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Composite materials have been used since biblical times when chopped straw was added in bricks to make building materials. The modern composite materials age began with the introduction of particular fibrous reinforcement materials into thermosets phenollics in 1900’s. The first GRP was made in 1942. Reinforcement thermoplastic were virtually non-existent in early 1950’s but by 1990’ s reinforcement thermoplastic represented about one fourth of the total reinforced plastics & composite materials.
Scientists have started mixing materials with different properties in new way so as to make new materials which have , good properties of the constituents materials without having the inherent, weakness or disadvantages of the individual materials . These new materials are called as composite materials. Composite materials are made by the combining two or more than two dissimilar materials. A selected fillers or reinforcing agents & compatible matrix binder.(i.e. Resin) single constituent materials. are combine in such a way that the resulting composite materials possess superior properties which are not obtained with
You may understand the nature of composite material by simply taking example of day to day life such as concrete slab of our house. It is the most common composite material in our day to day life. It consist of cement concrete and iron bars. The cement gives protection to the iron bars , from adverse environmental condition & iron bars gives the strength, flexibility & stiffness to structure. The idea and principle is exactly applied in thermoplastic composites.
Thus composite material can be defined as multiphase material, formed by combination of materials differing in composition which remain bonded together, but retain their identities & properties, without going into any chemical reaction. The composite material don’t dissolve but they are completely merge with each other. They maintain an interface between each other & act in concrete to provide improved specific or synergistic characteristic not obtainable by any of the original component acting singly. CLASSIFICATION : Composite materials are broadly classified into natural & synthetic composites. fig schematically shows the classification.
As seen in the phase composition which is generally alone in most composite ingredients is inserts into the other material known as matrix. The classification based on the plastic matrix are thermoplastic & thermosetting.
CONSTITUENTS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
The composite materials are made up of constituent materials which are grouped as MATRIX REINFORCEMENT FIBRE MATRIX INTERPHASE FILLERS
MATRIX :- It is also called as binder. The phase that receives the inserts in the phase composition is the continuous phase & is called as matrix. Ex. - polymer, ceramics, Metals. REINFORCEMENT :- These are materials which basically gives strength, stiffness & other mechanical properties to composite materials. Ex. – Glass, Boron, Jute fibres. FIBER-MATRIX INTERPHASE The interphase between the fiber and matrix can be easily identified ,it is the behaviour and property of interphase that generally control the properties of composites. The main role of interphase is to transmit and distribute the load on matrix to the reinforcement. FILLERS & ADDITIVES Fillers are added is polymeric matrix for following reasons. 1. Reduce cost 2. Increase stiffness. 3. Reduce mold shrinkage. 4. Control viscosity.
5. Produce smooth surface. This fillers should be inert & their presence in a polymeric matrix. Should not affect the processing & polymerization. C.O.E.&T.,Akola 3
Thermoplastic Composites MATRIX Definition – The phase that receive the inserts in phase composition is continuous phase & is called as matrix. It is also called as binders. The matrix material employed for fabrication of composites material are usually polymer & commonly called as Resin. Functions – The function of matrix or binders are as follows. a) b) c) It gives mouldability or shape to composite. It makes the composite materials generally resistance to adverse environment. It also protect the reinforcement from adverse environments.
Types - The materials used for the matrix are plastic, rubbers, ceramic & metals. Plastic matrix based composite materials now constitute more than 95% of all composite materials in use today. Both Thermoplastic & Thermosetting materials are used as matrix materials. Among these plastic material we are interested in the matrix made up of Thermoplastic composite with their inherent properties which can contribute to composite materials. Some of the thermoplastic materials are discuss.
LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
The polyethylene is manufactured from pure ethylene as a result of high pressure methods. These polymer has excellent properties that are required for matrix or binders this are. Mechanical Properties: Specific Gravity = 0.91 – 0.93 Processing temp = 180-2120 F. Tensile strength Impact strength Chemical properties: High moisture Proofness. Chemical stability. Resistance to action of micro-organism. It has high stability toward diverse Corrosive medium. Applications – These PE is used in pipe which has been used for transportation various kinds of fluids because of its high resistance to corrosive materials. = 0.9 – 2.5 x 103 psi = 0.2-12 ftlb/inch
HIGH DENSITY POLYTHYLENE.
This polyethylene is manufactured from pure ethylene as result of low pressure methods. This polymer has excellent properties that are required for matrix or binders these are : Mechanical properties : Specific Gravity = 0.94 – 0.96 Tensile strength = 2.9-5.4 x 103 psi Impact strength = 0.4 – 14 ftlb/inch Processing temp = 175 – 2500F Chemical Properties : High moisture proof ness. Chemical stability. Resistance to action of micro-organism. High stability towards diverse corrosive medium.
Polymerisation of propylene is carried out in presence of suitable heterogeneous catalyst to form polypropylene. Polypropylene has been found to have rare combination of excellent physical, mechanical thermal, electrical & chemical properties with outstanding high temperature resistance. These properties are used in matrix.
Thermoplastic Composites Mechanical Properties Specific Gravity = 0.90 – 0.91 Tensile Strength = 4.5 – 6 x 103 psi Impact strength = 0.4 – 12 ftlb/inch Processing temp. = 225 – 300o F Chemical Properties The PP is probably lightest know industrial polymer. Polypropylene exhibits high stiffness, hardness & tensile strength because of high crystallinity0. Poly propylene is resistance to many chemicals such as alkali, acids. It also has good moisture resistance. Applications Due to high strength rigidity, temp resistance & chemical resistance pp is suitable to used in the production of chemical & biological attacks.
NYLONS – 6 OR PERLON – L
A polyamide closely related is Nylon known as Perlon – L or Nylon – 6 is based on a polymeric fibre form only one constituent caprolactum NH – (CH)5 – CO giving polymer ( − (CH 2 ) 5 CO − NH − ) n it is prepared by prolong heating of ω – amino caprolactum at 250 – 278 C. Nylon is often used in thermoplastic composite because of presence of saturation or double bonds in its structures. Mechanical Properties : Specific Gravity = 1.14 Impact Strength = 2.0 – 5.0 ftlb/inch Tensile Strength = 12.5 x 103 psi Processing Temp. =180 - 300 o F
Chemical Properties C.O.E.&T.,Akola 7
Thermoplastic Composites Good Solvent Resistance Good Biological Resistance High Toughness and Elasticity Applications Nylon is used in making transmission belts, link belts.
These materials have been prepared by polymerisation at phalothiophenoxide metal component both in solid state and in solution. Condensation of p-chlorobenzene with element sulphur in presence of sodium sulphide. These are of two types, thermoplastic which is branched and viscous in nature. And this can be subsequently oxidised to give cross linked structure. Mechanical Properties : Specific Gravity = 1.34 Tensile strength = 10 x 103psi Processing temp = 5000 to 6000F Chemical Properties: Heat resistance very high flame resistance chemical resistance electrical resistance. Applications This polymer with its very high heat & flame resistance & chemical & electrical resistance characteristic found its application in exhaust gas return value carburetor parts, ignition plates, Motor housing.
Thermoplastic Composites Fibres are the principle constituents in fibre reinforcement composite materials. Definitions :- It is materials which gives strength, stiffness & other mechanical properties to composite materials. Function :- The reinforcement are used to improve the structural characteristics of materials. They can be continuous in form of fibre, filament or discontinuous in forms of (whiskers, flake or particular ). The reinforcement increases the ratio of strength to density & stiffness to density. Improve formability & electrical prop. It also increase resistance to corrosion fatigue, creep & repturs stress & reduce cost.
TYPES OF REINFORCEMENTS
Reinforcement can be classified in 5 types. 1. Mineral reinforcement :- The mineral fillers most commonly employed are CaCo3, Silica, mica tale clay, alumina etc. 2. Hybrid reinforcement – in hybrid composite two or more high performance reinforcements are combined. 3. Sandwich Reinforcement Composite structure consisting of a thermoplastic core sandwich between two metal pieces or layers. Ex – steel – pp – steel Al – Nr – Al. 4. Metal filled thermoplastics Although plastics are electrical & thermal insulators. They can be made conductor by introducing metallic or conductive fillers.
5. Organic & inorganic reinforcements
Thermoplastic Composites Inorganic or organic fibers such as carbon, glass, aramides etc have been widely used with plastic mainly to improve mechanical strengths & tensile modulus. Now we will discuss some of the fibres used in reinforcements one by one.
Glass fibre are the oldest form of strength fibre used in composite structure materials. Continuous fibre are made by a growth extension process. In air craft aerospace & military application in which strength to wt. Ratio are critical constitute the fastest growing market for glass fibre reinforced materials. The glass fibre for reinforcement is available in several forms like fibres rovings, chopped, strands, yarns & mate. The principle ingredients in all glass fibres is silica and other oxide. The Na2O & K2O content in glass fibre is quite low which give them a better corrosion resistance to water as well as higher surface resistivity. The glass fibres are availables in no. of grades for reinforcement purpose. A particular form is choosen depending on the molding methods, properly to be improved & cost of final products. A glass – cost effective, for general purpose. Easily attacked by moisture & alkaline. E glass –these has high level electrical resistivity, surface resistivity & forming. C glass – impact, high acid resistance D glass – highest structural resistance properly when stiffness is more important than strength. Application : These found application in pressure bottles, automobile bodies, for tubing & pipes & in sportsgoods.
Thermoplastic Composites Now a days carbon fibres finds its own place in the composite materials where weight reduction are valuable. Many techniques have been tried for producing carbon fibre. All of them involve the heat treatment of carbon containing raw material usually in form of polymer fibre & carbonising them . Three raw materials generally employed for production of commercial products these are rayon, acryllic, & PAN fibre & fibre span pitch. Carbon filled composite has electrical conductivities coupled with good mechanical prop. Advantages – 1. High tensile strength – wt. Ratio. 2. High tensile modulus – wt. Ratio. 3.Very low co-efficient of linear thermal expansion which provides dimensional stability. 4. High fatigue strength. Disadvantage – low impact resistance, high electrical conductivity. Applications – High temperature property of carbon fibre are being put to use in pump packing, bearing & breaks or breaks disc materials.
Boron fibre is also immerging as the principle constituents or high characteristic properties contain fibre. This are prepared by reduction of boron tri-chloride in chemical vapour deposition process on hot tungsten or graphite filament. Advantages . 1. these are of low density, high tensile strength, high modulus fibres. 2. these are extremely hard. Disadvantages – The amorphous boron fibre has excellent properties but process is very costly. Applications –These are highly suitable for aerospace industries, Automobile industries. C.O.E.&T.,Akola 11
Thermoplastic Composites Boron fibre have been used in some sporting good equipments.
Now one of the immerging member in reinforcement fibre family is kevlar. These are introduce in 1972 commercially to replace steel in radial tyres. These are mainly of two types kevlar 29 & kevlar 49. These are low density strength armid fibre. Designed for ballistic
protection slash & cut resistance, ropes, cables & coating fabrics for flashable & architechral fabrics. It is also used in production such as brakes & clutches. Advantage – Light wt.- high strength & stifness Resistance to stretch. Vibration, damping & damage resistance. Disadvantage – It is very costly. Application: These are finding broad application in belts of radials car tyres, car cases, marine, automobile & other industrial applications.
Commercially jute is the most important vegetable fibre other than cotton. About 60% of world jute is produce in India. These are cheap & easily available fibre. After the retting the fibre is removed from the stream by hand in a process known as stripping. The jute fibre is 2.5 to 3 m long but ultimate fibre cell is 2.5 mm in length. Now recent jute fibre reinforcement thermoplastic materials are used in fenching compounds, doors, decorative articles, tiles etc.
Thermoplastic Composites The interphase between the fibre & matrix can be easily identified, it is the behaviour & prop of interphase that generally control the prop of the composite. The prop. Of composite cannot achieved by any of the components acting alone. The main role of interphase is to transmit & distribute stress on matrix to the fibres & in desire orientation. Localised stress are generally highest near the interphase which may be locus of premature feature of composite. The interphase must have appropriate character in order to provide necessary load transfer from matrix to reinforcements. Hence their should be strong adhesion forces between matrix & fibre through interphase. This can also be achieved by coupling agents. Coupling agents are define as materials that improves the adhesion bonds of dissimilar surfaces. Coupling agents modify the interphase region to strengthen the organic & inorganic boundary layers by A much positive attempt to increase the adhesion between polymer & fibre was link them by covalent bond using coupling agents. Ex – Titonates, Silanes. Coupling agents Coupling agents are defined primarily as materials that improve the adhesive bond of dissimilar surfaces, this must involve an increase in true adhesion, but it may also involve better wetting, rheology & other handling properties. The coupling agent may also modify the interphase region to strengthen the organic & inorganic boundary layers. Since unsaturated polyester resins were originally the most common organic matrix material, and glass the primary reinforcement various unsaturated compounds of silicon & other elements were first tested as coupling agents; only unsaturated silances & methacrylatochrome complexes, eg. Volan, have been important commercially.
Thermoplastic Composites Silane coupling agents function by modifying the interface between dissimilar phase for eg. in composites such as glass fiber-reinforced resins or mineral filled resins & elastomers, and in adhesive, caulk & sealant applications. Their use results in improved bonding & upgraded mechanical & electrical properties. In general, the best coupling agents are those where the organizational group on silicon has max. reactivity with the particular thermoplastic resin. Chemistry of Silanes :Silane coupling agents can be represented by formula “YRSiXg” where, X = hydrolyzable group (typically alkoxy)
Y = Functional organic group (amino, epoxy, methacryloxy) R = small aliphatic linkage -(CH,), that serves to attach the functional organic group to
silicon (Si). Bonding of silane coupling agents to surface hydroxy groups of inorganic components in accomplished by the SiX3 portion of the silane coupling agent, either directly or more commonly via it’s hydrolysis product - Si(OH) 3, Subsequent reaction of the functional organic group Y, with the organic component completes the coupling reaction & established a covalent bond - from the organic phase through the silane coupling agent to the inorganic phase. This type of chemical bonding accounts for the good adhesion developed between the organic & inorganic components & the stability of the bond under adverse, environmental conditions. Silane modification of the organic-inorganic interface also produces changes in other properties that may, at times, be more important than the final adhesion cross the interphase. The interface, or interphase region, between polymer & filler involves a complex interplay of physical & chemical factors related to composite performance. The total coupling mechanism involves all of these inter-related areas.
Thermoplastic Composites Under ideal conditions a treated filler wets out & disperses readily in the plastic with minimum viscosity. The treatment protects the filler against abrasion & cleavage during mixing & in the final composite. Titonates :Coupling agents are molecular bridges at the interface between two dissimilar substrates, usually but not limited to an inorganic filler and an organic polymer matrix. Titanium derived coupling agents ones with free protons at the inorganic interface, resulting in the formation of organic monomolecular layers on the inorganic surface. Typically, titanate - treated inorganics are hydrophobic, organophilic, and organic functional & therefore exhibit enhanced dispersibility & bond with the polymer or organic phase. When used in filled polymers, they improve impact strength, exhibit melt viscosity lower than that of virgin polymers at inorganic loading above 50% & enhance mechanical properties during aging. Chemistry of Titonates :Reactivity is possible with diverse substrates such as CaCO3, BaSO4, carbon black, ceramics, phthalo & lake pigments, cellulosics, peroxides & aramid & carbon fibres as well as with mineral & metal oxides derived inorganic chemical compounds. Tetrafunctional compounds based on organometallic titanium (Ti) or Ziroconium (Zr) & Silicon (Si) make useful coupling agents because the central atom’s tetravalency is conductive to electron sharing. Each generic type has inherent natural limitations eg. when coupling to metal substrate (M) the hydrolytic stability & strength of the Ti-O-M bond is superior to the Si-O-M bond. However, when coupling to silica, the extra strength of Zr-OSi superior to the Si-O-M bond. However, when coupling to silica, the extra strength of ZrO-Si or Si-O-Si is often preferable to Ti-O-Si bond.
ORIENTATION & COMPOSITION OF REINFORCEMENT
The mechanical strength of reinforce plastic component is largely dependent on amount arrangement & type of reinforcement fibre in resin matrix. a. Unidirectional orientation. All fibres are arranged in one direction for a lamina containing unidirectional orientation, the composite material has highest strength & modulus in longitedinal direction. However in transverse direction its strength & modulus are very low. Application found in fishing rods. Ladders, hockey sticks etc. b. Bidirectional Orientation. In this type fibres are arranged in two directions usually normal to each other for a lamina containing bidirectional orientation the strength & modulus can be varied by employing different amount as well as different types of fibre in longitudinal & transverse direction. directions. Application in boat, swimming pull etc. c. Multidirection or Randomly directed orientation In this type of orientation, fibres are generally distributed randomly in all direction. Thus in this type of orientation strength & modulus are equal in all direction. Application machine housing & Helmets. For a balanced lamina, these properties are the same in both
Thermoplastic Composites Composition The amount of reinforcement that can be used is related to the orientation of the reinforcements & percentage loading of reinforcements. In unidirectional orientation case the % of the reinforcement with resin is 25% & reinforcement is 75%. In bidirection 50% resin & 50% reinforcement & in case of randomly directed reinforcement 25% & 75% resin.
Thermoplastic Composites Two techniques are generally used in manufacturing of thermoplastic composite they are Open moulding Close moulding Difference between the open & close mould are as follows OPEN MOULDING 1. Use only one male or female die. 2. Surface finish is obtained on one side only. 3. No pressure is required. 4. Low mould cost. 5. Usually thermosetting materials are used. Two process technique are given for the processing of thermoplastics materials are as follows. 3. High pressure is required. 4. High mould cost. 5. Usually thermoplastic materials are used. CLOSE MOULDING 1. Use both male & female die. 2. Surface finish is obtained on both sides.
INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS
In making fibre glass reinforcements thermoplastic pellets materials, continuous glass rovings is first sized to increase inter facial adhesion between glass & resin. The glass fibre are impregnated & coated with thermoplastic resin & finally chopped into pellets containing 20 to 30% wt fibre glass. The fibre glass in the pellets can be obtained in 1/8 length to 3/8 in length.
Injection Moulding Thermoplastic Composite Material
STEPS IN INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE.
Thermoplastic Composites 1. MOULD CLOSED. 2. INTRODUCTION OF PELLET IN MACHINE. 3. PLASTICISATION – in which the screw starts its backward rotation will material is conveyed in forward direction & plasticization of pellets takes place due to shear heat & band heaters. 4. INJECTION - After plasticization screw stops it backward motion & acts as plunger & force material in forward direction in mold. 5. COOLING - Proper cooling is applied to materials. 6.EJECTION – After cooling material is ejected. Precautions – 1. Due to hard nature of a fibres the modification in injection molding machine should be done to avoid the damage of machine parts. Generally hard carbon steel or nitriding screw & barrel are used. 2. Nozzle opening should be increase. 3. If multicavity is used runner should be large inoff. Advantages – 1. Complicated shape are possible. 2. Surface finish is good. Disadvantage – It is difficult to predict the orientation of fibres.
Thermoplastic Composites Thermoplastic composite can also be processed by Roto moulding. In rotomoulding product is formed by from liquid or powder thermoplastic resin with fibre reinforcement inside closed mold or cavity. biaxially in heating chamber. While mold is rotating
Rotational Moulding Machine
STEPS IN ROTOMOULDING
Thermoplastic Composites 1. LOADING OR INTRODUCTION OF MATERIALS IN CAVITY Plastic materials in plastisols or organosols or in powder form with fibre reinforcement is introduced in mold. 2. MOLDING OR CURING The plastic material in mould is cured by the heat. Which is transfer from heating chamber by conduction. While the mold is rotating biaxially in heating chamber. 3. COOLING Proper cooling is applied to cure the materials. 4.EJECTION Finally finished product is ejected. Advantages – Surface finish obtained is good. Disadvantages It is impossible to predict the orientation of fibre reinforcement.
This table Illustrates the increase in properties of thermoplastic materials when fiber glass is added. C.O.E.&T.,Akola 22
Plastic ASTM ABS ACETAL Nylon 6 Nylon 6/6 PPO
Specific Gravity D792 1.05 1.28 1.42 1.63 1.14 1.37 1.14 1.37 1.06 1.27 1.20 1.43 1.31 1.52 0.95 1.17 0.91 1.13 1.07 1.28 1.24 1.45 1.08 1.31
Mold Shrinkage In/In D995 .006 .001 .020 .003 .016 .004 .018 .004 .005 .002 .006 .001 .020 .003 .020 .003 .018 .004 .004 .001 .007 .003 .005 .001
Tensile Strength 103 PSI D638 6.0 14.5 8.8 19.5 11.8 23.0 11.6 26.0 9.5 21.0 9.0 18.5 8.5 19.5 2.6 10.0 4.9 9.8 7.0 13.5 10.0 18.0 9.8 17.4
Flexural Moulus 106 PSI D790 .32 1.10 .40 1.40 .40 1.20 .41 1.30 .36 1.30 .33 1.20 .34 1.40 .20 .90 .18 .80 .45 1.30 .40 1.20 .50 1.50
Deflection Thermal Temp. Expansion 264 PSI 10-5 In/In o ( F) D648 (oF) D638 195 220 230 325 167 420 170 490 265 310 265 300 130 430 120 260 135 295 10 215 340 365 200 215 5.3 1.6 4.5 2.2 4.6 1.7 4.5 1.8 3.3 1.4 3.7 1.3 5.3 1.2 6.0 2.7 4.0 2.0 3.6 1.9 3.1 1.4 3.4 1.8
30%Glass 30%Glass 30%Glass 30%Glass 30%Glass Polycarbonate 30%Glass Polyester T.P. 30%Glass PolyethyleneH.D. 30%Glass Polypropylene 30%Glass Polystryene Polysulfone SAN 30%Glass 30%Glass 30%Glass
Thermoplastic Composites Typical properties of Reinforcing fibres and some materials with which they compete Fibre Specific Ultimate Gravity Tensile Strength (GPa) 2.45 2.56 2.58 2.49 1.87 1.76 1.82 1.44 1.45 2.5 1.6 1.3 2.8 7.8 4.5 2.62 1.82 3.1 3.6 4.4 4.5 2.1 2.6 2.3 2.76 2.94 0.7-1.4 0.3-0.7 0.8 0.5 1.0 0.96 3.4 1.03 75 200 110 344 310 Tensile Specific Modulus Tensile (GPa) strength (GPa) 72 76 85 86 330 235 200 58 130 135-170 1.26 1.40 1.70 1.80 1.12 1.48 1.26 1.92 2.03 0.28-0.56 0.19-0.44 0.61 0.18 0.13 0.21 1.30 0.57 Specific modulus (GPa) 29 29 33 34 176 133 110 40 90 54-68 27 26 25 130 170
A-glass E-glass R-glass S-glass Type I, carbon fibre, high modulus Type II, carbon fibre, high tensile strength Type III, carbon fibre Aramid Fibre, Kevlar 29 Aramid Fibre, Kevlar 29 Asbestos Cotton Sisal Aluminium (bulk) Steel Titanium DTD 5173 Boron Beryllium (Bulk)
1. THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE ROOF LIGHT, DOMES & SHEET. These are used in construction of domes of hemispherical, pyramid cal or of any shape are used in houses, offices shopping complexes etc. the interior from dust, rain etc. 2. STORAGE TANKS. Storage tanks are used for house hold, factory & offices. These are light wt. Leak proof, corrosion resistance oxygenic & strong & durable. These are easy to clean & install. 3. SANITARY WARE This are used in bath tub wash basin, shower & shower stalls are widely use now a days. These have great advantage over ceramics like light in wt., unbreakable, having minimum joints, easy to clean & mainly available in many attractive colours. 4. DOORS & WINDOWS This are used in window pannel doors. laminating technique ). 5. READY TO ASSEMBLE CABINS Due to adequate thermal insulation this are used in temporary shelters. 6. FLOORING This are used as flooring or tiles. 7. IN PUBLIC SEATING SYSTEMS. The chairs & benches are used for outdoor uses. This can also be made fire retardants. They provide excellent water These are light in wt.& requires very light frame works. These allow sun light to pass through it but shield protect
roofing. They are light in wt.strong & available in many colour. ( pultrusion or continuous
Thermoplastic Composites APPLICATION OF THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
Knee brace molded from polyphenylene sulfide composite
Housing for power blower is moulded form reinforceed Nylon 6 Resin .
Ball valve lined with glass fibre ETFE
Thermoplastic Composites APPLICATION OF THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
Jallar and Mural made of Jute-Thermoplastic Composite
Garden Fences and Street Lamps made of Jute- Thermoplastic Composite
Planter made of Jute- Thermoplastic Composite
The tensile strength of thermoplastic can be at least double by the addition of glass reinforcement. Unlike thermosetting reinforced plastic, fiberglass reinforce thermoplastic compound & can be pelleted & used in conventional molding equipments. Reinforced thermoplastic produce increase in strength & rigidity & marked decrease in coefficient of thermal expansion. The most significant effect in thermoplastic is retention of izod impact strength at very low temp. Deflection temp is improved most markedly in nylon. Other beneficial effects may include increase in hardness & abrasion resistance & decrease in mold shrinkage, creep & dimensional change with humidity.
1) J.A.Brydson, Plastic materials,Butterworth Heinemann Ltd. Oxford, Sixth Edition (1996) Pg. 201-234, 240-258, 469, 574-577. 2) Michael. L. Berins, Plastic Engineering Handbook of the society of plastic industries, Chapman & Hall, Newyork, Fifth Edition (1991) Pg. 133-174, 70-71, 234-235. 3) Ronald D. Beck, Plastic Product Design, Vannostrand Reinhold Company, Newyork, Pg 308-351 4) J.P. Agrawal, Mc Graw Hills, Delhi, Fifth Edition (1998) Pg. 6-85. 5) IPI Journal, Indian Plastic Institute, Mumbai, Volume 4-issue no.3.july/August (1999) Pg. 1-6. 6) Project Report on “effect of coupling agent on properties of Mica filled polypropylene”. By A. Sharma, A. Shah, P. Agrawal, A. Kohale, C. Sanghani. Guided by A. B. Marathe. (2000) Page. 1-6. 7) www.google.com 8) www.searchengine.com
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