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Mapping of Primary Productivity and Carbon Export within Giant Kelp Forests in the Santa Barbara Channel

Mapping of Primary Productivity and Carbon Export within Giant Kelp Forests in the Santa Barbara Channel

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David Dietz, Bowdoin College, NASA SARP 2013
David Dietz, Bowdoin College, NASA SARP 2013

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Published by: jpeterson1 on Aug 09, 2013
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12/31/2013

David  Dietz   Bowdoin  College  ‘14   Advisors:    Dr.

 Raphael  Kudela   and  Jennifer  Broughton  

Background  
—  Giant  Kelp  (Macrocystis  

pyrifera)  is  one  of  the   world’s  fastest-­‐growing   autotrophs  (234  g  NPP  m-­‐2   day-­‐1)   —  Grows  in  dense  forest   colonies   —  Found  extensively  along  the   Southern  California   coastline,  as  well  as  other   locations  worldwide  

Background  
—  High  productivity=  high  

Carbon  uptake   —  As  Carbon  is  taken  up,   it’s  also  released  
—  Dissolved  Organic  

Carbon  (DOC)  and   Respiration  (CO2)  

—  How  much  total  C  enters  

and  leaves  these   systems?    

Project  Goal  
—  Combine  remote  sensing,  in  situ,  and  scholarly  data  to  

map  the  Carbon  uptake  and  export  within  two  Giant   Kelp  Beds  in  the  Santa  Barbara  Channel  
Carbon  out   (Respiration)  

Kelp  Bed   Carbon  in    (Primary  Productivity)   Carbon  out   (DOC  release)  

Study  Site    

Study  Site    

Produc5vity  Calcula5on  
—  Samantha  Trumbo   —  Depth-­‐Integrated  Model  with  Subsurface  and  Age   Composition  

M M I I I S S S M M S I I S M M I S S M S S

Calcula5ng  Bed  Area  with  ENVI  

Bed  2  

Bed  1  

Calcula5ng  Bed  Area  with  ENVI  
Best  spectral  ratio,  716nm/654nm  

Calcula5ng  Bed  Area  with  ENVI  
Density  slice,  compares  relative  reflective  strength  

Spectral  profiles  to  dis5nguish  Kelp  
1m  Kelp   2m  Kelp  
Surface  Kelp  

no  Kelp  

Area  and  Produc5vity  Mapping  
Bed  1   77168.41  m2   48649.65  m2  surface  kelp   28518.76  m2  subsurface  kelp  (46%  1m,  54%  2m)   Productivity:  

1170220  g  C/day  

Bed  2   61790.45  m2   33831.08  m2  surface  kelp   27959.57  m2  subsurface  kelp  (53%  1m,  47%  2m)   Productivity:  

957244  g  C/day  

 Respira5on  Rates  
—  Computation  using  three  scholarly  sources  for  kelp   —  Total  bed  biomass   —  Cavanaugh    et.  al,  2010  
— 

SB  channel,  4.24  kg  wet  biomass/m2  

—  Rassweiller    et.  al,  2008   —  Dry  kelp  biomass  ~9%  wet  kelp  

—  Respiration  value   —  Arnold  and  Manley,  1985  
— 

.0192  g  C  Respiration  g  dry  wt-­‐1  day-­‐1  

Bed  1:  572305.06  g  C  day-­‐1  

Bed  2:  458258.77  g  C  day-­‐1  

~50%  of  gross  productivity  

Total  Bed  DOC  
—   In  situ  values  given  in  µmol/L   —  DOC  given  in  pure  carbon,  molar  mass  12.011  g/mol   —  Found  average  depth  for  both  beds  to  find  total  volume   (7m)   —  Calculate  total  mass  DOC  (g  C)  for  both  beds  

Sensi5vity  Tests  
—  Vertical   —  Pycnocline  presence    
— 

Shows  deep/shallow  divide  

—  Horizontal   —  Temperature  gradient  in  bed  
— 

Not  present  

Bed  1:  727500.08  g  C  

 

 Bed  2:  567609.68  g  C  

DOC:  Mass  Value  to  Rate?  
—  Time  series  of  MODIS  Imagery   —  CDOM  (Colored  Dissolved  Organic  Matter)  

CDOM  Flow  Rate  
June  19,  2013        June  21,  2013  

Most  CDOM  

Least  CDOM  

Santa  Barbara  Circula5on  

Most  CDOM  

Least  CDOM  

Summary  
—  Surface  and  Subsurface  kelp  can  be  easily  mapped  

using  remote  sensing  data  and  a  simple  band  ratio   —  Total  GPP  was  15-­‐15.5  g  C  m-­‐2  day-­‐1  with  respiration   account  for  ~50%  of  C  export   —  DOC  collects  at  over  9  g  C  m-­‐2,  suggesting  beds  either   retain  DOC  or  were  sourcing  C  during  study  period   —  Multiple  transport  vectors,  Santa  Barbara  Channel   circulation,  and  course  resolution  of  CDOM  data   prevent  accurate  measurements  of  DOC  flow  rates  
—  Means  of  remotely  measuring  DOC  from  kelp  should  be  

explored  

Acknowledgements  
—  Dr.  Raphael  Kudela   —  Jen  Broughton   —  Dr.  Emily  Schaller   —  Shane  Grigsby   —  Rick  Shetter   —  Nick  Vance   —  DAOF  and  the  DC-­‐8  Crew  

—  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  — 

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