methods
‡ Classical methods
‡ Mechanical drilling/cutting
‡ Cut-and-cover
‡ Drill and blast
‡ Shields and tunnel boring machines (TBMs)
‡ New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM)
‡ Immersed tunnels
‡ Special methods (Tunnel jacking, etc.)

2.4.1 Classical Methods
‡ Among the classical methods are the Belgian, English, German, Austrian,
Italian and American systems. These methods had much in common with
early mining methods and were used until last half of the 19th century.
‡ Excavation was done by
hand or simple drilling
equipment.
‡ Supports were
predominantly timber, and
transportation of muck was
done on cars on narrow
gauge tracks and powered
by steam.
‡ Progress was typically in
multiple stages i.e.
progresses in one drift, then
support, then drift in another
drift, and so on. Figure 2.1: Typical Cross-Section of a Tunnel
‡ The lining would be of brickwork.
These craft-based methods are no longer applicable, although some of their
principles have been used in combination up to present day. Nevertheless some of
the world·s great tunnels were built with these methods.


The English method (crown-bar method) started from a central top heading which
allowed two timber crown bars to be hoisted into place, the rear ends supported on
a completed length of lining, the forward ends propped within the central heading.
Development of the heading then allowed additional bars to be erected around the
perimeter of the face with boards between each pair to exclude the ground. The
system is economical in timber, permits construction of the arch of the tunnel in full-
face excavation, and is tolerant of a wide variety of ground conditions, but depends
on relatively low ground pressures.















Figure 2.2: English Method
The Austrian (cross-bar) method required a strongly constructed central bottom
heading upon which a crown heading was constructed. The timbering for full-face
excavation was then heavily braced against the central headings, with longitudinal
poling boards built on timber bars carried on each frame of timbering. As the lining
advanced, so was the timbering propped against each length to maintain stability.
The method was capable of withstanding high ground pressures but had high
demand for timber.











The German
(core- method
leaving method)
provided a series of box headings within which the successive sections of the side
walls of the tunnel were built from the footing upwards, thus a forerunner of the
system of multiple drifts. The method depends on the central dumpling being able
to resists without excessive movement pressure transmitted from the side walls, in
providing support to the top 'key' heading prior to completion of the arch and to
ensuring stability while the invert arch is extended in sections.
The Belgian system (underpinning or flying arch method) started from the
construction of a top heading, propped approximately to the level of the springing
Figure 2.3: The Australian Method
of the arch for a horseshoe tunnel. This heading was then extended to each side to
permit construction of the upper part of the arch, which was extended by under-
pinning, working from side headings. The system was only practicable where rock
loads were not heavy.
The first sizeable tunnel in soft ground was the Tronquoy tunnel on the St Quentin
canal in France in 1803, where the method of construction, based on the use of
successive headings to construct sections of the arch starting from the footing, was a
forerunner to the German system described above.





Figure 2.4: The Rove Tunnel near Marseille measured 22 x 15,40 m, and was
excavated with multiple drifts.
Classical multiple face excavation




Figure 2.5: Multiple face Excavation

2.4.2 Mechanical Drilling and Cutting
Table 2.1: Mechanical Drilling and Cutting-Crushing Strength of rock
Roadheaders







2.4.3 Cut and Cover Method
The principal problem to be solved in connection with this construction method is to
how to maintain surface traffic, with the least disturbance during the construction
period. One method is to restrict traffic to a reduced street width, another to direct
traffic to a bypassing street.

Figure 2.7: During construction of a Tunnel on Cut and Cover Method
Figure 2.6: Mechanical Drilling Machines

Another way of supporting the sidewalls of open trenches is to substitute sheet-pile
walls by concrete curtain walls cast under bentonite slurry (ICOS method), and
using steel struts. This is especially a requisite in narrower streets trimmed with old
sensitive buildings with their foundation plane well above the bottom level of the
pit. This type of trench wall becomes a requirement for maintenance of surface
traffic due to the anticipation of vibration effects potentially harmful to the stability
of buildings with foundations lying on cohesionless soils.
2.4.4 Drill and Blast
Before the advent of tunnel boring machines, drilling and blasting was the only
economical way of excavating long tunnels through hard rock, where digging is not
possible. Even today, the method is still used in the construction of tunnels, such as
in the construction of the Lötschberg Base Tunnel. The decision whether to construct
a tunnel using a TBM or using a drill and blast method includes a number of factors
such as:
y Tunnel length
y Managing the risks of variations in ground quality
y Required speed of construction
y The required shape of the tunnel
Tunnel length is a key issue that needs to be addressed because large TBMs for a
rock tunnel have a high capital cost, but because they are usually quicker than a drill
and blast tunnel the price per meter of tunnel is lower. This means that shorter
tunnels tend to be less economical to construct with a TBM and are therefore usually
constructed by drill and blast. Managing ground conditions can also have a
significant effect on the choice with different methods suited to different hazards in
the ground.

2.4.5 Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Method
There are two major shield methods around: earth pressure balanced (EPB) and
slurry type shield machine. Selection of shield method depends on ground
conditions, surface conditions, dimensions of the tunnel section, boring distance,
tunnel alignment and construction period. Both are closed-face type shield
machines, meaning the "head" part of machine is "closed" and separated from the
rear part of machine. The "head" has a working chamber filled with soil or slurry
between the cutting face and bulkhead to stabilize the cutting face under soil
pressure. The EPB type shield machine turns the excavated soil into mud pressure
and holds it under soil pressure to stabilize the cutting face. It has excavation system
to cut the soil, mixing system to mix the excavated soil into mud pressure, soil
discharge system to discharge the soil and control system to keep the soil pressure
uniform. Therefore, EPB may not be applicable for the rocky soil that is difficult to
turn the excavated soil into slurry. It can be used at ground predominated by clayey
soil. The slurry type shield machine, on the other hand, uses the external pressurized
slurry to stabilize the cutting face, similar to bored piles or diaphragm walls using
bentonite to contain the trench wall. The slurry is circulated to transport the
excavated soil by fluid conveyance. Besides having excavation system, the slurry
type shield machine has slurry feed and discharge equipment to circulate and
pressurize slurry and slurry processing equipment on the ground to adjust the
slurry properties.
The process for bored tunneling involves all or some of the following operations:

‡ Probe drilling (when needed)
‡ Grouting (when needed)
‡ Excavation (or blasting)
‡ Supporting
‡ Transportation of muck
‡ Lining or coating/sealing
‡ Draining
‡ Ventilation
General knowledge about TBM tunnels

Figure2.8: A typical rail tunnel section with its components

Figure2.9: Schematic construction sequence for TBM








Figure2.10: A shield machine at factory ready to transport out to the site

2.4.6 New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM)
This method has been developed basically in Austria so its name make use of
providing flexible primary lining in shape of shotcrete , wire mesh, rock bolts, lattice
girder. In case of weaker rock mass the use of pipe forepole/pipe roofing is also
resrted for crown support which in turn lead to less overbreak as well as ensure
safety during the execution. The main aspect of the approach is dynamic design
based on rock mass classification as well as the in situ deformation observed. Hence
more economical use of the tunnel support system along with the rational approach
of execution.




Broad Principles of NATM
NATM broadly based on the following principles :
y Mobilization of the strength of rock mass - The method relies on the inherent
strength of the rock mass being conserved as the main component of tunnel
support. Primary support is directed to enable the rock to support itself.
y Shotcrete protection - Loosening and excessive rock mass deformation should
be minimised by applying a layer 25-50mm of sealing shotcrete immediately
after opening of the face.
y Measurements - Every deformation of the excavation must be measured.
NATM requires installation of sophisticated measurement instrumentation. It
is embedded in lining, ground such as load cells, extensometers and relectors.
y Primary Lining - The primary lining is thin. It is active support and the tunnel
is strengthened not by a thicker concrete lining but by a flexible combination
of rock bolts, wire mesh and Lattice girders.
y Closing of invert ² Early as far as possible closing the invert so as to complete
the arch action and creating a load-bearing ring is important. It is crucial in
soft ground tunnels.
y Rock mass classification - The participation of expert geologist is very
important as the primary support as well as the further designing of supports
etc during the excavation of rock requires the classification of the rock mass.
y Dynamic Design ² The deigning is dynamic during the tunnel construction.
Every face opening classification of rock is done and the support are selected
accordingly. Also the design is further reinforced based on the deformation as
noticed during the monitoring.









Figure2.11: The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), an alternative and









Figure2.12: cheaper way for tunneling







Figure2.13: NATM support tubes installation (double layer)


2.4.7 Immersed Tunnel
An immersed tube is a kind of underwater tunnel composed of segments,
constructed elsewhere and floated to the tunnel site to be sunk into place and then
linked together. They are commonly used for road
and rail crossings of rivers, estuaries and sea
channels/harbours. Immersed tubes are often used
in conjunction with other forms of tunnel at their
end, such as a cut and cover or bored tunnel,
which is usually necessary to continue the tunnel
from near the water's edge
to the entrance (portal) at the land surface.

Construction
The tunnel is made up of separate elements, each prefabricated in a manageable
length, then having the ends sealed with bulkheads so they can be floated. At the
same time, the corresponding parts of the path of the tunnel are prepared, with a
trench on the bottom of the channel being dredged and graded to fine tolerances to
support the elements. The next stage is to place the elements into place, each towed
to the final location, in most cases requiring some assistance to remain buoyant.
Once in position, additional weight is used to sink the element into the final
location, this being a critical stage to ensure each piece is aligned correctly. After
being put into place the joint between the new element and the tunnel is dewatered
and then made water tight, this process continuing sequentially along the tunnel.
Figure 2.15: Immersed Tunnel
Figure2.14: NATM support tubes installation (single layer)
NATM support system sketch
The trench is then backfilled and any necessary protection, such as rock armour,
added over the top. The ground beside each end tunnel element will often be
reinforced, to permit a tunnel boring machine to drill the final links to the portals on
land. After these stages the tunnel is complete, and the internal fit out can be carried
out.
The segments of the tube may be constructed in one of two methods. In the United
States, the preferred method has been to construct steel or cast iron tubes which are
then lined with concrete. This allows use of conventional shipbuilding techniques,
with the segments being launched after assembly in dry docks. In Europe, reinforced
concrete box tube construction has been the standard; the sections are cast in a basin
which is then flooded to allow their removal.

2.4.8 Special Methods
2.4.8.1 Double-deck tunnel
Some tunnels are double-deck, for example the two major segments of the San
Francisco ² Oakland Bay Bridge (completed in 1936) are linked by a double-deck
tunnel, the largest diameter bore tunnel in the world. At construction this was a
combination bidirectional rail and truck pathway on the lower deck with
automobiles above, now converted to one-way road vehicle traffic on each deck.
The Lion Rock Tunnel, built in the mid-1960s connecting New Kowloon and Sha Tin
within the territory of Hong Kong, carries a motorway and an aqueduct.
A recent double-decker tunnel with both decks for motor vehicles is the Fuxing
Road Tunnel in Shanghai, China. Cars travel on the two-lane upper deck and
heavier vehicles on the single-lane lower.
Multipurpose tunnel are tunnels that have more than one purpose. The SMART
Tunnel in Malaysia is the first multipurpose tunnel in the world, as it is used both to
control traffic and flood in Kuala Lumpur.




2.4.8.2 Artificial tunnels
The 19th century Dark Gate in Esztergom,
Hungary.
Over-bridges can sometimes be built by covering a
road or river or railway with brick or steel arches,
and then leveling the surface with earth. In railway
parlance, a surface-level track which has been built
or covered over is normally called a covered way.
Snow sheds are a kind of artificial tunnel built to
protect a railway from avalanches of snow.
Similarly the Stanwell Park, New South Wales steel tunnel, on the South Coast
railway line, protects the line from rockfalls.
Common utility ducts are human-made tunnels created to carry two or more utility
lines underground. Through co-location of different utilities in one tunnel,
organizations are able to reduce the costs of building and maintaining utilities.
Figure 2.16: Artificial Tunnel

2.4.8.3 Hazards
Owing to the enclosed space of a tunnel, fires can have very serious effects on users.
The main dangers are gas and smoke production, with low concentrations of carbon
monoxide being highly toxic. Fires killed 11 people in the Gotthard tunnel fire of
2001 for example, all of the victims succumbing to smoke and gas inhalation. Over
400 passengers died in the Balvano train disaster in Italy in 1944, when the
locomotive halted in a long tunnel. Carbon monoxide poisoning was the main cause
of the horrifying death rate.
2.4.7.4 Pipe jacking
Pipe Jacking, also known as pipe jacking or pipe-jacking, is a method of tunnel
construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through
the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. This technique is commonly
used to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways. Tunnels
constructed by pipe jacking are normally small diameter tunnels with a maximum
size of around 2.4m.
2.4.7.5 Box jacking
Box jacking is similar to pipe jacking, but instead of jacking tubes, a box shaped
tunnel is used. Jacked boxes can be a much larger span than a pipe jack with the
span of some box jacks in excess of 20m. A cutting head is normally used at the front
of the box being jacked and excavation is normally by excavator from within the
box.

2.5 Previous studies of tunneling in Dhaka
A few studies have been undertaken on the earth retention system of ´cut and
coverµ method and transport sector in Dhaka.
Kawsar Md. Abdul Waheed (2008) studied on application of cut and cover method
for the construction of Metro rail tunnel in Dhaka city. He revealed that design of
earth retention system with sheet pile wall will not be suitable for ground condition
and the depth of excavation of 50ft for the tunnel in Dhaka.
He also raveled that underground metro tunnel system is feasible for Dhaka city and
would appear as effective solution for the current traffic condition. Diaphragm wall
system appeared as effective earth retention system during excavation of the tunnel
Md. Aroz Ullah describes ´cut and coverµ method negatively. From his view point
´cut and coverµ excavation method does not work for subway tunnel in Dhaka city.
By using open ´cut and coverµ method, there will be a real problem for existing land
use. As per population and scarcity of land space, TBM method is appropriate for
excavation. By using TBM method, the above ground level land use should not be
affected. (BDCAN, 2008)
Rahul Guha (2011) studied on the Pre-Feasibility of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and
Metro Rail in Old Dhaka. He discrete choice models using the collected data and the
coefficients of the utility functions have been estimated using a maximum likelihood
approach. The observed taste heterogeneity of the respondents have been taken into
account by the introduction of socio-economic variables like income, age, gender,
occupation, employment, etc. into the model and market segmentation tests have
also been performed.
From the user response survey, the current travel behavior, socio-economic
characteristics and Stated Preference (SP) scenario are analyzed. From the SP of the
users it has been found that BRT is preferred more than Metro rail among most of
the users.
The urban transportation expert team of Japan International cooperation Agency
(JICA) earlier focusing on the metro rail system in Dhaka but now they shifted to
Express way. They said approximately 2.6 billion US dollar will be required to build
the country's underground metro railway but will cost one billion dollar less to
build monorails high over the ground, The study estimated $12 million for each
kilometer of the elevated part, while $48 million per km underground.
On the other hand Engineer Shafiqul Alam describe that, In case of elevated
expressway (EE), it is impossible to make complete network throughout the city as if
is already saturated. That is why EE for certain portion is not sensible. Any decision
like that would make the same scenario like two fly-overs. Most of the buses do not
use Mohakhali fly-over because they would not get the passengers there and cannot
go to Gulshan. There is just one directional movement there as a result of which
buses reversely coming from Banai cannot go to Shatrasta and so on. On the other
hand, the fly-over road-space has been wasted due to the columns and other works
like beautification. Normally EE is used for the highway buses to pass the city
without using the roads. Toll way of Chittagong also remains empty.
Some compares Dhaka with Bangkok and some with that of New York. Bangkok has
sky train but that is not a complete network and the fare is very high (Thai Baht 15-
30, almost Taka 30-60). The same situation was there in Australia for a segment of
metro. The people were not interested to use that, because metro should be for the
people but the people are not for metro. For that, they modified the network. On the
other hand, the US government gives subsidy for metro because of its sound
economy. Metro is profitable in Japan, China, India, and France and so on. To speak
the truth, the underground metro has a proven track record of 150 years and more
than 177 cities are using this transport comfortably. Considering earthquakes,
cyclones etc, an underground metro is the most feasible solution for mitigating
traffic congestion, because subway tunnels can withstand vibration in the
magnitude of Richter scale 9.2 due to sand cushioning.
For EE, sky-train & monorail, the aesthetic view of Dhaka would be destroyed. The
city would be more dirty and shaded. The exhaust from BRT (for EE) would make
an isolated shade due to the turbulence in the upper region. For sky/mono, there
would, once again, be a chaotic situation. It can carry few passengers. That is why
people would not be able to depend on it and the use of sky/mono for some portion
and that of bus for some portion are not sensible. To cope with the situation arising
out of ever-growing population, we have to introduce heavy metro (underground
metro rail) of independent network, where all the city entry points would be
connected and the busiest areas would be covered according to the existing traffic-
flow pattern.
He also described that, If cut & cover method is applied for the tunnel construction,
the total cost for Dhaka would be Tk. 70 billion (7000 crore). Underground metro rail
by cut & cover method is the only viable solution to mitigate traffic congestion of
Dhaka. That will eventually make pollution-free green Dhaka possible. (BDCAN,
2008)
According to Dhaka Transport Coordination Board (DTCB), the government is now
seriously considering construction of new roads and introduction of a rapid transit
system in the capital by 2024 for quick modernization of Dhaka's current shabby
transport system. The initiative is a part of a massive Strategic Transport Plan (STP)
to modernize Dhaka's transport system, for which the government is planning to
spend at least 5.5 billion US dollars by 2024 in implementing a number of
development schemes (The Daily Star, 2010).














CHAPTER 3 .
CUT AND COVER METHOD AND
GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION












3.1 Cut-and-Cover Tunnel Method
Cut-and-cover tunneling is a simple tunneling construction method used to build
shallow tunnels such as those commonly used by subways, railways, and metro
systems.









Cut and cover tunnels are shallow tunnels constructed in a trench. Prior to
excavation, buried utilities and services crossing the route have to be protected or
diverted. Permanent utility diversions are used to avoid the tunnel alignment where
possible. When this is not possible these utilities may be temporarily raised over the
alignment clear of construction and then reinstated. For gravity sewers this may
involve temporary pump installation to pump over the excavation prior to
reinstatement.
Figure 3.1: London Transport Museum showing Cut and Cover Methods used to
construct the London Underground

The cut is constructed in a number of ways, depending on the support requirements
of the ground. In hard rock this may be vertical walls supported by rock bolts and
sprayed concrete. In soft rocks and soils stable slopes may be created by excavating
benches or batters. If surface space is restricted, or the disturbance caused by
construction needs to be minimised then retaining walls can be used to stabilise the
excavation. These may be permanent and incorporated into the final structure or
temporary and removed after the tunnel structure has been completed.
In some cases the retaining walls and cut and cover tunnel may form the
foundations for new buildings to be constructed above the tunnel. As surface
excavation and wall support are the key cost elements of construction where
possible both running tunnels (and any escape provision) are generally included in a
single structure.

3.2 Type/Process
y Conventional Method
y Bottom-up Method
y Top-down Method
y Cast-in place Method

3.2.1 Conventional Method
In the conventional method, excavating a trench in the ground and then backfilling
and restoring the original roadway or ground is the process used to construct a
tunnel. A support system of some sort is also necessary to carry the load of the
material used to cover over the tunnel such as shotcrete.

3.2.2 Bottom-up Method
In the cut-and-cover bottom-up or caisson wall method, a drilling rig is used to
install caisson walls down to the existing bedrock. Once the caisson walls are in
place, soil between the walls is excavated to a depth below the tunnel floor. The
tunnel floor, a slab, is poured, followed by the sidewalls of the tunnel from the
bottom-up. After the walls of the tunnel are completed, the roof is constructed and
the roadway or ground on top of the tunnel restored. Materials used to provide the
structure and support in the construction of the tunnel may include concrete, pre-
cast concrete, pre-cast arches, or corrugated steel arches.

3.2.3 Top-down Method
In the cut-and-cover top-down or diaphragm wall method, the opposite process
takes place in constructing the tunnel. A trencher or trench cutter is typically used to
dig a trench out of the ground first before concrete walls are built. This process
consists of using a slurry mixture to build a slurry wall. The slurry wall provides
temporary support to the sides of the trench before concrete is poured for a
permanent wall structure. Once the concrete walls of the tunnel are completed, the
roof of the tunnel is constructed and the surface roadway restored. Excavation of the
tunnel is then carried out through openings in the tunnel roof top-down to the
tunnel floor. The tunnel floor slab is the last part of construction to be completed.

3.2.4 Cast-in-place Method
Another type of cut-and-cover tunneling is called cast-in-place. In this method, a
trench is excavated with forms being built directly inside the trench. Concrete is then
poured or cast into the concrete. After the concrete cures the forms are removed. The
trench is then backfilled and the roadway reinstated. A shoring system is supports
the sides of the excavation to prevent the shifting of soil.
Cut and Cover methods of construction would likely be employed at various
locations along the alignment. These include:

Conventional (2:1 slopes): This alternative requires extensive excavation and
backfill, and is not generally being considered where it would result in severe
property impacts. This alternative would be considered in areas where property is
available.
Caisson Wall, Cut and Cover-Bottom-up: This alternative utilizes drilling (auger)
rigs to install caissons down to bedrock, which will form part of the tunnel walls.
This alternative is typically constructed by the ¶Bottom-Up· Method and has reduced
property requirements relative to the Conventional Method. Once the caissons are in
place, the soil between the walls is excavated to a depth below the tunnel floor. The
tunnel floor slab is poured, followed by the side walls of the tunnel, which are
constructed from the ¶bottom-up·. Once the tunnel walls have been completed, the
roof of the tunnel is constructed, and the surface roadway on top of the tunnel is
completed.

Diaphragm Wall, Cover and Cut-Top-Down: This method utilizes a trench cutter for
installation of concrete walls down to bedrock using bentonite slurry to stabilize a
trench. This method can achieve higher production rates than the caisson wall
system, and also has reduced property requirements relative to the Conventional
Method. Once the concrete walls of the tunnel have been built, the roof of the tunnel
is constructed, and the surface roadway on top of the tunnel is completed.
Excavation proceeds from the roof of the tunnel ¶top-down· to below the tunnel
floor. The tunnel floor slab is constructed last.

3.3 Soil Characterization
The first step in the ground characterization process was an in-depth review of the
EIT construction records. Unfortunately, the 1920s-era records contain only very
limited descriptions of the ground conditions and lithology encountered in the
tunnel, and generally lack definitions of the descriptive and geologic terms used (for
example, no distinction was made between running and flowing ground behavior).
As a result, the records had to be interpreted based on a current understanding of
the site geology and the construction methods that were employed at the time.
Along with the current geotechnical investigation results described above, the EIT
interpretation was a critical input into the ground characterization process.
The tunnel alignment was divided into eight reaches, with boundaries at geologic
contacts. To assist in the selection of tunnel excavation and support methods, the
range of ground conditions expected was divided into four ground classes. The
ground classes were defined based on the physical characteristics of the ground and
its anticipated behavior during the tunnel excavation Each specific ground class is
expected to perform similarly in the tunnel excavation, and to require similar
support methods. The ground class definitions, predominant ground behaviors, and
key characteristics associated with each ground class are described in Table 3.1. The
anticipated distribution of each ground class along the tunnel alignment was
estimated based on evaluation of the geologic and geotechnical data, along with
review and correlation of the available EIT construction records. As part of the
evaluation, rock mass quality evaluations were performed for each boring utilizing
the Rock Quality Designation (RQD) and the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system

Table 3.1: Anticipated Ground Classes
Ground
Class
and
Definitions
Typical Rock
Characteristics
Typical
Discontinuity
Characteristics
Ground
Behavior
I: Massive Sandstone, siltstone, Very rough to Structurall
to
Moderately
Fractured
Rock
and
interbedded
siltstone/sandstone;
weak to strong rock;
slightly
weathered to fresh
rough; fresh to
slightly weathered
surfaces
y
controlled
block
instability;
spalling
II: Highly
Fractured
Rock
II: Highly
Fractured Rock
Rough, smooth, or
slickensided
surfaces or
bedding planes;
moderately
to highly
weathered/altered
surfaces with thin
infillings of
clay and/or sand (<
5 cm [2
in.] thick)
Slow
raveling;
fast
raveling
where
flowing
groundwat
er is
encountere
d
III:
Intensely
Fractured
Rock
Sandstone, siltstone,
interbedded
siltstone/sandstone,
and shale; thinly
bedded to
laminated rock
Smooth,
slickensided
surfaces; highly
weathered/altered
with
occasional
Fast
raveling/
caving;
potentially
flowing
ground,
structure; very
weak to moderately
strong rock,
may be friable,
poorly cemented;
highly to slightly
weathered/altered
moderately wide
clay/sand-filled
joints,
shears, and shear
zones (5
to 15 cm [2 to 6 in.]
thick)
if
groundwat
er
inflows are
not
controlled
IV: Heavily
Sheared/
Faulted
Rock
with Clay
Gouge/Infil
ling
Materials
Heavily sheared
rock including
fault gouge,
shattered rock,
poorly laminated
rock, all with
abundant clay;
extremely weak
to very weak rock;
moderately to
completely
weathered/altered
Slickensided
surfaces;
highly
weathered/altered
with wide clay-
filled joints,
shears, and
fault/shear
zones (15 cm [> 6
in.] thick)
Squeezing;
swelling;
caving;
fast
raveling


3.4 Sample Soil Profile
MRT Line 6 (Dhaka)
Soil Condition along Guideway Alignment
The location of Dhaka City is part of the Flat Delta formed by Padma-Megna
River and other numerous tributaries and sub tributaries. Dhaka City is situated
at the southern tip of a Pleistocene terrace, the Madhupur Tract. The proposed
MRT Line 6 is within Dhaka City thereby constitutes these geologic features. Two
(2) geological characteristics also cover the city and its surroundings, viz.
Madupur Clay of the Pleistocene Age and alluvial deposits of Recent Age.
Bangladesh is divided into three (3) seismic zone based on the vulnerability to
earthquakes and possible severity of damage. According to the Seismic Zoning
Map of Bangladesh shown in Bangladesh National Building Code, Dhaka City is
located in Seismic Zone -2.
The soil conditions projected along the proposed alignment of MRT Line 6 is
presented in Figure 3.2toFigure 3.5which was established from the geotechnical
investigations undertaken in this study. It is observed that 6m to 10m thickness of
clayey layer (soft to stiff) is overlaid along the alignment. Below this clayey layer
is a 10m to 20m thickness of sandy layer (medium dense to dense). The bearing
layer comprised of very dense sand is encountered at depths ranging from 16m to
30m.




Figure 3.2: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (1 of 4)

Figure 3.3: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (2 of 4)
CLAY & SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE
SAND
CLAY & SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE
SAND
CLAY & SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE
SAND
N-Value N-Value N-Value
CLAY & SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE SAND
CLAY & SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE SAND
CLAY & SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE SAND
N-Value N-Value N-Value


Figure 3.4: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (3 of 4)

Figure 3.5: Soil Profile along MRT Line 6 Alignment (4 of 4)
CLAY &
SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE
SAND
CLAY &
SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE
SAND
CLAY &
SILT
SAND
VERY DENSE
SAND
N-Value N-Value N-Value N-Value
CLAY &
SAND
VERY DENSE
CLAY &
SAND
VERY DENSE
CLAY &
SAND
VERY DENSE
N-Value N-Value N-Value








CHAPTER 4 .
GEOMETRY OF THE EARTH RETENTION
SYSTEM AND ITS ANALYSIS















4.1 Introduction
The Cut and Cover method of tunneling is relatively cheap for shallow
tunnels and requires simple technology. In this method, the ground is
excavated along a planned route using temporary or permanent
retaining structures to retain soil upto the depth of excavation. Tunnel is
then built and covered by soil.

4.2 Geotechnical Study
The geotechnical study is immensely important as it evaluates the
fundamental input for the static calculation of the tunnel. Based upon in
situ and laboratory tests, the earth mass parameters are determined,
namely apparent weight, groundwater table, friction angle, cohesion
and vertical loads at the foundation level. Additionally, the study
addresses the slope stability and earth retaining issues, as the ´cut and
coverµ method is, in essence, an open cut engineering case.
Subjected to the soil pressure, a reinforced concrete structure deforms
activating its structural strength. The consecutive displacements in the
surrounding soil induce stress redistributions. This generally leads to a
more favorable situation for the structure which is usually recognized
simply by assuming an active stress state in the soil. The influence of
such phenomena on the structural response depends on the geometrical
and mechanical properties. It also depends on the capacity of the
reinforced concrete structure to accept the displacements required to
develop the soil strength.
In our study we select a soil sample for analysis from Kawsar Md.
Abdul Waheed·s master thesis paper. According to his thesis paper a
table of different cases based on soil type for design of earth retention is
shown below:



Table 4.1: Different cases based on soil type for design of earth
retention
Case Soil class
Layer depth
(ft)
Cu(psf)
(Typical)
f(degree) Reference
Case-1
Clay, C4 20 2400 -
BH : 10
Sand, S4 30 - 35
Case-2
Clay, C5 17 3000 -
BH : 25
BH :26
Clay, C4 60 2400 -
Sand, S3 23 - 30
Case-3
Clay, C2 65 900 -
BH : 12
Sand, S5 35 - 40
Case-4
Clay, C2 14 900 -
BH : 8
Clay, C4 16 2400 -
Sand, S3 30 - 30
Sand, S4 20 - 35
Sand, S5 20 Nil

In our study we select Case-1 to design as an example.

Case-1
Case-1 corresponds to 20· depth of upper clay layer, which is the
minimum clay layer depth encountered along the tunnel alignment. It
was found between Kawran-Bazar and Tejgaon industrial area. The clay
layer is C4 class with cohesion varying from 2230 psf to 2520 psf. The
typical value of 2400 psf has been used in the design. The underlying
sand layer is of S4 class.

4.3 Earth Retention System
Cut and cover construction contracts generally permit a contractor to
design the ground support system.
Minimum design criteria include the method of calculation of lateral
earth pressures for dewatered and non-dewatered conditions, traffic
and equipment loads, building surcharge loads, design standards to be
used in the design of the excavation support system. Intermediate
phases of the construction are generally more critical than the end of
construction stage, and govern the design of structural members.
Several types of earth retention systems are used, employing various
techniques and materials, but these systems can be divided into flexible
and semi-rigid wall systems, in general (Wickham and Tiedemann,
1976). The degree of elasticity and yielding is the major difference
between the two systems. Examples of the semi-rigid walls include
diaphragm walls such as the reinforced concrete slurry walls and
interlocking concrete piles. An example for the flexible walls is steel
sheet piles. Various ground wall support systems are as follows (Wilton,
1996):
y Soldier piles and lagging: Rolled steel shapes or reinforced
concrete piles are used as soldier piles.
y Steel sheet piles
y Closely spaced reinforced concrete piles: Piles that simply touch
adjacent piles are called ´tangent pilesµ; those that overlap by
drilling part way into the adjacent pile are called ´secant pilesµ.
‡ Soldier piles with cast in place reinforced concrete
‡ Shotcrete walls
‡ Cast in place reinforced concrete slurry wall
‡ Precast concrete segments placed in slurry trench

4.3.1 Type of Bracing Systems
Several types of bracing systems are in use today. The choice of bracing
is closely related to ground wall support, excavation and construction of
the permanent structure.
y Conventional wales and struts: This is an internal bracing system
y Tiebacks and ground anchors
y Combined systems

4.4 Factors Influencing Earth Retention System
Design of earth retention system during deep excavation depends on
many factors. These are:
1) Water Table: There are mainly two types of water that are
considered during design, i.e. (a) Ground Water (b) Surface Water
(Trapped water)

(a) Ground Water: For Dhaka City ground water table is much lower
than the depth of cut (i.e. 50ft). Even during a rainy season this
water table is not expected to affect the construction. Thus ground
water is not a concern for excavation in the city.

(b) Surface Water Table: During rainy season, when surface water
table rise inside ponds or lakes, this may influence the stability of
earth retention system. Seepage of water through the soil change
of consistency of the clayey soil may destabilize the cut. Increase
of water content of the soil raise the unit of the soil. Saturated unit
weight of the soil is therefore considered to account for this effect.

2) Soil Ingredients: The soil constituents along the tunnel location are
typically formed by Clay, Silt and Sand. Upper clay layer with soft
to very stiff consistency is underlain by a sandy layer. The worst
soil condition is formed when the surface water saturates the clay
and the soil loose its cohesive property.

3) Structural Load: Different type of Structural load such as Building
structure, Electric pole, Boundary wall etc can mostly influence
during the construction of earth retention system. Effects of a
building structure which are situated close to the typical route to
be considered in the design of earth retention system to evaluate
the effect.

4.5 Design of Earth Retention
Design of Earth Retention is the very beginning part of the construction
of tunnel. It is the most crucial part for tunnel construction. In our study
we designed the earth retention system by braced-cut. To evaluate the
performance of earth retention system by braced cut, a complete sample
design calculation of braced cut with 50 ft depth of excavation has been
carried out. Here initial strut was chosen at a depth of 12.5ft, other strut
were spaced at a distance of 10ft and thus the last strut is placed at 7.5ft
above the bottom of the cut.
The design of earth retention by braced cut method is done in a number
of steps. They are:
1. Soil Parameter
2. Pressure Diagram
3. Strut loads
4. Side-wall design
5. Wale design
6. Strut design

4.5.1 Soil Parameter
As in our study we select a soil sample from Kawsar Md. Abdul
Waheed·s master thesis paper, according to his thesis paper the soil
parameters of an example are estimated as shown below:


Table 4.2: Cases-I soil parameter for design of earth retention


4.5.2 Pressure Diagram
Formulas:
Peck (1969) suggested using design pressure envelopes for braced cuts
in sand and clay.
Sand Soft-Medium Clay Stiff Clay
Soil
type
Depth
Variati
on
(ft)
Dept
h
Heig
ht
(ft)
g
d

lb/ft
3

g
sat

lb/ft
3

g
'

lb/ft
3

Min
m
Cu
(psf)
Max
m
Cu
(psf)
Av
g
Cu
(psf
)
f
(deg
)
Ka Kp
Clay
, C4
0-20 20
111.
57
138.
35
75.9
5
2232 2520
237
6
0 1 1
San
d, S4
20-50 30
111.
57
138.
35
75.9
5
0 0 0 35
0.27
1
3.6
9


Clay
ఊு

൐ Ͷ and for Stiff For Soft-Medium
Clay
ఊு

൑ Ͷ

For layered Soil:

ܥ
௔௩

ͳ
ʹܪ
ሾߛ

ܭ

ܪ


–ƒ ߮

൅ሺܪ െܪ

ሻ݊

ݍݑሿ

ߛ
௔௩

ͳ
ʹܪ
ሾߛ

ܪ

൅ሺܪ െܪ

ሻߛ



Where,
ܭ

= 1
n· = 0.75
ݍ

= 2ܥ




Limitations for the Pressure Envelopes
‡ The pressure envelopes are sometimes referred to as apparent
pressure envelopes. The actual pressure distribution is a function of the
construction sequence and the relative flexibility of the wall.

‡ They apply excavations having depths greater than about 6 m.

‡ They are based on the assumption that the water table is below the
bottom of the cut.

‡ Sand is assumed to be drained with zero pore water pressure.

‡ Clay is assumed to be undrained and pore water pressure is not
considered.


Equivalent unit weight of the soil is calculated according to Peck (1969)
for soil condition is in Case-1 as:
ߛ
௔௩
ൌ(1/50) x (138.35x20+111.57x30) = 122.3 lb/ft
2

The equivalent undrained cohesion is calculated as,
ܥ
௔௩
ൌ (1/(2x50)) x (111.57x1x30
2
tan35+20x0.75x2400) = 1062 psf
For the excavation depth of 50ft,

ೌೡ


ೌೡ
= 122.3x50/1062 = 5.758 > 4
Thus, the apparent pressure as per Peck (1969) would be shown as in
Figure below, where
Pa = 122.3x50-4x1062 = 1867psf
RA RB RC RD
12.5' 10' 7.5' 10' 10'
1867 psf
Figure 4.1: Pressure distribution diagram in Braced Cut
4.5.3 Strut Load










෍ܯ
஻ଵ
ൌ Ͳǡ
ቂͲǤͷ ൈ ͳʹǤͷ ൈ ͳǤͺ͸͹ ൈ ቀͳͲ ൅
ଵଶǤହ

ቁ ൅ͳǤͺ͸͹ ൈ
ͳͲ ൈ ͷቃ /10 = R
A

׵ R
A
= 25.866 k
׵ R
B1
= (0.5×12.5× 1.867+10× 1.867) ² 25.866




















So. R
A
= 25.866 k
R
B
= R
B1
+ R
B2
= 4.473+9.335 = 13.808 k
R
c
= R
C1
+ R
C2
= 9.335+4.084 = 13.419 k
R
D
= 28.588 k
෍ܯ

ൌ Ͳǡ
(17.5×1.867×1.25) / 10 = R
C2

׵ R
C2
= 4.084 k
׵ R
D
= 17.5×1.867- 4.084
= 28.588 k

R
B2
= R
C1
= (1.867×10) / 2 = 9.335 k
Assuming the spacing of the strut as 1o ft center to center, the total strut
loads are obtained as:
A= 25.866 x 10 = 258.66 kip
B = 13.808 x 10 = 138.08 kip
C = 13.419 x 10 = 134.19 kip
D = 28.588 x 10 = 285.88 kip

4.5.4 Side-Wall Design
At first we need bending moment at critical point. From shear force
diagram we get critical points.

Figure 4.2: Pressure distribution and shear force diagram in Braced Cut

In Figure A, O, P, Q and D are the critical points where moment will be
maximum. And they are:
M
A
= 1/3 x 12.5 x 11.669 = 48.62 kip-ft/ft of wall
M
O
= 4.473 x 2.396 ² 1.867 x 2.396
2
/2 = 5.36 kip-ft/ft of wall
M
P
= 9.335 x 5 ² 1.867 x 5
2
/2 = 23.34 kip-ft/ft of wall
M
Q
= 4.084 x 2.187 + 1.867 x 2.187
2
/2 = 4.47 kip-ft/ft of wall
M
D
= 1.867 x 7.5
2
/2 = 52.5 kip-ft/ft of wall
So the Maximum moments is at D; M
D
= 52.5 kip-ft/ft
Column Strength interaction diagram for rectangular section with g=
0.75 was used for design of the wall.
For ߩ

ൌ ͲǤͲʹ and
ఝ௉



ൌ Ͳ
߮ܯ

ܣ

݄

ܯ

ܣ

݄
ൌ ͲǤͶʹ

Assume the width of Side Wall, b = 10· = 120µ (Considering the spacing)
݄ܶݑݏǡ ܣ

݄ ൌ ሺͷʹǤͷݔͳʹݔͳͲሻȀͲǤͶʹ ൌ ͳͷͲͲͲ
ܵ݋ǡ ݄ ൌ ሺͳͷͲͲͲȀͳʹͲሻ


ൌ ͳͳǤͳͺ݅݊ ൎ ͳʹ݅݊Ǥ

Where, h is the thickness of the side wall

4.5.5 Wale Design
For wale at level A,
M
max
= (R
A
x S
2
/8) = (25.86 x 10
2
/8) = 323.325 kip-ft/ft of wall
Thus, S
x
= (323.325 x 12/24) = 161.66 in
3
/ft of wall
Section W18 x 86 can be used for the wale that provide S
x
= 165.1 in
3
/ft
of wall.

For wale at level B,
M
max
= (R
B
x S
2
/8) = (13.808 x 10
2
/8) = 172.6 kip-ft/ft of wall
Thus, S
x
= (172.6 x 12/24) = 86.3 in
3
/ft of wall
Section W18 x 50 can be used for the wale that provide S
x
= 87.8 in
3
/ft of
wall.

For wale at level C,
M
max
= (R
C
x S
2
/8) = (13.419 x 10
2
/8) = 167.74 kip-ft/ft of wall
Thus, S
x
= (167.74 x 12/24) = 83.87 in
3
/ft of wall
Section W10 x 77 can be used for the wale that provide S
x
= 85.2 in
3
/ft of
wall.

For wale at level D,
M
max
= (R
D
x S
2
/8) = (28.588 x 10
2
/8) = 357.35 kip-ft/ft of wall
Thus, S
x
= (357.35 x 12/24) = 178.67 in
3
/ft of wall
Section W12 x 136 can be used for the wale that provide S
x
= 184.3 in
3
/ft
of wall.

4.5.6 Strut Design (Using 60 Grade Steel)
At A: Strut load = 258.66 kip
Now, p = 0.85f
s
A
st

֜ A
st
= (258.66/(0.85 x 24)) = 12.68 in
2

Section W12 x 45 can be used for the strut that provide a area = 13.2 in
2



At B: Strut load = 138.08 kip
Now, p = 0.85f
s
A
st

֜ A
st
= (138.08/(0.85 x 24)) = 6.77 in
2

Section W8 x 24 can be used for the strut that provide a area = 7.08 in
2

At C: Strut load = 134.19 kip
Now, p = 0.85f
s
A
st

֜ A
st
= (134.19/(0.85 x 24)) = 6.58 in
2

Section W8 x 24 can be used for the strut that provide a area = 7.08 in
2


At D: Strut load = 285.88 kip
Now, p = 0.85f
s
A
st

֜ A
st
= (285.88/(0.85 x 24)) = 14.01 in
2
Section W8 x 48 can be used for the strut that provide a area = 14.1 in
2

4.6 Geometry of the Earth Retention
Geometrical shape is the shape which is shown geometrically. After the
design of earth retention by braced cut, the geometry of the earth
retention is shown below as elevation, cross-section and 3-dimension:
Figure 4.3: Geometry of the Earth retention (Elevation)


Figure 4.4: Geometry of the Earth retention (Cross-section)
Fig4.5: Geometry of the Earth retention (3D view)


4.7 Analysis Results
From the design of Earth Retention system we get the reaction of struts.
Using this reaction we get the Shear Force diagram (SFD) and Bending
Moment diagram (BMD). What is bending moment?
Bending moment refers to the internal moment that causes something to
bend.
RA RB RC RD
12.5' 10' 7.5' 10' 10'
1867 psf
Bending moment diagrams are analytical tools used in conjunction with
structural analysis to help perform structural design by determining the
value of shear force and bending moment at a given point of an element.
Using these diagrams the type and size of a member of a given material
can be easily determined. Another application of moment diagrams is
that the deflection can be easily determined.









-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e

(
k
i
p
)
Distance
Shear Force Diagram
-60000
-50000
-40000
-30000
-20000
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
l
b
-
i
n
/
i
n
)
Distance
Bending Moment Diagram



Figure 4.6: Shear force and bending moment diagram by Manual
calculation














CHAPTER 5 .
ANALYSIS OF THE EARTH RETENTION
SYSTEM BY COMPUTER AIDED
ASSESSMENT













5.1 Introduction
In this analysis method various designing software such as STAAD Pro,
ETABS, SAFE etc can be used to analyze the structure. Usually the
moment and shear distribution and sometimes section detail and
reinforcement detail of the structure are shown in output. In this
method a very accurate result is obtained by using numerical
approximation principal of mathematics where the result of very
complex indeterminable interrelated equations is obtained by successive
approximation by using the result of one analysis into the next until the
result meets a required perception value. Calculations in this method
are both complex and very lengthy and require aid of computer.
In our study we have taken software STAAD Pro as representative of
the computer aid analysis method. It is popular up to date structural
analysis software which can determine moment and shear distribution
of the structure. The section and reinforcement detailing is either done
manually by using the output results from STAAD Pro or providing the
output to another design software which can do reinforcement detailing.
Some advantage and disadvantage of Computer Aid analysis method is
given below.

5.2 Advantages of Computer Aided Assessment
1. The result accuracy and the level of perception are very high.
2. Gives us complete image and data of moment distribution.
3. Gives us complete image and data of shear force distribution.
4. Provides 3d image and animation of the structure while
bending and deforming.
5. Obtained data is digital and does not need to be converted to
digital before formally printing and distributing.
6. Suitable for large scale and high budget construction.
7. Most appropriate method of analysis for high risk and
important structures.
8. Least possibility for faulty, over and under design.

5.3 Method of Analysis by STAAD Pro
y Prepare your input file.
y Send your input file to the analysis design engine.
y Read the results and verify them.
y Send the analysis result to either the concrete or steel design engines for
designing. Then read and verify the design result.

5.3.1 Preparing Input File
y Creating input file takes place in the Modeling Mode. It is your first step
in working in STAAD Pro. What is input file? Input file is the place you
will describe your case at; what do you have? And what do you want? We
can cut the input file into two parts:
y In the first part you will describe your structure. This includes the
geometry, the cross sections, the material and geometric constants, the
support conditions, and finally the loading system.
y The second part may contain the analysis command, and printing
commands.


5.3.2 Sending Input File to the Analysis and Design engine
y Just like any programming language compiler, STAAD Pro analysis and
will start reading the input file from left to right design engine and from
top to bottom. The engine will mainly check for two things:
y Making sure that the user used the syntax of STAAD Pro commands, or
else the engine will produce an error message.
y Making sure that all the data needed to form a stable structure exists in
the input file, or else, the engine will produce an error message.
y If these two things are correct. STAAD will take the values mentioned in
the input tile (without verification) and produce the output files.
y Generating the output files doesn·t mean that results are correct. Based on
this concept don·t take the results generated by STAAD Pro as final, but
verify each piece of the output data, to make sure that your input data was
correct.

5.3.3 Reading Results and verifying them
y Reading output takes place in Post Processing Mode. It includes: Seeing the
results as tables and or as graphical output.
y Changing the scale of each graphical output to visualize the correct shapes
and showing values, or hiding them.
y After reading and verifying results one may decide to go back to his/her
Modeling Mode to alter your input file, for either to correct the input tile, or
to change some values to examine different result. The input file always has
extension of STD.



5.4 Model Creation and Analysis
5.4.1 Creating structure and Meshing
At first we create the side walls of 30ft apart and meshed it.
Figure 5.1: Meshing side walls
5.4.2 Placing Bracing and Wales
Then we put the horizontal steel beam as strut. In Figure pink color
shows the bracing.
Figure 5.2: Struts of Braced-cut
After placing struts we placed wales. In Figure deep blue color shows
wales.

Figure 5.3: Struts and Wales of Braced-cut
5.4.3 Putting Supports
Then we put support at the base of the wall.
















Figure 5.4: Putting support of the sidewall


5.4.4 Defining Plate property
Then we defined section properties. For plate properties we choose CC
with 1ft thickness.














Figure5.5: Property of plate

5.4.5 Defining Properties for Struts and Wales
For strut we select W12x45, W8x48 and W8x24 steel section.












Figure 5.6: Defining Strut and Wale property
For wale we select
W18x86, W14x61, W10x77
and W12x136











Figure 5.7: All steel property
5.4.6 3D View
After doing so we checked our 3D animation view.









Figure 5.8: 3D view of strut
Figure 5.9: 3D view of struts with wales

















Figure 5.10: 3D view of Braced-cut
5.4.7 Application of load:
We applied the soil load. The load started zero at top of the wall and
increased to maximum of 1.867 ksf at 12.5 ft from the top. The load
distribution at base plate is even.























Figure 5.11: Load Defining


Figure 5.12: Load Distribution on side wall


5.4.8 Analysis
Then we ran a static analysis of the model and checked for errors. And
we found that our model have no errors and warnings.


Figure 5.13: Analysis




5.4.9 Post Processing
After analysis from post processing mode we can see the result output
both in graphical and tabular form. Here we showed moment diagram
of local Mx and local My.


Figure 5.14: Vertical Moment (Mx) of side wall

Figure 5.15: Horizontal Moment (My) of side wall






















Figure 5.16: Tabular output result of Plate Moments









5.5 Analysis Results
From STAAD Pro we analysis moment diagrams and displacement diagrams.

5.5.1 Moment Diagram of Side-wall
The various controlling moments obtained from the analysis by STAAD Pro. For
convenience we divide the side wall into 12 different grids both horizontally and
vertically. Grids 1-9 are horizontal strip and grids 10-12 are vertical strip. Grids 10-12
are shown in this chapter and rest of grid is shown in Appendix B.
We showed the bending moment diagram of Mx and My, that means
moment at X-axis and moment at Y-axis. Both this axis is local axis.


As example here we showed
Plate-431 and its local and
global axis. In Figure red square
is plate-431.



Figure 5.17: Plate-431 in braced-
cut












Figure 5.18: Plate orientation of Plate-431













Figure 5.19: Plate property of Plate-431














Figure 5.20: Corresponding Bracing of Plate-431 and its axis








Figure 5.21: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid-
10



Figure 5.22: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid-
11



Figure 5.23: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid-
12






















5.5.2 Displacement of Side-wall
Displacement is a change of the position of an object due to an applied
force. It can be a result of compressive (pushing) forces, bending or
torsion (twisting).
As deformation occurs, internal inter-molecular forces arise that oppose
the applied force. If the applied force is not too large these forces may be
sufficient to completely resist the applied force, allowing the object to
assume a new equilibrium state and to return to its original state when
the load is removed. A larger applied force may lead to a permanent
deformation of the object which is the displacement.
In our study displacement in the side wall occur due to soil pressure.
We showed displacement graph against height of different part of side
wall such as:

Middle of the plate,
Middle Bracing,
Side Bracing,
Between Bracing.

This displacement takes place in the X-
axis.









Figure: 5.24: Horizontal
Displacement of the side wall

Middle of the Plate
Node X(in) Distance
1030 0.679 562.5
1029 0.341 487.5
488 0.129 435
503 0.112 405
502 0.122 375
201 0.173 345
456 0.158 315
471 0.181 285
470 0.195 255
469 0.193 225
405 0.183 195
439 0.174 165
438 0.159 135
437 0.129 105
386 0.094 78.75
404 0.072 56.25
403 0.051 33.75
402 0.027 11.25
306 0 0



Figure 5.25: Displacement Graph (Middle of the Plate)
0, 0 0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
i
n
)
Displacement (in)
Middle of the Plate
Middle Bracing
Node X(in) Distance
1034 0.677 562.5
1033 0.339 487.5
742 0.1 435
741 0.096 405
741 0.096 375
739 0.125 345
710 0.134 315
709 0.168 285
708 0.185 255
707 0.179 225
678 0.156 195
677 0.161 165
676 0.15 135
675 0.118 105
642 0.074 78.75
641 0.062 56.25
640 0.05 33.75
638 0.034 11.25
639 0.017 0



Figure 5.26: Displacement Graph (Middle Bracing)
0.017, 0 0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
i
n
)
Displacement (in)
Middle Bracing
Side Bracing
Node X(in) Distance
1042 0.689 562.5
1041 0.35 487.5
988 0.107 435
987 0.106 405
986 0.124 375
985 0.139 345
956 0.148 315
955 0.184 285
954 0.202 255
953 0.195 225
924 0.17 195
923 0.174 165
922 0.161 135
921 0.126 105
888 0.077 78.75
887 0.062 56.25
886 0.047 33.75
884 0.03 11.25
885 0.01 0



Figure 5.27: Displacement Graph (Side Bracing)
0.01, 0 0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
i
n
)
Displacement (in)
Side Bracing
Between Bracing
Node X(in) Distance
1038 0.679 562.5
1037 0.339 487.5
734 0.123 435
749 0.105 405
748 0.115 375
747 0.131 345
702 0.151 315
717 0.174 285
716 0.189 255
715 0.186 225
651 0.176 195
685 0.168 165
684 0.153 135
683 0.123 105
632 0.089 78.75
650 0.068 56.25
649 0.048 33.75
648 0.025 11.25
552 0 0



Figure 5.28: Displacement Graph (Between Bracing)
0, 0 0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
i
n
)
Displacement (in)
Between Bracing
5.5.3 Effect of Stiffness of Bracing
Stiffness is the resistance of an elastic body to deformation by an applied
force along a given degree of freedom (DOF) when a set of loading
points and boundary conditions are prescribed on the elastic body.
The stiffness of a structure is of principal importance in many
engineering applications, so the modulus of elasticity is often one of the
primary properties considered when selecting a material. A high
modulus of elasticity is sought when deflection is undesirable, while a
low modulus of elasticity is required when flexibility is needed.
As we showed the displacement of the side wall of different strip using
the struts which we get from strut design in chap-4. Now to analysis the
stiffness of bracing, we select different steel section of bracing. Table of
maximum axial fore of bracing, maximum moment, maximum
displacement and displacement diagrams are shown below:

Table 5.1 Maximum Axial force of different Bracing

Steel section
Maximum Axial Force of
Bracing
Bracing Position
W12x45 269.15 kip Bottom Bracing
W12x72 271.17 kip Bottom Bracing
W12x96 271.79 kip Bottom Bracing
W12x120 271.97 kip Bottom Bracing






Table 5.2 Maximum Bending moment of side wall using different
Bracing

Steel section
Maximum Bending moment
(Kip-ft)
Mx My Mz
W12x45 3.27 1.58 1.64
W12x72 3.36 1.58 1.55
W12x96 3.41 1.57 1.51
W12x120 3.45 1.56 1.48


Table 5.3 Maximum Displacement of side wall using different Bracing

Steel section Maximum Displacement
W12x45 0.821 in
W12x72 0.758 in
W12x96 0.728 in
W12x120 0.708 in


From table 5.1 we found that with the increase of bracing size, axial
force of bracing increase slightly. Table 5.2 shows that vertical moment
of side wall that means Mx increase with the increase of bracing size but
on the other hand My, Mz decreases. The displacement of the side wall
decreases with the increase of bracing size which is shown in table 5.3.







Displacement Graphs:





































Figure 5.29: Displacement of side wall using W12x45 bracing












































Figure 5.30: Displacement of side wall using W12x72 bracing











































Figure 5.31: Displacement of side wall using W12x96 bracing











































Figure 5.32: Displacement of side wall using W12x120 bracing









CHAPTER 6 .
CONSIDERATION OF EARTHQUAKE
EFFECT IN TUNNEL













6.1 Introduction
Earthquake: An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor of seismic activities) is
the result of a sudden release in the Earth·s crust that creates seismic waves.
Underground facilities are an integral part of the infrastructure of modern society
and are used for a wide range of applications, including subways and railways,
highways, material storage, and sewage and water transport. Underground facilities
built in areas subject to earthquake activity must withstand both seismic and static
loading. Historically, underground facilities have experienced a lower rate of
damage than surface structures. Nevertheless, some underground structures have
experienced significant damage in recent large earthquakes, including the 1995 Kobe,
Japan earthquake, the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake and the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey
earthquake.
In general, seismic design loads for underground structures are characterized in
terms of the deformations and strains imposed on the structure by the surrounding
ground, often due to the interaction between the two. In contrast, surface structures
are designed for the inertial forces caused by ground accelerations. The simplest
approach is to ignore the interaction of the underground structure with the
surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are
estimated, and the underground structure is designed to accommodate these
deformations. This approach is satisfactory when low levels of shaking are
anticipated or the underground facility is in a stiff medium such as rock.
Underground structures have features that make their seismic behavior distinct
from most surface structures, most notably
1. Their complete enclosure in soil or rock, and
2. Their significant length (i.e. tunnels)
The design of underground facilities to withstand seismic loading thus has aspects
that are very different from the seismic design of surface structures. It focuses on
relatively large underground facilities commonly used in urban areas. This includes
large-diameter tunnels, cut-and-cover structures and portal structures (Figure. 6.1)















Figure 6.1: Cross sections of tunnels (after Power et al., 1996)

Large-diameter tunnels are linear underground structures in which the length is
much larger than the cross-sectional dimension. These structures can be grouped
into three broad categories, each having distinct design features and construction
methods:
1. Bored or mined tunnels;
2. Cut-and-cover tunnels;
3. Immersed tube tunnels (Power et al., 1996).
These tunnels are commonly used for metro structures, highway tunnels, and large
water and sewage transportation ducts.

6.1.1 Cut-and-cover structures
Cut-and-cover structures are those in which an open excavation is made, the
structure is constructed, and fill is placed over the finished structure. This method is
typically used for tunnels with rectangular cross-sections and only for relatively
shallow tunnels (<15 m of overburden). Examples of these structures include
subway stations, portal structures and highway tunnels.

6.2 Performance of Underground Facilities during Seismic events
It is very important to know that how the underground structure performs during
the earthquake. The following general observations can be made regarding the
seismic performance of underground structures:

1. Underground structures suffer appreciably less damage than surface
structures.
2. Reported damage decreases with increasing overburden depth. Deep
tunnels seem to be safer and less vulnerable to earthquake shaking than
are shallow tunnels.
3. Underground facilities constructed in soils can be expected to suffer more
damage compared to openings constructed in competent rock.
4. Lined and grouted tunnels are safer than unlined tunnels in rock. Shaking
damage can be reduced by stabilizing the ground around the tunnel and
by improving the contact between the lining and the surrounding ground
through grouting.
5. Tunnels are more stable under a symmetric load, which improves ground-
lining interaction. Improving the tunnel lining by placing thicker and
stiffer sections without stabilizing surrounding poor ground may result in
excess seismic forces in the lining. Backfilling with non-cyclically mobile
material and rock-stabilizing measures may improve the safety and
stability of shallow tunnels.
6. Damage may be related to peak ground acceleration and velocity based on
the magnitude and epicentral distance of the affected earthquake.
7. Duration of strong-motion shaking during earthquakes is of utmost
importance because it may cause fatigue failure and therefore, large
deformations.
8. High frequency motions may explain the local spalling of rock or concrete
along planes of weakness. These frequencies, which rapidly attenuate
with distance, may be expected mainly at small distances from the
causative fault.
9. Ground motion may be amplified upon incidence with a tunnel if
wavelengths are between one and four times the tunnel diameter.
10. Damage at and near tunnel portals may be significant due to slope
instability.

6.3 Seismic Design vs. Conventional Design
Seismic Design: The purpose of Seismic design, like any civil engineering design, is
to give the structure the capacity to withstand the loads or displacements or
deformations applied to it.
Conventional Design: The main purpose of Conventional design procedure is to
remain undamaged under permanent and frequently occurring loads(i.e., more or
less within elastic range).
Seismic Design is different from Conventional Design because of some reason. And
those are:
y Seismic loads cannot be calculated accurately. Seismic loads are derived
with a high degree of uncertainty, unlike dead loads, live loads, or other
effects such as temperature changes. Any specified seismic effect has a risk
(probability of exceedance) associated with it.

y Seismic motions are transient and reversing (i.e., cyclic). The frequency or
rate of these cyclic actions is generally very high, ranging from less than
one Hz to greater than ten Hz.

y Seismic loads are superimposed on other permanent or frequently
occurring loads. Although seismic effects are transient and temporary,
seismic design has to consider the seismic effects given the presence of
other sustained loads.
Because of the differences discussed above, however, proper seismic design criteria
should consider the nature and importance of the structure, cost implications, and
risk assessment associated with such factors as public safety, loss of function or
service, and other indirect losses (Nyman, et al, 1984).

6.4 Seismic Design Philosophy for Tunnel Structures
6.4.1 Design Earthquakes Criteria
The goal of earthquake-resistant design for underground structures is to develop a
facility that can withstand a given level of seismic motion with damage not
exceeding a pre-defined acceptable level. The design level of shaking is typically
defined by a design ground motion, which is characterized by the amplitudes and
characteristics of expected ground motions and their expected return frequency
(Kramer, 1996). There are two methods of analysis:
1. Deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA)
2. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis(PSHA)
A deterministic seismic hazard analysis involves the development of a particular
seismic scenario to summarize the ground motion hazard at a site. On the other
hand a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis provides a framework in which
uncertainties in the size, location, and recurrence rate of earthquakes can be
identified, quantified, and combined in a rational manner.
Once the seismic hazard at the site is characterized, the level of design earthquake or
seismicity has to be defined. Current seismic design philosophy for many critical
facilities requires dual (two- level) design criteria, with a higher design level
earthquake aimed at life safety and a lower design level earthquake intended for
economic risk exposure. The two design levels are commonly defined as ¶maximum
design earthquake· (or ¶safety evaluation earthquake·) and ¶operational design
earthquake· (or ¶function evaluation earthquake·), and have been employed in many
recent transportation tunnel projects, including the Los Angeles Metro, Taipei
Metro, Seattle Metro, and Boston Central Artery/Third Harbor Tunnels.

6.4.1.1 Maximum Design Earthquake
The Maximum Design Earthquake (MDE) is defined in a DSHA as the maximum
level of shaking that can be experienced at the site. In a PSHA, the MDE is defined
as an event with a small probability of exceedance during the life of the facility (e.g.
3-5%). The MDE design goal is that public safety shall be maintained during and
after the design event, meaning that the required structural capacity under an MDE
loading must consider the worst-case combination of live, dead, and earthquake
loads. Recently, some owners (e.g. San Francisco BART) have begun requiring their
facilities, identified as lifelines, to remain operational after MDE level shaking.

6.4.1.2 Operating Design Earthquake
The Operating Design Earthquake (ODE) is an earthquake event that can be
reasonably expected to occur at least once during the design life of the facility (e.g.
an event with probability of exceedance between 40 and 50%). In an ODE analysis,
the seismic design loading depends on the structural performance requirements of
the structural members. Since the ODE design goal is that the overall system shall
continue operating during and after an ODE and experience little or no damage,
inelastic deformations must be kept to a minimum. The response of the
underground facility should therefore remain within the elastic range.

6.4.2 Ground motion parameters
Once an MDE or ODE is defined, sets of ground motion parameters are required to
characterize the design events. The choice of these parameters is related to the type
of analysis method used in design. At a particular point in the ground or on a
structure, ground motions can be described by three translational components and
three rotational components, though rotational components are typically ignored. A
ground motion component is characterized by a time history of acceleration, velocity
or displacement with three significant parameters: amplitude; frequency content;
and duration of strong ground motion.

6.4.2.1 Acceleration, velocity, and displacement amplitudes
Maximum values of ground motion such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and
displacement are commonly used in defining the MDE and ODE developed through
seismic hazard analysis. However, experience has shown that effective, rather than
peak, ground motion parameters tend to be better indicators of structural response,
as they are more representative of the damage potential of a given ground motion.
This is especially true for large earthquakes. The effective value is sometimes
defined as the sustained level of shaking, and computed as the third or fifth highest
value of the parameter (Nuttli, 1979). Earthquake damage to underground structures
has also proven to be better correlated with particle velocity and displacement than
acceleration. Attenuation relationships are generally available for estimating peak
ground surface accelerations, but are also available for estimating peak velocities
and displacements. Tables 6.1 and 6.2 can be used to relate the known peak ground
acceleration to estimates of peak ground velocity and displacement, respectively, in
the absence of site-specific data.



6.4.3 Evaluation of Ground response to Shaking
According to engineering approach the evaluation of ground response to shaking
can be divided into two groups:
1. Ground failure
2. Ground shaking and deformation.

6.4.3.1 Ground Failure
Ground failure as a result of seismic shaking includes liquefaction, landsliding, and
fault displacement. Ground failure is particularly prevalent at tunnel portals and in
shallow tunnels.
I. Liquefaction
Liquefaction is a term used to describe the phenomena associated with increase of
pore water pressure and reduction in effective stresses in saturated cohesion less
soils. The rise in pore pressure can result in generation of sand boils, loss of shear
strength, lateral spreading and slope failure. The phenomena are more prevalent in
relatively loose sands and artificial fill deposits.
Tunnels located below the groundwater table in liquefiable deposits can experience
(a) increased lateral pressure, (b) a loss of lateral passive resistance, (c) flotation or
sinking in the liquefied soil, (d) Lateral displacements if the ground experiences
lateral spreading, and (e) permanent settlement and compression and tension failure
after the dissipation of pore pressure and consolidation of the soil.
II. Slope instability
Land sliding as a result of ground shaking is a common phenomenon. Land sliding
across a tunnel can result in concentrated shearing displacements and collapse of the
cross section. Landslide potential is greatest when a pre-existing landslide mass
intersects the tunnel. The hazard of land sliding is greatest in shallower parts of a
tunnel alignment and at tunnel portals.
At tunnel portals, the primary failure mode tends to be slope failures. Particular
caution must be taken if the portal also acts as a retaining wall (St. John and Zahrah,
1987). During the September 21, 1999 Chi Chi earthquake in Taiwan slope instability
at tunnel portals was very common.
III. Fault displacement
An underground structure may have to be constructed across a fault zone as it is not
always possible to avoid crossing active faults. In these situations, the underground
structure must tolerate the expected fault displacements, and allow only minor
damages. All faults must be identified to limit the length of special design section,
and a risk-cost analysis should be run to determine if the design should be pursued.

6.4.3.2 Ground Shaking and Deformation
Ground shaking, which is the primary focus here, refers to the deformation of the
ground produced by seismic waves propagating through the earth·s crust. The
major factors influencing shaking damage include:
1. The shape, dimensions and depth of the structure
2. The properties of the surrounding soil or rock
3. The properties of the structure
4. The severity of the ground shaking
Three types of deformations (Owen and Scholl, 1981) express the response of
underground structures to seismic motions:
1. Axial compression and extension (Figure. 6.2a,b);
2. Longitudinal bending (Figure. 6.2c,d); and
3. Ovaling/racking (Figure. 6.2e, f).

Axial deformations in tunnels are generated by the components of seismic waves
that produce motions parallel to the axis of the tunnel and cause alternating
compression and tension. Bending deformations are caused by the components of
seismic waves producing particle motions perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
Design considerations for axial and bending deformations are generally in the
direction along the tunnel axis (Wang, 1993).
Ovaling or racking deformations in a tunnel structure develop when shear waves
propagate normal or nearly normal to the tunnel axis, resulting in a distortion of the
cross-sectional shape of the tunnel lining. Design considerations for this type of
deformation are in the transverse direction. The general behavior of the lining
maybe simulated as a buried structure subject to ground deformations under a two-
dimensional plane strain condition.
Diagonally propagating waves subject different parts of the structure to out-of-
phase displacements (Figure. 6.2d), resulting in a longitudinal compression-
rarefaction wave traveling along the structure. In general, larger displacement
amplitudes are associated with longer wavelengths, while maximum curvature is
produced by shorter wavelengths with relatively small displacement amplitudes
(kuesel, 1969).






Figure 6.2: Deformation modes of tunnel due to seismic waves (after Owen and
Scholl, 1981)

6.4.4 Seismic Design Loading Criteria
Design loading criteria for underground structures has to incorporate the additional
loading imposed by ground shaking and deformation. Once the ground motion
parameters for the maximum and operational design earthquakes have been
determined, load criteria are developed for the underground structure using the
load factor design method.

6.4.4.1 Loading criteria for maximum design earthquake, MDE
The recommended seismic loading combinations using the load factor design
method is as follows:

For cut-and-cover tunnel structures

U = DL+ LL+ E1 + E2 + EQ«««««««««««« (1)

Where,
U = required structural strength capacity,
DL= effects due to dead loads of structural components,
LL= effects due to live loads,
E1 = effects due to vertical loads of earth and water,
E2 = effects due to horizontal loads of earth and water and
EQ = effects due to design earthquake motion.




Comments on loading combinations for MDE
The structure should first be designed with adequate strength capacity under
static loading conditions.
The structure should then be checked in terms of ductility as well as strength
when earthquake effects, EQ, are considered. The ¶EQ· term for conventional
surface structure design reflects primarily the inertial effect on the structures. For
tunnel structures, the earthquake effect is governed not so much by a force or
stress, but rather by the deformation imposed by the ground.
In checking the strength capacity, the effects of earthquake loading should be
expressed in terms of internal moments and forces, which can be calculated
according to the lining deformations imposed by the surrounding ground. If the
¶strength· criteria expressed by Eq. (1) can be satisfied based on elastic structural
analysis, no further provisions under the MDE are required.
If the flexural strength of the structure lining, using elastic analysis and Eq. (1), is
found to be exceeded (e.g. at certain joints of a cut-and-cover tunnel frame), one
of the following two design procedures should be followed:

1. Provide sufficient ductility (using appropriate detailing procedure) at the
critical locations of the structure to accommodate the deformations imposed by the
ground in addition to those caused by other loading effects (see Eqs. (1)). The intent
is to ensure that the structural strength does not degrade as a result of inelastic
deformations and the damage can be controlled at an acceptable level. In general,
the more ductility that is provided, the more reduction in earthquake forces (the ¶EQ
term)can be made in evaluating the required strength, U. As a rule of thumb, the
force reduction factor can be assumed equal to the ductility (factor) provided. This
reduction factor is similar by definition to the response modification factor used in
bridge design code (AASHTO, 1991).
Since an inelastic ¶shear· deformation may result in strength degradation, it
should always be prevented by providing sufficient shear strengths in structure
members, particularly in the cut-and-cover rectangular frame. The use of ductility
factors for shear forces may not be appropriate.

2. Re-analyze the structure response by assuming the formation of plastic
hinges at the joints that are strained into inelastic action. Based on the plastic hinge
analysis, a redistribution of moments and internal forces will result.
If new plastic hinges are developed based on the results, the analysis is re-run by
incorporating the new hinges (i.e. an iterative procedure) until all potential plastic
hinges are properly accounted for. Proper detailing at the hinges is then carried out
to provide adequate ductility. The structural design in terms of required strength
(Eqs. (1)) can then be based on the results from the plastic-hinge analysis.
As discussed earlier, the overall stability of the structure during and after the MDE
must be maintained. Realizing that the structures also must have sufficient capacity
(besides the earthquake effect) to carry static loads (e.g. DL, LL, E1, E2 and H),
terms., the potential modes of instability due to the development of plastic hinges
(or regions of inelastic deformation) should be identified and prevented (Monsees
and Merritt, 1991).
For cut-and-cover tunnel structures, the evaluation of capacity using Eq. (1.
should consider the uncertainties associated with the loads E1 and E2, and their
worst combination.
In many cases, the absence of live load, L, may present a more critical condition
than when a full live load is considered. Therefore, a live load equal to zero
should also be used in checking the structural strength capacity using Eq. (1).



6.4.4.2 Loading criteria for operating design earthquake, ODE
The seismic design loading combination depends on the performance requirements
of the structural members. Generally speaking, if the members are to experience
little to no damage during the lower-level event (ODE), the inelastic deformations in
the structure members should be kept low. The following loading criteria, based on
load factor design, are recommended:

For cut-and-cover tunnel structures

U = 1.05DL + 1.3LL + ǃ1 (E1 + E2) + 1.3EQ««««««« (2)

Where
D, L, El, E2, EQ and U are as defined in Eq. (1),
ǃ1 =1.05 if extreme loads are assumed for E1 and E2 with little uncertainty.
Otherwise, use ǃ1 = 1.3.

Comments on loading combinations for ODE
The structure should first be designed with adequate strength capacity under
static loading conditions.
For cut-and-cover tunnel structures, the evaluation of capacity using Eq. (2)
should consider the uncertainties associated with the loads E1 and E2, and their
worst combination.
When the extreme loads are used for design, a smaller load factor is
recommended to avoid unnecessary conservatism. Note that an extreme load
may be a maximum load or a minimum load, depending on the most critical case
of the loading combinations. For a cut-and-cover tunnel, the most critical seismic
condition may often be found when the maximum lateral earth pressure, E2, is
combined with the minimum vertical earth load, E1. If a very conservative lateral
earth pressure coefficient is assumed in calculating the E2, the smaller load factor
ǃ1 = 1.05 should be used.
Redistribution of moments (e.g. ACI 318, 1999) for cut-and-cover concrete frames
is recommended to achieve a more efficient design.
If the ¶strength· criteria expressed by Eq. (2)can be satisfied based on elastic
structural analysis, no further provisions under the ODE are required.
If the flexural strength of the structure, using elastic analysis and Eq. (2), is found
to be exceeded, the structure should be checked (for its ductility) to ensure that
the resulting inelastic deformations, if any, are small. If necessary, the structure
should be redesigned to ensure the intended performance goals during the ODE.
Zero live load condition (i.e. L = 0) should also be evaluated in Eq. (2).

6.4.5 Step-by-step Design Procedure
For cut and cover tunnel structure a simplified frame analysis can provide an
adequate and reasonable design approach. The following is a step-by-step
procedure for such an analysis (based in part on Monsees and Merritt, 1988; Wang,
1993):
1. Base preliminary design of the structure and initial sizes of members on
static design and appropriate design requirements.
2. Estimate the free-field shear strains/deformations, οfree-field, of the
ground at the depth of interest using vertically propagating horizontal
shear wave.
3. Determine the relative stiffness (i.e. the flexibility ratio) between the free-
field medium and the structure.
4. Determine the racking coefficient, R as defined in Eq. (3), based on the
flexibility ratio (e.g. Figure. 6.2).

ܴ ൌ

ೞ೟ೝೠ೎೟ೠೝ೐

೑ೝ೐೐ష೑೔೐೗೏



ೞ೟ೝೠ೎೟ೠೝ೐




೑ೝ೐೐ష೑೔೐೗೏




ೞ೟ೝೠ೎೟ೠೝ೐

೑ೝ೐೐ష೑೔೐೗೏
««««« (3)

5. Calculate the actual racking deformation of the structure asοstructure =
Rοfree-field.
6. Impose the seismically-induced racking deformation in a simple frame
analysis.
7. Add the racking-induced internal member forces to the other loading
components. If the permanent structure is designed for ¶at-rest· earth
pressures, no increase in pressures before or subsequent to an earthquake
needs to be considered. If the structure is designed for active earth
pressures, both active and at-rest pressures should be used for dynamic
loading.
8. If the results from (7) show that the structure has adequate capacity, the
design is considered satisfactory. Otherwise, continue.
9. If the structure·s flexural strength is exceeded in (7), check the members·
rotational ductility. Special design provisions should be implemented if
inelastic deformations result. For ODE, the resulting deformation should
be kept within the elastic range. Small inelastic deformations may or may
not be acceptable depending on the project specific performance
requirements. Evaluate possible mechanisms for MDE. Redistribution of
moments in accordance with ACI 318 is acceptable and consideration of
plastic hinges is acceptable. If plastic hinges develop the flexibility ratio
has to be re-computed and the analysis restarted at step (3).
10. The structure should be redesigned if the strength and ductility
requirements are not met, and/or the resulting inelastic deformations
exceed allowable levels (depending upon the performance goals of the
structure).























Figure 6.3: Normalized structure deflection, circular vs. rectangular tunnels (Wang,
1993)

11. Modify the sizes of structural elements as necessary. The design is
complete for MDE if ultimate conditions in the context of plastic design
are not exceeded at any point for the reinforcement selected in initial static
design. Reinforcing steel percentages may need to be adjusted to avoid
brittle behavior. Under static or pseudo-static loads, the maximum usable
compressive concrete strain is 0.004 for flexure and 0.002 for axial loading.
In addition to racking deformations the design of cut and cover structure
should also account for loads due to vertical accelerations and for
longitudinal strain resulting from frictional soil drag. Vertical seismic
forces exerted on the roof of a cut-and-cover tunnel structure may be
estimated by multiplying the estimated peak vertical ground acceleration
by the backfill mass.

6.5 Histories of Seismic Performance of Underground Structures
The following is a brief discussion of recent case histories of seismic performance of
underground structures.

6.5.1 Underground structures in the United States
Bay Area rapid transit (BART) system, San Francisco, CA, USA
The BART on the San Francisco is connected to Oakland via the transbay-immersed
tube tunnel. This system was one of the first underground facilities to be designed
with considerations for seismic loading (Kuesel, 1969). The system consists of
underground stations and tunnels in fill and soft Bay Mud deposits. The BART
system experienced Loma Prieta Earthquake at 1989 and sustained no damage in
fact, operated on a 24-h basis after the earthquake. This is primarily because the
system was designed under stringent seismic design considerations. Special seismic
joints (Bickel and Tanner, 1982.) were designed to accommodate differential
movements at ventilation buildings. The system had been designed to support earth
and water loads while maintaining watertight connections and not exceeding
allowable differential movements. No damage was observed at these flexible joints,
though it is not exactly known how far the joints moved during the earthquake (PB,
1991).

Alameda Tubes, Oakland-Alameda, CA, USA
The Alameda Tubes are a pair of immersed-tube tunnels that connect Alameda
Island to Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area. These were some of the earliest
immersed tube tunnels built in 1927 and 1963 without seismic design considerations.
During the Loma Prieta Earthquake, the ventilation buildings experienced some
structural cracking. Limited water leakage into the tunnels was also observed, as
was liquefaction of loose deposits above the tube at the Alameda portal. Peak
horizontal ground accelerations measured in the area ranged between 0.1 and 0.25 g
(EERI, 1990). The tunnels, however, are prone to floatation due to potential
liquefaction of the backfill (Schmidt and Hashash, 1998).

L.A. Metro, Los Angeles, CA, USA
The Los Angeles Metro is being constructed in several phases, some of which were
operational during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The concrete lining of the bored
tunnels remained intact after the earthquake. While there was damage to water
pipelines, highway bridges and buildings, the earthquake caused no damage to the
Metro system. It proves that underground structure is safer than the surface
structure. Peak horizontal ground accelerations measured near the tunnels ranged
between 0.1 and 0.25 g, with vertical ground accelerations typically two-thirds as
large (EERI, 1995).
6.5.2 Underground structures in Kobe, Japan
The Daikai subway station was constructed in Kobe, Japan and the station design in
1962 did not include specific seismic provisions. As a result it experienced a major
collapse. The 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake caused a major collapse of the
Daikai subway station in (Nakamura et al., 1996). It represents the first modern
underground structure to fail during a seismic event.(Figure. 6.3) shows the collapse
experienced by the center columns of the station, which was accompanied by the
collapse of the ceiling slab and the settlement of the soil cover by more than 2.5 m.
Figure 6.4: Section sketch of Daikai subway station (Iida et al., 1996)

6.5.3 Underground structures in Taiwan
During September 21, 1999 Chi Chi earthquake (ML7.3)in central Taiwan several
highway tunnels were located within the zone heavily affected. These are large
horseshoe shaped tunnels in rock. All the tunnels inspected by the first author were
intact without any visible signs of damage. The main damage occurred at tunnel
portals because of slope instability as illustrated in (Figure. 6.5) Minor cracking and
spalling was observed income tunnel lining. One tunnel passing through the
Chelungpu fault was shut down because of a 4-m fault movement (Ueng et al.,
2001). No damage was reported in the Taipei subway, which is located over 100 km
from the ruptured fault zone.



















6.5.4 Bolu Tunnel, Turkey
The twin tunnels at Turkey that aims at improving transportation in the
mountainous terrain to the west of Bolu between Istanbul and Ankara. Each tunnel
was constructed using the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) where
continuous monitoring of primary liner convergence is performed and support
elements are added until a stable system is established. Construction has been
unusually challenging because the alignment crosses several minor faults parallel to
Figure 6.5: Slope Failure at Tunnel Portal, Chi-Chi Earthquake, Central Taiwan
the North Anatolian Fault. The August 17, 1999 Koceali earthquake was reported to
have had minimal impact on the Bolu tunnel. The closure rate of one monitoring
station was reported to have temporarily increased for a period of approximately 1
week, then became stable again. Additionally, several hairline cracks, which had
previously been observed in the final lining, were being continuously monitored for
additional movement and showed no movement due to the earthquake. The
November 12, 1999 earthquake caused the collapse of both tunnels 300 m from their
eastern portal. At the time of the earthquake, a 800-m section had been excavated,
and a 300-m section of unreinforced concrete lining had been completed. The
collapse took place in clay gauge material in the unfinished section of the tunnel.
The section was covered with shotcrete(sprayed concrete) and had bolt anchors.
(Figure. 6.6) shows a section of the collapsed tunnel after it has been re-excavated.

















Figure 6.6: Bolu Tunnel, remining of Bench Pilot Tunnels, showing typical floor
heave and buckled steel rid and shotcrete shell (Menkiti, 2001)

6.6 Summary of seismic performance of underground structures
Seismic design of underground structures is unique in several ways. For most
underground structures, the inertia of the surrounding soil is large relative to the
inertia of the structure. Measurements made by Okamoto et al. (1973) of the seismic
response of an immersed tube tunnel during several earthquakes show that the
response of a tunnel is dominated by the surrounding ground response and not the
inertial properties of the tunnel structure itself. The focus of underground seismic
design, therefore, is on the free field deformation of the ground and its interaction
with the structure. The emphasis on displacement is in stark contrast to the design of
surface structures, which focuses on inertial effects of the structure itself. This led to
the development of design methods such as the Seismic Deformation Method that
explicitly considers the seismic deformation of the ground.
The Daikai subway station collapse was the first collapse of an urban underground
structure due to earthquake forces, rather than ground instability. Underground
structures in the US have experienced limited damage during the Loma Prieta and
Northridge earthquakes, but the shaking levels have been much lower than the
maximum anticipated events. Greater levels of damage can be expected during these
maximum events. Station collapse and anticipated strong motions in major US
urban areas raise great concerns regarding the performance of underground
structures. It is therefore necessary to explicitly account for seismic loading in the
design of underground structures. The data show that in general, damage to tunnels
is greatly reduced with increased overburden, and damage is greater in soils than in
competent rock. Damage to pipelines (buckling, flotation) was greater than to rail or
highway tunnels in both Kobe and Northridge. The major reason for this difference
seems to have been the greater thickness of the lining of transportation tunnels.
Experience has further shown that cut and-cover tunnels are more vulnerable to
earthquake damage than are circular bored tunnels.









CHAPTER 7 .
COMPARISON OF RESULTS
AND CONCLUSION






7.1 Comparison of Result obtained by Manually and by Computer
Aided Assessment:
In our study our main purpose is to compare the result of earth retention system
which is done by manually with which we get form STAAD-Pro.
Earth retention system of braced-cut has been designed based on the earth pressure
proposed in Peck (1969).
The vertical moment from STAAD-Pro is found in post-processing mode.
The local vertical and horizontal moment from STAAD-Pro is given below



















Figure7.1: Local vertical moment at side wall



Figure 7.2: Local horizontal moment at side wall







Figure7.3: Vertical Moment by Manual calculation




Figure 7.4: Vertical Moment by STAAD.Pro (Middle of the Side wall)



0
10
20
30
40
50
60
-60000 -40000 -20000 0 20000 40000
M
o
m
e
n
t

(
i
b
-
i
n
/
i
n
)
Distance
0
10
20
30
40
50
-40000 -30000 -20000 -10000 0 10000 20000
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Mx (lb-in/in)
Mx


Figure7.5: Vertical Moment by STAAD.Pro (Middle Bracing)




Figure 7.6: Vertical Moment by STAAD.Pro (Side Bracing)



0
10
20
30
40
50
-50000 -40000 -30000 -20000 -10000 0 10000 20000
M
x

(
l
b
-
i
n
/
i
n
)
Distance
Mx
0
10
20
30
40
50
-40000 -30000 -20000 -10000 0 10000 20000
M
x

(
l
b
-
i
n
/
i
n
)
Distance
Mx
7.2 Result Discussion
The result obtained by manually and by computer aided assessment shows almost
same graph geometrically but at some point graph values are different.
At 42.5 ft. manual calculation shows negative moment of 4.17 kip-ft. where STAAD
Pro gives 2.5kip-ft. at 27.5 ft. manual calculation gives 1.67 kip-ft. and from STAAD
Pro we found it 0.83kip-ft.
This is probably due to the fact that Manual calculation is overly simplified method
which ignores the moment transferred and resisted by joints and beams and
considered to vary linearly. It is also probably due to the fact that Manual
calculation does not take in account of the wall thickness and the resistance
provided from the beam. It does not consider Wales and it also does not recognize
the properties of Wide Flange which is used as Strut and Wales. The values from
STAAD Pro seemed more accurate because it considers wide flange section
properties and wall thickness.
So from our analysis we can decide the result from Computer Aided Assessment is
so far more acceptable and pleasing.

7.3 Conclusion
Cut-and-Cover tunneling is a very useful method for shallow tunnels in adverse
ground conditions, in both urban and rural areas. Earth retention system is
considered the most vital part of cut and cover method.
In our study we analyzed earth retention system of cut and cover method with
manually and Computer aided assessment method (STAAD Pro).

Considering the results and discussion we can conclude that manual calculation is in
good agreement with computer aided assessment but in terms of accuracy and level
of precision Computer aided assessment method is best. Manual calculation is not so
precise and its accuracy is hampered as it does not recognize the wide flange section
properties. For detail analysis computer aided assessment should be adapted.
In terms of complexity Computer aided analysis method is the most complex one.
Apart from knowledge of Structural Engineering one needs knowledge about using
computer and considerable amount of practice and training of the software. On the
other hand the process Manual calculation analysis methods are fairly simple and
easy to understand. Manual calculation analysis method does not require anything
else except for the knowledge of the method. For computer aided analysis method
we need a computer and the right to use the software which often has to be bought.
This method usually takes more labor and time and this method is also costly.
Study on the effect of stiffness of bracing reveals that with the increase of bracing
size, the axial force of bracing and vertical moment of side wall increase slightly.
However the displacement of the side wall decreases in considerable amount.
Underground structures experienced much less damage than surface structures as it
is covered by soil even it can withstand vibration in the magnitude of Richter scale
9.2. Reported damage decreases with increasing overburden depth. Deep tunnels
seem to be safer and less vulnerable to earthquake shaking than are shallow tunnels.






References
o Ralph B. Peck (1969), Walter E. Hanson; Foundation Engineering.
o Dr. K.R. Arora; Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.
o JICA study team; Dhaka Urban Transport Network Development Study.
o Arthur H. Nilson; Design of Concrete Structure.
o Youssef M.A. Hashasha, Jeffrey J. Hooka, Birger Schmidtb, John I-Chiang
Yaoa; Seismic design and analysis of underground structures
o Seismic Design Philosophy for tunnel structure
o Rakesh Sabharwal; Use of NATM in Tunneling
o U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration;
FHWA Road Tunnel Design Guideline
o Mouratidis Professor of Highway Engineering, Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki; The ´Cut-and-Coverµ and ´Cove-rand- Cutµ Techniques in
Highway Engineering
o Basler&Hofmann's catalogue
o Japanese standard for shield tunneling, third edition, 1996.
o Mitsubishi Heavy Industries catalogue, 2005.
o DTL 1 C902 (main contractor: Shanghai Tunnel), C905 (main contractor:
Shimizu).
o HNTB Corporation; devil·s Slide Tunnel Project
o AhmetSaglamer; Cut and cover tunnels in metropolitan areas
o Kawsar Md. Abdul Waheed, (A Study on Application of Cut and Cover
Method for the consturciton of Metro Rail Tunne in Dhaka City, May
2008)
o Anwarus Salam Rizwan, Reasat Ahmed Abir, FatemaTuzZuhra, Adnan
MarzukhRahman; (Comparison of Approximate, Exact and Numerical
Analysis Methods of Structural Design via Design of Rectangular Water
Tank, October 2010)
o Underground Subway Tunnel: Proposal for future transportation network
in Dhaka by Md. Aroz Ullah.
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Rail in Old Dhaka)
o S.K. Mathur& R.C. Bhandari;Site investigations and geotechnical
characterization for the design of a highwaytunnel across PirPanjal range
in Jammu & Kashmir, India
o The Daily Star
o BDCAN
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www.wikipidia.com
www.fhwa.dot.gov
www.world-tunnelling.com
www.ahm531.com
www.theconstructor.org
www.ritchiewiki.com
www.science.howstuffworks.com



















APPENDIX A


Figure A-1: Steel table, Wide Flange section 1 of 3
Figure A-2: Steel table, Wide Flange section 2 of 3

Figure A-3: Steel table, Wide Flange section 3 of 3








Figure A-3: Load moment strength interaction diagram for R4-60.75 Column













APPENDIX B





Figure B-1: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -1



Figure B-2: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -2




Figure B-3: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -3



Figure B-4: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -4




Figure B-5: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -5




Figure B-6: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -6


Figure B-7: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -7


Figure B-8: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -8


Figure B-9: Bending Moment Diagram at Grid -9