# EUCLID’S ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY

The Greek text of J.L. Heiberg (1883–1885)
from Euclidis Elementa, edidit et Latine interpretatus est I.L. Heiberg, in aedibus
B.G. Teubneri, 1883–1885
edited, and provided with a modern English translation, by
Richard Fitzpatrick

First edition - 2007
Revised and corrected - 2008
ISBN 978-0-6151-7984-1

Contents
Introduction

4

Book 1

5

Book 2

49

Book 3

69

Book 4

109

Book 5

129

Book 6

155

Book 7

193

Book 8

227

Book 9

253

Book 10

281

Book 11

423

Book 12

471

Book 13

505

Greek-English Lexicon

539

Introduction
Euclid’s Elements is by far the most famous mathematical work of classical antiquity, and also has the distinction
of being the world’s oldest continuously used mathematical textbook. Little is known about the author, beyond
the fact that he lived in Alexandria around 300 BCE. The main subjects of the work are geometry, proportion, and
number theory.
Most of the theorems appearing in the Elements were not discovered by Euclid himself, but were the work of
earlier Greek mathematicians such as Pythagoras (and his school), Hippocrates of Chios, Theaetetus of Athens, and
Eudoxus of Cnidos. However, Euclid is generally credited with arranging these theorems in a logical manner, so as to
demonstrate (admittedly, not always with the rigour demanded by modern mathematics) that they necessarily follow
from five simple axioms. Euclid is also credited with devising a number of particularly ingenious proofs of previously
discovered theorems: e.g., Theorem 48 in Book 1.
The geometrical constructions employed in the Elements are restricted to those which can be achieved using a
straight-rule and a compass. Furthermore, empirical proofs by means of measurement are strictly forbidden: i.e.,
any comparison of two magnitudes is restricted to saying that the magnitudes are either equal, or that one is greater
than the other.
The Elements consists of thirteen books. Book 1 outlines the fundamental propositions of plane geometry, including the three cases in which triangles are congruent, various theorems involving parallel lines, the theorem regarding
the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the Pythagorean theorem. Book 2 is commonly said to deal with “geometric
algebra”, since most of the theorems contained within it have simple algebraic interpretations. Book 3 investigates
circles and their properties, and includes theorems on tangents and inscribed angles. Book 4 is concerned with regular polygons inscribed in, and circumscribed around, circles. Book 5 develops the arithmetic theory of proportion.
Book 6 applies the theory of proportion to plane geometry, and contains theorems on similar figures. Book 7 deals
with elementary number theory: e.g., prime numbers, greatest common denominators, etc. Book 8 is concerned with
geometric series. Book 9 contains various applications of results in the previous two books, and includes theorems
on the infinitude of prime numbers, as well as the sum of a geometric series. Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (i.e., irrational) magnitudes using the so-called “method of exhaustion”, an ancient precursor to integration.
Book 11 deals with the fundamental propositions of three-dimensional geometry. Book 12 calculates the relative
volumes of cones, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres using the method of exhaustion. Finally, Book 13 investigates the
five so-called Platonic solids.
This edition of Euclid’s Elements presents the definitive Greek text—i.e., that edited by J.L. Heiberg (1883–
1885)—accompanied by a modern English translation, as well as a Greek-English lexicon. Neither the spurious
books 14 and 15, nor the extensive scholia which have been added to the Elements over the centuries, are included.
The aim of the translation is to make the mathematical argument as clear and unambiguous as possible, whilst still
adhering closely to the meaning of the original Greek. Text within square parenthesis (in both Greek and English)
indicates material identified by Heiberg as being later interpolations to the original text (some particularly obvious or
unhelpful interpolations have been omitted altogether). Text within round parenthesis (in English) indicates material
which is implied, but not actually present, in the Greek text.
My thanks to Mariusz Wodzicki (Berkeley) for typesetting advice, and to Sam Watson & Jonathan Fenno (U.
Mississippi), and Gregory Wong (UCSD) for pointing out a number of errors in Book 1.

4

ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving
Straight-Lines

5

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

VOroi.

Definitions

αʹ. Σημεῖόν ἐστιν, οὗ μέρος οὐθέν.
βʹ. Γραμμὴ δὲ μῆκος ἀπλατές.
γʹ. Γραμμῆς δὲ πέρατα σημεῖα.
δʹ. Εὐθεῖα γραμμή ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου τοῖς ἐφ᾿ ἑαυτῆς
σημείοις κεῖται.
εʹ. ᾿Επιφάνεια δέ ἐστιν, ὃ μῆκος καὶ πλάτος μόνον ἔχει.
ϛʹ. ᾿Επιφανείας δὲ πέρατα γραμμαί.
ζʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος ἐπιφάνειά ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου ταῖς ἐφ᾿
ἑαυτῆς εὐθείαις κεῖται.
ηʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ἐν ἐπιπέδῳ δύο γραμμῶν
ἁπτομένων ἀλλήλων καὶ μὴ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας κειμένων πρὸς
ἀλλήλας τῶν γραμμῶν κλίσις.
θʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν γραμμαὶ εὐθεῖαι
ὦσιν, εὐθύγραμμος καλεῖται ἡ γωνία.
ιʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς
γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν
ἐστι, καὶ ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται, ἐφ᾿ ἣν
ἐφέστηκεν.
ιαʹ. ᾿Αμβλεῖα γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ μείζων ὀρθῆς.
ιβʹ. ᾿Οξεῖα δὲ ἡ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς.
ιγʹ. ῞Ορος ἐστίν, ὅ τινός ἐστι πέρας.
ιδʹ. Σχῆμά ἐστι τὸ ὑπό τινος ἤ τινων ὅρων περιεχόμενον.
ιεʹ. Κύκλος ἐστὶ σχῆμα ἐπίπεδον ὑπὸ μιᾶς γραμμῆς
περιεχόμενον [ἣ καλεῖται περιφέρεια], πρὸς ἣν ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς
σημείου τῶν ἐντὸς τοῦ σχήματος κειμένων πᾶσαι αἱ
προσπίπτουσαι εὐθεῖαι [πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρειαν]
ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.
ιϛʹ. Κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου τὸ σημεῖον καλεῖται.
ιζʹ. Διάμετρος δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἐστὶν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ
κέντρου ἠγμένη καὶ περατουμένη ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη
ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας, ἥτις καὶ δίχα τέμνει τὸν
κύκλον.
ιηʹ. ῾Ημικύκλιον δέ ἐστι τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε
τῆς διαμέτρου καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῆς περιφερείας. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τὸ αὐτό, ὃ καὶ τοῦ
κύκλου ἐστίν.
ιθʹ. Σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστι τὰ ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα, τρίπλευρα μὲν τὰ ὑπὸ τριῶν, τετράπλευρα δὲ τὰ
ὑπὸ τεσσάρων, πολύπλευρα δὲ τὰ ὑπὸ πλειόνων ἢ τεσσάρων
εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα.
κʹ. Τῶν δὲ τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ἰσόπλευρον μὲν
τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, ἰσοσκελὲς
δὲ τὸ τὰς δύο μόνας ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, σκαληνὸν δὲ τὸ
τὰς τρεῖς ἀνίσους ἔχον πλευράς.
καʹ ῎Ετι δὲ τῶν τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ὀρθογώνιον μὲν
τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ἔχον ὀρθὴν γωνίαν, ἀμβλυγώνιον δὲ τὸ
ἔχον ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν, ὀξυγώνιον δὲ τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ὀξείας
ἔχον γωνίας.

1. A point is that of which there is no part.
2. And a line is a length without breadth.
3. And the extremities of a line are points.
4. A straight-line is (any) one which lies evenly with
points on itself.
5. And a surface is that which has length and breadth
only.
6. And the extremities of a surface are lines.
7. A plane surface is (any) one which lies evenly with
the straight-lines on itself.
8. And a plane angle is the inclination of the lines to
one another, when two lines in a plane meet one another,
and are not lying in a straight-line.
9. And when the lines containing the angle are
straight then the angle is called rectilinear.
10. And when a straight-line stood upon (another)
straight-line makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to
one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle, and
the former straight-line is called a perpendicular to that
upon which it stands.
11. An obtuse angle is one greater than a right-angle.
12. And an acute angle (is) one less than a right-angle.
13. A boundary is that which is the extremity of something.
14. A figure is that which is contained by some boundary or boundaries.
15. A circle is a plane figure contained by a single line
[which is called a circumference], (such that) all of the
straight-lines radiating towards [the circumference] from
one point amongst those lying inside the figure are equal
to one another.
16. And the point is called the center of the circle.
17. And a diameter of the circle is any straight-line,
being drawn through the center, and terminated in each
direction by the circumference of the circle. (And) any
such (straight-line) also cuts the circle in half.†
18. And a semi-circle is the figure contained by the
diameter and the circumference cuts off by it. And the
center of the semi-circle is the same (point) as (the center
of) the circle.
19. Rectilinear figures are those (figures) contained
by straight-lines: trilateral figures being those contained
by three straight-lines, quadrilateral by four, and multilateral by more than four.
20. And of the trilateral figures: an equilateral triangle is that having three equal sides, an isosceles (triangle)
that having only two equal sides, and a scalene (triangle)
that having three unequal sides.

6

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

κβʹ. Τὼν δὲ τετραπλεύρων σχημάτων τετράγωνον μέν
ἐστιν, ὃ ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον, ἑτερόμηκες
δέ, ὃ ὀρθογώνιον μέν, οὐκ ἰσόπλευρον δέ, ῥόμβος δέ, ὃ
ἰσόπλευρον μέν, οὐκ ὀρθογώνιον δέ, ῥομβοειδὲς δὲ τὸ τὰς
ἀπεναντίον πλευράς τε καὶ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ἔχον, ὃ
οὔτε ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν οὔτε ὀρθογώνιον· τὰ δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα
τετράπλευρα τραπέζια καλείσθω.
κγʹ. Παράλληλοί εἰσιν εὐθεῖαι, αἵτινες ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ
ἐπιπέδῳ οὖσαι καὶ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα
τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ μηδέτερα συμπίπτουσιν ἀλλήλαις.

21. And further of the trilateral figures: a right-angled
triangle is that having a right-angle, an obtuse-angled
(triangle) that having an obtuse angle, and an acuteangled (triangle) that having three acute angles.
22. And of the quadrilateral figures: a square is that
which is right-angled and equilateral, a rectangle that
which is right-angled but not equilateral, a rhombus that
which is equilateral but not right-angled, and a rhomboid
that having opposite sides and angles equal to one another which is neither right-angled nor equilateral. And
let quadrilateral figures besides these be called trapezia.
23. Parallel lines are straight-lines which, being in the
same plane, and being produced to infinity in each direction, meet with one another in neither (of these directions).

This should really be counted as a postulate, rather than as part of a definition.

AÊt mata.

Postulates

αʹ. ᾿Ηιτήσθω ἀπὸ παντὸς σημείου ἐπὶ πᾶν σημεῖον
εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
βʹ. Καὶ πεπερασμένην εὐθεῖαν κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἐπ᾿
εὐθείας ἐκβαλεῖν.
γʹ. Καὶ παντὶ κέντρῳ καὶ διαστήματι κύκλον γράφεσθαι.
δʹ. Καὶ πάσας τὰς ὀρθὰς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις εἶναι.
εʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐντὸς
καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη γωνίας δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονας ποιῇ,
ἐκβαλλομένας τὰς δύο εὐθείας ἐπ᾿ ἄπειρον συμπίπτειν, ἐφ᾿
ἃ μέρη εἰσὶν αἱ τῶν δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονες.

1. Let it have been postulated† to draw a straight-line
from any point to any point.
2. And to produce a finite straight-line continuously
in a straight-line.
3. And to draw a circle with any center and radius.
4. And that all right-angles are equal to one another.
5. And that if a straight-line falling across two (other)
straight-lines makes internal angles on the same side
(of itself whose sum is) less than two right-angles, then
the two (other) straight-lines, being produced to infinity,
meet on that side (of the original straight-line) that the
(sum of the internal angles) is less than two right-angles
(and do not meet on the other side).‡

The Greek present perfect tense indicates a past action with present significance. Hence, the 3rd-person present perfect imperative >Hit sjw
could be translated as “let it be postulated”, in the sense “let it stand as postulated”, but not “let the postulate be now brought forward”. The
literal translation “let it have been postulated” sounds awkward in English, but more accurately captures the meaning of the Greek.
‡ This postulate effectively specifies that we are dealing with the geometry of flat, rather than curved, space.

KoinaÈ ênnoiai.

Common Notions

αʹ. Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα.
1. Things equal to the same thing are also equal to
βʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἴσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ, τὰ ὅλα ἐστὶν ἴσα.
one another.
γʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἀπὸ ἴσων ἴσα ἀφαιρεθῇ, τὰ καταλειπόμενά
2. And if equal things are added to equal things then
ἐστιν ἴσα.
the wholes are equal.
δʹ. Καὶ τὰ ἐφαρμόζοντα ἐπ᾿ ἀλλήλα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.
3. And if equal things are subtracted from equal things
εʹ. Καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ μέρους μεῖζόν [ἐστιν].
then the remainders are equal.†
4. And things coinciding with one another are equal
to one another.
5. And the whole [is] greater than the part.

As an obvious extension of C.N.s 2 & 3—if equal things are added or subtracted from the two sides of an inequality then the inequality remains

7

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

an inequality of the same type.

aþ.

Proposition 1

᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τρίγωνον
ἰσόπλευρον συστήσασθαι.

To construct an equilateral triangle on a given finite
straight-line.

Γ

Α

C

Β

Ε

D

῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ.
Δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον
συστήσασθαι.
Κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος
γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΓΔ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ
τῷ ΒΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΓΕ, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου,
καθ᾿ ὃ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους οἱ κύκλοι, ἐπί τὰ Α, Β σημεῖα
ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΓΑ, ΓΒ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΒ κύκλου,
ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον
ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΑΕ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΑ. ἐδείχθη δὲ
καὶ ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΒ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΓΑ, ΓΒ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν
ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα
τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΓΑ, ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις
εἰσίν.
᾿Ισόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. καὶ συνέσταται
ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τῆς ΑΒ. ὅπερ ἔδει
ποιῆσαι.

A

B

E

Let AB be the given finite straight-line.
So it is required to construct an equilateral triangle on
the straight-line AB.
Let the circle BCD with center A and radius AB have
been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle ACE with
center B and radius BA have been drawn [Post. 3]. And
let the straight-lines CA and CB have been joined from
the point C, where the circles cut one another,† to the
points A and B (respectively) [Post. 1].
And since the point A is the center of the circle CDB,
AC is equal to AB [Def. 1.15]. Again, since the point
B is the center of the circle CAE, BC is equal to BA
[Def. 1.15]. But CA was also shown (to be) equal to AB.
Thus, CA and CB are each equal to AB. But things equal
to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].
Thus, CA is also equal to CB. Thus, the three (straightlines) CA, AB, and BC are equal to one another.
Thus, the triangle ABC is equilateral, and has been
constructed on the given finite straight-line AB. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.

The assumption that the circles do indeed cut one another should be counted as an additional postulate. There is also an implicit assumption
that two straight-lines cannot share a common segment.

bþ.

Proposition 2†

Πρὸς τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν
θέσθαι.
῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α, ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα
ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ
ἴσην εὐθεῖαν θέσθαι.
᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπί τὸ Β σημεῖον
εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον
τὸ ΔΑΒ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΔΑ, ΔΒ

To place a straight-line equal to a given straight-line
at a given point (as an extremity).
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straightline. So it is required to place a straight-line at point A
equal to the given straight-line BC.
For let the straight-line AB have been joined from
point A to point B [Post. 1], and let the equilateral triangle DAB have been been constructed upon it [Prop. 1.1].
8

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΕ, ΒΖ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ τῷ And let the straight-lines AE and BF have been proΒΓ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΓΗΘ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ τῷ Δ καὶ duced in a straight-line with DA and DB (respectively)
διαστήματι τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΗΚΛ.
[Post. 2]. And let the circle CGH with center B and radius BC have been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle GKL with center D and radius DG have been drawn
[Post. 3].

Γ

C

Θ

H

Κ

K

D

Β

B

Α

A

Η

G

Ζ

F

Λ

L

Ε

E

᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΗΘ, ἴση ἐστὶν
ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ
ΗΚΛ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΛ τῇ ΔΗ, ὧν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση
ἐστίν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΛ λοιπῇ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση. ἐδείχθη δὲ
καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΛ, ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν
ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΑΛ
ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση.
Πρὸς ἄρα τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ
τῇ ΒΓ ἴση εὐθεῖα κεῖται ἡ ΑΛ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Therefore, since the point B is the center of (the circle) CGH, BC is equal to BG [Def. 1.15]. Again, since
the point D is the center of the circle GKL, DL is equal
to DG [Def. 1.15]. And within these, DA is equal to DB.
Thus, the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG
[C.N. 3]. But BC was also shown (to be) equal to BG.
Thus, AL and BC are each equal to BG. But things equal
to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].
Thus, AL is also equal to BC.
Thus, the straight-line AL, equal to the given straightline BC, has been placed at the given point A. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.

This proposition admits of a number of different cases, depending on the relative positions of the point A and the line BC. In such situations,
Euclid invariably only considers one particular case—usually, the most difficult—and leaves the remaining cases as exercises for the reader.

gþ.

Proposition 3

Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῇ
ἐλάσσονι ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.
῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοι αἱ ΑΒ, Γ, ὧν
μείζων ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ
ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.
Κείσθω πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ Γ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ
κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω
ὁ ΔΕΖ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου,

For two given unequal straight-lines, to cut off from
the greater a straight-line equal to the lesser.
Let AB and C be the two given unequal straight-lines,
of which let the greater be AB. So it is required to cut off
a straight-line equal to the lesser C from the greater AB.
Let the line AD, equal to the straight-line C, have
been placed at point A [Prop. 1.2]. And let the circle
DEF have been drawn with center A and radius AD
[Post. 3].

9

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΔ· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση.
And since point A is the center of circle DEF , AE
ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΕ, Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΕ is equal to AD [Def. 1.15]. But, C is also equal to AD.
τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση.
Thus, AE and C are each equal to AD. So AE is also
equal to C [C.N. 1].

Γ

C

D

Ε

E

Β

Α

B

A

F

Ζ

Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων τῶν ΑΒ, Γ ἀπὸ τῆς
Thus, for two given unequal straight-lines, AB and C,
μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴση ἀφῄρηται ἡ ΑΕ· ὅπερ the (straight-line) AE, equal to the lesser C, has been cut
ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
off from the greater AB. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.

dþ.

Proposition 4

᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δυσὶ πλευραῖς
ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην
ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην, καὶ τὴν
βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει, καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον
ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται
ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν.

If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal
straight-lines equal, then they will also have the base
equal to the base, and the triangle will be equal to the triangle, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal
sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles.

Α

Β

Γ

Ε

D

A

Ζ

B

῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς
τὰς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ, ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα
ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ
καὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην. λέγω,
ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ
τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι
ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς
αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν, ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ,
ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ.
᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ
τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον

C

E

F

Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two
sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF , respectively. (That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF . And (let)
the angle BAC (be) equal to the angle EDF . I say that
the base BC is also equal to the base EF , and triangle
ABC will be equal to triangle DEF , and the remaining
angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the
corresponding remaining angles. (That is) ABC to DEF ,
and ACB to DF E.
For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF ,† the
point A being placed on the point D, and the straight-line

10

N. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ to one another. point B certainly also coincided with point E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the angles at the base are equal ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. eþ. again on account of AC being equal to DF . ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.N. So the whole triangle ABC will coincide with the whole triangle DEF . ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ε διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΖ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὥστε καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον ἐφαρμόσει διὰ τὸ ἴσην πάλιν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. equal 11 . And the remaining angles will coincide with the remaining angles. and let AG have been cut off from the greater AE. ΓΕ· λέγω. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. The very thing is impossible [Post. 4]. δύο εὐθεῖαι χωρίον περιέξουσιν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and C with F . respectively. the angles under the base will be equal to one another.‡ Thus. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ἐπὶ τὰς λοιπὰς γωνίας ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ ἴσαι αὐταῖς ἔσονται. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΔ.N. AB on DE. Α A Β Ζ ∆ Γ B Η F Ε ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ΑΒ πλευρὰν τῇ ΑΓ πλευρᾷ. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΑΒ. So the point C will also coincide with the point F . and will be equal to them [C. But. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. 4]. and let the straight-lines BD and CE have been produced in a straight-line with AB and AC (respectively) [Post. 2].N. the base BC will coincide with EF . and (angle) CBD to BCE. (That is) ABC to DEF . then two straight-lines will encompass an area. εἰ γὰρ τοῦ μὲν Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφαρμόσαντος τοῦ δὲ Γ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει. I say that the angle ABC is equal to ACB. the straight-line AC will also coincide with DF . then they will also have the base equal to the base. and ACB to DF E [C. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles. Proposition 5 Τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι For isosceles triangles. 1 implicitly assumes that the straight-line joining two given points is unique. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸ Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφηρμόκει· ὥστε βάσις ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. Thus. on account of the angle BAC being equal to EDF . then the point B will also coincide with E. on account of AB being equal to DE. καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει. ‡ Since Post. 4]. and the triangle will be equal to the triangle. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΕ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. † The application of one figure to another should be counted as an additional postulate. and will be equal to it [C. and the base BC does not coincide with EF . For let the point F have been taken at random on BD. For if B coincides with E. and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal straight-line equal. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται· ὥστε καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἐπὶ ὅλον τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. 4].STOIQEIWN aþ. So (because of) AB coinciding with DE. and will be equal to it [C. so that the base BC will coincide with the base EF . 1]. and if the equal sides are produced then ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΕ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ ΑΖ C G E D Let ABC be an isosceles triangle having the side AB equal to the side AC.

ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΖΑ. within which AB is equal to AC. AC. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ λοιπῇ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση. respectively. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ ἴση. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. But F C was also shown (to be) equal to GB. 12 .N. to one another.STOIQEIWN aþ. and AF C to AGB. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΑΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται.4]. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and if the equal sides are produced then the angles under the base will be equal to one another. the remainder ABC is thus equal to the remainder ACB [C. and the base BC is common to them. ὧν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅλη ἡ ΑΖ ὅλῃ τῇ ΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. ΗΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ γωνίᾳ τῃ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση. let the straight-lines F C and GB have been joined [Post. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. the base F C is equal to the base GB. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. the two (straight-lines) F A. They also encompass a common angle. F C are equal to the two (straight-lines) CG. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΑ. and BCF to CBG. 1.4]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἴση ἡ ΑΗ.N. And they are at the base of triangle ABC. and the angle BF C (is) equal to the angle CGB. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσι πρὸς τῇ βάσει τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. (That is) ACF to ABG. to the lesser AF [Prop. Therefore. καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΒΓ· καὶ τὸ ΒΖΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται.3]. ΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἴση ἐστίν. GB. since AF is equal to AG. 1. the triangle BF C will be equal to the triangle CGB. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΗΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. 1. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ πλευρᾷ τῇ to the angle ACB. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. the angles at the base are equal to one another. Α A ∆ Β D Γ B C ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC equal τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνίᾳ· λέγω. and the triangle AF C will be equal to the triangle AGB. 3]. ΖΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΗ. þ. and AB to AC. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἴση· καί εἰσιν ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν. AB. within which CBG is equal to BCF . Thus. And since the whole of AF is equal to the whole of AG. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) GA. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΓ. Thus. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. 1]. 3]. F AG. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ γωνία ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ γωνίᾳ ἐδείχθη ἴση. So the two (straightlines) BF . and the remaining angles subtendend by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΖ τῇ ΑΗ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. In fact. And they are under the base. the remainder BF is thus equal to the remainder CG [C. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. F BC is equal to GCB. I say that side AB is also equal to side ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. And F BC was also shown (to be) equal to GCB. καὶ If a triangle has two angles equal to one another then αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal ἔσονται. respectively. for isosceles triangles. Also. ΗΒ εὐθεῖαι. since the whole angle ABG was shown (to be) equal to the whole angle ACF .

Thus. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ.N. CB. The very notion (is) absurd [C. respectively. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ. BC are equal to the two sides AC. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. And let DC have been joined [Post. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὴν δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Β. Thus. respectively. And let DB.5]. 5].3]. let the two straight-lines AC.5]. ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ταῖς ΑΓ. † For if AB is unequal to AC then one of them is greater. use is made of the previously unmentioned common notion that if two quantities are not unequal then they must be equal. use is made of the closely related common notion that if two quantities are not greater than or less than one another. and the angle DBC is equal to the angle ACB. καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the angle CDB is also equal to angle DCB [Prop. respectively. 1]. 1. ΓΒ ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΔ. on the same side (of AB). καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. Γ C ∆ Α D Β A Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. then they must be equal to one another. have been cut off from the greater AB [Prop. ΔΒ ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συνεστάτωσαν πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ τῷ τε Γ καὶ Δ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. two other straight-lines δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ οὐ συσταθήσονται πρὸς equal. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. Thus. 5]. Thus. Later on. having the same end B as it. AB is not unequal to AC.STOIQEIWN aþ. Here.N.† Thus. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. the angle ACD is also equal to angle ADC [Prop. the base DC is equal to the base AB. the lesser to the greater. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΑΓ. since CB is equal to DB. So CA is equal to DA. 1. point on the same side (of the straight-line). zþ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. since DB is equal to AC. Therefore. But it was shown that the former (angle) is also much greater 13 . ΓΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. if a triangle has two angles equal to one another then the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal to one another. meeting at different points. and CB is equal to DB. 5]. having the same end A as it. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ μείζων ἐστί τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. ADC (is) greater than DCB [C. Thus. DB. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάττονι τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΔΒ. 1]. and having the same ends (on AB). and BC (is) common. and the triangle DBC will be equal to the triangle ACB [Prop. ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. equal to two other straight-lines AD. CDB is much greater than DCB [C. CB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. 1. τὸ ἔλασσον τῷ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ· ἴση ἄρα. Therefore. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΑ τῇ ΔΑ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Α. Let AB be greater. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ. Again. equal to the lesser AC. respectively. since AC is equal to AD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δὑο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΑΓ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ.N. if possible. (it is) equal. Proposition 7 ᾿Επὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι On the same straight-line. And let CD have been joined [Post.4]. C and D. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΔ. the two sides DB. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις B For. καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. to two (given) straight-lines (which ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different ἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις. have been constructed on the same straight-line AB.

εἰ γὰρ βάσις μὲν ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. they will coincide. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. 14 . but miss like EG and GF (in the above figure). respectively.7]. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. and the straight-line BC on EF . αἱ δὲ ΒΑ. and have the base equal to the base. two other straightἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. respectively.N. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and AC to DF . So the angle BAC will also coincide with angle EDF . So (because of) BC coinciding with EF . Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συσταθήσονται πρὸς (than the latter). on account of BC being equal to EF . on the same straight-line. the point B being placed on point E. and also have the base equal to the base. G E Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . if two triangles have two sides equal to two side. the base BC being applied to the base EF . Thus. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. hþ. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. and (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴσην· λέγω. and will be equal to it [C. Thus. But (such straight-lines) cannot be constructed [Prop. to two (given) straight-lines. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει ἴσην ἔχῃ. to two (given) straight-lines (which meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). but the sides AB and AC do not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF . ΔΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἀλλὰ παραλλάξουσιν ὡς αἱ ΕΗ. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἄρα· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐπὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται. οὐ συνίστανται δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ βάσιν οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. Thus. respectively. ΗΖ. lines equal. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει spectively. Let them also have the base BC equal to the base EF . ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. (the sides) BA and CA will also coincide with ED and DF (respectively). then we will have constructed upon the same straight-line. ∆ Α Ζ Γ Β D A Η F C Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ΔΖ. respectively. then ἴσην. then point C will also coincide with F . For if base BC coincides with base EF . The very thing is impossible. reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. 1. two other straightlines equal. but having the same ends.STOIQEIWN aþ. ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα Thus. συσταθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. (That is) AB to DE. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ΔΖ. the sides BA and AC cannot not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). I say that the angle BAC is also equal to the angle EDF . ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον τῆς δὲ ΒΓ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. equal straight-lines. 4].

15 . the two (straight-lines) DA. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. have been cut off from AC [Prop. I say that the straight-line AB has been cut in half at point D.1]. ὅτι ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας. and CD (is) common. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἡ ΑΕ. Α ∆ Β A Ε Ζ D Γ B E F C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. respectively. and let DE have been joined. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 then they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the equal straight-lines. and let AE. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ· λέγω. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. 1. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία δίχα τῇ ΓΔ εὐθείᾳ· λέγω. Let the equilateral triangle ABC have been constructed upon (AB) [Prop. And the base DF is equal to the base EF . For since AD is equal to AE. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ. So it is required to cut it in half. iþ. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ ἴση ἐστίν. And let the equilateral triangle DEF have been constructed upon DE [Prop. Thus. equal to AD. 1. and AF is common.8]. and let AF have been joined. δεῖ δὴ αὐτὴν δίχα τεμεῖν. jþ. ΑΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ.3]. Συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΑΒΓ. Proposition 9 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον δίχα τεμεῖν. 1. Let BAC be the given rectilinear angle. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. Let the point D have been taken at random on AB. ΓΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. angle DAF is equal to angle EAF [Prop.STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus. ΑΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΑ. Let AB be the given finite straight-line. So it is required to cut the finite straight-line AB in half. AF . and let the angle ACB have been cut in half by the straight-line CD [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΕ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. AF are equal to the two (straight-lines) EA. To cut a given rectilinear angle in half.1]. the given rectilinear angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . For since AC is equal to CB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΔΕΖ. I say that the angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΖ. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 1. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. 1. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα To cut a given finite straight-line in half.9].

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἴση ἐστίν.

the two (straight-lines) AC, CD are equal to the two
(straight-lines) BC, CD, respectively. And the angle
ACD is equal to the angle BCD. Thus, the base AD
is equal to the base BD [Prop. 1.4].

Γ

Α

C

Β

A

B

D

῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ δίχα τέτμηται
Thus, the given finite straight-line AB has been cut
κατὰ τὸ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
in half at (point) D. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.

iaþ.

Proposition 11

Τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
To draw a straight-line at right-angles to a given
πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
straight-line from a given point on it.

Ζ

F

Α

Β

Γ

B

A

Ε

D

῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν σημεῖον
ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ
πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κείσθω
τῇ ΓΔ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον
ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΖΔΕ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τῇ
δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΖΓ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΔΓ, ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΓ, ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ
ΔΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ ἴση ἐστίν· καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν
δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας
ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ
ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ, ΖΓΕ.

C

E

Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given
point on it. So it is required to draw a straight-line from
the point C at right-angles to the straight-line AB.
Let the point D be have been taken at random on AC,
and let CE be made equal to CD [Prop. 1.3], and let the
equilateral triangle F DE have been constructed on DE
[Prop. 1.1], and let F C have been joined. I say that the
straight-line F C has been drawn at right-angles to the
given straight-line AB from the given point C on it.
For since DC is equal to CE, and CF is common,
the two (straight-lines) DC, CF are equal to the two
(straight-lines), EC, CF , respectively. And the base DF
is equal to the base F E. Thus, the angle DCF is equal
to the angle ECF [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.
But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line

16

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Τῇ ἄρα δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1.10]. Thus, each
ἦκται ἡ ΓΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
of the (angles) DCF and F CE is a right-angle.
Thus, the straight-line CF has been drawn at rightangles to the given straight-line AB from the given point
C on it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

ibþ.

Proposition 12

᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος
To draw a straight-line perpendicular to a given infiσημείου, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν nite straight-line from a given point which is not on it.
ἀγαγεῖν.

Ζ

F

Γ

C

Α

Β
Η

Θ

A

Ε

B
G

H

E
D

῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄπειρος ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν
σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν
εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ,
ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα μέρη τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τυχὸν
σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΔ
κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΖΗ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΕΗ εὐθεῖα δίχα
κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΓΗ, ΓΘ, ΓΕ εὐθεῖαι·
λέγω, ὅτι ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ
τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος
ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΘΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΘΓ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΗΘ, ΘΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ, ΘΓ ἴσαι εἱσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ βάσις ἡ ΓΗ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ
ΓΘΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν
δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας
ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν, καὶ
ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἐφέστηκεν.
᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ
δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος
ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Let AB be the given infinite straight-line and C the
given point, which is not on (AB). So it is required to
draw a straight-line perpendicular to the given infinite
straight-line AB from the given point C, which is not on
(AB).
For let point D have been taken at random on the
other side (to C) of the straight-line AB, and let the
circle EF G have been drawn with center C and radius
CD [Post. 3], and let the straight-line EG have been cut
in half at (point) H [Prop. 1.10], and let the straightlines CG, CH, and CE have been joined. I say that the
(straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the
given infinite straight-line AB from the given point C,
which is not on (AB).
For since GH is equal to HE, and HC (is) common,
the two (straight-lines) GH, HC are equal to the two
(straight-lines) EH, HC, respectively, and the base CG
is equal to the base CE. Thus, the angle CHG is equal
to the angle EHC [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.
But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
the equal angles is a right-angle, and the former straightline is called a perpendicular to that upon which it stands
[Def. 1.10].
Thus, the (straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight-line AB from the

17

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1
given point C, which is not on (AB). (Which is) the very
thing it was required to do.

igþ.

Proposition 13

᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι δύο
ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει.

If a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles.

Ε

Β

E

Α

Γ

D

Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ σταθεῖσα
γωνίας ποιείτω τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ· λὲγω, ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,
ΑΒΔ γωνίαι ἤτοι δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι.
Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, δύο ὀρθαί
εἰσιν. εἰ δὲ οὔ, ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΓΔ [εὐθείᾳ] πρὸς
ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΕ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ
ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ
προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ ταῖς
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ
δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ,
ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ
ταῖς αὐταῖς ἴσαι· τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα·
καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἄρα ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν·
ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ,
ΑΒΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι
δύο ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

B

A

C

For let some straight-line AB stood on the straightline CD make the angles CBA and ABD. I say that
the angles CBA and ABD are certainly either two rightangles, or (have a sum) equal to two right-angles.
In fact, if CBA is equal to ABD then they are two
right-angles [Def. 1.10]. But, if not, let BE have been
drawn from the point B at right-angles to [the straightline] CD [Prop. 1.11]. Thus, CBE and EBD are two
right-angles. And since CBE is equal to the two (angles) CBA and ABE, let EBD have been added to both.
Thus, the (sum of the angles) CBE and EBD is equal to
the (sum of the) three (angles) CBA, ABE, and EBD
[C.N. 2]. Again, since DBA is equal to the two (angles) DBE and EBA, let ABC have been added to both.
Thus, the (sum of the angles) DBA and ABC is equal to
the (sum of the) three (angles) DBE, EBA, and ABC
[C.N. 2]. But (the sum of) CBE and EBD was also
shown (to be) equal to the (sum of the) same three (angles). And things equal to the same thing are also equal
to one another [C.N. 1]. Therefore, (the sum of) CBE
and EBD is also equal to (the sum of) DBA and ABC.
But, (the sum of) CBE and EBD is two right-angles.
Thus, (the sum of) ABD and ABC is also equal to two
right-angles.
Thus, if a straight-line stood on a(nother) straightline makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

18

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

idþ.

Proposition 14

᾿Εὰν πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ δύο
If two straight-lines, not lying on the same side, make
εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles
δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the two
εὐθεῖαι.
straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to one another.

Α

Γ

Ε

Β

A

C

E

B

D

Πρὸς γάρ τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
τῷ Β δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ, ΒΔ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι
τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας
ποιείτωσαν· λέγω, ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶ τῇ ΓΒ ἡ ΒΔ.
Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστι τῇ ΒΓ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ, ἔστω τῇ ΓΒ
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΕ.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΒΕ ἐφέστηκεν,
αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· εἰσὶ δὲ
καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,
ΑΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν
ἴση, ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ
ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΒΔ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
δύο εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας
δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ
εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let two straight-lines BC and BD, not lying on the
same side, make adjacent angles ABC and ABD (whose
sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line
AB, at the point B on it. I say that BD is straight-on with
respect to CB.
For if BD is not straight-on to BC then let BE be
straight-on to CB.
Therefore, since the straight-line AB stands on the
straight-line CBE, the (sum of the) angles ABC and
ABE is thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But
(the sum of) ABC and ABD is also equal to two rightangles. Thus, (the sum of angles) CBA and ABE is equal
to (the sum of angles) CBA and ABD [C.N. 1]. Let (angle) CBA have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder ABE is equal to the remainder ABD [C.N. 3],
the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible.
Thus, BE is not straight-on with respect to CB. Similarly, we can show that neither (is) any other (straightline) than BD. Thus, CB is straight-on with respect to
BD.
Thus, if two straight-lines, not lying on the same side,
make adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two rightangles with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the
two straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to
one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.

ieþ.

Proposition 15

᾿Εὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν
If two straight-lines cut one another then they make
γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν.
the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.

19

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Δύο γὰρ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ
For let the two straight-lines AB and CD cut one anτὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω, ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ γωνία τῇ other at the point E. I say that angle AEC is equal to
ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.
(angle) DEB, and (angle) CEB to (angle) AED.

Α

A

Ε

E
Γ

D

C

Β

B

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΕ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ ἐφέστηκε
γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ
γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ ἐπ᾿
εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ ἐφέστηκε γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ,
ΔΕΒ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.
ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ
ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ
ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ
ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ,
ΔΕΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For since the straight-line AE stands on the straightline CD, making the angles CEA and AED, the (sum
of the) angles CEA and AED is thus equal to two rightangles [Prop. 1.13]. Again, since the straight-line DE
stands on the straight-line AB, making the angles AED
and DEB, the (sum of the) angles AED and DEB is
thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But (the sum
of) CEA and AED was also shown (to be) equal to two
right-angles. Thus, (the sum of) CEA and AED is equal
to (the sum of) AED and DEB [C.N. 1]. Let AED have
been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder CEA is
equal to the remainder BED [C.N. 3]. Similarly, it can
be shown that CEB and DEA are also equal.
Thus, if two straight-lines cut one another then they
make the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

iþ.

Proposition 16

Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης
ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνιῶν
μείζων ἐστίν.
῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ
μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λὲγω, ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΓΔ μείζων ἐστὶν ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῶν
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΓ γωνιῶν.
Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΕ
ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ
ΕΖ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Η.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΖ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ ἴση ἐστίν· κατὰ
κορυφὴν γάρ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ
ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΕΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ

For any triangle, when one of the sides is produced,
the external angle is greater than each of the internal and
opposite angles.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BC
have been produced to D. I say that the external angle
ACD is greater than each of the internal and opposite
angles, CBA and BAC.
Let the (straight-line) AC have been cut in half at
(point) E [Prop. 1.10]. And BE being joined, let it have
been produced in a straight-line to (point) F .† And let
EF be made equal to BE [Prop. 1.3], and let F C have
been joined, and let AC have been drawn through to
(point) G.
Therefore, since AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF ,
the two (straight-lines) AE, EB are equal to the two

20

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿
ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ
τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ. μείζων δέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ·
μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ῾Ομοίως δὴ τῆς ΒΓ
τετμημένης δίχα δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ, τουτέστιν ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, μείζων καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.

Α

(straight-lines) CE, EF , respectively. Also, angle AEB
is equal to angle F EC, for (they are) vertically opposite
[Prop. 1.15]. Thus, the base AB is equal to the base F C,
and the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle F EC, and
the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides are
equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, BAE is equal to ECF . But ECD is greater than
ECF . Thus, ACD is greater than BAE. Similarly, by
having cut BC in half, it can be shown (that) BCG—that
is to say, ACD—(is) also greater than ABC.

Ζ

A

Ε

Β

F

E

Γ

B

D
C

Η

G

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκThus, for any triangle, when one of the sides is proβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπε- duced, the external angle is greater than each of the inναντίον γωνιῶν μείζων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
ternal and opposite angles. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.

The implicit assumption that the point F lies in the interior of the angle ABC should be counted as an additional postulate.

izþ.

Proposition 17

Παντὸvς τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές
For any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken toεἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.
gether in any (possible way) is less than two right-angles.

Α

A

Β

Γ

B

C

D

῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου
Let ABC be a triangle. I say that (the sum of) two
αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμ- angles of triangle ABC taken together in any (possible
βανόμεναι.
way) is less than two right-angles.
21

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΓΔ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.
κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ τῶν
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ
δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δύο ὀρθῶν
ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ,
ΑΓΒ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσι καὶ ἔτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ.
Παντὸvς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσςονές εἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let BC have been produced to D.
And since the angle ACD is external to triangle ABC,
it is greater than the internal and opposite angle ABC
[Prop. 1.16]. Let ACB have been added to both. Thus,
the (sum of the angles) ACD and ACB is greater than
the (sum of the angles) ABC and BCA. But, (the sum of)
ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13].
Thus, (the sum of) ABC and BCA is less than two rightangles. Similarly, we can show that (the sum of) BAC
and ACB is also less than two right-angles, and further
(that the sum of) CAB and ABC (is less than two rightangles).
Thus, for any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken
together in any (possible way) is less than two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ihþ.

Proposition 18

Παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν
In any triangle, the greater side subtends the greater
ὑποτείνει.
angle.

Α

A

D

Γ

Β

B

C

῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ΑΓ
πλευρὰν τῆς ΑΒ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων
ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ·
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ, κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση
ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΔΒ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ·
ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ
ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ·
πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ.
Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα
γωνίαν ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let ABC be a triangle having side AC greater than
AB. I say that angle ABC is also greater than BCA.
For since AC is greater than AB, let AD be made
equal to AB [Prop. 1.3], and let BD have been joined.
And since angle ADB is external to triangle BCD, it
is greater than the internal and opposite (angle) DCB
[Prop. 1.16]. But ADB (is) equal to ABD, since side
AB is also equal to side AD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, ABD is
also greater than ACB. Thus, ABC is much greater than
ACB.
Thus, in any triangle, the greater side subtends the
greater angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.

ijþ.

Proposition 19

Παντὸς τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
In any triangle, the greater angle is subtended by the
πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει.
greater side.
῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ
Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC greater
γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ πλευρᾶς than BCA. I say that side AC is also greater than side
τῆς ΑΒ μείζων ἐστίν.
AB.

22

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση
μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ
τῇ ΑΒ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ· ἐλάσσων
γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι
δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ. ἐδείχθη δέ, ὅτι
οὐδὲ ἴση ἐστίν. μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ.

For if not, AC is certainly either equal to, or less than,
AB. In fact, AC is not equal to AB. For then angle ABC
would also have been equal to ACB [Prop. 1.5]. But it
is not. Thus, AC is not equal to AB. Neither, indeed, is
AC less than AB. For then angle ABC would also have
been less than ACB [Prop. 1.18]. But it is not. Thus, AC
is not less than AB. But it was shown that (AC) is not
equal (to AB) either. Thus, AC is greater than AB.

Α

A

Β

B

Γ

C

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
Thus, in any triangle, the greater angle is subtended
πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
by the greater side. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kþ.

Proposition 20

Παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές
εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.

In any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining
(side).

D

Α

Β

A

Γ

B

C

῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ
For let ABC be a triangle. I say that in triangle ABC
τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible
μεταλαμβανόμεναι, αἱ μὲν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ, αἱ δὲ ΑΒ, ΒΓ way) is greater than the remaining (side). (So), (the sum
τῆς ΑΓ, αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.
of) BA and AC (is greater) than BC, (the sum of) AB
23

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΑ
ἴση ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία
ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ
ΑΔΓ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΓΒ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ
ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ, ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ
μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει, ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ ἐστι μείζων. ἴση
δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ· μείζονες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ· ὁμοίως
δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ μὲν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῆς ΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν,
αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.
Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς
μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

and BC than AC, and (the sum of) BC and CA than
AB.
For let BA have been drawn through to point D, and
let AD be made equal to CA [Prop. 1.3], and let DC
have been joined.
Therefore, since DA is equal to AC, the angle ADC
is also equal to ACD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, BCD is greater
than ADC. And since DCB is a triangle having the angle
BCD greater than BDC, and the greater angle subtends
the greater side [Prop. 1.19], DB is thus greater than
BC. But DA is equal to AC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and
AC is greater than BC. Similarly, we can show that (the
sum of) AB and BC is also greater than CA, and (the
sum of) BC and CA than AB.
Thus, in any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining
(side). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kaþ.

Proposition 21

᾿Εὰν τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων
If two internal straight-lines are constructed on one
δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν λοιπῶν of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed
τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μὲν ἔσονται, μείζονα (straight-lines) will be less than the two remaining sides
δὲ γωνίαν περιέξουσιν.
of the triangle, but will encompass a greater angle.

Α

A
Ε

E

Β

D

Γ

B

Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΒΓ
ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῶν Β, Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάτωσαν
αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ· λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου
δύο πλευρῶν τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἐλάσσονες μέν εἰσιν, μείζονα δὲ
γωνίαν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.
Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου
αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν, τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἄρα
τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΕ τῆς ΒΕ μείζονές
εἰσιν· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΕΓ· αἱ ἄρα ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΕ,
ΕΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΓΕΔ τριγώνου αἱ δύο
πλευραὶ αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζονές εἰσιν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω
ἡ ΔΒ· αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ
τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΓ μείζονες ἐδείχθησαν αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα αἱ
ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΓ μείζονές εἰσιν.
Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία τῆς ἐντὸς
καὶ ἀπεναντίον μείζων ἐστίν, τοῦ ΓΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ
ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ. διὰ
ταὐτὰ τοίνυν καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΕ τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

C

For let the two internal straight-lines BD and DC
have been constructed on one of the sides BC of the triangle ABC, from its ends B and C (respectively). I say
that BD and DC are less than the (sum of the) two remaining sides of the triangle BA and AC, but encompass
an angle BDC greater than BAC.
For let BD have been drawn through to E. And since
in any triangle (the sum of any) two sides is greater than
the remaining (side) [Prop. 1.20], in triangle ABE the
(sum of the) two sides AB and AE is thus greater than
BE. Let EC have been added to both. Thus, (the sum
of) BA and AC is greater than (the sum of) BE and EC.
Again, since in triangle CED the (sum of the) two sides
CE and ED is greater than CD, let DB have been added
to both. Thus, (the sum of) CE and EB is greater than
(the sum of) CD and DB. But, (the sum of) BA and
AC was shown (to be) greater than (the sum of) BE and
EC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and AC is much greater than

24

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ΓΕΒ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἀλλὰ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ μείζων
ἐδείχθη ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ
τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν
περάτων δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν
λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μέν εἰσιν,
μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέχουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

(the sum of) BD and DC.
Again, since in any triangle the external angle is
greater than the internal and opposite (angles) [Prop.
1.16], in triangle CDE the external angle BDC is thus
greater than CED. Accordingly, for the same (reason),
the external angle CEB of the triangle ABE is also
greater than BAC. But, BDC was shown (to be) greater
than CEB. Thus, BDC is much greater than BAC.
Thus, if two internal straight-lines are constructed on
one of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed (straight-lines) are less than the two remaining sides of the triangle, but encompass a greater angle.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kbþ.

Proposition 22

᾿Εκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν, αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις
[εὐθείαις], τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι· δεῖ δὲ τὰς δύο τῆς λοιπῆς
μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανομένας [διὰ τὸ καὶ παντὸς
τριγώνου τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ
μεταλαμβανομένας].

To construct a triangle from three straight-lines which
are equal to three given [straight-lines]. It is necessary
for (the sum of) two (of the straight-lines) taken together
in any (possible way) to be greater than the remaining
(one), [on account of the (fact that) in any triangle (the
sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is
greater than the remaining (one) [Prop. 1.20] ].

Α
Β
Γ

A
B
C

Κ

Ζ

Η

K

Θ

Ε

D

Λ

F

G

H

E

L

῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α, Β, Γ, ὧν αἱ
δύο τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονες ἔστωσαν πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι,
αἱ μὲν Α, Β τῆς Γ, αἱ δὲ Α, Γ τῆς Β, καὶ ἔτι αἱ Β, Γ τῆς Α·
δεῖ δὴ ἐκ τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι.
᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ πεπερασμένη μὲν κατὰ τὸ
Δ ἄπειρος δὲ κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΖ,
τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΖΗ, τῇ δὲ Γ ἴση ἡ ΗΘ· καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ
Ζ, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΖΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΔΚΛ· πάλιν
κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΘ κύκλος γεγράφθω
ὁ ΚΛΘ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΚΖ, ΚΗ· λέγω, ὅτι ἐκ τριῶν
εὐθειῶν τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ
ΚΖΗ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΚΛ κύκλου,
ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΖΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἡ

Let A, B, and C be the three given straight-lines, of
which let (the sum of) two taken together in any (possible
way) be greater than the remaining (one). (Thus), (the
sum of) A and B (is greater) than C, (the sum of) A and
C than B, and also (the sum of) B and C than A. So
it is required to construct a triangle from (straight-lines)
equal to A, B, and C.
Let some straight-line DE be set out, terminated at D,
and infinite in the direction of E. And let DF made equal
to A, and F G equal to B, and GH equal to C [Prop. 1.3].
And let the circle DKL have been drawn with center F
and radius F D. Again, let the circle KLH have been
drawn with center G and radius GH. And let KF and
KG have been joined. I say that the triangle KF G has

25

ΖΗ. Thus. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον συστήσασθαι. and GK. Thus. Thus. τὸ δὲ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημεῖον τὸ Α. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΗΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΚΗ ἄρα τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση. CE to AG. ΓΕ δύο ταῖς ΖΑ. τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. the angle DCE is thus equal to the angle F AG [Prop. and further DE to F G [Prop. and let DE have been joined. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. ΗΚ.STOIQEIWN aþ. And let the triangle AF G have been constructed from three straight-lines which are equal to CD. and C. B. ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΛΚΘ κύκλου. ΔΕ. πάλιν. τὴν δὲ ΓΕ τῇ ΑΗ. (Which 26 . DE. GH is equal to GK. Again. τρίγωνον συνεστάτω τὸ ΑΖΗ. B. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΔ τῇ ΑΖ. AG. ΓΕ. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις εὐθείαις ταῖς Α. kgþ. Thus. and the base DE is equal to the base F G. and DCE the given rectilinear angle. ΑΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ.8]. Πρὸς ἄρα τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴση γωνία εὐθύγραμμος συνέσταται ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Ε. Let the points D and E have been taken at random on each of the (straight-lines) CD and CE (respectively). F G. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. Γ ἴσαι εἰσίν. which are equal to the three given straight-lines A. B. For since point F is the center of the circle DKL. Β. γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση. such that CD is equal to AF . συστήσασθαι. KF is also equal to A. 1. CE are equal to the two (straight-lines) F A. So it is required to construct a rectilinear angle equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. since the two (straight-lines) DC. and C (respectively). Thus. F D is equal to F K. the rectilinear angle F AG. equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE. been constructed from three straight-lines equal to A. 1. since point G is the center of the circle LKH. has been constructed at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. the three straight-lines KF . ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ Β ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΖ. and GK are equal to A. καὶ ἔτι τὴν ΔΕ τῇ ΖΗ. And F G is also equal to B.22]. ∆ D Γ C Ε E Ζ Α F Η Β A ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. Εἰλήφθω ἐφ᾿ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΔ. F D is equal to A. But. GH is equal to C. and CE. ΓΕ τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Δ. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΕ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ ἴση. ΖΗ. Therefore. KG is also equal to C. ΗΚ τρισὶ ταῖς Α. Γ. But. ᾿Εκ τριῶν ἄρα εὐθειῶν τῶν ΚΖ. and C (respectively). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ· καὶ ἐκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν. respectively. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν δύο αἱ ΔΓ. G B Let AB be the given straight-line. Β. A the (given) point on it. the triangle KF G has been constructed from the three straight-lines KF . Proposition 23 Πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ To construct a rectilinear angle equal to a given rectiτῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον linear angle at a (given) point on a given straight-line. F G.

ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. Therefore. reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. For since angle BAC is greater than angle EDF . respectively.3]. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΒΓ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΕΖ. Α ∆ A D Ε E Β Γ B Η Ζ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. but (one) has the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the other). side EG (is) thus also greater than EF . the two (straight-lines) BA. EF G is much greater than EGF . Thus. 1. Also the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDG. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίας.4]. Thus. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. Thus. respectively. the base BC is equal to the base EG [Prop.5]. equal to angle BAC. 1. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. καὶ κείσθω ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ.19]. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει. kdþ. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας spectively. πάλιν. AB (equal) to DE. DF G (is) greater than EGF . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΗ. angle DGF is also equal to angle DF G [Prop. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. 1. BC (is) also greater than EF . and let EG and F G have been joined. 1. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) ED. gle (in the other). ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. (That is). ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῆς πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίας μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. ΖΗ. I say that the base BC is also greater than the base EF . Thus. have been constructed at the point D on the straight-line DE [Prop. Thus. let (angle) EDG. 27 . καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΖΗ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. ΔΖ ἴση ἡ ΔΗ. then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 is) the very thing it was required to do. but (one) has the angle encompassed by the μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. And since triangle EF G has angle EF G greater than EGF . But EG (is) equal to BC. respectively. and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. μείζων ἄρα καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῆς ΕΖ. καὶ equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) anτὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει. Let them also have the angle at A greater than the angle at D. G F Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΗ. and AC to DF .STOIQEIWN aþ. And let DG be made equal to either of AC or DF [Prop. DG. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ. since AB is equal to DE and AC to DG. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΗ. συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΕ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Δ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ. since DF is equal to DG. then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). 1.23]. ΔΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΑ. ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἐστίν. Again.

either that by the equal angles. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. but (one) has a base greater than the base (of the other). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . kþ.STOIQEIWN aþ. And let the base BC be greater than the base EF . if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. and AC to DF . ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· βάσις δὲ ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. Thus. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς If two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴση· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν αὐτῇ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει [ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ] καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ μείζων ἐστίν. For then the base BC would also have been equal to the base EF [Prop. is BAC less than EDF . In fact. but (one) has a base greater than the base ἔχῃ. οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἐλάσσων γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. 1. Neither. AB (equal) to DE. angle BAC is not equal to EDF . or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the [corresponding] remaining sides. Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. But it is not. or less than. respectively. Α A Γ C ∆ D Β B Ε Ζ E F ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. BAC is not equal to EDF . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκάτερᾳ. Thus. then (the former triangle) will also have the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. respectively. the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). ELEMENTS BOOK 1 (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. keþ.24]. then (the former triangle) will also have ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. BAC is greater than EDF .4]. 1. For then the base BC would also have been less than the base EF [Prop. I say that angle BAC is also greater than EDF . For if not. (EDF ). But it was shown that (BAC is) not equal (to EDF ) either. (BAC) is certainly either equal to. ἐδείχθη δέ. angle BAC is not less than EDF . respectively (That is). ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. τὴν δὲ βασίν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἔχῃ. and one side equal to one side—in fact. 28 . indeed. τὴν δὲ βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα respectively. But it is not. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν (of the other). Thus. Thus.

Thus. (it is) equal. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. the lesser to the greater. ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. καὶ τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. And let BH be made equal to EF [Prop. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΔΕ ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. and triangle GBC is equal to triangle DEF .4]. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. the (side) by the equal angles. and the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. ὅτι καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. And let them also have one side equal to one side. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. Furthermore. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΗΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. the base GC is equal to the base DF . ἡ μὲν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ H F C For if AB is unequal to DE then one of them is greater. (That is) AC (equal) to DF . τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην. DF E was assumed (to be) equal to BCA.3]. εἰ δυνατόν. and BCA to EF D. I say that the remaining sides will be equal to the remaining sides. GCB (is equal) to DF E. (That is) ABC (equal) to DEF . again. and let GC have been joined. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. respectively. And since BH is equal to EF . 1. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ καὶ ἔτι ἡ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. If possible. ἴση ἄρα. the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF . ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ πλευραὶ ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσαι ἔσονται. ἡ ΒΓ. I say that they will have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining sides. But. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσαι ἴσαι. BCG is also equal to BCA. (That is) BC (equal) to EF . BC † are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE. And angle ABC is equal to angle DEF . (let) AB (be equal) to DE. let BC be greater. For if BC is unequal to EF then one of them is greater.3]. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. Again. and BC to EF . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΗ τῇ ΔΕ. BH are equal to the two 29 . ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκαρέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΘ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. First of all. the base AC is equal to the base DF . Thus. the two (straight-lines) AB. But. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω πάλιν. Let AB be greater. ∆ D A Α Η Β Ε G Ζ E Θ Γ B Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ἔστω μείζων. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΓ. and let BG be made equal to DE [Prop. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. respectively. 1. So the two (straight-lines) AB. Thus. (That is) AB (equal) to DE. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. and BC to EF . The very thing (is) impossible. ΒΘ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ.4]. Therefore. the two (straight-lines) GB. and AB to DE. AB is not unequal to DE. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. And (they will have) the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. Thus. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. EF . since BG is equal to DE. EF . And BC is also equal to EF . Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) DEF and EF D. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἡ ΒΘ. And angle GBC is equal to angle DEF . ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. let the sides subtending the equal angles be equal: for instance. πρότερον τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. and AC to DF . and let AH have been joined. respectively. (That is) BAC (equal) to EDF . καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΘ. τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. καὶ ἐπὲι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΘ τῇ ΕΖ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ.

I say that AB and CD are parallel. EF . But. Thus. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΔΕ. The very thing (is) impossible [Prop. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσι· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν.STOIQEIWN aþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΕΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΘΓ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. the base AH is equal to the base DF . ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ ἴση. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. So the two (straight-lines) AB. which is obviously a mistake. in triangle AHC. Thus. παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ makes the alternate angles equal to one another then εὐθεῖαι. (it is) equal. ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. and the remaining angle BAC (is) equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. respectively. So. make the alternate angles AEF and EF D equal to one another. For if not. the base AC is equal to the base DF . δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. 1.4]. and triangle ABC (is) equal to triangle DEF . ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. And the angles they encompass (are also equal). for the triangle 30 . The Greek text has “BG. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐκβαλλόμεναι αἱ ΑΒ. the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. 1. Let them have been produced.23]. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιείτω· λέγω. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Δ μέρη ἢ ἐπὶ τὰ Α.16]. BC”. being produced. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ. respectively. the external angle BHA is equal to the internal and opposite angle BCA. And they encompass equal angles. or (in the direction) of A and C [Def. AB and CD will certainly meet together: either in the direction of B and D. Proposition 27 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. Δ μέρη. And AB is also equal to DE. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. † (straight-lines) DE. respectively. Thus. 1. either that by the equal angles. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῂ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση. EF . kzþ. 1. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΗΕΖ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔ συμπεσοῦνται ἤτοι ἐπὶ τὰ Β.4]. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. Γ. Α Ε Β A E B Η Γ Ζ G ∆ C Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Δ μέρη κατὰ τὸ Η. EF D is equal to BCA. So. Thus. and let them meet together in the direction of B and D at (point) G. ΔΓ ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται ἐπὶ τὰ Β. and one side equal to one side—in fact. and the triangle ABH is equal to the triangle DEF . if two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. Thus. BC is not unequal to EF . ὁμοίως F D For let the straight-line EF . Thus. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. angle BHA is equal to EF D.

31 . khþ. AB and CD will not meet together in the direction of B and D.27]. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. Πάλιν. the external angle AEF is equal to the interior and opposite (angle) EF G. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. Let BGH have been subtracted from both. Similarly. it can be shown that neither (will they meet together) in (the direction of) A and C. Γ· αἱ δὲ ἐπὶ μηδέτερα τὰ μέρη συμπίπτουσαι παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. since (in the second case. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 δὴ δειχθήσεται. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· λέγω. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. And they are alternate (angles). if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). And they are alternate (angles). 1. GEF . 1. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην For let EF . and (the sum of) AGH and BGH is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. The very thing is impossible [Prop. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. the sum of) BGH and GHD is equal to two right-angles. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is thus equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. site angle on the same side.15]. being produced. Again. Thus. equal to two right-angles. Thus.23]. But (straight-lines) meeting in neither direction are parallel [Def. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην makes the external angle equal to the internal and oppoποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ.16]. AGH is thus also equal to GHD. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1.27]. the remainder AGH is equal to the remainder GHD. 1. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην ποιείτω ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. Thus. internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles. Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. BGH and GHD. I say that AB is parallel to CD. Thus. or (makes) the (sum of the) παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ εὐθεῖαι. Thus. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. AB and CD are parallel. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. make the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite angle GHD. or the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. 1. For since (in the first case) EGB is equal to GHD.13]. but EGB is equal to AGH [Prop. ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.

and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. ΒΗΘ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. will meet together. μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. But (straight-lines) being produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. But. But they do not meet. (it is) equal. But. αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. Thus. Let AGH be greater. kjþ. equal to two right-angles. And EGB is thus also equal to GHD. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). ὅτι τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is equal to two right-angles [Prop 1. 5]. 1. 1. [καὶ] αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. BGH and GHD. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΓΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπεσοῦνται· οὐ συμπίπτουσι δὲ διὰ τὸ παραλλήλους αὐτὰς ὑποκεῖσθαι· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ· ἴση ἄρα. Proposition 29 ῾Η εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς A straight-line falling across parallel straight-lines τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ makes the alternate angles equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. equal. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. ΗΘΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is greater than (the sum of) BGH and GHD. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is [also] less than two right-angles. being produced to infinity. ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. AB and CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. makes the external angle equal to the internal and opposite angle on the same side. the exἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ternal (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. ΗΘΔ ἴσας ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. or (makes) the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles.15]. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. For if AGH is unequal to GHD then one of them is greater. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. AGH and GHD. Thus. I say that it makes the alternate angles. ῾Η ἄρα εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ For let the straight-line EF fall across the parallel straight-lines AB and CD. Thus. Thus. ΒΗΘ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite (angle) GHD. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. AGH is not unequal to GHD.13]. Let BGH be added to both. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to two right- 32 .STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus. Thus. on account of them (initially) being assumed parallel (to one another) [Def. But. Let BGH have been added to both. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπιπτέτω ἡ ΕΖ· λέγω. Thus. AGH is equal to EGB [Prop.23]. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΗΘΔ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.

Again. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles.29]. 1. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ.13]. Proposition 31 Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. And let (angle) DAE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and EF ). ᾿Εμπιπτέτω γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς εὐθεῖα ἡ ΗΚ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. ΓΔ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος· λέγω. also parallel to one another. Thus. a straight-line falling across parallel straightlines makes the alternate angles equal to one another. Thus. laþ. and let AD have been joined. (straight-lines) parallel to the same straightline are also parallel to one another. CD. and BC the given straightline.27]. angles [Prop.29]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ ἴση. 1. ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΖ. (angle) AGK (is) thus equal to GHF [Prop. 1. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. But AGK was also shown (to be) equal to GHF . since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines EF and CD. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ. through a given point. Thus. Η Α Θ Ε Γ Κ Β A Ζ E ∆ C G H K B F D ῎Εστω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΒ. So it is required to draw a straight-line parallel to the straight-line BC. [Αἱ ἄρα τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλληλοι·] ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· καὶ To draw a straight-line parallel to a given straight-line. (angle) GHF is equal to GKD [Prop. through the point A. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is also equal to two right-angles. Let the point D have been taken a random on BC. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. Proposition 30 Αἱ τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλλη(Straight-lines) parallel to the same straight-line are λοι. [Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. Let A be the given point. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. AGK is also equal to GKD. equal to angle ADC. πάλιν. For let the straight-line GK fall across (AB. Let each of the (straight-lines) AB and CD be parallel to EF . lþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines AB and EF . ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ. have been constructed on the straight-line 33 . ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. 1. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. the external (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). I say that AB is also parallel to CD. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. And they are alternate (angles). Thus.] (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

I say that the external angle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite angles CAB and ABC. lbþ. E C D Let ABC be a triangle. And since AB is parallel to CE. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ E Γ B A F C D Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΒΓ. 1. the external angle ECD is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ABC [Prop. Proposition 32 Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης In any triangle.27].29]. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΑΓ. πάλιν. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. Thus. (if) one of the sides (is) produced ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. since AB is parallel to CE. BCA. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λέγω.31]. ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ.STOIQEIWN aþ. And since the straight-line AD. ΓΑΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. the straight-line EAF has been drawn parallel to the given straight-line BC. But ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Again. has made the alternate angles EAD and ADC equal to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας τῇ ΕΑ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΖ. the whole an- 34 . 1. ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑΖ τῇ ΒΓ. 1. Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα σημείου τοῦ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΕΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. internal and opposite (angles). ΑΔΓ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. and CAB— is equal to two right-angles. 1. Thus. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ. ΒΓΑ. the alternate angles BAC and ACE are equal to one another [Prop. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Α Β Ε Γ A ∆ B ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. DA at the point A on it [Prop. and let one of its sides BC have been produced to D. And let the straightline AF have been produced in a straight-line with EA. For let CE have been drawn through point C parallel to the straight-line AB [Prop. through the given point A. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΑΔ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΑΔ. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle—ABC.23]. EAF is thus parallel to BC [Prop. ΑΓΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. ΑΒΓ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. 1. and AC has fallen across them. (in) falling across the two straight-lines BC and EF . and the straight-line BD has fallen across them. ΑΒΓ. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. καὶ (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.29].

And since AB is equal to CD. ΒΓΑ. ὅτι καὶ αἱ ΑΓ. 1. ΒΔ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. CB. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. lgþ. 1. straight-lines joining equal and parallel (straight- 35 . δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. and CAB. ΒΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΒΓ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. But.4]. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύτωσαν αὐτὰς ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. ΓΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Thus. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. AC is thus parallel to BD [Prop. Proposition 33 Αἱ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιStraight-lines joining equal and parallel (straightζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. gle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles) BAC and ABC. And since AB is parallel to CD.13]. Thus. (if) one of the sides (is) produced (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles). καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to the (sum of the) three (angles) ABC. (in) falling across the two straight-lines AC and BD. has made the alternate angles (ACB and CBD) equal to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let the straight-lines AC and BD join them on the same sides.29]. the two (straight-lines) AB. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΓ.† And the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD. ΓΔ. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. A C Let AB and CD be equal and parallel (straight-lines). Thus. the base AC is equal to the base BD. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ ἴση. Β ∆ Α B Γ D ῎Εστωσαν ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοι αἱ ΑΒ. and CAB is also equal to two right-angles. and BC has fallen across them. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ΓΒΑ. Also. And (AC) was also shown (to be) equal to (BD). παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. 1. and BC is common. Let ACB have been added to both. BCA. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. I say that AC and BD are also equal and parallel. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΒΔ· λέγω. (the sum of) ACB. Thus.27]. Αἱ ἄρα τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Let BC have been joined. and the remaining angles will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles subtended by the equal sides [Prop. and triangle ABC is equal to triangle DCB ‡ . angle ACB is equal to CBD. CBA. (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DC. since the straight-line BC. 1. in any triangle. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. ΑΓΒ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΓΑΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.

and BC its diagonal. which is obviously a mistake. and the diagonal BC cuts it in half. ldþ. side AB is equal to CD. Thus. † The Greek text has “BC. and a diagonal cuts them in half. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Λέγω δή. Thus. the base AC (is) also equal to DB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα τέμνει. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. and BC has fallen across them.STOIQEIWN aþ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ [ἄρα] τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ῾Η ἄρα ΒΓ διάμετρος δίχα τέμνει τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 36 . Α Γ Β A ∆ C ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον χωρίον τὸ ΑΓΔΒ. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. the alternate angles ACB and CBD are equal to one another [Prop. 1. which is obviously a mistake. καὶ βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. And since angle ABC is equal to BCD. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. I also say that a diagonal cuts them in half. B D Let ACDB be a parallelogrammic figure. ὅτι τοῦ ΑΓΔΒ παραλληλογράμμου αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. And BAC was also shown (to be) equal to CDB. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. CD”.26]. the two (straight-lines) AB. For since AB is equal to CD. in parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. ΒΓΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.29]. and BC (is) common. ΓΒΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. τέμνει. For since AB is parallel to CD. since AC is parallel to BD. (namely) BC. καὶ ἔτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. ‡ The Greek text has “DCB”. πάλιν ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ.29]. and the straight-line BC has fallen across them. respectively. ΓΒΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΑΒ πλευρὰ τῇ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. And. I say that for parallelogram ACDB. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ ἴση. Again. the whole (angle) ABD is thus equal to the whole (angle) ACD. and one side equal to one side—the (one) by the equal angles and common to them. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΒΓ· λέγω. Thus. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση. angle BAC is equal to CDB. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ. CB † . and CBD to ACB. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining (sides). 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Furthermore. Proposition 34 Τῶν παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί In parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Thus. respectively. Τῶν ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle [Prop. καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα are equal to one another. And angle ABC is equal to angle BCD. 1. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. and AC to BD. So ABC and BCD are two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) BCD and CBD.

and triangle EAB will be equal to triangle DF C [Prop. Let DGE have been taken away from both. parallelograms which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. So AD is also equal to EF . 1. and between the same parallels AF and BC. leþ. ΖΗ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις on the equal bases BC and F G. ΒΓ· λέγω.29]. So. 1. the same parallels are equal to one another. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. which is obviously a mistake. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλ. 1. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ. for the same (reasons). ΕΒΓΖ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΖ. Α Ε ∆ Ζ A D Η Β F G Γ B ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ. Thus. Proposition 35 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ Parallelograms which are on the same base and beἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.4]. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΑ. the external to the internal [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. rather than “congruent”.same parallels AH and BG. Thus. BC”. Thus. ‡ The Greek text has “ABCD”. ΒΗ· λέγω. I say that the parallelogram 37 .STOIQEIWN aþ. DC. for the first time.4]. Here. which is obviously a mistake. lþ. AB are equal to the two (straight-lines) F D. the whole (straight-line) AE is equal to the whole (straight-line) DF . the whole parallelogram ABCD is equal to the whole parallelogram EBCF . EF is also equal to BC.34]. 1. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΕΖΗΘ ἐπὶ ἴσων Let ABCD and EF GH be parallelograms which are βάσεων ὄντα τῶν ΒΓ. † E C Let ABCD and EBCF be parallelograms on the same base BC. the base EB is equal to the base F C. Thus. the diagonal BC cuts the parallelogram ACDB ‡ in half. Thus. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and (are) between the ταῖς ΑΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ τὸ ΕΑΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΖΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται· κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΔΗΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΗΔ τραπέζιον λοιπῷ τῷ ΕΗΓΖ τραπεζίῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. Let triangle GBC have been added to both. Proposition 36 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν Parallelograms which are on equal bases and between ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. the remaining trapezium ABGD is equal to the remaining trapezium EGCF . And AB is also equal to DC. respectively. ΔΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν. ΑΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΔ. And angle F DC is equal to angle EAB. AD is equal to BC [Prop. So the two (straight-lines) EA. I say that ABCD is equal to parallelogram EBCF . tween the same parallels are equal† to one another. And DE is common. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 and triangle ABC is equal to triangle BCD [Prop. † The Greek text has “CD. “equal” means “equal in area”. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ.

and between the same parallels AD and BC. ∆ Ε Θ Γ Ζ A Η B D E H C F G ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. as (ABCD). παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΒΓΑ. [τὰ δὲ D C Let ABC and DBC be triangles on the same base BC. 1. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. lzþ. EBCA and DBCF are both parallelograms. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. So that the parallelogram ABCD is also equal to EF GH. And since BC is equal to F G. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Ε. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. for the same (reasons). Let AD have been produced in both directions to E and F . εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ παράλληλοι.33] [thus. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. and let the (straight-line) CF have been drawn through C parallel to BD [Prop. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΖΗΘ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΕΒΓΘ ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ ἐστιν ἴσον. Ζ.31]. Thus. as (ABCD) [Prop. καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ταῖς ΒΓ. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ A E Γ F B ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΒΓ· λέγω. and are equal. and let the (straight-line) BE have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. For it has the same base. ΑΘ. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση.35]. For let BE and CH have been joined.35]. 1. 1. but F G is equal to EH [Prop. Α Β ABCD is equal to EF GH. EB and HC are also equal and parallel].34]. and EB and HC join them. ΔΒΓΖ· καί εἰσιν ἴσα· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς εἰσι τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ.31]. ΓΘ. ΘΓ ἄρα ἴσαι τέ εἰσι καὶ παράλληλοι]. EBCH is a parallelogram [Prop. And they are also parallel. But (straight-lines) joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides are (themselves) equal and parallel [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΕΖ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΕΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. ΘΓ· αἱ δὲ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσι [καὶ αἱ ΕΒ. Thus.34]. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in 38 . δὶα δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΒΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς αἱ ΕΒ. and is equal to ABCD. So. EF GH is also equal to the same (parallelogram) EBCH [Prop. BC. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓΘ. and between the same parallels BC and EF [Prop. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΖΗ. BC is thus equal to EH. 1. the same parallels are equal to one another. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει τὴν ΒΓ. and is between the same parallels. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΔ. parallelograms which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. 1. Proposition 37 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς Triangles which are on the same base and between αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. 1.34]. And the triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram EBCA. For they are on the same base BC. BC and AH. Thus. 1.

the same side. are also between the same parallels. And GBCA is equal to DEF H. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in half [Prop. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.34]. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ.]† Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς the same base BC. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. lhþ. And triangle F ED (is) half of parallelogram DEF H. and on τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. 1. For they are on the equal bases BC and EF .31]. and between the same parallels BF and GH [Prop. 1. and let the (straight-line) F H have been drawn through F parallel to DE [Prop. and between the same parallels BF and AD. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. For let AD have been produced in both directions to G and H. † half [Prop. ljþ. I say that 39 . ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΗ. 1. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF . And triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram GBCA. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. And the triangle DBC (is) half of the parallelogram DBCF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΗΘ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΗΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. same parallels are equal to one another. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως Let ABC and DBC be equal triangles which are on ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τῆς ΒΓ· λέγω. GBCA and DEF H are each parallelograms. For the diagonal DC cuts the latter in half [Prop. triangles which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. and on the same side (of it). Proposition 39 Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ Equal triangles which are on the same base. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. 1. ΔΕΖΘ· καὶ ἴσον τὸ ΗΒΓΑ τῷ ΔΕΖΘ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ.34]. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. Proposition 38 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς Triangles which are on equal bases and between the παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΕΖΘ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΖΕΔ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΖ δίαμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. For the diagonal DF cuts the latter in half.] Thus. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Η. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. Thus. This is an additional common notion. 1. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΗΒΓΑ. Let ABC and DEF be triangles on the equal bases BC and EF . Thus. Thus.31].STOIQEIWN aþ. ΑΔ· λέγω. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF . 1. Θ. and let the (straight-line) BG have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop.34]. Η Β Α ∆ Γ Θ Ε G Ζ B A D C H E F ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. triangles which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΘ. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.36]. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ.

ΓΕ καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. 1. ΓΔΕ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. I say that AD and BC are parallel. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. if not. Thus. triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. and between the same parallels [Prop. AD is parallel to BC. let AF have been drawn through A parallel to BE [Prop. For. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. are also between the same parallels. Similarly. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΔΒΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΓ. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. But ABC is equal to DBC. Εἰ γὰρ μή. and let EC have been joined. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ μή. BE and AF [Prop. Thus. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. Α A ∆ D Ζ Β Γ F Ε B ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΕ. AE is not parallel to BC. ΓΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΕ. same side. For let AD have been joined. BC and CE. For if not. The very thing is impossible. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle F CE. For they are on equal bases.31]. and on the same side. ∆ Α D A Ε E Β Γ B C ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. and let F E have been joined. 1. equal triangles which are on the same base. But. and between the same parallels. Proposition 40† Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ Equal triangles which are on equal bases.38]. let AE have been drawn through point A parallel to the straight-line BC [Prop. triangle ABC is equal 40 . ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστι παράλληλος. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. Thus. λέγω. the greater to the lesser. Thus. I say that they are also between the same parallels. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α τῇ ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ. For let AD have been joined. and on the same side (of BE). mþ. DBC is also equal to EBC. BC. Thus.31]. and on the μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. For it is on the same base as it. are also between the same parallels.37]. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. 1. they are also between the same parallels. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΓΕ [τρίγωνῳ]· καὶ τὸ ΔΓΕ ἄρα [τρίγωνον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ C E Let ABC and CDE be equal triangles on the equal bases BC and CE (respectively). ΑΖ. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. I say that AD is parallel to BE.

37].STOIQEIWN aþ. and is between the same parallels. Thus. in a given rectilinear angle. † to [triangle] DCE. Thus. So it is required to construct a parallelogram ραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. and let it be between the same parallels. Thus. For let AC have been joined. Thus. Thus. and on the same side. Similarly. Proposition 41 ᾿Εὰν παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν If a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. and between the same parallels.linear angle. BC. For let parallelogram ABCD have the same base BC as triangle EBC. and D the given rectiγωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον πα. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ. AF is not parallel to BE. For it is on the same base. But. I say that parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle BEC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. διπλάσιόν ἐστί is between the same parallels. then the parallelogram is double (the area) of the triangle. if a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. 1. ΑΕ. parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle ABC. [triangle] DCE is also equal to triangle F CE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. The very thing is impossible. are also between the same parallels. mbþ. Proposition 42 Τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήTo construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle σασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. and αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. So parallelogram ABCD is also double (the area) of triangle EBC. διπλάσιόν ἐστί τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. BC and AE. as (EBC). ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΒΕ. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου· ἡ γὰρ ΑΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· ὥστε τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τοῦ ΕΒΓ τριγώνου ἐστὶ διπλάσιον. the greater to the lesser. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα Let ABC be the given triangle. This whole proposition is regarded by Heiberg as a relatively early interpolation to the original text. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Β ∆ Ε A Γ B D E C Παραλληλόγραμμον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΕΒΓ βάσιν τε ἐχέτω τὴν αὐτὴν τὴν ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἔστω ταῖς ΒΓ. equal to triangle ABC in the rectilinear angle D. AD is parallel to BE. 41 . maþ. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΕ ἐστι παράλληλος. For the diagonal AC cuts the former in half [Prop. BC and AE [Prop. So triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. equal triangles which are on equal bases. ΑΕ· λέγω. then the parallelogram is τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου.34]. 1. double (the area) of the triangle. ὅτι διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ ΒΕΓ τριγώνου. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ.

and is between the same parallels as (AEC) [Prop. BE and EC. Let BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. For it has the same base as (AEC). 1. 1. triangle ABC is equal to triangle ACD [Prop. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. Thus.10]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. 1. mgþ. and AK is its diagonal. the complements of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal to one another. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΒΚ. triangle KF C is also equal to (triangle) KGC. And let (angle) CEF . So. ἐπεὶ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΘ. For they are on the equal bases. since triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Α τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΗ. has been constructed in the angle CEF . ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. 1.31]. Thus. and BK and KD the so-called complements (about AC). πάλιν. triangle ABC is double (the area) of triangle AEC.34]. ΖΗ. 1. which is equal to D. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΚΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΚΗΓ ἐστιν ἴσον. for the same (reasons). διὰ δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΗ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ∆ D Α Β Ζ Ε Η A Γ B G F E C Τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. And let EH and F G be the parallelograms about AC. Thus. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΔ τριγώνῳ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν ἔστω τὰ ΕΘ. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ μὲν ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. And let AG have been drawn through A parallel to EC [Prop. Again. and AC its diagonal. ΚΔ· λέγω.31]. F ECG is a parallelogram. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. (F ECG) also has the angle CEF equal to the given (angle) D. 1. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. triangle ABE is also equal to triangle AEC. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΚ. καὶ ἔχει τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Δ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΓ.38]. the remaining complement BK is equal to 42 . ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς ἐστιν αὐτῷ παραλλήλοις· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ. equal to angle D. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΖΕΓΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. And the whole triangle ABC is also equal to the whole (triangle) ADC. And since BE is equal to EC. Therefore. equal to the given triangle ABC. parallelogram F ECG. ΕΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. triangle AEK plus KGC is equal to triangle AHK plus KF C. τὸ δὲ ΚΖΓ τῷ ΚΗΓ. and AC its diagonal. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΕΓ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. and KF C to KGC. triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK [Prop. since EH is a parallelogram. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ.23]. and between the same parallels.41]. and let CG have been drawn through C parallel to EF [Prop. 1. I say that the complement BK is equal to the complement KD. have been constructed at the point E on the straight-line EC [Prop. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΕΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΕ. and let AE have been joined.34]. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΚΔ παραπληρώματι. Thus. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. And parallelogram F ECG is also double (the area) of triangle AEC. ἥτις ἐστὶν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. BC and AG [Prop.STOIQEIWN aþ. τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον μετὰ τοῦ ΚΗΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ μετὰ τοῦ ΚΖΓ· ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα λοιπῷ τῷ ΚΔ παρα- For any parallelogram. Thus. parallelogram F ECG is equal to triangle ABC. ΑΗ· διπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου. 1. Proposition 43 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.

So it is required to apply a parallelogram equal to the given triangle C to the given straight-line AB in an angle equal to (angle) D. have been constructed in the angle EBG. equal to the triangle C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Let the parallelogram BEF G. ΘΖΕ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. C the given triangle.† And let F G have been drawn through to H. which is equal to D [Prop. 1. ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΘ.ments of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal λοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.a given straight-line in a given rectilinear angle. mdþ. the (sum of the) angles AHF and HF E is thus equal to two right-angles 43 . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΘΒ. the compleδιάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλή.31]. μῳ. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΖ. and let AH have been drawn through A parallel to either of BG or EF [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΘ. to one another. 1.42]. Ζ B D K E Γ Η H F G C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν Thus. And since the straight-line HF falls across the parallels AH and EF .STOIQEIWN aþ. and let HB have been joined. Συνεστάτω τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕΖΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ. ∆ D Γ Ζ Κ Ε Η Θ C Μ Β Α F E G Λ H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΗ. And let it have been placed so that BE is straight-on to AB. and D the given rectilinear angle. ΖΕ K M B A L Let AB be the given straight-line. Proposition 44 Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παTo apply a parallelogram equal to a given triangle to ραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμ. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· καὶ κείσθω ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΘΗ. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΘΖ. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν ἴσῃ τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ. Α Θ A ∆ Κ Ε Β the remaining complement KD. ΗΖΕ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπὸ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν εἰς ἄπειρον ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ΘΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 πληρώματί ἐστιν ἴσον. for any parallelogramic figure. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΖΗ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ Γ.

ΗΘΜ ἴσαι εἰσίν. the alternate angles M HG and HGF are equal to one another [Prop. 1. not lying on the same side. being produced. Thus. And since the straightline HG falls across the parallels KM and F G.42]. But. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΘΗ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν. Thus. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΘΑ. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to (the sum of) KHG and GHM . ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ.44].15]. ΘΗΛ ἴσαι εἰσιν. which is equal to D. And AG and M E (are) parallelograms. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ. Thus. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. which is equal to E [Prop. Proposition 45 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. and let them meet together at K. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Κ.29]. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. (the sum of) BHG and GF E is less than two right-angles. equal to the triangle DBC. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Ε· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ τῇ Ε. ΘΜ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΘ τῇ ΘΜ· καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΚΜ. Thus. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΛΒ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ. ΗΘΜ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and 1. 1.31. HLKF is a parallelogram. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε· καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΗΘ εὐθεῖαν τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΗΜ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ γωνίᾳ. ΗΒ ἐπὶ τὰ Λ. ΒΖ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΒ τῷ ΒΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. And since angle E is equal to each of (angles) HKF and GHM . LB is also equal to C. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθεῖᾳ τῇ ΗΘ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Θ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΘ. ΘΗΖ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.43]. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. equal to the given triangle C. 1. ΖΗ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΗ. So it is required to construct a parallelogram equal to the rectilinear figure ABCD in the given angle E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. καὶ ἡ ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ΜΛ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν· καὶ To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure in a given rectilinear angle. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ Ε γωνία ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ. and LB and BF the so-called complements. make adjacent angles with some straight-line GH. (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. Let KHG have been added to both. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to (the sum of) 44 . καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΘΚ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν τὰ ΑΗ. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΘΛΚΖ. have been constructed in the angle HKF . has been applied to the given straight-line AB in the angle ABM . ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε. KH and HM . διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΘΚ. ABM is thus also equal to angle D. But. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΒΖ τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΛΒ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. Thus. ΘΗΛ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. ΜΕ. Thus. ΘΗΛ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΛ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ τῇ Δ ἐστιν ἴση. ΖΘ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΚΛ. Thus.3. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to two right-angles [Prop. have been applied to the straight-line GH in the angle GHM . And let the parallelogram GM . ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση. Also.23. 1. about HK. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ ἄρα τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. equal to the triangle ABD. And (straight-lines) produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. 1. Thus. the parallelogram LB. And let KL have been drawn through point K parallel to either of EA or F H [Prop. † [Prop. ΚΘΗ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. but GBE is equal to D. 1. Let ABCD be the given rectilinear figure. and HK its diagonal. This can be achieved using Props. LB is equal to BF [Prop. 1. ΘΗΛ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. 5]. since angle GBE is equal to ABM [Prop.31]. and let the parallelogram F H. KH is straight-on to HM [Prop. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. HB and F E will meet together. (the sum of) KHG and GHM is also equal to two right-angles. 1. Μ σημεῖα. καὶ συνεστάτω τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΖΘ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ γωνίᾳ. Let HGL have been added to both. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Κ σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΕΑ. Thus. And let HA and GB have been produced to points L and M (respectively). So two straight-lines. at the point H on it. which is equal to E [Prop. Let DB have been joined.14]. 1. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ΘΗ τῇ ΜΛ.29]. BF is equal to triangle C. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ.29]. 1. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. Let them have been produced. ΚΘΗ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΛΒ. (angle) HKF is thus also equal to GHM .† and E the given rectilinear angle. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΗΛ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. meþ.

1. But. 1. Thus. the extension to many-sided figures is trivial. Let AC have been drawn at right-angles to the straight-line AB from the point A on it [Prop. 1. 1. 1. Let AB be the given straight-line. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΜ. KF LM is a parallelogram. KM and F L are equal and parallel as well [Prop. the four (sides) BA. mþ.34]. For since the straight-line 45 . the parallelogram ADEB is equilateral. And since triangle ABD is equal to parallelogram F H. F G is straight-on to GL [Prop. AB is equal to DE. the whole rectilinear figure ABCD is thus equal to the whole parallelogram KF LM . 1. and EB are equal to one another. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθύγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΖΛΜ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. DE. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. HGF and HGL.30]. gle F KM . and let BE have been drawn through point B parallel to AD [Prop. and let AD have been made equal to AB [Prop. and AD to BE [Prop.14].3]. which is equal to the given (angle) E.31]. Thus. (the sum of) HGF and HGL is also equal to two right-angles.29].33]. but also HG to M L [Prop. rectilinear figure ABCD. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ. Thus. equal to the given ληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΛΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΜ.34]. ῎Ηχθω τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείου τοῦ Α πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΓ. ἡ δὲ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΔΕ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΔ. 1. Proposition 46 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. Thus. However. Thus. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ To describe a square on a given straight-line. And let DE have been drawn through point D parallel to AB [Prop. ADEB is a parallelogram. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. the parallelogram KF LM . ἐπεὶ γὰρ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΒ. Therefore. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΖΛ ἄρα ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΖΛΜ. AB is equal to AD. ΑΔ. τὸ δὲ ΔΒΓ τῷ ΗΜ. So it is required to describe a square on the straight-line AB.11]. 1. AD. 1. ∆ D Γ C Α A Ε Β Ζ Κ Η Θ E B Λ F Μ G K H L M Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ ἴσον παραλThus. KF is thus also equal and parallel to M L [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. ΑΔΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Thus. Thus. and DBC to GM . † The proof is only given for a four-sided figure. But. ΖΛ· καὶ αἱ ΚΜ.31]. ΕΒ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. And the straight-lines KM and F L join them.34]. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. 1. λέγω δή. 1. And since F K is equal and parallel to HG [Prop. ΔΕ. has been constructed in the anἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. for the same (reasons). And let AL have been drawn through point A parallel to either of BD or CE [Prop. And since DB is equal to BC. and (the squares) GB and HC on AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. And let AD and F C have been joined. the two (straight-lines) DB. And for parallelogrammic figures. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΘΓ. let ABC have been added to both. Proposition 47 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BACa right-angle. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΒΑ.14]. BA are equal to the 46 . not lying on the same side. τῶν δὲ παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἀπεναντίον τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ. 1. each of the opposite angles ABE and BED (are) also right-angles. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. Thus. For let the square BDEC have been described on BC. BA is also straight-on to AH. and F B to BA.29]. mzþ. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another [Prop. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. make the adjacent angles with some straight-line BA. the (sum of the) angles BAD and ADE is equal to two right-angles [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ In right-angled triangles. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ.34]. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΛ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. So. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΘ ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. scribed on the straight-line AB. ADE (is) also a right-angle. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΔΒ τῇ ΒΓ. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. CA is straight-on to AG [Prop. the square on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the right-angle. Thus. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔΕΓ. Thus. 1. for (they are) both right-angles. ἡ δὲ ΖΒ τῇ ΒΑ. ΑΓ τὰ ΗΒ. at the point A on it. (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. And since angle DBC is equal to F BA. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. But BAD (is a) right-angle. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΑ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. 1. 1. (ADEB) is a square [Def. Γ C ∆ Ε Α D Β A E B Τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας Thus. I say that the square on BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. then two straight-lines AC and AG. ΒΑ δύο ταῖς ΖΒ.22]. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. ΖΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΑ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση. ADEB is rightangled.31]. 1. And it is deἀναγεγραμμένον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. the whole (angle) DBA is equal to the whole (angle) F BC. 1. AD falls across the parallels AB and DE. ΑΗ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΗ. ΒΑΗ γωνιῶν.STOIQEIWN aþ. And since angles BAC and BAG are each right-angles.46].

ὁμοίως δὴ ἐπιζευγνυμένων τῶν ΑΕ. AE and BK being joined. BD. ΘΓ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστίν. F B.41]. Θ H Κ K Η G A Α Ζ F Β Γ B C D L E ∆ Λ Ε ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν Thus. And the square BDEC is described on BC. the square on the ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν [γωνίαν] περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τε. the square on the side BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC. [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων διπλάσια ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν·] ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΗΒ τετραγώνῳ. the parallelogram CL can be shown (to be) equal to the square HC. For again they have the same base. † The Greek text has “F B. ΗΓ. BD and AL [Prop. τραγώνοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. two (straight-lines) CB. For they have the same base. ΑΛ· τοῦ δὲ ΖΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΗΒ τετράγωνον· βάσιν τε γὰρ πάλιν τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΖΒ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΖΒ. And angle DBA (is) equal to angle F BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the (squares) GB and HC on BA and AC (respectively). the base AD [is] equal to the base F C. which is obviously a mistake.the) squares on the sides surrounding the right-[angle]. ΒΚ δειχθήσεται καὶ τὸ ΓΛ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον τῷ ΘΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον δυσὶ τοῖς ΗΒ.4]. similarly. So. 1. and are between the same parallels. ‡ This is an additional common notion. ΘΓ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.41]. 1. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Thus. Thus. and are between the same parallels. [And the doubles of equal things are equal to one another. ΑΓ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ ἀναγραφέν. 1. BC”. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. 47 . Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. and the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle F BC [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καί [ἐστι] τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον· βάσιν τε γὰρ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΒΔ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΔ. And parallelogram BL [is] double (the area) of triangle ABD. And square GB is double (the area) of triangle F BC. F B and GC [Prop.† respectively. in right-angled triangles. the whole square BDEC is equal to the (sum of the) two squares GB and HC. the parallelogram BL is also equal to the square GB.]‡ Thus. τὰ δὲ ΗΒ. BF .

καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. Γ ∆ Α C Β D Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἔστω τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. For angle DAC is a right-angle [Prop. But DAC is a right-angle. Since DA is equal to AB. the (square) on BC is equal to (sum of the squares) on BA and AC. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΔ καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΑ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ.8]. For let AD have been drawn from point A at rightangles to the straight-line AC [Prop. I say that angle BAC is a right-angle. And since DA is equal to AB. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. the square on DA is thus also equal to the square on AB. Later on. if the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the remaining two sides of the triangle then the angle contained by the remaining two sides of the triangle is a right-angle. the two (straight-lines) DA. † A B For let the square on one of the sides. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. 1. Thus. ΑΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΑ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ· ὑπόκειται γάρ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. the square on DC is equal to the square on BC. Thus. So side DC is also equal to (side) BC. Thus. the (sum of the) squares on DA and AC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. 1. and let AD have been made equal to BA [Prop. AC. Thus. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. BC. angle DAC [is] equal to angle BAC [Prop. the inverse notion is used. and AC (is) common. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. But. BAC is also a right-angle. Thus. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. ᾿Εὰν ἀρὰ τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. ing sides of the triangle is a right-angle. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. use is made of the additional common notion that the squares of equal things are themselves equal.3]. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ the triangle then the angle contained by the two remainτριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. the (square) on DC is equal to the (sum of the squares) on DA and AC. Proposition 48 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον If the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν to the (sum of the) squares on the two remaining sides of τετραγώνοις. 48 . ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις· λέγω. But. 1. ΑΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Here. For (that) was assumed. and let DC have been joined. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ.11]. of triangle ABC be equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC.† Let the square on AC have been added to both. And the base DC is equal to the base BC. ὅτι ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 mhþ. 1.47]. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Fundamentals of Geometric Algebra 49 .

and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). So the (rectangle) BH is equal to the (rectangles) BK.3]. ΒΓ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. Thus. 1. 1. 1. then the rectangle δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις.11]. And BH is the (rectangle contained) by A and BC. and let DK.31]. ΒΔ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. Any rectangular parallelogram is said to be contained by the two straight-lines containing the rightangle. For DK. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαδηποτοῦν τμήματα. Γ τῇ ΒΗ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΚ. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ Α. ΕΛ. Ε σημεῖα· λέγω. ΒΓ. διὰ δὲ τῶν Δ. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. And in any parallelogrammic figure. (is) equal to A. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν into any number of pieces whatsoever.31]. that is to say BG [Prop. ΒΓ περιεχομένον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν Α. at random. and BG (is) equal to A. ῎Ισον δή ἐστι τὸ ΒΘ τοῖς ΒΚ. parallel to BG [Prop. For it is contained by GB and BC. and BG (is) equal to A. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and let BG be made equal to A [Prop. and EH. the (rectangle contained) by A and BC is equal to the (rectangles contained) by A 50 . Πᾶν παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον περιέχεσθαι λέγεται ὑπὸ δύο τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν. and C (respectively). τῇ Α. I say that the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the rectangle(s) contained by A and BD. 1. finally. ΒΔ. ΕΘ. at points D and E. parallel to BC [Prop. 1. 2. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ Α. let any one whatsoever of the parallelograms about its diagonal. For it is contained by GB and BD. Definitions αʹ. (taken) with its two complements. Α A Β ∆ Ε Γ Η Ζ Κ Λ Θ B G D E C K L H F ῎Εστωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. ΒΓ. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΒΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΖ. by A and DE. ΕΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α.34]. Similarly. And BK (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and BD. βʹ.STOIQEIWN bþ. E. ΔΛ. ΓΘ. aþ. DL. ΔΕ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΚ. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις· ὅπερ Let A and BC be the two straight-lines. κατὰ τὰ Δ. ΕΓ. καὶ ἔτι ὁμοίως τὸ ΕΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. EH (is) also the (rectangle contained) by A and EC. τουτέστιν ἡ ΒΗ. τὸ δὲ ΔΛ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α. and let BC be cut. and CH have been drawn through (points) D. of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). at rightangles to BC [Prop. and let GH have been drawn through (point) G. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Η τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΗΘ. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαIf there are two straight-lines. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 VOroi. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α· τὸ δὲ ΒΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. be called a gnomon. Παντὸς δὲ παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον αὐτοῦ παραλληλογράμμων ἓν ὁποιονοῦν σὺν τοῖς δυσὶ παραπληρώμασι γνώμων καλείσθω. καὶ κείσθω τῇ Α ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. Ε. ΕΓ. ΒΔ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ Α. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ. And DL (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and DE. by A and EC. and one of them is cut δηποτοῦν τμήματα. EL. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. For let BF have been drawn from point B. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΑΓ μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.31]. ΑΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. A C B D F E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. and one of them is cut into any number of pieces whatsoever. plus the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. then the rectangle contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ ΒΑ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ· τὸ δὲ ΓΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. parallel to either of AD or BE [Prop. Thus. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. ΑΓ. Thus. and AD (is) equal to AB. 1.46]. at random. and. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. 51 . ΓΕ. † and BD. finally. plus the rectangle contained by BA and AC. at point C. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). by A and DE. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a (b + c + d + · · · ) = a b + a c + a d + · · · . 1. τὸ δὲ ΑΖ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ὡς ἔτυχεν. For it is contained by DA and AC. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. if a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straightline). is equal to the square on the whole. the (rectangle contained) by BA and AC. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. is equal to the square on AB. ΑΓ περιεχομένου ὀρθογωνίου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. Α Γ Β ∆ Ζ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον. ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straight-line). is equal to the square on the whole. And AE is the square on AB. And CE (is) the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. bþ. by A and EC. So the (square) AE is equal to the (rectangles) AF and CE. Thus. is equal to the square on AB. ῎Ισον δή ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΖ. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΖ. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.STOIQEIWN bþ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. and let CF have been drawn through C. if there are two straight-lines. And AF (is) the rectangle contained by the (straight-lines) BA and AC. For BE (is) equal to AB.

And AD (is) the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς If a straight-line is cut at random then the square ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ contained by the whole (straight-line). And DB (is) the square on CB. plus the square on BC. For let the square CDEB have been described on CB [Prop. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΔ. and let ED have been drawn through to F . ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. † ELEMENTS BOOK 2 This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + a c = a2 if a = b + c. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΓΕ· καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. plus the square on BC. and one of the τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ pieces (of the straight-line). 1. Thus. is equal to the rectangle conἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. and the square on the aforementioned piece. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. tained by (both of) the pieces.46].on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΒΓ· τὸ δὲ ΑΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b) a = a b + a2 .31]. and the square on the aforementioned piece.squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). 1. at random.STOIQEIWN bþ. So the (rectangle) AE is equal to the (rectangle) AD and the (square) CE. Α Γ Β Ζ ∆ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. at (point) C. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΒ· τὸ δὲ ΔΒ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For DC (is) equal to CB. For it is contained by AB and BE. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. and twice the 52 . ὡς ἔτυχεν. Thus. if a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). parallel to either of CD or BE [Prop. † A C B F D E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. gþ. is equal to the rectangle contained by (both of) the pieces. And AE is the rectangle contained by AB and BC. dþ. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΔΕΒ. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΒΕ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). κατὰ τὸ Γ· λέγω. the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB. and BE (is) equal to BC. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΖ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let AF have been drawn through A. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.

I say that the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB.46]. 1. Thus. the external angle CGB is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ADB [Prop. and let BD have been joined. GE is also equal to the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. 1. 1. and CG to KB [Prop. GK is also equal to KB. parallel to either of AD or EB [Prop. Thus. 1. ΗΚΒ ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. So. And it is on CB. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 γωνίῳ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΔ. τουτέστιν [ἀπὸ] τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ΘΖ.34]. ΕΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. But. 1. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. Thus. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα τέσσαρα τὰ ΘΖ. 1. ΗΕ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. ΓΚ.6]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Η ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. And HF and CK are the squares on AC and CB (respectively).31]. since the side BA is also equal to AD [Prop. So the opposite (angles) CGK and GKB are also right-angles [Prop. the squares HF and KC are on AC and CB (respectively). CB is equal to GK. Thus. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ· ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ. the four (figures) HF . And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἄρα γωνιά τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ἀλλ᾿ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. at (point) C. that is to say [on] AC [Prop. ΓΚ. Thus.29]. and let HK have been drawn through G. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΘΖ. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. Thus. 1.29]. ADB is equal to ABD. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς C G F B K E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1.STOIQEIWN bþ. ἡ δὲ ΓΗ τῇ ΚΒ· καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ.43]. And it is on HG. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΘΖ. the (rectangles) AG and GE are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. And since CF is parallel to AD. it is a square. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΗ τῇ ΒΚ [καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. κατὰ τὸ Γ. And the (rectangle) AG is equal to the (rectangle) GE [Prop. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. at random. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση.5]. But. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ.34]. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΗΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΑΗ. BCG (is) also a rightangle. HF is also a square. for the same (reasons). Thus. ΓΒ εἰσιν.34]. But KBC (is) a right-angle. ΚΓ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΘΖ τετράγωνόν ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΗ. For GC (is) equal to CB. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΗΓ τῇ ΓΒ· καὶ τὸ ΗΕ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΓ. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and let CF have been drawn through C. CGKB is equilateral. Α Θ ∆ Γ Η Ζ Β A Κ H Ε D Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΔ. λέγω δή. καί ἐστι τὸ ΑΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. rectangle contained by the pieces. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΘΚ. and GE are equal to the (sum of the) squares on 53 . Thus. angle CGB is also equal to GBC. AG. 1. So the side BC is equal to the side CG [Prop. and BD has fallen across them. CK. Thus. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. Thus. CGKB is right-angled. ΓΚ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΒ. λέγω. the angles KBC and GCB are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΑΗ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΗΚ. For since CG is parallel to BK [and the straight-line CB has fallen across them].31]. parallel to either of AB or DE [Prop. And AG is the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. 1. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop.

ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 1. and GE are γωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. and let DG have been drawn through D. But. and let BE have been joined. ΒΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΗ. But. ΔΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς N L P E G M F For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Θ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB. and twice the rectangle contained by AC τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. καὶ πάλιν διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΛ. Thus. CK.43]. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. AG. AH 54 . ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΜ τῷ ΑΛ ἴσον ἐστίν. plus the square on the (difference) ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνῳ. For let the square CEF B have been described on CB [Prop. Thus. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. 1. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΘ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΜΝΞ† γνώμονι ἴσον ἐστίν.AC and BC. since AC is also equal to CB [Prop. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· ὁ ἄρα ΜΝΞ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 1. parallel to either of CL or BM [Prop. ΔΒ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.46]. and unequally at D. the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. 1. ΕΖ παράλληλος πάλιν ἤχθω ἡ ΚΜ. Proposition 5‡ ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνῳ. plus the square on CD. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) DF . parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop.31]. the whole (rectangle) CM is equal to the whole (rectangle) DF .31]. and again let AK have been drawn through A. is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line). the whole (rectangle) AH is equal to the gnomon N OP .STOIQEIWN bþ. (rectangle) CM is equal to (rectangle) AL. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΘ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΘΖ παραπληρώματι. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. parallel to either of CE or BF [Prop. Thus. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΜ ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. the (figures) HF . which is the square on AB. between the (equal and unequal) pieces. And since the complement CH is equal to the complement HF [Prop. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΕ. But. let the (square) DM have been added to both. and twice the rectangle contained by the pieces. 1. ΔΒ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΘ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΜΝΞ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΔ.31]. if a straight-line is cut at random then the square on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΕΖΒ. and again let KM have been drawn through H. † This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2 a b. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. eþ.and CB. Let (rectangle) CH have been added to both. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ then the rectangle contained by the unequal pieces of the τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ whole (straight-line). Α Γ ∆ Β A C D O Ν Θ Κ Μ Λ Ξ Ε Η B H Μ K Ζ Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. is equal to the square on CB. ΒΜ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΚ. 1. Thus.36].

κατὰ τὸ Γ For let any straight-line AB have been cut. since AC is equal to CB. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΛΗ. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. and the said piece. 1. gnomon N OP is also equal to the [rectangle contained] by AD and DB. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and 56 . is equal to the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG. For DM is equal to DB. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) CH [Prop.STOIQEIWN bþ. plus the square on CB. ΔΒ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. Thus.31]. then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added. † through A. is equal to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been added. Therefore. and the (straight-line) having being added. Let (rectangle) CM have been added to both. Thus. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΘΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. Thus. ΔΒ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΔΜ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΝΞΟ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. If a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). which is equal to the square on BC. καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΘΖ ἐστιν ἴσον. the whole (rectangle) AM is equal to the gnomon N OP . But. σημεῖον· λέγω. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Let LG. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ at point C.43]. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) HF . Α Γ Β A C Λ Θ Η Κ L Ζ H Μ ∆ Ν B K G F M Ε D N E Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. and any straightline added to it straight-on. But the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square CEF D. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΜ ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AB and τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. zþ. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). the rectangle contained by AD and DB. (rectangle) CH is equal to (rectangle) HF [Prop. 1. and the square on the remaining piece. But. if a straight-line is cut in half. parallel to either of CL or DM [Prop. which is on CD. is equal to the square on CD. 1. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. have been added to both. ὡς ἔτυχεν. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΜ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. plus the square on CB. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.36]. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b) b + a2 = (a + b)2 . ἀλλὰ ὁ ΝΞΟ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. plus the square on half (of the original straightline). τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης περιεχόμενον ὀρθόγώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. AM is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῷ ΓΘ. at random. Thus.

(rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is the gnomon KLM . and the square on the remaining piece. and let the (rest of) the figure have been drawn. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 + a2 = 2 (a + b) a + b2 . 1. κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. as on one (complete straightline). 1. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ.3]. But. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΕΖΔ. and the said piece. is double the (rectangle) AF . Thus. are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. at random. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ ὅλῳ τῷ ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ ἄρα ΑΖ. For let any straight-line AB have been cut. Thus. If a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΒ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΑΖ. the (sum of the) squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. and let BD be made equal to CB [Prop. ὡς ἔτυχεν. and the square on CA. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας [τῇ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα] ἡ ΒΔ. and let the square AEF D have been described on AD [Prop. and the square on AC. Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. the whole (rectangle) AF is equal to the whole (rectangle) CE. ὅτι τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.46]. Let DG. at point C. which is the square on AC. let the (square) CF have been added to both. and the square on AC. and the square CF . 57 . Thus. 1. But. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΓΖ. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). 1. and the square CF . hþ. is equal to the square described on AB and BC. ΓΕ ὁ ΚΛΜ ἐστι γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον· ὁ ΚΛΜ ἄρα γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. Thus. the gnomon KLM . Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. ΓΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. † BC. For BF (is) equal to BC. καὶ καταγεγράφθω διπλοῦν τὸ σχῆμα. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ.STOIQEIWN bþ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. the gnomon KLM and the squares BG and GD is (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB and CF . Thus.43]. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. plus the square on AC. But double the (rectangle) AF is also twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ. the gnomon KLM . ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ [τε] δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. since (rectangle) AG is equal to (rectangle) GE [Prop. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ΒΓ. For let BD have been produced in a straight-line [with the straight-line AB]. and the squares BG and GD. is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is double (rectangle) AF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. which are the squares on AB and BC (respectively). are equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΒΓ· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. as on one (complete straight-line).46]. Therefore. the gnomon KLM . Thus. plus the square on the remaining piece. have been added to both. I say that four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ ΑΖ διπλάσιον καὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ. and the square CF . Thus. ΒΓ τετράγωνα· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). and let the (rest of the) figure have been drawn double. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΗ.

(square) CK is thus also equal to (square) KD. and RF are equal to one another. 1. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσου H L F Therefore. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα τὰ ΓΚ. 1. 1.34]. Thus. καὶ ἡ ΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ΗΠ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. (square) CK is equal to (square) RN . since CB is equal to BD. τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. So. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΜΠ τῷ ΠΛ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΜΛ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΑΗ ἄρα τῷ ΡΖ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΑΗ. but BD (is) equal to BK—that is to say. 1. Thus. which is equal to the square on AC. ΒΔ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΞΘ. ΗΡ. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is equal to the gnomon ST U . QL. which comprise the gnomon ST U . ἡ δὲ ΗΚ τῇ ΚΝ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΓΚ τῷ ΚΔ. Thus. and BD to KN [Prop. M Q. the four (squares) DK. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΓΗ τῇ ΗΠ. ἃ περιέχει τὸν ΣΤΥ γνώμονα. And since BC is equal to BD. ΗΡ. ἐδείχθη δὲ τοῦ ΑΚ τετραπλάσιος καὶ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἐστιν ἴση. is equal to the gnomon ST U . and the (square) OH. τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΓΚ. Let OH. for BK (is) equal to BD. and RN (taken together are) quadruple (square) CK. τουτέστι τῇ ΓΗ ἴση. ΓΚ. the four (taken together) are quadruple (square) CK. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΘ. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram CP [Prop. ΡΝ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ΠΛ. ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. the four (rectangles) AG. And since AK is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram M L [Prop. τουτέστι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ καὶ ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. τουτέστι τῇ ΗΠ. ΚΔ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ ΜΠ. and RN are equal to one another. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ΑΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And it was also shown that the four (squares) CK. KD. 1. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῂ ΒΔ.34]. τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN bþ.43]. (square) KD is also equal to (square) GR.36]. the four (taken together) are quadruple (rectangle) AG. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) M Q. Thus. ΒΔ τετραπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ.36]. 58 . QR is equal to RP . GR. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. ΒΔ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΑΔ τετραγώνῳ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΒΓ. GK is thus also equal to KN . But the gnomon ST U was also shown (to be equal to) quadruple (rectangle) AK. Thus. Thus. have been added to both. 1. since CB is equal to BD. are quadruple (rectangle) AK. ΜΠ. and (rectangle) QL to (rectangle) RF [Prop. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ τῇ ΚΝ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΞΘ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is quadruple (rectangle) AK. GR. But. ἡ δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ. and (square) GR to (square) RN [Prop. for the same (reasons). ὡς ἔτυχεν. but CB is equal to GK [Prop. plus the square on AC. But. and QR to RP .43]. Again. ΡΖ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τοῦ ΑΗ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. GQ—CG is thus also equal to GQ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΚ τῷ ΡΝ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΓΟ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΚΔ ἄρα τῷ ΗΡ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΔΚ. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΒΔ τῇ ΒΚ. the eight (figures taken together). ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ. ΡΝ τοῦ ΓΚ τετραπλάσια· τὰ ἄρα ὀκτώ. ΒΔ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι. But. And since CG is equal to GQ. and GK to KN . CG—and CB is equal to GK—that is to say. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BD. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Α Γ Β ∆ A C B Τ Η Μ Ξ Κ Π Σ Ρ T Ν M Ο O Υ Ε Θ D G K S Q R N P U Λ Ζ E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. Thus. (rectangle) M Q is equal to (rectangle) QL. καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΝ ἐστιν ἴση. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. τὸ δὲ ΗΡ τῷ ΡΝ. Thus. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) RF . CK. τὸ δὲ ΠΛ τῷ ΡΖ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ ἐστιν ἴση. ἡ δὲ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.

ΓΒ. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. For let CE have been drawn from (point) C. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. plus the square on AC. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). 1. Thus. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. jþ. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. is equal to the square on AD. plus the (square) on AC. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΑΒ ἡ ΖΗ. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ ὀρθή ἐστιν. 1. at rightangles to AB [Prop.31]. And since AC is equal to CE. and let EA and EB have been joined. And since the (angle) at C is a right-angle. EAC and AEC.3]. † the gnomon ST U and the (square) OH is (equivalent to) the whole square AEF D. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. ΓΑΕ. on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. the angle EAC is also equal to the (angle) AEC [Prop. (parallel) to AB [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. And BD (is) equal to BC. Ε Η Α Γ E Ζ ∆ G Β A Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. εἱς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. 1.31]. as on one (complete straight-line). ΕΒ. and (let) F G (have been drawn) through (point) F . καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: 4 (a + b) a + b2 = [(a + b) + a]2 . ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ. which is on AD. 1. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. as on one (complete straight-line). ΑΕΓ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν ἴσαι· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. And let DF have been drawn through (point) D. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ.STOIQEIWN bþ. Thus. is equal to the (square) on AD. the (sum of the) remaining angles (of triangle AEC). τὰ ἀπὸ If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square τετραγώνου. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. plus the square on the remaining piece. parallel to EC [Prop. and unequally at D. if a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line).11]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. that is to say the square described on AB and BC. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα.5]. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν C F D B For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. And let AF have been joined. is thus equal to one right- 59 . is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece.

Thus. πάλιν.STOIQEIWN bþ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a2 + b2 = 2[([a + b]/2)2 + ([a + b]/2 − b)2 ]. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τῷ ἀπὸ ΓΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. angle GEF [is] equal to EF G. 1. And GF (is) equal to CD [Prop. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. And they are equal. And the square on EA is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE. Thus. Thus. Thus. And the (square) on EA is also double the (square) on AC. ΕΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. 1. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. the (square) on EF is double the (square) on CD. So. ΔΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.6]. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. 1. the (square) on EG (is) also equal to the (square) on GF . τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΗΖ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ. the angle at B (is) equal to DF B.29]—the remaining (angle) EF G is thus half a right-angle [Prop. the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE is double the (square) on AC. ΗΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνου. ΔΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. Thus.29]—the remaining (angle) BF D is half a right-angle [Prop. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. 1. For angle ACE (is) a right-angle [Prop. Again. And the square on AF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on AE and EF . the whole (angle) AEB is a right-angle. ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. And since AC is equal to CE. 1. 1. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα [ἐστὶν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. for the same (reasons). For the angle AEF is a right-angle [Prop. ΓΕ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ. the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD.32]. ΓΔ τετράγώνων.32]. 1. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. Thus.34]. Again. So the side EG is also equal to the (side) GF [Prop. Thus. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. since the angle at B is half a right-angle.6]. the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. 1. 1. And since GEF is half a right-angle. † angle [Prop. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ· ἴση γὰρ πάλιν ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΒ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. the square on AF is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. since EG is equal to GF . Thus. the (square) on AC (is) also equal to the (square) on CE. the (square) on EA is double the (square) on AC. (angles) CEA and CAE are each half a right-angle. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. So the side F D is also equal to the side DB [Prop.47]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Thus. ΓΔ. the square on EF is double the (square) on GF . Thus. and (angle) F DB (is) a right-angle—for again it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. (angles) CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle.47]. And DF (is) equal to DB. 1. 60 . 1.47]. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF (is) equal to the (square) on AF . the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF is double the square on GF . τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and EGF (is) a right-angle—for it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. And the square on EF is equal to the (sum of the) squares on EG and GF [Prop. For the angle at D is a right-angle [Prop. τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ. ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ.47].32].

For let CE have been drawn from point C. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. And the (angle) at C (is) a right-angle. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. And since EBC is half a right-angle.11]. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ· καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς [ἐστιν] ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. 1. ἴσον ἐστὶ [καὶ] τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at (point) C. ΖΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. Ε Α Γ Ζ Β E ∆ A Η C F B D G Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. So. and let F D have been drawn through D. προσκείσθω δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ· λέγω.31]. 1. angle EAC is also equal to (angle) AEC [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. F EB and EF D are less than two right-angles. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. 5]. For it is equal to DCE. 1. and any straight-line added to it straight-on. ΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Η. ΖΔ εὐθεῖά τις ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΕΖ.31]. Let them have been produced. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. being produced in the direction of B and D. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added.5]. αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἀπεναντίον τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΗΖ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Thus.STOIQEIWN bþ. 1. and let any straight-line BD have been added to it straight-on. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. the (straight-lines) EB and F D will meet. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΗ ὀρθή· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· ἐναλλὰξ γάρ· λοιπὴ ἅρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΗΔ ἐστιν ἴση. EAC and AEC [are] each half a right-angle [Prop. and let AG have been joined. Δ μέρη συμπεσοῦνται. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 iþ. for the same (reasons). 1. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΕΖΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line).32]. as on one (complete straight-line). ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. the (internal angles) CEF and EF D are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. And let EF have been drawn through E. And BDG is also a right-angle. And since AC is equal to CE. καὶ ἐπεὶ [ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΓΑ]. ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. ΑΕΓ. and let them meet together at G. If a straight-line is cut in half. πάλιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΓ. and let EA and EB have been joined. 1. ΕΖΔ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. 1. parallel to AD [Prop. (angle) AEB is a right-angle. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. at rightangles to AB [Prop. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. ΕΒ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ.3]. CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. DBG (is) thus also half a rightangle [Prop.29]. And since some straight-line EF falls across the parallel straight-lines EC and F D. And (straight-lines) produced from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. Thus. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡμίσεια ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΔ. Thus.15]. parallel to CE [Prop. For (they are) alternate (angles) 61 . 1.

ΔΗ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. Thus.47]. Thus. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DG is equal to the (square) on AG [Prop. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. Thus.47]. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.47]. Again. the (sum of the) squares on EC and CA is double the square on CA. as on one (complete straight-line). Thus. ΓΔ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΖ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. And since [EC is equal to CA] the square on EC is [also] equal to the square on CA. Thus. and any straightline added to it straight-on. 1. 1. ΔΗ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and one of the εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. ΓΑ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνου.34]. Again. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. ΕΗ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the remaining (angle) DGB is half a right-angle. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. Thus. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line). Thus.47]. But it was also shown that the (square) on EA (is) double the (square) on AC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. since EGF is half a right-angle. † [Prop. And EF (is) equal to CD [Prop. And the square on AG is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG [Prop.6]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.34]. So the side GF is also equal to the side EF [Prop. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the remaining (angle) F EG is thus half a right-angle. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 1. And the (square) on EG is equal to the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E [Prop. Proposition 11† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ To cut a given straight-line such that the rectangle τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον contained by the whole (straight-line). πάλιν. 62 . the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DG is double the (sum of the) [squares] on AC and CD. DGB is equal to DBG. since F G is equal to EF . for it is equal to the opposite (angle) at C [Prop. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. Thus. the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E is double the (square) on EF . Thus. ΔΒ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.STOIQEIWN bþ. angle EGF (is) equal to F EG. 1. ΕΗ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΔ [τετραγώνων]. So side BD is also equal to side GD [Prop. and the (angle) at F (is) a right-angle. the (square) on F G is also equal to the (square) on F E.29]. ΖΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. the square on EG is double the (square) on CD. Thus. pieces (of the straight-line). τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Thus. the square on EA is double the square on AC.6]. 1. if a straight-line is cut in half. iaþ. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. 1. ΓΑ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. And DG (is) equal to DB. 1. And the (square) on EA is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EC and CA [Prop. the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετραγώνῳ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b)2 + b2 = 2 [a2 + (a + b)2 ]. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. Thus. 1. the (square) on EG is double the (square) on EF . 1. the (square) on AG is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD.

3]. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and one of the pieces (of the straightline). Thus. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΗΘ ἐπὶ τὸ Κ· λέγω. I say that AB has been cut at H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on AH. Thus. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΔΓ. Ζ Α ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Η Θ F Β A H B E Ε Γ G Κ ∆ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ.47]. 1. And AD (is) the (square) on AB. is thus equal to the square on EF [Prop. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Thus. and let GH have been drawn through to (point) K. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE. And HD is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BH. and let BE have been joined. ΑΕ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. 2. Thus. For since the straight-line AC has been cut in half at E. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. 1. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. plus the square on AE. So it is required to cut AB such that the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον τὸ ΖΘ. For the angle at A (is) a right-angle [Prop. the rectangle contained by CF and F A. ΒΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ δὲ ΖΘ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For AF (is) equal to F G.46]. plus the (square) on AE. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ τετραγώνῳ. and let AC have been cut in half at point E [Prop. For AB (is) equal to BD. Thus. And F H (is) the (square) on AH. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΑΕ. And F K is the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. κοινὸν ἀρῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΚ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. the remaining (square) F H is equal to the (rectangle) HD. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΘΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετραγώνῳ. the rectangle contained by AB 63 . plus the (square) on AE. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. And let the square F H have been described on AF [Prop. the remaining rectangle contained by CF and F A is equal to the square on AB. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε.10]. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. and F A has been added to it. the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE is equal to the (square) on EB. Thus. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. But. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ.STOIQEIWN bþ. is equal to the (square) on EB. K D Let AB be the given straight-line. the (rectangle) F K is equal to the (square) AD. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. For let the square ABDC have been described on AB [Prop. Let (rectangle) AK have been subtracted from both. 1. 1. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. Let the square on AE have been subtracted from both.46]. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΖΑ. ΖΑ τὸ ΖΚ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΔ. And let CA have been drawn through to (point) F . And EF (is) equal to EB. and let EF be made equal to BE [Prop.6]. 1.

And the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DB [Prop. ΑΒ τετραγώνων μεῖζόν ἐστι τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΔ τέτμηται. 1. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And let BD be drawn from point B. † This manner of cutting a straight-line—so that the ratio of the whole to the larger piece is equal to the ratio of the larger to the smaller piece—is sometimes called the “Golden Section”. ΔΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ προς τῷ Δ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the (square) on CB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB. Thus. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὥστε τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ.47]. Proposition 12† ᾿Εν τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπὸ τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. 2. and twice the [rectangle contained] by CA and AD. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD [Prop. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.12].STOIQEIWN bþ. AD. ΑΔ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. the square on CB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AB. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. ΔΒ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. perpendicular to CA produced [Prop. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. For the angle at D (is) a right-angle [Prop. 1. the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA. the given straight-line AB has been cut at (point) H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on HA. κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. Thus. For since the straight-line CD has been cut. 1. λέγω. at random. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΑΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ibþ. Β ∆ B Α Γ D ῎Εστω ἀμβλυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἀμβλεῖαν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. at point A. Thus.47]. In obtuse-angled triangles. ΔΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. So the square on CB is greater than the (sum of the) squares on 64 . ΑΓ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. Let the (square) on DB have been added to both. I say that the square on BC is greater than the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. ΑΔ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ΑΔ. and DB. the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν A C Let ABC be an obtuse-angled triangle. by twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. the (square) on DC is thus equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AD. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 and BH is equal to the square on HA. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. having the angle BAC obtuse. ΔΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΑ ἐκβληθεῖσαν κάθετος ἡ ΒΔ.4]. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ γωνίᾳ. But. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

the square on the γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. † This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 − 2 AB AC cos BAC. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. 65 . κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. κατὰ τὸ Δ. and DA is equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls.47]. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. ΒΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. ΒΔ· ὥστε μόνον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ ἔλαττόν ἐστι D C Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετραγώνῳ. BD.7]. 1. 1. ΔΑ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. 2. ΒΔ. I say that the square on AC is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΔ. ΒΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. But. perpendicular to BC [Prop. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ. ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ Thus. ΔΓ τετραγώνιος. and the square on DC [Prop. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Let the square on DA have been added to both. the (sum of the) squares on CB and BD is thus equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. And let AD have been drawn from point A. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ τέτμηται. the (sum of the) squares on CB. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. For the angle at (point) D is a right-angle [Prop.12]. by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. and the (sum of the) squares on AD and DC. since cos BAC = −AD/AB. For since the straight-line CB has been cut. In acute-angled triangles. at (point) D.STOIQEIWN bþ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. Thus. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. igþ. at random. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν CA and AB by twice the rectangle contained by CA and περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. ΔΓ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. in obtuse-angled triangles. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Α Β ∆ A Γ B ῎Εστω ὀξυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀξεῖαν ἔχον τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν. Proposition 13† ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. καὶ τῆς AD. having the angle at (point) B acute. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on BD and DA. ΔΑ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.

Proposition 14 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσαςTo construct a square equal to a given rectilinear figθαι. Συνεστάτω γὰρ τῷ Α ἐυθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. For the square BD. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνῳ. with center G.3]. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΒΕ. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. Therefore. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΖ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Η. in acute-angled triangles.47]. For let the right-angled parallelogram BD.10]. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. Θ H Α A Β Γ Ε Η Ζ B ∆ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ Α· δεῖ δὴ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι. 1. 1. and let EF be made equal to ED [Prop. and radius one of the (straight-lines) GB or GF . to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΖ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. and let it have been produced to F . καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΔΕ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. And if not. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. So it is required to construct a square equal to the rectilinear figure A. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. Let BE be greater. has been constructed. ΗΖ ἡμικύκλιον γεγράφθω τὸ ΒΘΖ. then one of the (straight-lines) BE or ED is greater (than the other). and twice the (rectangle contained) by CB and BD. Thus. since cos ABC = BD/AB. † And the (square) on AC (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DC [Prop. let the semi-circle BHF have been drawn. And let DE have been produced to H. 1. idþ. συνέσταται γὰρ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ δὲ οὔ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΘ. And. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΗΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. ure. and let GH have been joined. μία τῶν ΒΕ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. 1. This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 − 2 AB BC cos ABC. So the (square) on AC alone is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. Thus. since the straight-line BF has been cut— equally at G. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Η. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ.45]. equal to the rectilinear figure A. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ΕΗ E G F D Let A be the given rectilinear figure.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. equal to the rectilinear figure A. and unequally at E—the rectangle con- 66 . διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΗΒ. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. Therefore. if BE is equal to ED then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. have been constructed [Prop. And let BF have been cut in half at (point) G [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. the (sum of the squares) on CB and BA is equal to the (square) on AC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

Thus.47]. 1. the remaining rectangle contained by BE and EF is equal to the square on EH. Thus. tained by BE and EF . is thus equal to the square on GF [Prop.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΕΖ τὸ ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΒΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΕ τετραγώνῳ. ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. BD is the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . Let the square on GE have been taken from both. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετράγωνα· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὄρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ τετραγώνῳ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ τετράγωνον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. equal to the given rectilinear figure A. Thus. And GF (is) equal to GH. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΒΔ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ. For EF (is) equal to ED. Thus. And BD (is) equal to the rectilinear figure A. Thus. And the (sum of the) squares on HE and EG is equal to the (square) on GH [Prop. Thus. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on HE and EG. But. the parallelogram BD is equal to the square on HE. 2. plus the (square) on GE.5]. 67 . Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Α ἴσον τετράγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησόμενον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. is equal to the (square) on GH. plus the square on EG. ΕΗ. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . a square—(namely). that (which) can be described on EH—has been constructed. plus the (square) on GE. καὶ τὸ Α ἄρα εὐθύγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησομένῳ τετραγώνῳ. the rectilinear figure A is also equal to the square (which) can be described on EH. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

68 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving Circles 69 .

2.e. Definitions αʹ. 1. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΓΕ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. I say that (point) F is the center of the [circle] ABC. meeting one another. And the angle of a segment is that contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΑ. And let (CD) have been drawn through to E. ὧν αἱ διάμετροι ἴσαι εἰσίν. Circles said to touch one another are any (circles) which. when the angle is constructed at the center of a circle. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. ιʹ. whose radii are equal). ηʹ. Proposition 1 Τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. βʹ. 11. and straight-lines are joined from it to the ends of the straight-line which is the base of the segment. A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε τῶν τὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν περιφερείας. 5. For (if) not then. And let CE have been cut in half at F [Prop. 1. ᾿Εν τμήματι δὲ γωνία ἐστίν. do not cut one another. when any point is taken on the circumference of a segment. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. 6. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΓ καὶ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ε.STOIQEIWN gþ. Equal circles are (circles) whose diameters are equal. ἥ ἐστι βάσις τοῦ τμήματος. Διήχθω τις εἰς αὐτόν. A straight-line said to touch a circle is any (straightline) which. And a sector of a circle is the figure contained by the straight-lines surrounding an angle. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. ὅταν πρὸς τῷ κέντρῷ τοῦ κύκλου συσταθῇ γωνία. 1. And let DC have been drawn from D. GD. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ μείζων κάθετος πίπτει. or in which the angles are equal to one another. In a circle. ἢ ὧν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων ἴσαι εἰσίν. 9. γʹ. and GB have been joined. 4. ἥτις ἁπτομένη τοῦ κύκλου καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη οὐ τέμνει τὸν κύκλον. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν εὐθειῶν. Κύκλοι ἐφάπτεσθαι ἀλλήλων λέγονται οἵτινες ἁπτόμενοι ἀλλήλων οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους. the two 70 . ϛʹ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΗ.. And since AD is equal to DB. ΗΒ. and let (AB) have been cut in half at point D [Prop. 1. let G (be the center of the circle). 3. Μὴ γάρ.11]. at random. at right-angles to AB [Prop. And when the straight-lines containing an angle cut off some circumference. ὡς ἔτυχεν. δʹ. ἐπιζευχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαι. ῞Ομοία τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖαι ἀπολαμβάνωσί τινα περιφέρειαν. aþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 VOroi. So it is required to find the center of circle ABC. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. ἐπ᾿ ἐκείνης λέγεται βεβηκέναι ἡ γωνία. Τμήματος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. and DG (is) common. ῎Ισοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. 8.9]. And (that straight-line) is said to be further (from the center) on which the greater perpendicular falls (from the center). Let some straight-line AB have been drawn through (ABC). ζʹ. and the circumference cut off by them. ὅταν ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας τοῦ τμήματος ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὰ πέρατα τῆς εὐθείας. ΔΗ δύο ταῖς ΗΔ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. 7. Τμῆμα κύκλου ἐστὶ τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. the angle is said to stand upon that (circumference). To find the center of a given circle. 10. ὅτι τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. meeting the circle and being produced. if possible. θʹ. εʹ.9]. or whose (distances) from the centers (to the circumferences) are equal (i. ΗΔ. And the angle in a segment is the angle contained by the joined straight-lines. ἤ ἐν οἷς αἱ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Μεῖζον δὲ ἀπέχειν λέγεται. Εὐθεῖα κύκλου ἐφάπτεσθαι λέγεται. Τομεὺς δὲ κύκλου ἐστίν. straight-lines are said to be equally far from the center when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the center are equal. does not cut the circle. Let ABC be the given circle. and let GA. Similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles. ιαʹ. ΔΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΗΑ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἐκ κέντρου γάρ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ἔστω τὸ Η. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ.

each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. from this. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα. DG are equal to the two (straightlines) BD. ἡ μείζων τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.10]. if possible. Γ C Ζ Α Η ∆ F Β A Ε G D B E Τὸ Ζ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. Thus. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. The very thing is impossible. Thus. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line). let it fall outside (the circle). 1. and let two points A and B have been taken at random on its circumference. So. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν τοῦ Ζ. And let DA and DB have been joined. I say that the straight-line joining A to B will fall inside the circle. (point) G is not the center of the circle ABC. — ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. point F is the center of the [circle] ABC. the greater to the lesser. ΔΒ.STOIQEIWN gþ. and at ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Η κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. F DB (is) equal to GDB. similarly.1]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΔΑ. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line make adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ἴση ἄρα καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΑΕ μία If two points are taken at random on the circumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the points will fall inside the circle. And let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. For (they are both) radii. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. Thus. the angle DAE 71 . † The Greek text has “GD. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. bþ. we can show that neither is any other (point) except F . 1. since DA is equal to DB. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις So. 3. And the base GA is equal to the base GB.8]. and let DF E have been drawn through. For (if) not then. (straight-lines) AD. πιπτέτω ἐκτὸς ὡς ἡ ΑΕΒ. DG. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης in a circle cuts any (other) straight-line in half. angle ADG is equal to angle GDB [Prop. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Δ. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΖΕ. DB”. Therefore. Μὴ γάρ. like AEB (in the figure). (it is) manifest that if any straight-line εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. Pìrisma. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ.† respectively. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ. right-angles. which is obviously a mistake. καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας αὐτοῦ εἰλήφθω δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. Β· λέγω. Thus. GDB is a right-angle. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Let ABC be a circle. And F DB is also a right-angle. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. — (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and let it be (at point) D.

ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ.16]. has been produced. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. Thus. 1. In a circle. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. So. ΕΒ. gþ. CD. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference itself. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straightline makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. at the point F . and F E (is) common.10]. 1. points will fall inside the circle. For let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop.5]. DF (is) greater than DE. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. and. And DB (is) equal to DF . Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ.5]. cut in half some straight-line not through the center. 1. And DAE (is) equal to DBE [Prop. if two points are taken at random on the cirσημεῖα. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ τῆς ΔΕ. Γ C ∆ D Α A Ζ Ε F E Β B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. AF E and BF E are each right-angles. I say that (CD) also cuts (AB) at right-angles. the straight-line joining A to B will not fall outside the circle. and let EA and EB have been joined. δύο δυσὶν ἴσαι [εἰσίν]· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΕΑ βάσει τῇ ΕΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. 1. angle AF E is equal to angle BF E [Prop. angle DEB (is) thus greater than DAE [Prop.8]. Thus. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. Let ABC be a circle. Thus. the lesser than the greater. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τῆς περιφερείας· ἐντὸς ἄρα.19]. AEB. the 72 . The very thing is impossible. DB (is) greater than DE. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 πλευρὰ προσεκβέβληται ἡ ΑΕΒ. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ. ΒΖΕ ὀρθή ἐστιν. And the base EA (is) equal to the base EB. Thus. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ὅτι καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει.STOIQEIWN gþ. let some straightline through the center. ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσα τὴν ΑΒ μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαν δίχα τέμνουσα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. Thus. similarly. DEB (is) greater than DBE. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΔΖ. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. Thus. 1. (is) thus also equal to DBE [Prop. and let it be (at point) E. 3. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται cumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου.1]. (it will fall) inside (the circle). within it. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΓΔ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ δίχα τεμνέτω κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον· λέγω. AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And since AF is equal to F B. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. And since in triangle DAE the one side. two (sides of triangle AF E) [are] equal to two (sides of triangle BF E).

καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. which are not through the center. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ In a circle. τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας δίχα ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. cut one another at (point) E. since some straight-line through the center. Thus. such that AE is equal to EC. if possible. Again. Γ C Ε Α Ζ E Β A F B ∆ D ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΓΔ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τεμνέτω· λέγω. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. Thus. 3. And so let CD cut AB at right-angles. which is not through the center. since some straight-line F E 73 . and let F E have been joined. 3. Thus. that AF is equal to F B. Therefore. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι· λέγω. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΔ δίχα τέμνει.3]. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση· δύο ἄρα τρίγωνά ἐστι ΕΑΖ. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. ὅτι καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. AF (is) equal to F B. their common (side) EF . καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (straight-line) CD. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΖ. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. F EA is a right-angle. Proposition 4 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. in a circle. For. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. and one side equal to one side—(namely). since EA is equal to EB. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. and within it. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. ΕΖΒ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΕΖ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. F E. 1. and let it be (at point) F . Thus. And the right-angle AF E is also equal to the right-angle BF E. angle EAF is also equal to EBF [Prop. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. dþ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. τουτέστιν. if two straight-lines. let two straightlines. That is to say. which are not through the center. cuts in half some straight-line not through the center. I say that they do not cut one another in half. I say that it also cuts (AB) in half.5]. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. it also cuts it at right-angles [Prop. AC and BD. and BE to ED.1]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ δίχα τέμνει. AC. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ· πάλιν.26]. For. 1. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. Let ABCD be a circle. And let the center of the circle ABCD have been found [Prop. which is through the center and cuts in half the (straight-line) AB. Thus. with the same construction. cut one another then they do not cut one another in half. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. EAF and EF B are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles.STOIQEIWN gþ. let them cut one another in half. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. also cuts (AB) at right-angles. τὴν δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. ὅτι οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. subtending one of the equal angles.

let E be (the common center).STOIQEIWN gþ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. Thus. if possible. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΗ κύκλου. and let EF G have been drawn through (the two circles). EC is equal to EG. AC and BD do not cut one another in half. 3.3]. EF is also equal to EG. cut one another then they do not cut δεῖξαι. at random. the same center. Again. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. Γ σημεῖα. λέγω. if two straight-lines. ∆ Ζ Α D F A E Ε Γ Β C B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα Thus. it also cuts it at rightἀλλήλας δίχα. which are not τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. eþ. I say that they will not have the same center. ἵση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΖ. ΒΔ τέμνουσιν cuts in half some straight-line BD. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα· ὅπερ ἔδει through the center. The very thing is impossible. one another in half. οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Α A Γ ∆ D Ε Β C E B Ζ Η F G Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. οὐκ ἔστιν For let the two circles ABC and CDG cut one another at points B and C. Thus. the lesser to the greater. point E is not 74 . ὡς ἔτυχεν. F EB (is) a right-angle. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. in a circle. ΓΔΗ κύκλων. F EA (is) equal to F EB. since point E is the center of the circle CDG. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΗ· ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΕΓ καὶ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΕΖ ἄρα τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. The very thing is impossible. Thus. πάλιν. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. ἔστω τὸ Ε. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΖΗ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. Thus. and let EC have been joined. For. But EC was also shown (to be) equal to EF . But F EA was also shown (to be) a right-angle. EC is equal to EF . ΓΔΗ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλους κατὰ τὰ Β. the lesser to the greater. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And since point E is the center of the circle ABC. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles cut one another then they will not have τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. angles [Prop.

ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDG. F C is equal to F B. If some point. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. The very thing is impossible. ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΖΕ ἄρα τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. since point F is the center of the circle CDE. Thus. F C is equal to F E. Again. Thus. Therefore. if two circles cut one another then they will not have the same center. if two circles touch one another then they will not have the same center. And for the others. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ὡς ἔτυχεν. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. zþ. a (straightline) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΕ. have the same center. But F C was shown (to be) equal to F B. and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. F E is also equal to F B. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. and let F EB have been drawn through (the two circles). þ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. since point F is the center of the circle ABC.STOIQEIWN gþ. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. let F be (the common center). For. at random. Thus. point F is not the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDE. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and some straightlines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. Γ C Ζ F Ε E Β ∆ B D Α A Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ΓΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. For let the two circles ABC and CDE touch one another at point C. I say that they will not have the same center. Thus. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. which is not the center of the circle. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. and let F C have been joined. (one) on each 75 . ΓΔΕ κύκλων. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΕ κύκλου. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles touch one another then they will not τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. if possible. the lesser to the greater. is taken on the diameter of a circle. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ. πάλιν. καὶ διήχθω. ἡ ΖΕΒ.

and F C than F G. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν. ΕΖ τῆς ΒΖ μείζονές εἰσιν. F C. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἔστω τὸ Ε. CE. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΕ. since BE is equal to CE. συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΘ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΕΘ. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Again. ΖΕ τῆς ΕΗ μείζονές εἰσιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΖΗ ἴση ἐστίν. AF (is) greater than BF . ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΖΑ. αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. ἐπεὶ αἱ ΗΖ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΘ. And AE (is) equal to BE [thus. Therefore. F D the least.20]. Λέγω. F D the least. μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΖΑ. EF are equal to the two (straightlines) CE. radiate from F towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΕΖ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ βάσει τῇ ΖΘ ἴση ἐστίν. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line) F D. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ μείζων. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΔ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. But. ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου δύο μόνον ἴσαι προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΖΔ ἐλαχίστης. angle BEF (is) also greater than angle CEF . and EG (is) equal to ED. And let some straight-lines. and let some point F . αἱ ἄρα ΗΖ. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. BE and EF is equal to AF ]. Πάλιν.23]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (side) of the least (straight-line). since GF and F E are greater than EG [Prop. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ. and F B (is) greater than F C. and F C than F G. EF (respectively). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΕΔ. CF is also greater than F G. Thus. Thus. and GE have been joined. the two (straight-lines) BE. equal to angle GEF . F B. οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἑτέρα τις Let ABCD be a circle. the base BF is greater than the base CF [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΖΗ· λέγω. λέγω δή. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΕΖ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΗΖ λοιπῆς τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν. GF and F E are thus greater than ED. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΖΒ. and F G. F A (is) the greatest (straight-line). Let EF have been taken from both. So. for the same (reasons). κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. Let E be the center of the circle. since GE is equal to EH. I say that F A is the greatest (straight-line). ὅτι τῇ ΖΗ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῇ ἀπώτερον ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΘΕ. Thus. Again. For let the (angle) F EH. ΓΕ. and let F H have been joined. And since for every triangle (any) two sides are greater than the remaining (side) [Prop. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. Γ C Η Β Α G B Ζ Ε Κ ∆ A F D E H Θ K ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. have been taken on AD. πάλιν. ΗΕ. have been constructed on the straight-line EF .24]. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. προσπιπτέτω ἡ ΖΚ. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ.20]. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΕ. 1. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. and of the others. 1. and F E (is) common. 1. I also say that from point F only two equal (straightlines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. and EF (is) common. which is not the center of the circle. F B (is) greater than F C. ΖΓ.‡ Thus. καὶ ἡ ΖΚ ἄρα τῇ ΖΘ ἐστιν ἴση. the remainder GF is greater than the remainder F D. δύο δὴ αἱ ΗΕ. ΖΕ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. at the point E on it [Prop. EB and EF is thus greater than BF . ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΖΗ [ἴση ἐστίν]. For let BE. the base BF is greater than the base CF . 76 . 1. Thus. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. ἀλλὰ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ μείζων· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσεως τῆς ΓΖ μείζων ἐστίν. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶ τῇ ΑΖ]· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῆς ΒΖ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ [αἱ ἄρα ΒΕ. and let AD be its diameter.

And angle GEF (is) equal to angle HEF . ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ. and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle.4]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἴση τῇ ΗΖ· μία ἄρα μόνη. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. ὡς ἔτυχεν. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). Thus. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the same point towards the (circumference of the) circle. λέγω. and DC. one of which (passes) through the center. For the others. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. EF (respectively). except by reference to the figure. the nearer to the (straight-line) through the center equal to the further away. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. For. in an angular sense. F K is thus also equal to F H. τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ΔΓ. let F K (so) radiate. the two (straight-lines) GE. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. the least is that between the point and the diameter. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. Let ABC be a circle. and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). For the others. another (straight-line) equal to GF will not radiate from the point F towards (the circumference of) the circle. and from it let some straight-lines. the base F G is equal to the base F H [Prop. ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. DF . καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ διήχθωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΔΑ. DA. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. and let some point D have been taken outside ABC. DE. καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. the remainder (being) random. Thus.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. ‡ This is not proved. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. I say that for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of 77 . ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. † Presumably. have been drawn through (the circle). (there is) only one (such straight-line). τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν ΘΛΚΗ κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΔΗ ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου τῆς ΑΗ. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. ἔστω δὲ ἡ ΔΑ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. but F H [is equal] to F G. if possible. hþ. So I say that another (straightline) equal to F G will not radiate towards (the circumference of) the circle from point F . 1. then for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. The very thing (is) impossible. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. ἀεὶ δὲ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης ἐλάττων ἐστὶ τῆς ἀπώτερον. ὅτι τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν ΑΕΖΓ κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΔΑ. And for the others. a (straight-line) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than one further away. and let DA be through the center. ἡ δὲ ΔΛ If some point is taken outside a circle. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. and some straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. And since F K is equal to F G. ΔΕ. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. is taken on the diameter of a circle. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). which is not the center of the circle. αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. if some point. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) HE. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. ΔΖ. Thus.

(namely) AD. M D. the) circumference. αἱ ΕΜ. AD is equal to EM and M D. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΖΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζων ἐστίν· μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΑ. EM and M D is greater than ED [Prop. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΕ τῇ ΜΖ. So. AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). ∆ D Θ Λ Κ Η Β Γ H L K G B C N Ν Ζ F Μ M E Ε Α A Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Μ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. the base ED is greater than the base F D [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΜΖ. the least is the one between the point and the diameter AG. and (that) DE (is) greater than DF . and M H have been joined. and DF than DC. and DF than DC. ΜΔ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν· καὶ ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΗ τῇ ΜΚ. M L.‡ Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΜΚ. αἱ ἄρα ΜΚ.20]. ΜΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΜ. πάλιν. (namely) DG. Thus. and DE (is) greater than DF . ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ΕΜ. M C. δύο δὴ αἱ ΚΜ. ΜΚ. M F . M K. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. So GD is less than KD.24]. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. And angle EM D is greater than angle F M D. ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ.21]. And since in triangle M LD. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΚΔ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὥστε ἡ ΗΔ τῆς ΚΔ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΜΛΔ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΜΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάθησαν αἱ ΜΚ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. ἐλάττων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ ἡ δὲ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ. then M K and KD are thus less than M L and LD [Prop. similarly. ΚΔ τῆς ΜΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. DG (is) the least (straight-line). the remainder KD is thus greater than the remainder GD. And since M K and KD is greater than M D [Prop. M D. the greatest is the one (passing) through the center. But. ὅτι καὶ δύο μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης· συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΜΔ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Μ τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΜΒ. Thus. ΜΔ. ΜΔ For let the center of the circle have been found [Prop. and DK (is) less than DL. ΚΔ. 1. AD is also greater than ED. 3. and M G (is) equal to M K. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΜΔ· ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ΕΜ. ΚΔ τῶν ΜΛ. since M E is equal to M F . ΜΛ.20]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΒ. Λέγω. and DL than than DH. we can show that F D is also greater than CD. and M D (is) common.STOIQEIWN gþ. HLKG. we can show that DL is also less than DH. ΜΔ ἄρα ταῖς ΖΜ. the two internal straight-lines M K and KD were constructed on one of the sides. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΜ τῇ ΕΜ. And M K (is) equal to M L. and DL than DH. ΛΔ ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΛ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ λοιπῆς τῆς ΔΛ ἐλάττων ἐστίν.1]. ΜΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΜΔ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΜΔ μείζων ἐστίν. ΜΘ. 1. And since AM is equal to EM . and let it be (at point) M [Prop. ΜΓ. Again. and a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG is always less than one farther away. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῆς ΔΘ. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ. Thus. AEF C. similarly. 1. let M D have been added to both. 1. 3. Thus.1]. M D are thus equal to F M . (so that) DK (is less) than DL. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ βάσεως τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. the (straight-lines) EM . ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· ἐλαχίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΗ. I also say that only two equal (straight-lines) will radi- 78 . So. the remainder DK is less than the remainder DL. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. And let M E.

For the others. not more than two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABC from point D. προσπιπτέτω καὶ ἔστω ἡ ΔΝ. and let more than two equal straight-lines. the least is that between the point and the diameter. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου.STOIQEIWN gþ. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straightline) through the center is always greater than one further away. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ.23]. ‡ This is not proved. ΔΒ. 1. Thus. (so that) a (straightline) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG [is] equal to one further away. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. jþ. And since M K is equal to M B. the two (straight-lines) KM . The very thing was shown (to be) impossible. but DK is equal to DB. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. [So] I say that another (straightline) equal to DK will not radiate towards the (circumference of the) circle from point D. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης τῇ ἀπώτερον [ἐστιν] ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον ἐδείχθη. the remainder (being) random. then DB is thus also equal to DN . respectively. ὅτι τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and DC. If some point is taken inside a circle. τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντου. except by reference to the figure. one of which (passes) through the center. Presumably. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΑ. For. ἀπο δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. ἐντὸς δὲ αὐτοῦ σημεῖον τὸ Δ. Therefore. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. M D are equal to the two (straightlines) BM . and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. λέγω [δή]. ὡς ἔτυχεν. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. οὐκ ἄρα πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης προσπεσοῦνται. Let ABC be a circle. and let it be DN . DB. equal to angle KM D. Thus. (one) on each side of the least (straightline) DG. (one) on each (side) on the least (straight-line). Thus. ὅτι τῇ ΔΚ εὐθείᾳ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου. M D. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let DB have been joined. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. then for the straightlines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. at the point M on it [Prop. DG. For the others. the base DK is equal to the base DB [Prop. if some point is taken outside a circle. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. 1. radiate from D towards (the circumference of) circle ABC. Proposition 9 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. † ate from point D towards (the circumference of) the circle. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. ΔΓ· λέγω. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. and M D (is) common. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΜΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση.4]. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). have been constructed on the straight-line M D. Let the angle DM B. since DK is equal to DN . then the point taken is the center of the circle. and D a point inside it. if possible. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. let (such a straight-line) radiate. 79 . in an angular sense. DA. And angle KM D (is) equal to angle BM D.

Thus. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. 1. let them (then) have been cut in half at points K and L (respectively). ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΑ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 I say that point D is the center of circle ABC. For. G. And the straight-lines GK and HL have no common (point) other than point D. and at right-angles. and L. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΘΛ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. And BH and BG being joined. Thus. καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον κοινὸν ἔχουσιν αἱ ΗΚ. ED are equal to the two (straight-lines) BE. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΔ. for the same (reasons). since AE is equal to EB. ΕΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΕ. if some straight-line in a circle cuts some (other) straight-line in half. Proposition 10 Κύκλος κύκλον οὐ τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο. iþ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ.STOIQEIWN gþ. let the circle ABC cut the circle DEF at more than two points. ΖΔ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Η. H. then the point taken is the center of the circle. B. K. ED (respectively). ἐπὶ τῆς ΗΚ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. 1. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. 80 . and at right-angles. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. And the base DA (is) equal to the base DB.]. ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα τε καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. A circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. For let AB and BC have been joined. ΒΗ δίχα τεμνέσθωσαν κατὰ τὰ Κ. And since. Ζ σημεῖα. Ε σημεῖα. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ΛΜ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Α. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΔ. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλον τὸν ΔΕΖ τεμνέτω κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο τὰ Β. Ζ. Κ. ΘΛ εὐθεῖαι ἢ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· τὸ Δ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. point D is the center of circle ABC.10]. Thus. Θ. the center of circle ABC is also on HL. if some point is taken inside a circle. let them have been drawn through to points G. So. Λ ταῖς ΒΘ. καὶ ἐπεί. Η. angles AED and BED (are) each right-angles [Def. And ED and F D being joined. let them (then) have been drawn through to points A and E (respectively).11]. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line) [Prop. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τὴν ΑΒ τέμνει δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθάς. Thus. and (then) have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. ΒΗ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσαι αἱ ΚΓ.8]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΒΘ. the two (straight-lines) AE.1 corr. And KC and LM being drawn at right-angles to BH and BG from K and L (respectively) [Prop. the center of the circle is thus on GK. and ED (is) common.10]. Thus. angle AED is equal to angle BED [Prop. Λ σημεῖα· καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Κ. Therefore. Λ σημεῖα. if possible. GK cuts AB in half. Λ Β Κ Ζ Ε L B Γ Η F E ∆ K C G D A Α Θ H ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. 3. and H. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. Θ. F . ΒΓ καὶ τετμήσθωσαν δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε.

1 corr. the lesser than the greater. For (if) not then. Therefore. touch one another internally at point A. ΝΞ εὐθεῖαι ἢ κατὰ τὸ Ο· τὸ Ο ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. 3. 3. 3. I say that the straight-line joining G to F . So. Thus.]. καὶ ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα.20].]. the center of circle ABC is thus on N O [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΗΘ. Thus. being produced. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. 1. ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΝΞ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΗ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. we can show that P is also the center of circle DEF . and at right-angles. let F G have been taken from both.1]. Thus. and (the center) G of (circle) ADE [Prop. and their centers are found. it will fall upon the point of union (of the circles) 81 . GD is also greater than GH. ΗΖ τῆς ΖΑ. 3. Thus. then the straight-line joining their centers.STOIQEIWN gþ. a circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. If two circles touch one another internally. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. that is to say F H [Prop. and at right-angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And AG (is) equal to GD. if possible. For let two circles. Proposition 11 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. 3. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Θ H Κ Λ Ν Μ B D Β K Ξ Ε L N Ο O E P M G Η Ζ F Γ C ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΘ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. let it fall like F GH (in the figure). since AG and GF is greater than F A. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν αἱ ΑΗ. ΑΗ. will fall on A. ABC and DEF . being produced. καὶ κατ᾿ οὐδὲν συμβάλλουσιν αἱ ΑΓ. And it was also shown (to be) on AC. πάλιν. similarly. τουτέστι τῆς ΖΘ.1 corr. The very thing is impossible [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. since in circle ABC some straight-line AC cuts some (other) straight-line BH in half. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. have the same center P . and let AF and AG have been joined. And the straight-lines AC and N O meet at no other (point) than P . point P is the center of circle ABC. The very thing is impossible. ABC and ADE. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΔ· καὶ ἡ ΗΔ ἄρα τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεὶα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται· κατὰ τὸ Α ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς συναφῆς πεσεῖται. μείζονές εἰσιν. ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Therefore. ΔΕΖ τὸ αὐτό ἐστι κέντρον τὸ Ο· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὅτι καὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου κέντρον ἐστὶ τὸ Ο· δύο ἄρα κύκλων τεμνόντων ἀλλήλους τῶν ΑΒΓ. Thus. iaþ. the remainder AG is greater than the remainder GH.1]. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. since in the same circle ABC some straight-line N O cuts some (other straight-line) BG in half. two circles cutting one another. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται τῶν κύκλων. Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. the center of circle ABC is thus on AC [Prop.5]. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστίν. will fall upon the point of union of the circles. Μὴ γάρ. Οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Again. ἐπὶ τῆς ΝΞ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὸ Α πεσεῖται. the straight-line joining F to G will not fall outside (one circle but inside the other).

Β B Ζ F Α Γ A C ∆ D Η G Ε E Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. And F A was also shown 82 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.STOIQEIWN gþ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ. If two circles touch one another externally then the (straight-line) joining their centers will go through the point of union. ΑΗ. ABC and ADE. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 at point A. ibþ. [καὶ Thus. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κέντρον τὸ Ζ. I say that the straight-line joining F to G will go through the point of union at A.1]. Θ H ∆ Α D A G Η Β Ζ B F E Ε Γ C ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. since point F is the center of circle ABC. since point G is the center of circle ADE. ἐρχέσθω ὡς ἡ ΖΓΔΗ.their centers are found]. ἐδείχθη For let two circles. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΑ τῇ ΗΔ. 3. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. F A is equal to F C. will fall upon the point τῶν κύκλων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. and (the center) G of ADE [Prop. [being produced]. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐκτὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. and let AF and AG have been joined. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. of union of the circles. Again. [and ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα]. if two circles touch one another internally.1]. 3. ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΔΕ κύκλου. πάλιν. and let the center F of ABC have been found [Prop. GA is equal to GD. For (if) not then. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. Μὴ γάρ. Proposition 12 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. touch one another externally at point A. Therefore. let it go like F CDG (in the figure). if possible. then the straight-line joining γνυμένη εὐθεῖα [καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη] ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται their centers. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου.

it fell inside ABDC. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΘ τῇ ΘΔ· ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. 3. The very thing (is) impossible. if possible. Thus. πάλιν. and (the center) H of EBF D [Prop.2]. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη [εὐθεῖα] διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. D and B. the straight-line joining the points will fall inside each (circle) [Prop. For. So the whole of F G is greater than F A and AG. ΗΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὥστε ὅλη ἡ ΖΗ τῶν ΖΑ. But it was also shown (to be) much greater than it. And let AC have been joined. if possible.1]. ΑΗ ταῖς ΖΓ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τοῦ δὲ ΕΒΖΔ τὸ Θ. For. Thus. Thus. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ ἐφαπτέσθω πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Δ. the (straight-line) joining G and H will fall on B and D [Prop. κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΚ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Α. So. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐκτός. The very thing is impossible. 1. Thus. 3. K Κ Α A Γ C Ε Η E Θ Β G ∆ H B Ζ D F Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. the (straight-lines) F A and AG are equal to the (straight-lines) F C and GD. Thus. BH is equal to HD. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται. 3. But. ῾Η ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Θ ἐπιζευγνυμένη ἐπὶ τὰ Β. BG (is) greater than HD. (it is) also less [Prop. BG is equal to GD. A and C. 3. and outside ACK [Def. The very thing 83 . Λέγω δή. let circle ACK touch circle ABDC externally at more than one point. BH (is) much greater than HD. whether they touch internally or externally. internally—at more than one point. igþ. Β. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς οὐκ ἐλεύσεται· δι᾿ αὐτῆς ἄρα. since point H is the center of circle EBF D. (it will go) through it. ΑΓΚ εἴληπται ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑκατέρου δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. Γ. But. And since point G is the center of circle ABDC. Therefore. ἐπεὶ τὸ Θ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ κύκλου. since two points. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. And let the center G of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. ῎Επεὶ οὖν κύκλων τῶν ΑΒΓΔ. Again. Thus. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΚ ἐκτός· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. Γ. Proposition 13 Κύκλος κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ καθ᾿ ἕν. Let it fall like BGHD (in the figure). let circle ABDC † touch circle EBF D— first of all.3]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΓ. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς ἑκατέρου πεσεῖται· ἀλλὰ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ ἐντὸς ἔπεσεν. ἐδείχθη δέ. Δ πεσεῖται.11]. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΒΗΘΔ. if two circles touch one another externally then the [straight-line] joining their centers will go through the point of union. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ΖΑ. have been taken at random on the circumference of each of the circles ABDC and ACK. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle internally at more than one point. Thus.1]. I say that neither (does it touch) externally (at more than one point).20]. ΑΗ μείζων ἐστίν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐλάττων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 3. the straight-line joining F to G cannot not go through the point of union at A. (to be) equal to F C.STOIQEIWN gþ. A circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. Καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Η. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. A and C. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗ τῇ ΗΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΒΗ τῆς ΘΔ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἡ ΒΘ τῆς ΘΔ. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐντός.

a circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. ΕΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνία· τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ ἐστι διπλῆ· καί ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον ἐστίν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. through the center (of the circle). And let EF and EG have been drawn from (point) E.47]. the (sum of the squares) on AF and EF (is) equal to the (square) on AE. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. AB. Thus. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται· ὅπερ ἔδει externally at more than one point. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. EF . And let AE and EC have been joined. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ.12]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Κύκλος ἄρα κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα (is) absurd. And AB is equal to CD. And it was shown that δεῖξαι.1]. center are equal to one another. Therefore.3]. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on EC. CD is also double CG. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. ΖΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. † The Greek text has “ABCD”. whether they touch internally or externally. it also cuts it in half [Prop. For AF is equal to CG. cuts some (other) straight-line. τουτέστιν ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. and let AB and CD be equal straight-lines within it. λέγω. Let ABDC † be a circle. 1. Thus. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. and let it be (at) E. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις δὶα τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ. 3. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle ἢ [καθ᾿] ἕν. ΓΔ εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπεχέτωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. But. Proposition 14 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ In a circle. Thus. since some straight-line. not through the center. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΕ. neither (does it) internally. for the same (reasons). ∆ D B Β Η Ε G E Ζ F Γ C Α A ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ΓΔ· λέγω. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.47]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. 3. which is obviously a mistake. For the angle at F (is) a rightangle [Prop. ΓΔ κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. For let the center of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. AF (is) equal to F B. 1. Thus. the (sum of the squares) on AF and F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GE. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. the (square) on AE (is) also equal to the (square) on EC. perpendicular to AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι center.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΕΗ. For the angle at G (is) a right-angle [Prop. at right-angles. of which the (square) on AF is equal to the (square) on CG. I say that AB and CD are equally far from the center. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. So. equal straight-lines are equally far from the κέντρου. 1. Thus. ΗΕ. AB (is) double AF . ὅτι αἱ ΑΒ. AF (is) also equal to CG. Thus. ΕΓ. idþ. ἐν δὲ κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. And since AE is equal to EC. ΗΓ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. 84 .

1. which is obviously a mistake. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. κείσθω τῇ ΕΘ ἴση ἡ ΕΛ. ΕΚ. καὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τῆς ΑΔ διαμέτρου ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. 3.11]. 3. EN . ῎Ηχθωσαν γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰς ΒΓ. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ τῇ ΕΛ. ΕΝ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. and EG have been joined.† and F G further away. EK (is) thus greater than EH [Def. AD is thus equal to M E and EN .20] [also AD is 85 . ΕΝ. πάλιν. AF (is) equal to CG. with the same construction. ἡ δὲ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΓΕ. But. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ. M E and EN is greater than M N [Prop. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC. And since EH is equal to EL. The Greek text has “ABCD”. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ.47]. ΗΓ· ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴσον· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΖ διπλῆ ἡ ΑΒ. ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ταῖς ΜΕ. Proposition 15 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ μεγίστη μὲν ἡ διάμετρος. Thus.4]. and CD (double) CG. since AE is equal to EM . ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ. 1. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the center are equal to one another.14]. βάσις ἄρα In a circle. καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΕΝ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ μείζων [ἐστίν]. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΜ. 1. And straight-lines in a circle are said to be equally far from the center when perpendicular (straight-lines) which are drawn to them from the center are equal [Def. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. let EF be equal to EG. Thus. a diameter (is) the greatest (straight-line). and let AD be its diameter. Let EL be made equal to EH [Prop. And since BC is nearer to the center. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ· λέγω. So. And let BC be nearer to the diameter AD. in a circle. I say that AD is the greatest (straight-line). 3. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΜΝ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ.3]. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. Thus. and CD double CG. Let ABCD be a circle.5]. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ· ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ. ΕΝ τῆς ΜΝ μείζονές εἰσιν [καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΜΝ μείζων ἐστίν]. ΕΗ. For EF (is) equal to EG. similarly. let it have been drawn through to N . at right-angles to BC and F G (respectively) [Prop. But. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. For.STOIQEIWN gþ. we can. ΕΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν. τῆς δὲ ΓΗ διπλῆ ἡ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ΗΓ. EF (is) equal to EG. 1. That is to say. † Thus. F E. the (square) on AE is equal to the (square) on CE. the remaining (square) on F E is equal to the (remaining square) on EG. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΝ. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (square) on AE [Prop. And LM being drawn through L. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and E (its) center. Thus. Again. I say that AB is also equal to CD. and F G further away. ΖΗ κάθετοι αἱ ΕΘ. ΖΑ.47]. and for the others. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. 1. and BC (is) greater than F G. the remaining (square) on AF is equal to the (remaining square) on CG. of which the (square) on EF is equal to the (square) on EG. ieþ. let the straight-lines AB and CD be equally far from the center. ΖΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. ΕΝ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. AB (is) equal to CD. show that AB is double AF .12]. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΜΕ. a (straight-line) nearer to the center is always greater than one further away. And AB is double AF . ΖΕ. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΕΚ τῆς ΕΘ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ μείζων ἐστίν. AB and CD are equally far from the center. and ED to EN . καὶ διὰ τοῦ Λ τῇ ΕΚ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσα ἡ ΛΜ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ν. equal straight-lines are equally far from the center. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ μὲν ΜΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ. For let EH and EK have been drawn from the center E. BC is also equal to M N [Prop. And since AE is equal to CE. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on CE [Prop. Thus. at right-angles to EK [Prop. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. And let M E.

AD and F G are not necessarily parallel. and angle M EN [is] greater than angle F EG. This is not proved. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. will fall outside the circle. The very thing is impossible [Prop. and BC (is) greater than F G. except by reference to the figure. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΓΔ αἱ δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. τῶν δὲ Thus. Α A Μ M B Β Ζ Κ F Λ Ε K L E H Θ G Η C D ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα μεγίστη μὲν έστιν ἡ διάμετρος. if possible. iþ. Μὴ γάρ. καὶ εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται.STOIQEIWN gþ. 1. like CA (in the figure). ΑΓΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. M N was shown (to be) equal to BC [(so) BC is also greater than F G]. Thus. μεγίστη μὲν is greater than BC. Thus. For (if) not then. EG (respectively). 1. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. And since the two (straight-lines) ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ διάμετρος. Since DA is equal to DC. But. from its end. And another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the (aforementioned) straight-line and the circumference. the (straight-line) drawn from point A. center is always greater than one further away. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ greater than M N ].17]. rather than ”to the diameter AD”. ᾿Επεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΓ. So. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας· ἐκτὸς ἄρα. 1. at right-angles 86 . and let DC have been joined. since BC. And DAC (is) a right-angle. Thus. ACD (is) also a right-angle. I say that the (straight-line) drawn from A. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. a diameter (is) the greatest (straightἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν· line).11]. AD ἐδείχθη ἴση [καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν]. at right-angles to AB [Prop 1. and the remaining (angle is) less (than any acute rectilinear angle). καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. Ν † ‡ ∆ Γ N Euclid should have said “to the center”. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἐλάττων.24]. a (straight-line) nearer to the ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. will fall outside the circle. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. and M N (is) equal to BC. let it fall inside. Proposition 16 ῾Η τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. M E. πιπτέτω ἐντὸς ὡς ἡ ΓΑ. And the angle of the semi-circle is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ περὶ κέντρον τὸ Δ καὶ διάμετρον τὴν ΑΒ· λέγω. angle DAC is also equal to angle ACD [Prop. the diameter AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). from its end. in a circle. in triangle ACD. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. and for the others. EN are equal to the two (straight-lines) F E.‡ the base M N is thus greater than the base F G [Prop. the two angles DAC and ACD are equal to two rightangles. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν.5]. A (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. Let ABC be a circle around the center D and the diameter AB. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἡ ΜΝ βάσεως τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν.

will not fall inside the circle. The very thing is impossible. then a straight-line can be inserted into the space between the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE—anything which will make (an angle) contained by straight-lines greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA.12]. AD (is) thus greater than DG [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΔ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάττων τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. 1. and let DG have been drawn from point D. ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 to BA. DH (is) greater than DG.STOIQEIWN gþ. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. Thus. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου ἐλάττων ἐστίν. And DA (is) equal to DH. if possible. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐπὶ τῆν ΖΑ κάθετος ἡ ΔΗ. But (such a straight-line) cannot be inserted. And since AGD is a rightangle. an acute (angle) contained by straight-lines cannot be greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ ἐστί τις γωνία εὐθύγραμμος μείζων μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας. Thus. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΔΗ. neither (can it be) less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. and the remaining (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE is less than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. Λέγω. Thus. 87 . For.19]. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. G A Let it fall like AE (in the figure). and DAG (is) less than a right-angle. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΘ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΘ τῆς ΔΗ. And I also say that the semi-circular angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. ἥτις ποιήσει μείζονα μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπὸ τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. let it be inserted like F A (in the figure). we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference. the lesser than the greater. παρεμπιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΑ. ὅτι εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΑΕ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. So. ἐλάττων δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τὴς ΑΕ εὐθείας. I say that another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line AE and the circumference CHA. οὐκ ἄρα εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. ἐλάττονα δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. perpendicular to F A [Prop. οὐ παρεμπίπτει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα τῆς περιεχομένης γωνίας ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἔσται μείζων ὀξεῖα ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένη. another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line (AE) and the circumference. similarly. (it will fall) outside (the circle). Β B Γ C ∆ D H Θ Ζ Ε F Η E Α Πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΑΕ· λέγω δή. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straightline AE. ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΗ. For if any rectilinear angle is greater than the (angle) contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. 1. So.

For let the center E of the circle have been found [Prop. and let AE have been joined. Thus. I say that the (straight-line) AB has been drawn from point A touching circle BCD. ὁ δὲ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. given point. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΑ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ.4]. 3. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Ε. ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν πρὸς τῷ Ε· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν.1]. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΒ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. Thus. izþ. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ ἡ κατὰ δύο αὐτῷ συμβάλλουσα ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πίπτουσα ἐδείχθη]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For since E is the center of circles BCD and AF G.]. the base DF is equal to the base AB. and BCD the given circle. ΑΖΗ κύκλων. and the remaining angles (are equal) to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. ὅτι ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ. Let A be the given point. the straight-line AB has been drawn touching 88 . So the two (straight-lines) AE.2] ]. And let DF have been drawn from from (point) D. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Pìrisma.16 corr. So. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ.11]. AB touches circle BCD. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ ἄρα δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Α τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐφαπτομένη εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΕΒ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου. 3. And let EF and AB have been joined. touches the circle [and that the straight-line touches the circle at a single point. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΕΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΖΗ. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. And EDF (is) a right-angle. 1. Thus. ΑΒ· λέγω. (angle) EDF (is) equal to EBA. ΕΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. and ED to EB. And EB is a radius. and triangle DEF is equal to triangle EBA. EBA (is) also a right-angle. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΕΑ τῇ ΕΖ. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΒΓΔ. from this. EB are equal to the two (straightlines) F E. And let (the circle) AF G have been drawn with center E and radius EA. at right-angles to EA [Prop. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Proposition 17 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου ἐφαTo draw a straight-line touching a given circle from a πτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. from its extremity. touches the circle [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. EA is thus equal to EF . 3. ὅτι ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου [καὶ ὅτι εὐθεῖα κύκλου καθ᾿ ἓν μόνον ἐφάπτεται σημεῖον. from its extremity. A Α Ζ F ∆ Β D B Γ Η C G Ε E ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α. So it is required to draw a straight-line touching circle BCD from point A. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. 1. Thus. And they contain a common angle at E. inasmuch as it was also shown that a (straight-line) meeting (the circle) at two (points) falls inside it [Prop. ED (respectively). καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ.STOIQEIWN gþ. (it is) manifest that a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle.

καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΕ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΑ· λέγω. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς [γωνίας] εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. similarly. 3. if some straight-line touches a circle. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος ἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ Ζ. And let CA have been drawn from C. If some straight-line touches a circle. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) except F C.12]. And F C (is) equal to F B.19]. ihþ. and some (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the circle) to the point of contact. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. Proposition 19 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ κάθετος ἡ ΖΗ. at right-[angles] to the tangent. So. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Γ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω. Thus. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου.17].STOIQEIWN gþ. and let F C have been joined from F to C. ὅτι ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. For if not. Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. let F G have been drawn from F . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. the lesser than the greater. I say that F C is perpendicular to DE. since angle F GC is a right-angle. F C (is) greater than F G. Proposition 18 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΗΓ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. F B (is) also greater than F G. cle) to the point of contact. ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΗ· ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῆς ΖΗ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. at right- 89 . Thus. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. 1. The very thing is impossible. F G is not perpendicular to DE. and some ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. ὅτι ἡ ΖΓ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. F C is perpendicular to DE. 1. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 the given circle BCD from the given point A. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΖΓ· ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. Thus. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. A Α ∆ Β Ζ D B F Η Γ G C Ε E Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. Therefore. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the cirἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην.1]. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου If some straight-line touches a circle. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. (angle) F CG is thus acute [Prop. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. Εἰ γὰρ μή. Thus. perpendicular to DE [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ijþ.

I say that angle BEC is double (angle) BAC. if possible. Thus. And BEF (is) equal to EAB and EBA [Prop. Let ABC be a circle. and F C has been joined from the center to the point of contact. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. kþ. ΕΒΑ γωνίαι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ διπλασίους εἰσίν. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For (if) not. 1. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τῷ κέντρῳ αὐτοῦ γωνία ἔστω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 angles to DE [Prop. 90 . ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσα γὰρ ἡ ΑΕ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. ΕΒΑ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. And ACE is also a right-angle. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Thus. Α B Ζ Β ∆ A Γ Ε D F C E Μὴ γάρ. [Therefore]. ἴση καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. at right-angles to the tangent. and let BEC be an angle at its center. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. For being joined. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. angle EAB and EBA is double (angle) EAB. Thus. Thus. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. the whole (angle) BEC is double the whole (angle) BAC. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. I say that the center of the circle is on AC.18]. ἐχέτωσαν δὲ τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ· λέγω. if some straight-line touches a circle. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. Thus. Therefore. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and let CF have been joined. F is not the center of circle ABC. F CE is equal to ACE.11]. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. F CE is a right-angle. when the angles have the same circumference base. Proposition 20 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. since some straight-line DE touches the circle ABC. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. 3. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ ὅλης τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. F C is thus perpendicular to DE [Prop. let F be (the center of the circle). BEF is also double EAB. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν αἱ γωνίαι. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ. ὅτι διπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. since EA is equal to EB. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. we can show that neither is any (point) other (than one) on AC. the lesser to the greater. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΖ. and BAC (one) at (its) circumference. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. So. The very thing is impossible. similarly. So.5]. In a circle.32]. πρὸς δὲ τῇ περιφερείᾳ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. F EC is also double EAC. angle EAB (is) also equal to EBA [Prop. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. And let them have the same circumference base BC. 1. let AE have been drawn through to F. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. for the same (reasons).

καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι τῷ ΒΑΕΔ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. And since angle BF D is at the center. A Α Ε Ζ Β E F ∆ B Γ D C ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ ἐστίν. kaþ. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΔΕ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Η. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΖ. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. Thus. in a circle. when [the angles] have the same circumference base. Thus. καὶ ἔστω ἑτέρα γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. BDC. and let there be another angle. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. So. one another. and let it be (at point) F . ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ.20]. Proposition 21 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις In a circle. For let the center of circle ABCD have been found [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΒ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. we can show that angle GEC is double EDC. and they have the same circumference base BCD.1]. ΖΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Ε D E Γ Η C Ζ G F Β B Κεκλάσθω δὴ πάλιν. And DE being joined. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ΒΕΔ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον. ΒΕΔ· λέγω. the remaining (angle) BEC is double the (remaining angle) BDC. of which GEB is double EDB.STOIQEIWN gþ. similarly. I say that angles BAD and BED are equal to one another. and let BAD and BED be angles in the same segment BAED. let it have been produced to G. And let BF and F D have been joined. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. 3. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν [αἱ γωνίαι]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἔχουσι τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓΔ. and BAD at the circumference. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ Let ABCD be a circle. 3. angle BF D is thus double BAD [Prop. angles in the same segment are equal to εἰσίν. 91 . So let another (straight-line) have been inflected.

two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be constructed on the same side of the same straight-line. ὡς τὸ ΓΗΔ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and the segment AEB does not coincide with CF D. Therefore. For if the straight-line AB coincides with CD. ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΕΒ τμήματος ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Γ τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ. ∆ Γ Α D C Β A B ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΓΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΑΔΒ τμήματι. ΔΒ. ΓΖΔ· λέγω. Thus. since segment ACB is similar to segment ADB. kdþ. Ε E Α Β Ζ Γ A B Η G F ∆ C ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. outside (it). angle ACB is thus equal to ADB. ΓΔ ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων τὰ ΑΕΒ. The very thing is impossible [Prop. And if AB coincides with CD then the segment AEB will also coincide with CF D. and similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles [Def. then point B will also coincide with point D. and let CB and DB have been joined. then it will surely either fall inside it. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΓΖΔ τμήματι. I say that segment AEB is equal to segment CF D. καὶ κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἐστίν ἀδύνατον. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αἱ ΓΒ. equal to one another. Proposition 24 Τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις Similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are ἐστίν. the external to the internal. τὸ δὲ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ μὴ ἐφαρμόσει. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο τμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ ἄνισα συσταθήσεται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the straight-line AB on CD. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμοσάσης ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ. For if the segment AEB is applied to the segment CF D. ὅμοια δὲ τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας.STOIQEIWN gþ.11]. 1. ἤτοι ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πεσεῖται ἢ ἐκτὸς ἢ παραλλάξει. and a circle (will) cut (another) circle at more than two points. and point A is placed on (point) C.† or it will miss like CGD (in the figure). οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ D For let AEB and CF D be similar segments of circles on the equal straight-lines AB and CD (respectively). The very 93 . 3.16]. εἰ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμόσει. ACD have been drawn through (the segments). on account of AB being equal to CD.

῎Εστω πρότερον μείζων. Both this possibility. First of all. καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. DE are equal to the two (straight-lines) CD. the three (straight-lines) AE. the straight-line EB is thus also equal to EA [Prop.10]. and DE (is) common. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ῾Ομοίως [δὲ] κἂν ᾖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ΔΓ αἱ τρεῖς αἱ ΔΑ.23. For a given segment of a circle. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ΕΒ. Thus. Τὰ ἄρα ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. EB. 4]. 3. the very one of which it is a segment. καὶ δῆλον. and let EC have been joined.6]. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΕ ἄρα τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΑΕ. So it is required to complete the circle for segment ABC. and radius one of AE. And angle ADE is equal to angle CDE. 1. For let AC have been cut in half at (point) D [Prop. equal to.23]. κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος. and EC are equal to one another. And let DB have been drawn through to E. Thus. οὗπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. 1. 94 . and the (associated circle) will have been completed [Prop.10]. or EC. the base AE is equal to the base CE [Prop. a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. the segment AEB cannot not also coincide with CF D. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ. and let DB have been drawn from point D. For each (is) a right-angle. the two (straight-lines) AD. equal to angle ABD. And let AB have been joined. καὶ ἔσται τὸ Δ κέντρον τοῦ προσαναπεπληρωμένου κύκλου. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΒ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. keþ. it will also go through the remaining points (of the segment). ΔΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται.4]. ΔΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ· ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἤτοι μείζων ἐστὶν ἢ ἴση ἢ ἐλάττων. And (it is) clear that the segment ABC is less than a semi-circle. † thing is impossible [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΓ. if a circle is drawn with center E. Thus. ΕΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται προσαναγεγραμμένος. Thus. respectively. καὶ δηλαδὴ ἔσται τὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμικύκλιον. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. BE is also equal to CE. if the straight-line AB is applied to CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ· ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα. καὶ συστησώμεθα πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ C C Let ABC be the given segment of a circle. angle ABD is surely either greater than. οὖπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. because the center E happens to lie outside it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. are precluded by Prop. Α Β ∆ Γ Α Ε Β ∆ Γ A Α Β Ε B ∆ D A E B D A B D E Γ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. since angle ABE is equal to BAE. AE was shown (to be) equal to BE. ᾿Εὰν δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐλάττων ᾖ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΒ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΕΑ. let it be greater. Thus. similar segments of circles on equal straightlines are equal to one another. have been constructed on the straight-line BA. 1. Thus. ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἔλαττόν ἐστιν ἡμικυκλίου διὰ τὸ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν.11]. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΒ. And since AD is equal to DC. Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΕ. And let (angle) BAE. to complete the circle.STOIQEIWN gþ. DE. ΔΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. at right-angles to AC [Prop. 3. EB. and the previous one.9]. at the point A on it [Prop. and will be equal to it [C. τῆς ΑΔ ἴσης γενομένης ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. the very one of which it is a segment. 3. Thus. Proposition 25 Κύκλου τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. it will coincide. ΕΒ. Therefore. But. Thus. 1. 1.N. ΕΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΑΕ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. or less than (angle) BAD. ΔΕ δύο ταῖς ΓΔ.

a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴσην. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. segment BAC is equal to (segment) EDF . And since circles ABC and DEF are equal. HF (respectively). ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΓ. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς cumferences whether they are standing at the center or ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. 3.24]. ΗΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ. at the circumference. then the center will fall on DB. at the point A on it [Prop. And ABC will manifestly be a semi-circle. For let BC and EF have been joined. καὶ ἔσται δηλαδὴ τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα μεῖζον ἡμικυκλίου. Thus. And if ABD is less than BAD. I say that circumference BKC is equal to circumference ELF . Α A ∆ Γ Β Κ D Θ Η Ε G C B Ζ Λ K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. And similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are equal to one another [Prop. And point D will be the center of the completed circle. equal angles stand upon equal cirρειῶν βεβήκασιν.6] and DC. in equal circles. equal to angle ABD. Thus. GC (are) equal to the two (straight-lines) EH. equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείας ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. DB. ΔΕΖ καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι γωνίαι ἔστωσαν πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. their radii are equal. Proposition 26 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφεIn equal circles. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. ΕΘΖ. So the two (straight-lines) BG. whether they are standing at the center 95 .11]. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. and DC will be equal to one another. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ.4]. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ τμήματι· καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν [τῶν ΒΓ. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. H F E L Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. and we construct (angle BAE). and within them let BGC and EHF be equal angles at the center. Thus. 3. kþ. ΕΖ]· τὰ δὲ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ. And they are on equal straight-lines [BC and EF ]. ΘΖ ἴσαι· καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. on the straight-line BA.23]. Thus. ΕΖ. the remaining circumference BKC is equal to the (remaining) circumference ELF .STOIQEIWN gþ. similarly. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . 1. Κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. 1. And the angle at G (is) equal to the angle at H. (since) AD becomes equal to each of BD [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. inside the segment ABC. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ. [And]. the segment BAC is thus similar to the segment EDF [Def. even if angle ABD is equal to BAD. Thus. the three (straight-lines) DA. And segment ABC will manifestly be greater than a semi-circle. And since the angle at A is equal to the (angle) at D. ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος πεσεῖται τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΒ. ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. and BAC and EDF (equal angles) at the circumference.

But equal angles (in equal circles) stand upon equal circumferences. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Η τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΚ· αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. and let the (angle) BGK. and the (angle) at D half EHF [Prop. 3. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. cutting off the greater circumferences ACB and DF E. (Which is) the very thing which it was required to show. kzþ. circumference BK (is) equal to circumference EF . But.26]. the angle at A (is) also equal to the (angle) at D. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ΑΓΒ μείζων περιφέρεια ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ΔΖΕ μείζονι περιφερείᾳ ἡ δὲ ΑΗΒ ἐλάττων περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. at the point G on it [Prop. and the (angles) BAC and EDF at the circumferences. 3. Thus. and BAC is equal to EDF . and the lesser circumfer- 96 . standing at the center or at the circumference. and let AB and DE be equal straight-lines in these circles. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. in equal circles. have been constructed on the straight-line BG. I say that angle BGC is equal to (angle) EHF . Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. For if BGC is unequal to EHF . καὶ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. the lesser to the greater. when they are at the centers [Prop. The very thing is impossible. angles standing upon equal circumγωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. Proposition 27 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι In equal circles. Proposition 28 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α. I say that the greater circumference ACB is equal to the greater circumference DF E. ΕΘΖ. Thus. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. whether they are πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ· ἴση ἄρα. in the equal circles ABC and DEF (respectively). ΑΖΕ περιφερείας μείζονας ἀφαιροῦσαι τὰς δὲ ΑΗΒ. EF is equal to BC. and the lesser to the lesser. ΔΕΖ. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΔΕ τὰς μὲν ΑΓΒ. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε ferences are equal to one another. ΕΖ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς Η. Thus. (it is) equal. Thus. and the lesser (circumferences) AGB and DHE (respectively). ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. whether they are standing at the center or at the circumference. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΚ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. equal to angle EHF . Α A ∆ Θ Η Β Ε Γ D H G Ζ B Κ C E F K ᾿Εν γὰρ ἴσοις κύκλοις τοῖς ΑΒΓ. Let BGC be greater. In equal circles.23]. stand upon the equal circumferences BC and EF . And the (angle) at A is half BGC. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 or at the circumference. ΔΘΕ ἐλάττονας· λέγω. angle BGC is not unequal to EHF . 1. For let the angles BGC and EHF at the centers G and H. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. Thus. BK is also equal to BC. angles standing upon equal circumferences are equal to one another.STOIQEIWN gþ. Θ κέντροις γωνίαι βεβηκέτωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. one of them is greater.20]. Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. Thus. khþ. ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἐστιν ἴση.

ΚΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΛ. 97 . DL. Proposition 29 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι In equal circles. the remaining circumference ACB is also equal to the remaining circumference DF E. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΘΖ περιφερείᾳ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων. καὶ ἔστω τὰ Κ. cumferences. kjþ.26]. ΛΖ.1]. in equal circles. 3. Λ. KB. and let them be (at) K and L.1]. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι κύκλοι εἰσίν.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΔΕΖ. And let the straight-lines BC and EF have been joined. ΕΖ εὐθεῖαι· λέγω. angle AKB is equal to angle DLE [Prop. 1. and let AK. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. ΚΓ. Γ Ζ C F Κ Λ K L Β Α ∆ Η Ε B A Θ D G E H Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων τὰ Κ. Thus. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΓΒ περιφέρεια λοιπῇ τῇ ΔΖΕ περιφερείᾳ ἴση ἐστίν. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . and LE have been joined. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΚ. when they are at the centers [Prop. K and L. ΔΛ. ΕΛ. Thus. LE (respectively).8]. I say that BC is equal to EF . So the two (straightlines) AK. Λ. ΕΘΖ. And let BK. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. ΛΕ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΔΕ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΛΕ ἴση ἐστίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and within them let the equal circumferences BGC and EHF have been cut off. ΛΕ. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΚ. And since (ABC and DEF ) are equal circles. Thus. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΚ. καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι περιφέρειαι ἀπειλήφθωσαν αἱ ΒΗΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ence AGB to (the lesser) DHE. E F H Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. ΚΒ. Α ∆ A D Κ Λ K L Β Γ Η Ε Ζ B Θ C G ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. 3. their radii are also equal [Def. For let the centers of the circles have been found [Prop. KB are equal to the two (straight-lines) DL. ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. and the lesser to the lesser. equal straight-lines subtend equal cirὑποτείνουσιν. And the base AB (is) equal to the base DE.1]. circumference AGB (is) equal to DHE. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΓ. 3. have been found [Prop. Thus. For let the centers of the circles. 3.

And since AC is equal to CB. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. 3. 3. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. at right-angles to AB [Prop. and the lesser to the lesser [Prop. And let CD have been drawn from point C.STOIQEIWN gþ. and LF have been joined. Thus. LF (respectively). laþ. Thus. Let ADB be the given circumference. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. Thus. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· κάι ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ.4]. 1.27]. Thus. 1. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ. the angle of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) is greater than a right-angle. Let AB have been joined. 1. and the an- 98 . καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΔ.4]. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. And since the circles ABC and DEF are equal. the base AD is equal to the base DB [Prop. In a circle. To cut a given circumference in half. Proposition 30 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. and that in a lesser segment (is) greater than a rightangle. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. KC are equal to the two (straight-lines) EL. And let AD. lþ. CD (respectively). So the two (straight-lines) BK. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. And equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. 1. and DB have been joined. CD are equal to the two (straight-lines) BC. ΚΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΛ. ΔΒ. ΔΒ περιφερειῶν ἐλάττων ἡμικυκλίου· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΒ περιφερείᾳ. ∆ Α Γ D Β A C B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια ἡ ΑΔΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΔΒ περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. And since the circumference BGC is equal to the circumference EHF . the given circumference has been cut in half at point D.11]. the angle in a semi-circle is a right-angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.1]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΛΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. And they contain equal angles. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Thus. And angle ACD (is) equal to angle BCD. their radii are also equal [Def. the angle BKC is also equal to (angle) ELF [Prop. equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences. circumference AD (is) equal to circumference DB. the two (straight-lines) AC. and CD (is) common. So it is required to cut circumference ADB in half. For (they are) each rightangles. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς.10]. ΓΔ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΓ. And the circumferences AD and DB are each less than a semicircle. further. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ.28]. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΚ. ΛΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And. in equal circles. KC. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι τμήματι μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. EL. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 1.

(which is) less than a semicircle. angle ABC is thus less than a rightangle. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ΑΔΓ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας εἰσίν]. πάλιν.5]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΑ. (which is) external to triangle ABC. (they are) each right-angles. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1.32]. 3. and (angle) ABC is less than a right-angle. Again. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral within a circle. ΑΓ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. 1. is also equal to the two angles ABC and ACB [Prop. I say that the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. ΑΓ. Thus. 1. ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. [Def. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. And F AC. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 gle of a segment less (than a semi-circle) is less than a right-angle. ΔΓ· λέγω. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Λέγω. ΑΔ. (namely) that contained 99 . angle ABE is also equal to BAE [Prop.22] [angles ABC and ADC are thus equal to two rightangles]. is greater than a right-angle. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. AC. and let BA have been drawn through to F . τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν [αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. And since the two angles ABC and BAC of triangle ABC are less than two right-angles [Prop. Let AE have been joined. 1. ΒΑΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. since CE is equal to EA. Ζ F D ∆ C Γ A Α Ε E B Β ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. 1. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΑ. is greater than a right-angle. and the angle ADC in the segment ADC. And let BA. is less than a rightangle. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (which is) less than a semi-circle. I also say that the angle of the greater segment. and E its center. πάλιν. and for quadrilaterals within circles the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. AD. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνου δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΓΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περι- Let ABCD be a circle. and BAC is a right-angle. And since BE is equal to EA. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. (namely) that contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. And it is in segment ADC. angle BAC (is) also equal to F AC.17]. ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. And the angle of the lesser segment.5]. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. The remaining angle ADC is thus greater than a right-angle. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΕ τῇ ΕΑ. ΑΖ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. and the angle ABC in the segment ABC. Thus. And it is in segment ABC. ACE is also equal to CAE [Prop. the whole (angle) BAC is equal to the two (angles) ABC and ACB. the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας περιεχομένη μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς.10]. καί ἐστιν αὐτόθεν φανερόν. καί ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνία μείζων ὀρθῆς ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. and let BC be its diameter. and DC have been joined. ΑΓΒ γωνίαις ἴση· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα· ἡ ἄρα ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν.STOIQEIWN gþ. κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ.

καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου διήχθω τις εὐθεῖα εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τέμνουσα αὐτὸν ἡ ΒΔ. DC. A A D D C E C F E F B B Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΔΓΒ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς contact into the circle. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 φερείας περιεχομένη ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. and angle EBD is equal to the angle constructed in segment DCB. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς If some straight-line touches a circle. And this is immediately apparent. τουτέστιν. Again. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. the angle in a semi-circle is a rightangle. the [angle] of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) [is] greater than a rightangle. That is to say. Καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ For let some straight-line EF touch the circle ABCD at the point B. cutting it (in two). and that in a lesser [segment] (is) greater than a right-angle. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΕΖ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. is less than a right-angle. since the (angle contained by) the straight-lines AC and AF is a right-angle. ἃς (other) straight-line is drawn across. And let the point C have been taken at random on the circumference BD. I say that the angles BD makes with the tangent EF will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. at right-angles to EF [Prop. For since the (angle contained by) the two straight-lines BA and AC is a right-angle. that angle F BD is equal to the angle constructed in segment BAD. from the point of ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἴσας ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τμήμασι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίαις. further. λέγω. Thus. and some τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. And. 100 . ΔΓ.11].STOIQEIWN gþ. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΔ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. and let some (other) straight-line BD have been drawn from point B into the circle ABCD. those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. then ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις. And let AD. lbþ. For let BA have been drawn from B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας ἡ ΒΔ μετὰ τῆς ΕΖ ἐφαπτομένης. and the [angle] of a segment less (than a semicircle) is less than a right-angle. by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line AC. cutting the circle (in two). καὶ εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ περιφερείας τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Γ. the (angle) contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC is thus greater than a right-angle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. in a circle. ΓΒ. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι [τμήματι] μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος [γωνία] μείζων [ἐστὶν] ὀρθῆς. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. the (angle) contained by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line CA is thus less than a right-angle. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος [γωνία] ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

ΑΒΔ. 1. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. is a right-angle [Prop. αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτοῦ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. at right-angles to the tangent. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 κατὰ τὸ Β. have been constructed on the straight-line AB. Thus. on a given straight-line. ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΑ ἄρα τὸ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. And ABF is also a right-angle. the remaining angles (of triangle ADB) BAD and ABD are equal to one right-angle [Prop. at the point A (on it) [Prop. ἡ ΒΑ ἄρα διάμετός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ γωνία ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα ὀρθή ἐστιν. accepting an angle νον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. of which BAD was shown (to be) equal to DBF . and BA has been drawn from the point of contact. Thus. lgþ. ABF is equal to BAD and ABD. and C the given rectilinear angle. So it is required to draw a segment of a circle. 3. Thus. Thus. ῾Η δὴ πρὸς τῷ Γ [γωνία] ἤτοι ὀξεῖά ἐστιν ἢ ὀρθὴ ἢ ἀμβλεῖα· ἔστω πρότερον ὀξεῖα. the remaining angle DBF is equal to the angle BAD in the alternate segment of the circle. ΔΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. Γ Α ∆ Α ∆ C A Γ Γ Α D ∆ C C A D A H Θ F Ζ Ζ Η Ε F G Η Ζ E G F B Β B Β Ε Β E Ε ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral in a circle. accepting an angle equal to C.22].19]. a right-angle. Thus. DBF and DBE is equal to BAD and BCD. 101 D . the center of circle ABCD is thus on BA [Prop. Thus. BA is a diameter of circle ABCD.31]. 3. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ B E Let AB be the given straight-line. Let ABD have been subtracted from both. Thus. and CB have been joined. So the [angle] C is surely either acute. cutting the circle (in two). ΑΒΔ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.23]. and some (other) straight-line is drawn across. καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης καταγραφῆς συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. (the sum of) its opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. Proposition 33 ᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμεTo draw a segment of a circle. let (angle) BAD. from the point of contact into the circle. at right-angles to DA [Prop. equal to a given rectilinear angle. And since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABCD at point B. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ὀρθή· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ.11].32]. or obtuse. First of all. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐδείχθη ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΔΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. the remaining (angle) DBE is equal to the angle DCB in the alternate segment DCB of the circle. ΔΒΕ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. ἤχθω τῇ ΔΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΕ. being in a semi-circle. Thus. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. 1. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁφῆς ἦκται τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. if some straight-line touches a circle. 3. then those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. Thus. Let AE have been drawn. as in the first diagram (from the left). BAD is also acute. 1. let it be acute. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. angle ADB.13]. equal to angle C.STOIQEIWN gþ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. And DBF and DBE is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. on the given straight-line AB. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. 1. ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. And. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

1. But. the segment BAC. at its extremity. 3. from the given circle ABC. drawing a straight-line between the center and point B. Let EF have been drawn touching ABC at point B. 3.† And let (angle) F BC. Let it go like AEB (in the third diagram from the left). AD thus touches circle AEB [Prop.1]. at the point B on it [Prop. accepting an angle equal to C. a segment AHB of a circle. the angle in segment AHB is also equal to C. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἄρα τμήματι ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ [γωνίᾳ]. angle BAD is equal to C. a circle of center G. Thus. and D the given rectilinear angle. Thus. Thus. F BC is equal to D. will also go through B (as well as A). So it is required to cut off a segment. accepting an angle equal to a γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. 1. Γ Ζ F Β B C ∆ Ε D Α E ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABC. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. have been constructed on the straight-line F B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. has been cut off from the given circle ABC. 1.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. and then drawing EF through 103 .23].16 corr. given rectilinear angle.]. and radius GA. has been drawn on the given straight-line AB. from a given circle. being drawn. by finding the center of ABC [Prop. ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἄρα γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. And AB has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D.32]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 equal to the base BG [Prop. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΒΑΓ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. equal to angle D.4]. † A Let ABC be the given circle. and BC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact B. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Β ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΒΓ. Presumably. ldþ. And since AD is at right-angles to the diameter AE. But. Therefore. Proposition 34 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον To cut off a segment. Thus. Thus. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. angle F BC is thus equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment BAC [Prop. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΖΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ. angle BAD is equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment AHB of the circle [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. the (angle) in the segment BAC is also equal to [angle] D. 3.32].

cuts at right-angles some (other) straight-line. ΒΔ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εἰσὶν ὥστε τὸ Ε κέντρον εἶναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου.1]. ΔΒ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. since the straightline AC is cut equally at G. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. then (it is) clear that. AE. 2. In fact. so that E is the center of circle ABCD. So. and the (square) on F C is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF [Prop. leþ. Εἰ μὲν οὖν αἱ ΑΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. the (square) on F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF [Prop. Let the (square) on GF have been added [to both]. Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. AC. not through the center. ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. perpendicular to the straight-lines AC and DB (respectively) [Prop. and EB being equal. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΓ.12]. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. and unequally at E. the rectangle contained by AE and EC plus the square on EG is thus equal to the (square) on GC [Prop. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. I say that the rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. if AC and BD are through the center (as in the first diagram from the left).47]. and F E have been joined. So let AC and DB not be though the center (as in the second diagram from the left). in the circle ABCD. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. ΖΕ. the rectangle contained by AE and EC is also equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. 3. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΔΒ εὐθείας κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΖΗ. And let F B. φανερόν. κοινὸν ἀφῇρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. 1. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΓ. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (sum of the squares) on GE and GF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF . Καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΗΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. and let it be (at) F . ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E is equal 104 . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖαι δύο τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. Therefore. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ἐπεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. 3. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΗΖ. ΖΓ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F C. for the same (reasons). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. EC. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F B.3]. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ΕΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΕ. 1. Α A D ∆ Α Β Ε A Ζ ∆ B E Θ Η F D E Ε Γ Β H G C Γ ᾿Εν γὰρ κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. ΖΘ. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 point B. then it also cuts it in half [Prop. AG (is) equal to GC. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ· [κοινὸν] προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ.5]. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω.47]. τὸ ὑπὸ If two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. But. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ. Thus. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον B C For let the two straight-lines AC and BD. the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. Thus. F C. and let the center of ABCD have been found [Prop. cut one another at point E. DE. And since some straight-line. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. And let F G and F H have been drawn from F . ὅτι ἴσων οὐσῶν τῶν ΑΕ. Thus.STOIQEIWN gþ. Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. And F C (is) equal to F B. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. τοὶς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. at right-angles to the aforementioned straight-line [Prop. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΕΓ. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἰσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. GF .11]. through the center. 1. ΔΕ. Thus. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ.

καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ζ. [D]CA is surely either through the center. Thus. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. And let DCA cut circle ABC. and let F be the center of circle ABC. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἐφαπτέσθω· λέγω. And the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E was also shown (to be) equal to the (square) on F B. Thus. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DC is equal to the square on DB.STOIQEIWN gþ. ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ. And since straight-line AC is cut in half at F .6]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΒ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ. ῾Η ἄρα [Δ]ΓΑ ἤτοι διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἢ οὔ. (angle) F BD is a right-angle [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. will be equal to the square on the tangent (line). ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. and let F B have been joined. Α Β A Ε Ζ ∆ E F Α Γ Γ B A C Ζ C Β ∆ D F B D Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. between the point and the convex circumference. Thus. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F B is equal to the (square) on F D. Thus. And the (square) on F D is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BD [Prop. radiate from D towards circle ABC. 3. the (rectangle contained) by AD 105 . Thus. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the remaining rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. to the (square) on F B. and (one) of them cuts the circle. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. ΔΒ· καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. ΔΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ τετραγώνῳ. and the (other) touches (it). ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Let it first of all be through the center. Let the (square) on F E have been taken from both. if two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. And F C (is) equal to F B. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E. and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓ[Α]. Thus. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. and let BD touch (it). ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται. let CD have been added to it. then the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle).18]. Proposition 36 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. or not. If some point is taken outside a circle. and let two straight-lines.47]. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τὴς ΖΔ. lþ. ἔστω πρότερον διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F D [Prop. DC[A] and DB. ΒΔ. 2.

ἡ δὲ προσπίπτῃ. λέγω.18]. And DEF (is) a right-angle. and let two straight-lines. For let DE have been drawn touching ABC [Prop. ΒΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΖΔ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. and one of them cuts the circle. DE (is) equal to DB. between the point and the convex cirτοῦ κύκλου. radiate from D towards circle ABC. τέμνει δὲ ἡ ΔΓΑ. ΕΖ δύο ταῖς ΔΒ. F B. (Angle) F ED is thus a right-angle [Prop. and let it be (at) F . and DCA cuts (it). and the (part of it) cut off outἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. Thus. 3. DB touches circle ABC. κἂν τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυγχάνῃ. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. 3. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. A For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. DBF (is) also a right-angle. And let F E. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΔΕ. 3. So the two (straight-lines) DE. F D. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. and let DB meet (the circle). ΔΒ. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. and let the center of the circle ABC have been found. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) DB. And their base. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 νομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας line) cutting (the circle). καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν κύκλον.16 corr. ἦν δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 1. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. BF (respectively). Thus. DCA and DB. 3. if some point is taken outside a circle. angle DEF is equal to angle DBF [Prop. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται side (the circle). ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ. ∆ D E Ε Γ C Ζ Β F B Α Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΔΕ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου.]. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. ἡ δὲ ΔΒ προσπιπτέτω. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΖΒ ἐκβαλλομένη διάμετρος· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Thus. and two straight-lines radiate from the point towards the circle. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let DCA cut the circle. the (square) on DE is equal to the (square) on DB. (the same thing) can be shown. (Which is) the very thing it 107 .8]. and the (other) meets (it).17]. I say that DB touches circle ABC. Similarly. Thus. ἔστω δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. And let the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC be equal to the (square) on DB. even if the center happens to be on AC. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ ὀρθή ἐστιν. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓΑ. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is thus equal to the (square) on DE [Prop. is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). and F D have been joined. at its extremity. And F B produced is a diameter. ΖΔ. And F E is also equal to F B. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. And since DE touches circle ABC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΕ.STOIQEIWN gþ. between the point and the convex circumference. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of a circle. cumference. is common. ὅτι ἡ ΔΒ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Thus. And the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC was also equal to the (square) on DB. Thus. ΖΒ. touches the circle [Prop.36]. and the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straightline) cutting (the circle). ᾖ δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης.

STOIQEIWN gþ. 108 . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 was required to show.

ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Construction of Rectilinear Figures In and Around Circles 109 .

A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a(nother) rectilinear figure when the respective angles of the inscribed figure touch the respective sides of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. Κύκλος δὲ περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται.† 110 . (the latter straight-line) not being greater than the diameter of the circle.STOIQEIWN dþ. Proposition 1 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 VOroi. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση straight-line D. Definitions αʹ. ἅπτηται. To insert a straight-line equal to a given straight-line into a circle. δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ line (which is) not greater than the diameter of the cirκύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. ζʹ. γʹ. 1. So it is required to insert a straight-line. a (rectilinear) figure is said to be circumscribed about a(nother rectilinear) figure when the respective sides of the circumscribed (figure) touch the respective angles of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. ἅπτηται. 4. 3. and D the given straightμείζων τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἡ Δ. 6. equal to the ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΒΓ. ὅταν τὰ πέρατα αὐτῆς ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ᾖ τοῦ κύκλου. ὅταν ἑκάστη γωνία τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου ἅπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. βʹ. 7. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a circle when each angle of the inscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. δʹ. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. ∆ D Α Β Ε A Γ B E C F Ζ ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ Δ. aþ. ἅπτηται. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. A straight-line is said to be inserted into a circle when its extemities are on the circumference of the circle. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἐφάπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. ἅπτηται. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. Κύκλος δὲ εἰς σχῆμα ὁμοίως ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. Εὐθεῖα εἰς κύκλον ἐναρμόζεσθαι λέγεται. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. cle. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· ἐνήρμοσται Let a diameter BC of circle ABC have been drawn. Σχῆμα δὲ εὐθύγραμμον περὶ κύκλον περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. 5. Σχῆμα δὲ ὁμοίως περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. into the circle ABC. a circle is said to be inscribed in a (rectilinear) figure when the circumference of the circle touches each side of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. ὅταν ἑκάστη τῶν τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου σχήματος γωνιῶν ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. ϛʹ. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς κύκλον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. 2. And a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilinear (figure) when the circumference of the circle touches each angle of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα μὴ Let ABC be the given circle. εʹ. similarly. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. And. And. similarly. And a rectilinear figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle when each side of the circumscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle.

[Thus. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. And let CA have been joined. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΕ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΑΖ. Let GH have been drawn touching circle ABC at A. Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ C Η G ∆ Α D A Θ H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Therefore. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση [ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. Thus. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τριγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. on the straightline AG at the point A on it [Prop.23].32]. CA is equal to CE. if BC is equal to D then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. for the same (reasons). (angle) HAC is thus equal to the angle ABC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. has been inserted into the given circle ABC. equal to angle DEF . ἀλλὰ τῇ Δ ἡ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ Δ ἄρα τῇ ΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση. Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. since some straight-line AH touches the circle ABC. πρὸς δὲ τῇ ΑΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ [γωνίᾳ] ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. HAC is equal to DEF .STOIQEIWN dþ. And let BC have been joined. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 γὰρ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΒΓ. But. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. equal to the given straight-line D. εἰ δὲ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῆς Δ. the remaining (angle) BAC is equal to the remaining (angle) EDF [Prop. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διῆκται εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. equal to [angle] DF E. and then drawing a line through it.† And let (angle) HAC. and DEF the given triangle. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον]. ACB is also equal to DF E. 3. So it is required to inscribe a triangle. equiangular with triangle DEF . CA. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΑ. Proposition 2 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To inscribe a triangle. has been inserted into the circle ABC. and has been inscribed in circle 111 . Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΘ. Let ABC be the given circle. 1. gle. and let the circle EAF have been drawn with center C and radius CE. Presumably. bþ. For the (straight-line) BC. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΗΘ κατὰ τὸ Α. in circle ABC. in a given circle. angle ABC is also equal to DEF . Thus. † Therefore. equiangular with a given trianτρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. So. equal to the straight-line D.1].3].32]. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τὸν ΑΒΓ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ Δ ἴση ἐνήρμοσται ἡ ΓΑ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. CE is equal to D. since the point C is the center of circle EAF . and (angle) GAB. D is also equal to CA. 1. But. and the straight-line AC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΘ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ. triangle ABC is equiangular with triangle DEF . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν το Γ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΑΖ κύκλου. have been constructed on the straight-line AH at the point A on it. And if BC is greater than D then let CE be made equal to D [Prop. Therefore. κείσθω τῇ Δ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ. 3. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΓΕ. Thus.

καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Κ. M BN . 3. equiangular with the given triangle. Β. Γ σημεῖα. ΜΒΝ. Β.1].32]. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ABC]. 3. of which AKB is equal to DEG. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΚΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Κ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΑ. Γ σημεῖα ἐπεζευγμέναι εἰσὶν αἱ ΚΑ. and KA. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. equiangular with a given τρίγωνον περιγράψαι. and N CL have been drawn through the points A. is thus equal to two right-angles. † See the footnote to Prop. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγράψαι. touching the circle ABC. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α.STOIQEIWN dþ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ὀρθαὶ ἄρα εἰσὶν αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Α. Thus. ΚΒ. 1. Γ σημείοις γωνίαι.23]. Thus. So. And let (angle) BKA. about circle ABC. across (ABC). B. And let the (straight-lines) LAM . ΑΜΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. the (sum of the) remaining (angles). B. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΛΝΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΛΝ [λοιπῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΜΝ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ· καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. ΜΝ. Β. triangle. C N G Let ABC be the given circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Γ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΑΜ. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. it can be shown that LN B is also equal to DF E. AKB and AM B. ΚΒΜ γωνίαι. Let EF have been produced in each direction to points G and H. have been constructed on the straight-line KB at the point K on it. καί εἰσιν ὀρθαὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΑΜ. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Κ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰ Α. ΚΓ. καὶ διήχθω. has been inscribed in the given circle. and (angle) BKC. the angles at points A. ΝΓΛ. AKB and AM B is equal to DEG and DEF . gþ. 1. and N L touch circle ABC at points A. ΔΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. And since the (sum of the) four angles of quadrilateral AM BK is equal to four rightangles. And let the center K of circle ABC have been found [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΜΒΚ τετραπλεύρου αἱ τέσσαρες γωνίαι τέτρασιν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΝΛ κατὰ τὰ Α. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΚΒ. and angles KAM and KBM are (both) right-angles. the remaining (angle) M LN is also equal to the 112 . and C are thus right-angles [Prop. equal to angle DEG. ΔΕΖ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. about a given circle. and C (respectively). Proposition 3 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To circumscribe a triangle. similarly. Thus. ὡς ἔτυχεν. a triangle. ΑΜΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.13]. 3. And let the straight-line KB have been drawn. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐφάπτονται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΜ. the remainder AM B is equal to the remainder DEF . KB. equiangular with triangle DEF . Θ σημεῖα. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΘ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ. Β.† And since LM . And DEG and DEF is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ εἰς δύο τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται τὸ ΑΜΒΚ. Thus. and DEF the given triangle. and C (respectively). B.18]. equal to DF H [Prop. at random. M N .34. inasmuch as AM BK (can) also (be) divided into two triangles [Prop. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΕΖ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη κατὰ τὰ Η. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and C (respectively). and KC are joined from the center K to points A. B. So it is required to circumscribe a triangle. Μ Θ ∆ Ζ Α M H A Β Ε Κ D F B E K Η Λ Γ Ν L ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. 1.

The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. 1. ΓΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν. Ζ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται ὁ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. Ζ.34. EBD and F BD are thus two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. and one side equal to one side—the (one) subtending one of the equal angles (which is) common to the (triangles)—(namely). Η γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus.† will also go through the remaining points. καὶ ἔσται ὁ κύκλος ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. ΒΓ. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. 113 . the three straight-lines DE. ΖΒΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΔ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΖ. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. So. Α Ε A E Η ∆ Β Ζ G D Γ B ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. or G. F . triangle LM N is equiangular with triangle DEF . And it has been drawn around circle ABC. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δίχα ταῖς ΒΔ. DE (is) equal to DF . the circle drawn with center D. and CA (respectively) [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [remaining] (angle) EDF [Prop. and the rightangle BED is also equal to the right-angle BF D. 1. equiangular with the given triangle. ἔσται ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πίπτουσα τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη· οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. καὶ συμβαλλέτωσαν ἀλλήλαις κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. Thus. καὶ ἤχθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΒΓ. a triangle. Η σημείοις γωνίας.STOIQEIWN dþ. on account of the angles at E. ΔΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Δ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΕΒΔ. and radius one of E. Ζ. Thus. And since angle ABD is equal to CBD. F C Let ABC be the given triangle. BD. and will touch the straight-lines AB. ΒΓ. Thus. the circle drawn with center D.16]. Proposition 4 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. and let DE. 1. ΓΔ εὐθείαις. has been circumscribed about the given circle. 1. ΓΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΔΕ. Thus. from its extremity. dþ. Thus. and let them meet one another at point D. ΔΖ. † See the footnote to Prop. DF . ΔΗ. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. ΓΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. and DG have been drawn from point D. ἐγγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΖΗΕ. and CA. εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.26]. and radius one of E. BC. DF . falling inside the circle. ΔΖ.32]. Η κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. and G being right-angles. For if it cuts (one of) them then it will be a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. F . DG is also equal to DF . 3.12].9]. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἴση. BC. F . Let the angles ABC and ACB have been cut in half by the straight-lines BD and CD (respectively) [Prop. and DG are equal to one another. for the same (reasons). 3. So it is required to inscribe a circle in triangle ABC. Thus.

let DF and EF meet on the straight-line BC at (point) F . Thus. 1. BF . eþ. 1. Let it have been (so) inscribed. † Here. again at (point) F . meet inside (triangle ABC) at (point) F . So it is required to circumscribe a circle about the given triangle ABC. or DG.11]. ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ πάλιν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. ΓΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. at right-angles to AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. And since AD is equal to DB. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. ΖΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and let F B. E E E F C F C C Let ABC be the given triangle. Proposition 5 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. and F A have been joined. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τρίγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. B. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓ. again. So. similarly. and F C are equal to one another.10]. 1.4]. it will touch them and will be the circle inscribed in triangle ABC.STOIQEIWN dþ. So that F B is also equal to F C. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. similarly. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς δευτέρας καταγραφῆς. and DF is common and at right-angles. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Α. ΖΑ. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. ὅτι τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον περιγραφομένου κύκλου. Thus. Γ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. like in the second diagram (from the left). F B. Let them. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and in the following propositions. will also go through the remaining points. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. we can show that point F is the center of the circle circumscribed about triangle ABC. So. So (DF and EF ) will surely either meet inside triangle ABC. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι δίχα κατὰ τὰ Δ. like in the third diagram (from the left). the circle EF G has been inscribed in the given triangle ABC. the three (straight-lines) F A. DF . καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Δ. 1. Β. ΕΖ· συμπεσοῦνται δὴ ἤτοι ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἢ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας ἢ ἐκτὸς τῆς ΒΓ. ΒΖ. and radius one of A. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . on the straight-line BC. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου κατὰ τὸ Ζ πάλιν. ΖΓ. the base AF is thus equal to the base BF [Prop. Thus. BC. And the circle will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. So. ΖΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. And so. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας κατὰ τὸ Ζ. And let AF . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. like F GE (in the figure). does not cut the straight-lines AB. the circle drawn with center F . ΖΒ. Α Α A Ζ Γ Ζ B D Ε Ε D Β A A D Ε Ζ Β ∆ Β ∆ ∆ To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. Thus. and CF have been joined. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 or G. let DF and EF meet outside triangle ABC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΖΑ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὁ ἄρα [πάλιν] κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. similarly. and CA. F C. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. or beyond BC. καί ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. Ε σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. Thus. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος ὁ κύκλος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. like ABC (in the first diagram from the left). And. and DF is common and at right-angles.4]. And so. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Συμπιπτέτωσαν πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Ζ. the base AF is thus equal to the base F B [Prop. or C. ΖΒ. it is understood that the radius is actually one of DE. So that BF is also equal to F C. Ε σημεῖα. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς τρίτης καταγραφῆς. since AD is equal to DB. Α Γ B F B Γ ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλον περιγράψαι. 114 . Let the straight-lines AB and AC have been cut in half at points D and E (respectively) [Prop. And let DF and EF have been drawn from points D and E. first of all. And let AF have been joined.

So it is required to inscribe a square in circle ABCD. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. the quadrilateral ABCD is equilateral. and EA is common and at right-angles. So. ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. Thus. for E (is) the center (of the circle). Let two diameters of circle ABCD. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. BAD is thus a semi-circle. BC. ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. and F C. Thus. Thus. for the same (reasons). Proposition 7 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. zþ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. 1. and DA have been joined. and then drawing a second line through it. ΒΓΔ. And it will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. To circumscribe a square about a given circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. will also go through the remaining points. Proposition 6 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. λέγω δή. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγέγραπται τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. (angles) ABC. ΓΔΑ ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. for the same (reasons). and radius one of F A. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· κέντρον γὰρ τὸ Ε· κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΕΑ. And since BE is equal to ED. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. ΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. To inscribe a square in a given circle.1].11]. ΒΓ. Thus. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. ἡμικύκλιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία. For since the straight-line BD is a diameter of circle ABCD. CD. ΒΔ. So. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCD.31]. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν. ΔΑ. BCD. AC and BD. F B.STOIQEIWN dþ.4]. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. it is a square [Def. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. 3. Let ABCD be the given circle. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. the base AB is thus equal to the base AD [Prop.† And let AB. Thus. a circle has been circumscribed about the given triangle. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ εὐθεῖα διάμετρός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. angle BAD (is) a rightangle [Prop. 3. 1. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΒΓ. at right-angles to the first [Prop. † Presumably. ΓΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [again] the circle drawn with center F . 1. the square ABCD has been inscribed in the given circle. each of BC and CD is equal to each of AB and AD. 115 . and CDA are also each right-angles. the quadrilateral ABCD is right-angled. þ. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. drawing a line through it.22]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν.

1. Γ. 3. ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ τετράπλευρον. ΚΖ. αἱ ἄρα πρὸς τῷ Α γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ Let ABCD be the given circle.STOIQEIWN dþ. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος.34] [and each of GH and F K is thus equal to each of GF and HK]. So. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. ΗΘ. and D (respectively). And since AC is equal to BD. ΘΚ τῇ ΒΕΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. Thus.22]. similarly. See the footnote to the previous proposition. AC and BD. but AC (is) also (equal) to each of GH and F K. Γ. the angles at points B. 1. and BK are (all) parallelograms. ἡ δὲ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ. So. So I say that (it is) also right-angled.30]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ὅτι καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Θ. ΖΚ. So. 116 .† And let F G. touching circle ABCD. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση [καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΗΘ. it is a square [Def. for the same (reasons).‡ Therefore. GF is equal to HK. ΖΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. B. λέγω δή. since F G touches circle ABCD. 1. we can show that GF and HK are each parallel to BED. Thus. Thus. GH is thus parallel to AC [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. the quadrilateral F GHK is thus equilateral.34]. 1. ΒΚ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΗΖ τῇ ΘΚ. and BD is equal to each of GF and HK [Prop. And it has been circumscribed about circle ABCD. 1. F GHK is right-angled. circumscribe a square about circle ABCD. For since GBEA is a parallelogram. and KF have been drawn through points A. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. we can show that the angles at H. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΑΓ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΘ. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. See the footnote to Prop. and F are also right-angles. F B. And since angle AEB is a rightangle. 1. Κ. † ‡ A E C F D K Let two diameters of circle ABCD. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. ἐστὶ δὲ ὀρθὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒΕΑ. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. C. Β. and EA has been joined from the center E to the point of contact A. GC. C. and AEB is a right-angle. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. K. and D are also right-angles. GK. 3. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. for the same (reasons). So it is required to κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. ΖΒ. and EBG is also a right-angle. Ζ γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΑΓ. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση]. καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. AGB is thus also a right-angle [Prop. Thus. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΕΑ. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. So that GH is also parallel to F K [Prop. the angles at A are thus right-angles [Prop. and GH to F K [Prop. ΑΚ.34]. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΖ. Η Β Θ Α Ε Γ Ζ G ∆ B Κ H ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ. GH. HK. ΘΚ. similarly. παραλληλόγραμμα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ ΗΚ. a square has been circumscribed about the given circle. ΗΓ.34. ΒΔ. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. AK. AC is also parallel to F K.18]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνία.29]. Δ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου αἱ ΖΗ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται ἡ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. So.

and radius one of E. F . ΗΘ. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΖ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΕ. CD. ΗΖ. Thus. or K. Proposition 8 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ. will fall inside the circle. and K being right-angles. ΔΑ εὐθείας. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΕ. and radius one of E. ΒΓ. ΚΒ. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΚ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἕκαστον τῶν ΑΚ. or DA. Θ. will also go through the remaining points. ΒΓ. Let ABCD be the given square. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about square ABCD. F . ΗΓ. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. CD. Thus. Α Ζ Β Ε Η Θ ∆ A Κ F Γ B E G H D K C Τετμήσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΘ. and AE is half of AD. 117 . ΔΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. ΓΔ. To inscribe a circle in a given square. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. Ζ σημεῖα. H. BG. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. And since AD is equal to AB. Θ. And let EH have been drawn through E. BC. 1. a circle has been inscribed in the given square. ΑΗ. For if the circle cuts AB. the circle drawn with center G. similarly.STOIQEIWN dþ. Thus. and GK [are] equal to one another. H.10]. AG. ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε. Let AD and AB each have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. it will touch them. Thus.34]. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. Ζ. on account of the angles at E. Thus. AE (is) thus also equal to AF . and GD are each parallelograms. F G (is) also equal to GE. from its extremity. Ζ. Ζ. does not cut the straight-lines AB. HD. To circumscribe a circle about a given square. ΒΓ.16]. So it is required to inscribe a circle in square ABCD. And it will touch the straight-lines AB. and let F K have been drawn through F . Κ γωνίας· εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ ὁ κύκλος τὰς ΑΒ. ΑΘ. So. or K. AK. the circle drawn with center G. ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν καὶ ἔσται ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. jþ. 3. ΓΔ. parallel to either of AB or CD. and DA. and AF half of AB. ΗΔ. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. Θ. and will have been inscribed in the square ABCD. BC. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. KB. τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΖ. ΓΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ὁ ΕΘ. H. Thus. GF . and their opposite sides [are] manifestly equal [Prop. the four (straightlines) GE. or DA. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 hþ. Proposition 9 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. then a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΓΔ. GH. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων· καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. ΔΑ. BC. So that the opposite (sides are) also (equal). ΗΚ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις [εἰσίν]. 1. GC. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. AH. Thus. ΗΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΗ.31]. ΗΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΗΕ. ΒΗ. ΘΔ. Let the given square be ABCD. καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτῶν πλευραὶ δηλονότι ἴσαι [εἰσίν]. we can also show that each of GH and GK is equal to each of F G and GE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 1. CD. F . δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι.

Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τετράγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and EBA half of ABC. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. καὶ ἐνηρμόσθω εἰς τὸν ΒΔΕ κύκλον τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ ΒΔΕ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴση εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. ΔΓ. ΓΔΑ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. being not greater than the diameter of circle BDE. And let the circle ACD have been circumscribed about triangle ACD [Prop. 1. And since angle DAB is equal to ABC. we can show that each of the [straight-lines] EA and EB are also equal to each of EC and ED. the four (straight-lines) EA. C. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. And the base DC (is) equal to the base BC. Thus. 4. To construct an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double the remaining (angle). similarly. Γ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. the angle DAB has been cut in half by AC. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση. the circle drawn with center E. Δ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον.8]. AC are thus equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΑ. we can show that ABC. and radius AB. the two (straight-lines) DA. and CDA have each been cut in half by the straight-lines AC and DB. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΑ. BCD. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. like ABCD (in the figure). Thus. ΕΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and EAB is half of DAB. And since DA is equal to AB. and ED are equal to one another. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. And let the straight-line BD. καὶ περιγεγράφθω περὶ τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΔ. let them cut one another at κατὰ τὸ Ε. a circle has been circumscribed about the given square. have been inserted into circle BDE [Prop. and AC (is) common. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσαι γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. Proposition 10 ᾿Ισοσκελὲς τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς. 1. Thus. and will have been circumscribed about the square ABCD. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. And let AD and DC have been joined. similarly. ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν. αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΕΑ.1]. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας AC and BD being joined. B. Let some straight-line AB be taken. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΒΓΔ. E. So. equal to the straight-line AC. So that side EA is also equal to EB [Prop. ΕΓ. Β. will also go through the remaining points. EC. AC. ΕΒ [εὐθειῶν] ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. ᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. 2. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ· καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Α καὶ διαστήματι τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΔΕ. EB. ΕΒ. And let the circle BDE have been drawn with center A. 118 .STOIQEIWN dþ. Thus. and let it have been cut at point C so that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the square on CA [Prop.5]. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ε καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Α. EAB is thus also equal to EBA. and radius one of A.11]. angle DAC is equal to angle BAC [Prop.6]. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. 4. iþ. So. Thus. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. or D.

CA is also equal to CD. Therefore. ἀλλὰ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ΔΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ εἰσι διπλασίους. Thus.6]. And since the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on AC. the three (angles) BDA. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. Thus. CDA and DAC is double DAC. But.32]. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Β B Γ C ∆ D Α A Ε E Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. ΔΒΑ. since the side AD is also equal to AB [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ.5]. BDA is equal to CBD.32]. So that DBA is also equal to BCD. Thus. ΔΑΓ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα τῇ ΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ΔΒΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Δ ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΔΓ. side BD is also equal to side DC [Prop. let CDA have been added to both. ΒΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. the whole of BDA is equal to the two (angles) CDA and DAC. ΔΒΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ.37]. iaþ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. BD thus touches circle ACD [Prop. and DC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact D. But. Therefore. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ΒΔ. and two straightlines BA and BD have radiated from B towards the circle ACD. 3. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται μὲν ἡ ΒΔ. ΔΑΓ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. 1. and (one) of them cuts (the circle). ΒΓΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. But BCD (is) equal to CDA and DAC. the isosceles triangle ABD has been constructed having each of the angles at the base BD double the remaining (angle). the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is thus equal to the (square) on BD. 3. and BCD are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ᾿Ισοσκελὲς ἄρα τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΑΒΔ ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ ΔΒ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. But. Thus. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. the external (angle) BCD is equal to CDA and DAC [Prop. DBA. καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΓΔ εἴληπταί τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Β. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. ΔΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ἐκτὸς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. 1. And since angle DBC is equal to BCD. So that angle CDA is also equal to angle DAC [Prop. and AC (is) equal to BD. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β πρὸς τὸν ΑΓΔ κύκλον προσπεπτώκασι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΑ. and the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on BD. BDA and DBA are each double DAB. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτει. And since some point B has been taken outside of circle ACD. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνει.5]. Proposition 11 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ 119 To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon . ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. 1. 1. BDA is also equal to BCD. ἡ ΒΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΓΔ κύκλου. BD was assumed (to be) equal to CA. and (the other) meets (the circle). since BDC is equal to DAC. And BCD (is) equal to to each of BDA and DBA. καί ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. the angle BDC is thus equal to the angle DAC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. BCD is also double CAD. since BD touches (the circle). Thus. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ γωνιά ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ.STOIQEIWN dþ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΓ.

Thus. angle BAE is also equal to AED [Prop. Thus. and the (angles) at G and H (are) equal to ACD and CDA. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. in a given circle. καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΓΔ. ΕΓΔ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΒΓΔ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρια ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. ΒΓ. ΓΔΑ γωνιῶν διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ΓΔΒ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. So let ACD and CDA have been cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB.9]. CDB. since angles ACD and CDA are each double CAD. ΕΑ. Θ γωνιῶν τῆς πρὸς τῷ Ζ. Proposition 12 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. the five angles DAC. ΒΓ. ΒΓΔ. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. ΑΓΕ. And let triangle ACD. ἑκατέραν δὲ τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. ΔΕ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. So. equiangular to F GH. For since the circumference AB is equal to the circumference DE. λέγω δή. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been inscribed in the given circle. To circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle.2]. the whole circumference ABCD is equal to the whole circumference EDCB. each of the angles ABC. ΔΕ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences [Prop. BCD. Α A Ζ F Ε Β Γ ∆ E B Η Θ C D G H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. Let the the isosceles triangle F GH be set up having each of the angles at G and H double the (angle) at F [Prop. ΓΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. ΓΔΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. ibþ. such that CAD is equal to the angle at F . ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΓΔΑ δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΕ. ΓΔ. ACE. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. CD. 4. ὥστε τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνίᾳ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ΒΓ. Therefore. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral.26]. and EA are equal to one another [Prop. 1. 3. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. respectively [Prop. ΓΔΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. Thus. αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. and BDA are thus equal to one another. And the angle AED stands upon circumference ABCD.STOIQEIWN dþ. and are cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. the five circumferences AB. καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.27]. Let ABCDE be the given circle. ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. BC. pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. ΒΔΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. DE and EA have been joined. ACD and CDA are each double CAD. Thus.29]. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. for the same (reasons). ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ τετμημέναι εἰσὶ δίχα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΕ. And let AB. Θ ἴσην ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and CDE is also equal to each of BAE and AED. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΕ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.10]. DE. Thus. ECD. 4. 3. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. Thus. 120 . BC. ᾿Εκκείσθω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΖΗΘ διπλασίονα ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. ΔΕ. respectively [Prop. 3. and angle BAE upon circumference EDCB. have been inscribed in circle ABCDE. the pentagon ABCDE is equilateral. So it is required to inscribed an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in circle ABCDE. let BCD have been added to both. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ.

ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΚΛ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνιῶν.11]. Let A. the remaining (square) on CK is equal to the remaining (square) on BK. such that the circumferences AB. Β. And since circumference BC is equal to CD. for the same (reasons).† And let the center F of the circle ABCDE have been found [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται C L Let ABCDE be the given circle. DE. And the base BK [is] equal to the base CK. Β. the angles at B and D are also right-angles. F K. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία. And let GH. 3. of which the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F B. for the same (reasons). Ε. KL. So that the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. and E (respectively). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. F C. ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσα. each of the angles at C is a rightangle. touching the circle. the (square) on F K is also equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. ΓΔ. KF C is also equal to LF C. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ. And since the straight-line KL touches (circle) ABCDE at C. 1. ὥστε ἴσας εἶναι τὰς ΑΒ. διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΚΛ τῆς ΚΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτα δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ΘΚ τῆς ΒΚ διπλῆ. BF C (is) double KF C. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΛ εὐθεῖα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ. ΛΜ. C. F KC and F LC are two triangles hav- 121 . Thus. ΖΓ. ΒΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ· ὥστε τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ. So. And angle F CK is also equal to F CL. and F K (is) common. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν.8]. angle BF C is also equal to CF D [Prop. B.47]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΓ τῇ ΓΛ. Thus. F C is thus perpendicular to KL [Prop. and DLC (is also double) F LC. BC. for the same (reasons). and DF C (is double) LF C. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. ΖΛ. D. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ. and F C has been joined from the center F to the point of contact C. So it is required to circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about circle ABCDE. ΓΚ. καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΖΚ. So. and M G have been drawn through (points) A.STOIQEIWN dþ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β.1]. the two (straightlines) BF . Δ. ΘΚ. And BF C is double KF C. ΔΕ. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΚ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΛΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ.8]. Thus. B. F L. CF D is also double CF L. ΖΚ. Ε ἤχθωσαν τοῦ κύκλου ἐφαπτόμεναι αἱ ΗΘ. 3. C. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ζ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Γ ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. angle BF K is equal to [angle] KF C [Prop. ΖΚ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΚ βάσει τῇ ΓΚ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΚ [γωνίᾳ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ. 3. F K are equal to the two (straight-lines) CF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ. καί ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ διπλῆ.18].27]. HK. Thus. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ. the (square) on F K is thus equal to the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK [Prop. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΚΓ. Νενοήσθω τοῦ ἐγγεγραμμένου πενταγώνου τῶν γωνιῶν σημεῖα τὰ Α. And let F B. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. BK (is) equal to CK. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΓΚ. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΚΓ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΘΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΛ ἐστιν ἴση. And since angle F CK is a rightangle. Thus. Thus. 3. and BKC (is double) F KC. LM . ΚΛ. ΜΗ. 1. F K. Γ. and EA are equal. ΖΛΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΓΛ. Δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Η Α G Ε A Μ Θ H M Ζ F Β ∆ Κ Γ E B Λ D K ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. ΒΓ. ΖΔ. 1. and F D have been joined. ΓΚ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. ΖΚ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΖ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΖΛ ἐστι διπλῆ. So. D. And BKF (is equal) to F KC [Prop. Γ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΛ ἴση. and E have been conceived as the angular points of a pentagon having been inscribed (in circle ABCDE) [Prop. ΕΑ περιφερείας· καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. So. CD. And since F B is equal to F C.

Thus. ΚΛΜ ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΗΘΚ. each of KHG. and KLM double F LC. 1. ΚΛ ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. So. similarly. † ing two angles equal to two angles. and M L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HK and KL. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. [Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγέγραπται]· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΘΚΛ. For let angles BCD and CDE have each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines CF and DF (respectively) [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν K D Let ABCDE be the given equilateral and equiangular pentagon. So. ΛΜΗ. the pentagon GHKLM is equiangular. KLM . καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον. λέγω δή. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To inscribe a circle in a given pentagon. pentagon GHKLM is equilateral. GM . it can be shown that HK (is) also double BK. 3. the five angles GHK. HGM . and GM L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HKL and KLM . And since KC is equal to CL. ΔΖ εὐθειῶν· καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. See the footnote to Prop. Thus. So it is required to inscribe a circle in pentagon ABCDE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. ΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΘΚ. And BK is equal to KC.26]. which is equiἰσογώνιον. for the same (reasons). Thus.34. κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Α A Η Μ M G Β Ε B E Ζ F Λ Θ Γ Κ H ∆ L C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. For since angle F KC is equal to F LC.STOIQEIWN dþ. [Thus. Thus. igþ. And from the point F . and one side equal to one side. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been circumscribed about the given circle]. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΘΗ. each of HG. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ. ΗΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. KL (is) thus double KC. LM G. καὶ ἐδείχθη τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. ΔΖ εὐθεῖαι. ΚΛΜ. at which the straight-lines CF and DF meet one another. the straight-line KC (is) equal to CL. HKL is thus also equal to KLM . they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. ΜΗΘ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. let the 122 . So. ΖΕ εὐθεῖαι. and the remaining angle to the remaining angle [Prop. 1. and has been circumscribed about circle ABCDE. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ ἐστιν ἴση. HKL. ΖΑ. and HKL was shown (to be) double F KC. HK is also equal to KL. and M GH are equal to one another. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΓΖ. ΗΜ. lateral and equiangular. and the angle F KC to F LC. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον.9]. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. Proposition 13 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. Thus. ΘΗΜ. (namely) their common (side) F C. similarly. Thus.

καὶ τὸ ΒΓΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΖ τριγώνῳ ἐστιν ἴσον. So. 3. ΖΜ. Thus. does not cut the straight-lines AB. K. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. Μ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. γεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΗΘΚΛΜ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ. the two (straight-lines) BC. angle ABF is equal to F BC. or EA. F L. Thus. ΖΚ ἴση ἐστίν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΗ. ἤχθωσαν δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. Θ. H. ΑΕΔ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΖΑ. Κ. ΖΜ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. F K. Θ. ΔΕ.4]. And since angle HCF is equal to KCF . and the remaining angles will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. the five straight-lines F G. and F E have been joined. and CF (is) common. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΖΘ. DE. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. συμβήσεται τὴν τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένην ἐντὸς πίπτειν τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. Thus. BC. Θ. ΖΛ. and the right-angle F HC is also equal to the [right-angle] F KC. and F M are equal to one another. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ. F A. Thus. And angle BCF [is] equal to angle DCF . subtending one of the equal angles. And since CDE is double CDF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ Let ABCDE be the given pentagon which is equilat- 123 . ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΛ. CF are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. ΓΔ. ΖΜ. Λ. L. Thus. Thus. ΕΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Η. CD. it can be shown that BAE and AED have been cut in half by the straight-lines F A and F E. K. the circle drawn with center F . idþ. is equilateral and equiangular. from its extremity. κύκλον περιγράψαι. ΖΚ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. CD. ΓΔ. ΖΛ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΓΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΓΖ. Κ. ΖΚ. ΖΚΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΖΘ κάθετος τῂ ΖΚ καθέτῳ. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop.16]. and will touch the straight-lines AB. ΔΕ. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΓ. F H. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. and F M have been drawn from point F . Thus. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΘΓ [ὀρθῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ ἴση. Μ σημείοις γωνίας. F K. ΕΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΖΗ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. will also go through the remaining points. Λ. F M . the perpendicular F H (is) equal to the perpendicular F K. F H. the circle drawn with center F . falls inside the circle. ΖΗ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΘ. F L. and radius one of G.STOIQEIWN dþ. Let it have been drawn. For if it does not touch them. but cuts them. Λ. or M . and F G are each equal to each of F H and F K. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. BC. similarly. ΔΕ. CD. CF . ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ἀλλὰ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. Thus. similarly. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To circumscribe a circle about a given pentagon which ἰσογώνιον. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΔ. ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΓ. like GHKLM (in the figure). DE. the base BF is equal to the base DF . 1. 1. and EA (respectively) [Prop. and radius one of G. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. on account of the angles at points G. and CDF to CBF . 1. and one side equal to one side. L. straight-lines F B. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΘΓ. F HC and F KC are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. L. ΒΓ. (namely) their common (side) F C. ΖΘ. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. εἰ γὰρ οὐκ ἐφάψεται αὐτῶν. or M . it follows that a (straight-line) drawn at rightangles to the diameter of the circle. And since BC is equal to CD. ΒΓ. Thus. Proposition 14 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. CBA is thus also double CBF . and M being right-angles. So let F G. K. κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. DE. ΕΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν.26]. and triangle BCF is equal to triangle DCF . ΓΔ. and CDE (is) equal to ABC. ΒΓ. a circle has been inscribed in the given pentagon which is equilateral and equiangular. respectively. it will touch them. BC. Μ σημείων γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ ἐστι διπλῆ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΒΖ εὐθείας. H. Thus. Thus. H.12]. angle CBF (is) equal to CDF . it can be shown that F L. Κ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. and EA. So. angle ABC has been cut in half by the straight-line BF .

† and let the center G of the circle have been found [Prop. ΖΑ. Proposition 15 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. 3. and F E are also each equal to each of F C and F D. will also go through the remaining points. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in circle ABCDEF . the five straight-lines F A.6]. So. a circle has been circumscribed about the given pentagon. ΒΓ. And let the circle EGCH have been drawn. and CDF half of CDE. ΖΓ. ΖΕ. and will have been circumscribed. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΗ. it can be shown that F B. ΖΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση. and radius DG.1]. and F E have been joined from point F . F B. ΖΔ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. And EG and CG being joined. and let it be ABCDE. Let ABCDEF be the given circle. ὅτι To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle. let them have been drawn across (the cir- 124 . ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον. So. ΓΗ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. ΖΑ. F D. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ὁμοίως δὴ τῷ πρὸ τούτου δειχθήσεται. F C. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΒ. ΔΖ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ. respectively. Thus. to the points B. circle about the pentagon ABCDE. F A. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ. ΖΔ. ΔΕ. So it is required to circumscribe a κύκλον περιγράψαι. ΖΑ. ΒΑΕ. ΕΖ. F A. it can be shown that angles CBA. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ.STOIQEIWN dþ. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν αἱ εὐθεῖαι. ΖΕ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΓ. and radius one of F A. ΑΕΔ γωνιῶν δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκάστης τῶν ΖΒ. 1. τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον eral and equiangular. And since angle BCD is equal to CDE. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΗΓΘ. A. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΑΔ. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. and AED have also been cut in half by the straight-lines F B. ΖΑ· λέγω. So let angles BCD and CDE have been cut in half by the (straight-lines) CF and DF . F D. to the (proposition) before this (one). which is equilateral and equiangular. respectively [Prop. ΖΕ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος. ΓΔ. or F E. Thus. at which the straight-lines meet. the circle drawn with center F . καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Η. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. ἐπὶ τὰ Β. 1. similarly. similarly. BAE. ὀ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ. Ε σημεῖα ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΒ. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. F A. with center D. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. And let the straight-lines F B. ΖΒ. ΖΒ. F B. Ζ σημεῖα. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. περιγεγράφθω καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ. and F E are equal to one another. Let the diameter AD of circle ABCDEF have been drawn. Thus.9]. F CD is thus also equal to F DC. Περὶ ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. and E (respectively). Α. ieþ. F C. ΖΓ. So that side F C is also equal to side F D [Prop. Α A Β Ε B E Ζ Γ F ∆ C D Τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. and F E. and F CD is half of BCD. κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

DGC. 1. DGC. But.29]. the six circumferences AB. λέγω δή. ΓΔ. GE was shown (to be) equal to GD. I say that (it is) also equiangular. BGA. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξαγώνου κατὰ μίαν ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. inasmuch as the angles at the base of isosceles triangles are equal to one another [Prop. For since circumference F A is equal to circumference ED.15].5]. αἱ ἓξ ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. So. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΓΗ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΒ σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΗΓ. And equal angles stand on equal circumferences [Prop. ΓΗΒ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὥστε καὶ αἱ κατὰ κορυφὴν αὐταῖς αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΑ. hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral. EF . I say that the hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral and equiangular. CD. since point D is the center of circle GCH. Thus. Θ cle) to points B and F (respectively). And angle F ED stands on circumference F ABCD. So. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΓ τρίτον δύο ὀρθῶν. and angle AF E on circumference EDCBA. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ το ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. 3. BC. DE. DE is equal to DG. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν [ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. Thus. EF . ΗΔΕ. BC. ΒΓ. ΓΗΒ]. and F A are equal to one another. CGB. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒΑ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. DGC can also be shown (to be) one third of two right-angles. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. Thus.32]. Thus. H ∆ D Ε Γ Η Β E C G Ζ B Α ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου. 1. CD. And let AB. Again. standing on EB. ΔΗΓ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρεια· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΖΑΒΓΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΖΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ γωνία. 1. ἐπειδήπερ τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν αἱ τρεῖς τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ γωνία τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν. ΓΗΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιεῖ. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΗΕ ἄρα τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΗΔ τρίγωνον· καὶ αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αὐτοῦ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. DE. Thus. makes adjacent angles EGC and CGB equal to two right-angles [Prop. DE. angle EGD is one third of two rightangles. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN dþ. AGF . ΒΗΑ. ΔΗΓ. the six straight-lines (AB. and F A) are equal to one another. AGF . ΓΗΒ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΔ περιφερείᾳ. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. Thus. DGC. And the three angles of the triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop. GE is equal to GD. Thus. the remaining angle CGB is thus also one third of two right-angles. CD. similarly. Thus. the six angles EGD. and CGB (respectively)] [Prop. GDE. And hence the (angles) opposite to them BGA. ΕΖ. and F GE are also equal [to EGD. Thus. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ. ΔΕΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and DEG are also equal to one another. and CGB are equal to one another. EF .26]. And since the straight-line CG. its three angles EGD. ΖΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. Thus. GE is also equal to ED.13]. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ΖΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. 1. triangle EGD is equilateral. the whole of F ABCD is equal to the whole of EDCBA. 3. And equal circumferences are subtended by equal straight-lines [Prop. ΔΕ. and F A have been joined. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον. BC. and F GE are equal to one another. πάλιν. angle AF E is equal 125 . ΔΗΓ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΗ. ΑΗΖ. ΑΗΖ. angles EGD. ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΗΓΘ κύκλου. let circumference ABCD have been added to both. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε F A For since point G is the center of circle ABCDEF .

Pìrisma. ᾿Εγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τριγώνου μὲν ἰσοπλεύρου τοῦ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγραφομένου πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCDE. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure in circle ABCD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. † See the footnote to Prop. iþ. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon has been inscribed in the given circle.2]. 4. 3. ὅτι ἡ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρὰ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ κύκλου. further. πενταγώνου δὲ ἰσοπλεύρου ἡ ΑΒ· οἵων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλος ἴσων τμήματων δεκαπέντε. from this. just as the circle ABCD is (made up) of fifteen equal pieces. So. Let the side AC of an equilateral triangle inscribed in (the circle) [Prop. the circumference ABC. it can also be shown that the remaining angles of hexagon ABCDEF are individually equal to each of the angles AF E and F ED.11]. καὶ ἔτι διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις εἰς τὸ δοθὲν ἑξάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. (it is) manifest that a side of the hexagon is equal to the radius of the circle. hexagon ABCDEF is equiangular. And.STOIQEIWN dþ. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (sixfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. by (means) similar to the aforementioned pentagon. to DEF [Prop. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. we can inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given hexagon. Thus.27]. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. have been inscribed in circle ABCD. being a third of the circle. Thus. τοιούτων ἡ μὲν ΑΒΓ περιφέρεια τρίτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται πέντε. Proposition 16 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteenτε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. sided figure in a given circle. περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἀκολούθως τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις. and (the side) AB of an (inscribed) equilateral pentagon [Prop. 4. 4. Thus. And similarly to a pentagon.6. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. ἡ δὲ ΑΒ περιφέρεια πέμτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται τριῶν· λοιπὴ ἄρα D Let ABCD be the given circle. Α A Β B Ε E Γ ∆ C ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. analogously to the aforementioned pentagon. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon can be circumscribed about the circle. Similarly. will be (made up) of five 126 .

being a fifth of the circle.30]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἔσται εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγεγραμμένον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. we can circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure about the circle. and the circumference AB. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῶν ἴσων δύο. 127 . ΕΓ ἴσας αὐταῖς κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς εὐθείας ἐναρμόσωμεν εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ[Ε] κύκλον. 3. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (fifteenfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. ΕΓ περιφερειῶν πεντεκαιδέκατόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. And similarly to the pentagon. through similar proofs to the pentagon. such (pieces). further. ἔτι δὲ διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου δείξεων καὶ εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. we continuously insert straight-lines equal to them into circle ABCD[E] [Prop. the remainder BC (will be made up) of two equal (pieces). Thus. then an equilateral and equiangular fifteensided figure will have been inserted into (the circle).1]. 4. will be (made up) of three.STOIQEIWN dþ. τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ. joining BE and EC. Thus. περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. we can also inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given fifteen-sided figure. And. if. Let (circumference) BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐπιζεύξαντες τὰς ΒΕ. each of the circumferences BE and EC is one fifteenth of the circle ABCDE.

128 .

γ. etc. α. l. denote general (possibly irrational) magnitudes.. which had hitherto been a major stumbling block for Greek mathematicians. etc. Throughout the footnotes in this book. 129 . The novel feature of this theory is its ability to deal with irrational magnitudes. denote positive integers. whereas m. β.ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Proportion† † The theory of proportion set out in this book is generally attributed to Eudoxus of Cnidus.. n.

Δι᾿ ἴσου λόγος ἐστὶ πλειόνων ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανομένων καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. εʹ. A composition of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading plus the following (magnitudes). ηʹ.\$ 9. 11. θʹ. 8. ᾿Ανάπαλιν λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον ὡς ἑπόμενον. Σύνθεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου μετὰ τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἑνὸς πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον.†† 10. according to any kind of multiplication whatever. An alternate ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the leading (of two equal ratios).∗ 7. ιεʹ. πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον. (Those) magnitudes are said to have a ratio with respect to one another which. καὶ ἀεὶ ἑξῆς ὁμοίως. ιϛʹ.§§ And so on. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τρίτον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. Διαίρεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τῆς ὑπεροχῆς. ϛʹ. ζʹ. And when for equal multiples (as in Def. as one. to the following (magnitude) by itself. βʹ. then the first (magnitude) is said to have a greater ratio to the second than the third (magnitude has) to the fourth. and the third to the fourth. being taken in corresponding order. Λόγον ἔχειν πρὸς ἄλληλα μεγέθη λέγεται. are both equal to. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάττονος. similarly. γʹ. A magnitude is a part of a(nother) magnitude.‡ 4. the first is said to have to the third the squaredk ratio of that (it has) to the second.† 2. And when three magnitudes are proportional. when it measures the greater. and the following to the following. or are both less than. Magnitudes are said to be in the same ratio. are capable of exceeding one another. ῞Οταν δὲ τῶν ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων τὸ μὲν τοῦ πρώτου πολλαπλάσιον ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ δευτέρου πολλαπλασίου. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸ μεῖζον. ιζʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. And the greater (magnitude is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. 12. ιʹ. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου. Μέρος ἐστὶ μέγεθος μεγέθους τὸ ἔλασσον τοῦ μείζονος. the lesser of the greater. ᾿Αναστροφὴ λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὴν ὑπεροχήν. ἤπερ τὸ τρίτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 VOroi. respectively. These magnitudes are said to be corresponding (magnitudes): the leading to the leading (of two ratios). ῾Ομόλογα μεγέθη λέγεται τὰ μὲν ἡγούμενα τοῖς ἡγουμένοις τὰ δὲ ἑπόμενα τοῖς ἑπομένοις. δʹ. Πολλαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ μεῖζον τοῦ ἐλάττονος. Λόγος ἐστὶ δύο μεγεθῶν ὁμογενῶν ἡ κατὰ πηλικότητά ποια σχέσις. ᾿Αναλογία δὲ ἐν τρισὶν ὅροις ἐλαχίστη ἐστίν. τότε τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται.¶ 6. And let magnitudes having the same ratio be called proportional.\$\$ 130 . ᾿Εναλλὰξ λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον καὶ τοῦ ἑπομένου πρὸς τὸ ἑπόμενον.∗∗ 14. being multiplied. and (setting it equal to) the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) to the following. whatever the (continuous) proportion might be. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου.§ 5. τὸ δὲ τοῦ τρίτου πολλαπλάσιον μὴ ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ τετάρτου πολλαπλασίου.¶¶ 13. ιδʹ. when equal multiples of the first and the third either both exceed. ῞Οταν δὲ τρία μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. 5). equal multiples of the second and the fourth. Definitions αʹ. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον· ἢ ἄλλως· λῆψις τῶν ἄκρων 1. And a proportion in three terms is the smallest (possible). and the multiple of the third (magnitude) does not exceed the multiple of the fourth. the first is said to have to the fourth the cubed‡‡ ratio of that (it has) to the second. An inverse ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) as the leading and the leading (magnitude) as the following. ὅταν τὰ τοῦ πρώτου καί τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῶν τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἢ ἅμα ὑπερέχῃ ἢ ἅμα ἴσα ᾖ ἢ ἅμα ἐλλείπῇ ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. in successive order. 3. ᾿Εν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ μεγέθη λέγεται εἶναι πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Τὰ δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον μεγέθη ἀνάλογον καλείσθω. the first to the second. the multiple of the first (magnitude) exceeds the multiple of the second. ιγʹ. And when four magnitudes are (continuously) proportional. A ratio is a certain type of condition with respect to size of two magnitudes of the same kind.STOIQEIWN eþ. ἃ δύναται πολλαπλασιαζόμενα ἀλλήλων ὑπερέχειν. ιβʹ. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. ὡς ἂν ἡ ἀναλογία ὑπάρχῃ. ιαʹ.

so some other (is) to the leading in the second (set of) magnitudes. a proportion in three terms—α. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. k Literally. ὡς δὲ ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἑπόμενον πρὸς ἄλλο τι. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ magnitudes. ζ the second set.§§§ † In other words. the ratio of two magnitudes. ∗ Thus if α and β have the same ratio as γ and δ then they are proportional. of some (other) ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός.. so the leading (is) to the following in the second (set of) magnitudes. γ are the first set of magnitudes. for some m and n. if α. and as the following (is) to some other (i. then the ratio via equality (or ex aequali) corresponds to α : γ :: δ : ζ. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἑπόμενον.e. if α : β then the converted ratio corresponds to α : α − β.. and m α < n β whenever m γ < n δ. β. aþ. γ are the first set of magnitudes. if α : β then the composed ratio corresponds to α + β : β. § In other words. then the proportion is said to be perturbed. “triple”. are irrational. \$\$ In other words. This definition is the kernel of Eudoxus’ theory of proportion. and δ. if α : β then the separated ratio corresponds to α − β : β. then as many 131 . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 καθ᾿ ὑπεξαίρεσιν τῶν μέσων. †† In other words. §§ In other words. if α : β :: β : γ then α : γ :: α 2 : β 2 . ¶¶ In other words. and is valid even if α. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. α and β. ὁσαπλάσιόν (which are) equal multiples. etc. and α : β : γ :: δ : ǫ : ζ. and δ. ∗∗ In other words. if α.††† 17. ‡‡ Literally. 15. There being several magnitudes. α is said to be a part of β if β = m α. ὅταν τριῶν ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος γίνηται ὡς μὲν ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἐπόμενον. if α : β then the inverse ratio corresponds to β : α. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις ἄλλο τι πρὸς ἡγούμενον. §§§ In other words. ††† ‡‡‡ In other words. ιηʹ. In modern notation. \$ In modern notation. There being three magnitudes. “double”. β. α has a ratio with respect to β if m α > β and n β > α. respectively. ¶ In other words. ǫ. β. so the first (is) to the last in the second (set of) magnitudes. and m α = n β whenever m γ = n δ. of equal number (to them). kk In other words.kk 16. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Or alternately. β. Τεταραγμένη δὲ ἀναλογία ἐστίν. the remaining magnitude) in the first (set of) magnitudes. if α : β :: γ : δ then the alternate ratio corresponds to α : γ :: β : δ. (it is) a taking of the (ratio of the) outer (magnitudes) by the removal of the inner (magnitudes). if α : β :: β : γ :: γ : δ then α : δ :: α 3 : β 3 .‡‡‡ 18. for all m and n.STOIQEIWN eþ. A separation of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following to the following (magnitude) by itself. is denoted α : β. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. a ratio via equality (or ex aequali) occurs when as the first is to the last in the first (set of) magnitudes. α : β :: γ : δ. ‡ In modern notation. ζ the second set. A conversion of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following. ǫ. In other words. and γ—is written: α : β :: β : γ. α : β :: γ : δ if and only if m α > n β whenever m γ > n δ. a perturbed proportion occurs when as the leading is to the following in the first (set of) magnitudes. and α : β :: δ : ǫ as well as β : γ :: ζ : δ.

ΘΔ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. and CH to F . ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). I say that as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. καὶ τὰ ΑΗ. bþ. καὶ τὰ ΗΒ. Ζ. so many times will AB. CD are equal multiples of E. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. Thus. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. F . and the third and the sixth. F . CD. ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Ε. For let a first (magnitude) AB and a third DE be equal multiples of a second C and a fourth F (respectively). being added together. For since AB. (to give) AG. Α Ε Η times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). CD also be (divisible) by E. Thus. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. τὸ δὲ ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΓΘ. the number of (divisions) AG. HD. as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. ὅτι ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΓΘ. So. So. ΓΔ ἴσα τοῖς Ε. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Ε. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΑΒ. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. ΘΔ. so many (are there) also in AB. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). CH to E. Ζ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΓΔ ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. HD to E. F . F . ἔστω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. E. of some (other) magnitudes. F . of some (other) magnitudes. ΗΒ. GB is equal to E. and AG. of equal number (to them). so many times will AB. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). equal to E. (which are) equal multiples. Β Γ Θ A ∆ E Ζ ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to E. this proposition reads m α + m β + · · · = m (α + β + · · · ). And let a fifth (magnitude) BG and a sixth EH also be (other) equal multiples of the second C and the fourth F (respectively). † G B C H D F Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. CD equal to E. of equal number (to them). respectively. GB will be equal to the number of (divisions) CH. thus as many magnitudes as (there) are in AB equal to E. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. Ζ ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον· λέγω. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). for the same (reasons). respectively. F . so many (are there) also in CD equal to F . (being added together. AG (is) thus equal to E. In modern notation. equal to F . And since AG is equal to E. F . τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΓΔ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. and GB. AB.STOIQEIWN eþ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πάντα τῶν πάντων. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. being added together. Ζ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let AB have been divided into magnitudes AG. Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Ε. ΓΘ τοῖς Ε. 132 . will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). (being added together). GB. CD also be (divisible) by E. HD. ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ε μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. and CD into (magnitudes) CH.

via equality. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΗΘ ἴσα τῷ Γ. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τῷ Α μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΕΚ. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΕΖ. so many (are there) also in EH equal to F . In modern notation. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. Thus. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου. being added together. being added together.STOIQEIWN eþ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὅσα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. and let the equal multiples EF and GH have been taken of A and C (respectively). Thus. so many times will DH also be divisible by F . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 to give) DH. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). Thus. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). (to give) AG. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. τὸ δὲ ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΗΛ. as many times as AG is (divisible) by C. For since EF and GH are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Γ. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΗΘ· λέγω. respectively. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. this propostion reads m α + n α = (m + n) α. I say that EF and GH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). For let a first (magnitude) A and a third C be equal multiples of a second B and a fourth D (respectively). and the third and sixth. Thus. so many (are there) also in DE equal to F . τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. the first (magnitude) and the fifth. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΚΖ. ὅτι ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in BG equal to C. and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). gþ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Γ. so many (are there) also in the whole of DH equal to F . καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in EF equal to A. Α Β A Η G C Γ ∆ Ε D Θ E H F Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to C. for the same (reasons). ληφθῇ δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου. † B For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). And so. then. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσα τῷ Α. to give) DH. and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. (being added together. so many (are there) also in GH 133 . as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in the whole of AG equal to C. (being added together).

LH equal to C. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΚ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΛ τοῦ Δ. being added together. For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. then. to give) GH. And since A and C are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). and the fifth (magnitude) KF and the sixth LH are also equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Α τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Γ τοῦ Δ. ληφθῇ δὲ τοῦ πρώτου καὶ τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. EK and GL are thus equal multiples of B and D (respectively). K L F H Thus. since the first (magnitude) EK and the third GL are equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth. ἐπεὶ οὖν πρῶτον τὸ ΕΚ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἴσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΗΛ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. KF equal to A. the number of (magnitudes) EK. 5. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΕΚ τῷ Α. And let equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and C (respectively). and GH into (magnitudes) GL. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. and EK (is) equal to A. (being added together.2]. and other random equal multiples G and 134 . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. being taken in corresponding order. καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. So. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. and GL to C. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. KF will be equal to the number of (magnitudes) GL. ΛΘ. Let EF have been divided into magnitudes EK. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΚΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΛΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. dþ. Therefore. So. Θ· λέγω. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΛΘ τοῦ Δ. and the third (magnitude) and sixth. for the same (reasons). KF and LH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). Ζ. Δ ἄλλα. Α Β Ε Γ ∆ Η Κ Λ A B E Ζ C D G Θ ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου.STOIQEIWN eþ. † equal to C. καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΕΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΗΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. are thus also equal multiples of the second (magnitude) B and the fourth D (respectively) [Prop. τῶν δὲ Β. In modern notation. ΚΖ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΗΛ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ ΗΛ τῷ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. LH. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΛΘ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΕΚ. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. via equality. (to give) EF . then the first (magnitude) and fifth. this proposition reads m(n α) = (m n) α. ἃ ἔτυχεν. respectively. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ.

so F (is) to H [Def. Λ τῶν Ε. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. for all m and n. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Μ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ. Λ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 H of B and D (respectively). 135 . Δ ἄλλα. τὰ δὲ Μ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and if (K is) equal (to M then L is also) equal (to N ). Ν. [And] since E and F are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. M and N are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ.5]. Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. and M and N other random equal multiples of G and H (respectively). then if K exceeds M then L also exceeds N . εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Κ τοῦ Μ. τῶν δὲ Η. and if (K is) less (than M then L is also) less (than N ) [Def. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. as E (is) to G. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. ἴσον. And K and L are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). † For let equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). ἔλαττον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. Thus. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. so F (is) to H. Λ. 5. Ν. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth. So. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. Ζ ἴσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.3]. 5. and other random equal multiples M and N of G and H (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. 5.5]. and the other random equal multiples M and N of B and D (respectively). for the same (reasons).STOIQEIWN eþ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Ν. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Γ. being taken in corresponding order. τῶν δὲ Β. Ν τῶν Η. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. I say that as E (is) to G. ἃ ἔτυχεν. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Κ. so C (is) to D. Λ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. [Καὶ] ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν Ε τοῦ Α. And since as A is to B. In modern notation. K and L are thus equal multiples of A and C (respectively) [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Θ ἄλλα. Thus. Θ ἄλλα. Α Β Ε Η Κ Μ Γ ∆ Ζ Θ Λ Ν A B E G K M C D F H L N Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Ε. and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of A and C (respectively). this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then m α : n β :: m γ : n δ. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Ε.

AE and EB are thus equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 eþ. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). Thus. GF (is) equal to CD. the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively). ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. this proposition reads m α − m β = m (α − β). ΓΔ· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. AE and AB are thus equal multiples of CF and GF (respectively) [Prop. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (reἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (respectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΖ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. Thus. spectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΗΓ τῷ ΔΖ. 5. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. In modern notation. AB is an equal multiple of each of GF and CD. I say that the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively).STOIQEIWN eþ. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ ἑκατέρου τῶν ΗΖ. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D.1]. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. ῾Οσαπλάσιον γάρ ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. Thus. Thus. so many times let EB also have been made (divisible) by CG. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅπερ If a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). ΓΔ δύο μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. or (are) equal multiples 136 . And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. EB and AB are equal multiples of F D and CD (respectively). κεῖται δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. Α Η Γ Ε Β A Ζ ∆ G C Μέγεθος γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ μεγέθους τοῦ ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον. Let CF have been subtracted from both. respectively). For as many times as AE is (divisible) by CF . þ. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου. and GC (is) equal to DF . τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. Ζ If two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. † E B F D For let the magnitude AB be the same multiple of the magnitude CD that the (part) taken away AE (is) of the (part) taken away CF (respectively). Thus. Δύο γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ.

Ζ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια· λέγω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. αὐτῶν τῶν Ε. ἀλλὰ τὸ Ζ τῷ ΚΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἄρα τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. the (parts) taken away (from the former) AG and CH be equal multiples of E and F (respectively). first of all. Thus. For let CK be made equal to F . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. Α Η Ε Κ Γ Β A E K Θ ∆ Ζ C B H D F ῎Εστω γὰρ πρότερον τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον· λέγω. Since AG and CH are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). Hence. Let CH have be taken away from both.2]. the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΚ. if two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. Proposition 7 Τὰ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ Equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. equal to E. ὅτι. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ Let A and B be equal magnitudes. And let πολλαπλάσια. and C some other τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. 5. we can show that even if GB is a multiple of E then HD will also be the same multiple of F . Thus. ὅτι καὶ For let two magnitudes AB and CD be equal multiλοιπὰ τὰ ΗΒ. But. Thus. κᾂν πολλαπλάσιον ᾖ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Ε. Thus. this proposition reads m α − n α = (m − n) α. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΘ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΚΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΚΘ. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. tio) to the equal (magnitudes). καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τὰ ΑΗ. ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. Β. I say that HD is also equal to F . ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΗΒ τῷ Ε. So. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΘ τῷ ΓΔ. μέγεθος τὸ Γ· λέγω. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τοῦ Ζ. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τοῦ Ζ. In modern notation. Β. ΓΘ τῶν of them (respectively). similarly. KH and CD are equal multiples of F and F (respectively). ἄλλο δέ τι. ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ· ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον. zþ. and KC to F . ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. and GB (is) equal to E. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια. Thus. and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. or (are) equal multiples of them (respectively). then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). I say that the remainders GB and HD are also either equal to E and F (respectively). (magnitude).STOIQEIWN eþ. τὸ δὲ ΚΓ τῷ Ζ. random magnitude. ὥστε εἰ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον ἐστίν. AB and KH are thus equal multiples of E and F (respectively) [Prop. † G For let GB be. respectively). ὃ ἔτυχεν. KH is equal to CD. KH and CD are each equal multiples of F . Ζ ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν ples of two magnitudes E and F (respectively). and the latter (magnitude has the same ra῎Εστω ἴσα μεγέθη τὰ Α. HD is also equal to F . I say that A and B each have the 137 . F is equal to KC. if GB is equal to E then HD will also be equal to F . And AB and CD are assumed (to be) equal multiples of E and F (respectively). Therefore. or (are) equal multiples of them. ῾Ομοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἴσον ἔσται τῷ Ζ.

ἄλλο δέ. and the other random multiple F of C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. [So] I say that C † also has the same ratio to each of A and B. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and if (F is) equal (to D then it is also) equal (to E). πολλαπλάσιον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. and D and E other random equal multiples of A and B. ἴσον δὲ τὸ Α τῷ Β. that D is equal to E. I say that AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D. 5. Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. And D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). ὃ ἔτυχεν. Γ. Thus. ῎Εστω ἄνισα μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Ζ. ‡ In modern notation. we can show. hþ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Δ. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. by the same construction. ὑπερέχει καὶ τοῦ Ε. τὰ δὲ Δ. if D exceeds F then E also exceeds F . and if (D is) less (than F then E is also) less (than F ). and F another random multiple of C. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 same ratio to C. And F (is) different. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε. Thus. so C (is) to B [Def. from this. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Let AB and C be unequal magnitudes. ἔλαττον. For let the equal multiples D and E have been taken of A and B (respectively). τὸ Δ· λέγω. ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον. 138 . and (that) C (has the same ratio) to each of A and B. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ ἄλλο. καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον τὸ ΑΒ. as C (is) to A. since D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). and if (F is) less (than D then it is also) less (than E).5]. Proposition 8 Τῶν ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. and let AB be the greater (of the two). similarly. and A (is) equal to B. Thus. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. that if some magnitudes are ᾖ. And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater. Τὰ ἴσα ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Β ἄλλα. ὃ ἔτυχεν. And F (has) some other (value). and D another random magnitude. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. For. καὶ ἀνάπαλιν ἀνάλογον ἔσται. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. ἔλαττον. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Pìrisma. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. at random. so B (is) to C [Def. τοῦ δὲ Γ ἄλλο. 5. Ε. Thus. Ε τῶν Α. the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ζ τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. For unequal magnitudes. ὅτι ἐὰν μεγέθη τινὰ ἀνάλογον So (it is) clear. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Δ. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Ε τῶν Α. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε· ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Ζ· εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ. equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude). D (is) thus also equal to E. ὅ ἔτυχεν. ὃ ἔτυχεν. And F is a multiple of C. and the latter (magnitude has the same ratio) to the equal (magnitudes). καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ.5]. τὸ Ζ. and (that) D has a greater ratio to C than (it has) to AB. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Δ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Β. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then β : α :: δ : γ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. Therefore. if F exceeds D then it also exceeds E. Thus. Λέγω [δή]. ἴσον. ἴσον. † The Greek text has “E”. Εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. proportional then they will also be proportional inversely.STOIQEIWN eþ. πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ζ. as A (is) to C. and if (D is) equal (to F then E is also) equal (to F ). ἄλλο δέ. which is obviously a mistake.

And let the double multiple L of D have been taken. until the (multiple) taken becomes the first multiple of D (which is) greater than K. C (respectively). And as many times as F G is (divisible) by AE. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ Δ ἄλλο. Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν· τὸ ΖΘ ἄρα τοῦ Ν ὑπερέχει· τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. F H exceeds N . Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ Κ. A E G K D L M N Z ELEMENTS BOOK 5 B H A J G K D L M N E B A E B A C C Z H J F K D L M N ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Μ. Again. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. and let F G be a multiple of it which (is) greater than D. τὰ δὲ ΖΘ. Thus. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Δ πολλαπλάσιον. C. Let it have been taken. ἔστω πρότερον τὸ ΑΕ ἔλαττον τοῦ ΕΒ. and N another random multiple of D. And K is not less than M . πάλιν. And F H. and the triple multiple M . And since F G and GH are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ. For. so many times let GH also have become (divisible) by EB. 5. Γ ἄλλα. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΕΒ μεῖζον ἔστω. K are equal multiples of AB. Κ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. and K by C. τὸ Κ ἄρα τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. τὰ ΖΘ. So. (each increasing) in order by one. And F G (is) greater than D. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΖΘ. Μ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ν τετραπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ. Μ τῷ Ν ἐστιν ἴσα. let BE be made equal to C. But. similarly. F H. Therefore. κείσθω τῷ Γ ἴσον τὸ ΒΕ· τὸ δὴ ἔλασσον τῶν ΑΕ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΕΒ τῷ Γ.7]. since GH and K are equal multiples of EB and C. we can show that N exceeds K. καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. καὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλεῖον. and F H. 5. 5. will sometimes be greater than D [Def. GH not less than M either. and M and D (added) together is four times D. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ τετραπλάσιον· συναμφότερα ἄρα τὰ Μ. ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. εἰλήφθω. F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). And K does not exceed N . Thus. ὅτι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχει. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. Δ τῷ Ν ἴσα ἐστίν. the whole of F H is greater than D and M (added) together. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN eþ. τὸ δὴ ἔλαττον τὸ ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. Thus. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. καὶ πεπολλαπλασιάσθω τὸ ΑΕ. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ Δ διπλάσιον μὲν τὸ Λ. K is thus not less than M . Thus. Thus. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον· οὐδ᾿ ἄρα τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Μ ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν πρώτως ἐστὶν ἔλαττον. And N is a multiple of D. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. συναμφότερα δὲ τὰ Μ. let AE be less than EB. And F G and K are equal multiples of AE and C (respectively). καὶ ἔστω αὐτοῦ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ Δ. and let it also be the quadruple multiple N of D—the first (multiple) greater than K. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. ἐπειδήπερ τὸ Μ τοῦ Δ τριπλάσιόν ἐστιν. by the same construction. the lesser of AE and EB. Thus. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ συναμφοτέρων τῶν Δ. and EB (is) equal to C. Λέγω δή. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Δ τοῦ Δ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. and N is also four times D. ὃ ἔτυχεν. C. M and D (added) together is equal to N . F G and F H are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. K other random equal multiples of AB. I say that D also has a greater ratio to C than D (has) to AB. ἀλλὰ συναμφότερα τὰ Δ. D and M (added) together is equal to N . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. D has a greater 139 . F H is greater than M and D. and N does not exceed F H. GH (is) thus also equal to K.4]. First of all. πολλαπλάσιον· τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Thus. and several more. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ ΖΘ οὐχ ὑπερέχει. But. K are equal multiples of AB. and let AE have been multiplied.1]. since K is less than N first. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. inasmuch as M is three times D. τριπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Μ. ἕως ἂν τὸ λαμβανόμενον πολλαπλάσιον μὲν γένηται τοῦ Δ. So. Thus. πε- E B G H F G H K D L M N For since AB is greater than C. being multiplied. AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D [Def.

For let A and B each have the same ratio to C. 5. A is equal to B. again. μεῖζον δὲ τοῦ Δ· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. I say that A is equal to B. iþ. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. (which is) the first (multiple) greater than F G. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is 140 . we can show that F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater. For if not. let C have the same ratio to each of A and B. τουτέστι τοῦ Κ. So. will sometimes be greater than D. I say that A is equal to B. inasmuch as F G. So. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. And so let AE be greater than EB. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ ΖΗ· ὥστε πάλιν τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλασσον. ὑπερέχει. similarly (to the above). So. Thus. τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. But they do. 5. have been taken. ὅτι τὰ ΖΘ. Τὰ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. A and B would not each have the same ratio to C [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πολλαπλασιάσθω. K—also does not exceed N . and let GH be a multiple of EB (which is) greater than D. Thus. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. For if not. Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. that is to say N . the lesser. καὶ ὡσαύτως κατακολουθοῦντες τοῖς ἐπάνω περαίνομεν τὴν ἀπόδειξιν. And. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· καὶ εἰλήφθω ὁμοίως τὸ Ν πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ratio to C than D (has) to AB [Def. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. EB.STOIQEIWN eþ. Proposition 10 Τῶν πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον For (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magἔχον ἐκεῖνο μεῖζόν ἐστιν· πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον nitude). And GH (is) greater than D. οὐκ ἂν ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. F G is again not less than M . jþ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ ΗΘ πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ ΕΒ. And those (magἐστίν. similarly (to the above).8]. οὐκ ἂν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. But it does. Thus. so many times let F G also have become (divisible) by AE. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 9 Τὰ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λὸγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις (Magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕχει λόγον. And as many times as GH is (divisible) by EB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. So. Τῶν ἄρα ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον· καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. A is equal to B. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ ΗΘ. (magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same (magnitude) are equal to one another. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. being multiplied. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. which (is) greater than GH—that is to say. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β.8]. following the above (arguments). we (can) complete the proof in the same manner. C would not have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. And those (magnitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. for unequal magnitudes. Μ. let the multiple N of D. nitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. τουτέστι τοῦ Ν. and K by C. Thus. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And. Εἰ γὰρ μή. And K does not exceed N . ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. the whole of F H exceeds D and M . ἐκεῖνα ἴσα (magnitude) are equal to one another. Let it have been multiplied. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. 5. Β τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Δ.5].

Thus. Δ ἄλλα.7]. ἃ ἔτυχεν. τῶν δὲ Β. Thus. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. so E (is) to F . Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. Thus. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M . But it does not. For (then) C would have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἢ ἔλασσον. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν Α. For if not. πάλιν. For let A have a greater ratio to C than B (has) to C. is B greater than A. For (then) A would have a lesser ratio to C than B (has) to C [Prop. Μ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β· τὸ Α γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Γ ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ· λέγω. And it was shown not (to be) equal either. And since as A is to B. so E (is) to F . Proposition 11† Οἱ τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί. and the other random equal multiples L and M of B and D (respectively). iaþ. ἐδείχθη δὲ οὐδὲ ἴσον· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τοῦ Β. καὶ εἰ ἐλλείπει. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. 5. Θ. and the other random equal multiples L. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. M . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔχει. Τῶν ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν· καὶ πρὸς ὃ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. A is surely either equal to or less than B. A is not equal to B. N of B. Θ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον ἐστίν.7]. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) 141 . Δ. Ζ ἄλλα. τῶν δὲ Β. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. again. and as C (is) to D. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. indeed. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. (the) greater. 5. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴσον· ἔλαττον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Α. I say that as A is to B. B is not greater than A. H. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ.8]. 5. B is less than A. F (respectively). I say that B is less than A. For let the equal multiples G. for (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude). But they do not. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. A is not equal to B. Γ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. E (respectively). so C (is) to D. ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α· λέγω.STOIQEIWN eþ. In fact. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. D. For (then) A and B would each have the same ratio to C [Prop. is A less than B. ἴσον. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶν ἢ μεῖζον. I say that A is greater than B. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. In fact. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. For (then) C would have a lesser ratio to B than (it has) to A [Prop. A is not less than B. For if not. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. 5. so C (is) to D. Μ. let C have a greater ratio to B than C (has) to A. Neither. ἐπεί ἐστιν A B G L C D H M E F K N For let it be that as A (is) to B. indeed. οὐδὲ μὴν μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Β ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ Α. ἐλλείπει. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. So. K have been taken of A. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. (it is) surely either equal or greater. But it does not. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Thus. (Ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. Γ Α Ε ∆ Ζ Β Θ Κ Η Λ Μ Ν ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. C. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ἑκάτερον γὰρ ἂν τῶν Α. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Κ. But it does not. Neither. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β.8]. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is (the) greater. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And it was shown that (it is) not equal (to A) either. Ν. Thus. Thus. A is greater than B. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. B is not equal to A. ὅτι ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. A is not equal to B. ἐδείχθη δέ. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and C (respectively). Εἰ γὰρ μή.

ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἴσον. and if (H was) equal (to M then G was also) equal (to L). F (respectively). Δ. Μ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Κ τῶν Α. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) equal (to M . καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς το Ζ· λέγω. and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M ) [Def. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. 5. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ.STOIQEIWN eþ. and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). F (respectively). Θ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Ν τῶν Β. Δ. and L and N other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). so E (is) to F . In modern notation. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. and the equal multiples H and K have been taken of C and E (respectively). If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. I say that as A is to B. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. E (respectively). and if (H was) less (than M then G was also) less (than L). ἔλαττον· ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and if (H is) equal (to M then K is also) equal (to N ). Thus. Δ. But (we saw that) if H was exceeding M then G was also exceeding L. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. so C (is) to D. hence. as A is to B. F . Δ. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ :: ǫ : ζ then α : β :: ǫ : ζ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Κ. C. καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. And. C. N of B. (so that) as A (is) to B. ἀλλὰ εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. and K (exceeds) N . Γ. Μ. Ζ ἄλλα. ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. so A. and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ). † equal (to M ). ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. and E to F . H. Ν. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα. Ζ. Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N .5]. οὕτως τὰ Α. M . οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Β. B. E (respectively). D. so E (is) to F [Def. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Θ. and the equal multiples G. C. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. Γ. Ν. Κ. Θ. Κ τῶν δὲ Β. C. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Ζ ἄλλα. (which are) proportional. and the other random equal multiples L. K have been taken of A. and if (H is) less (than M then K is also) less (than N ) [Def. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Γ. and E to F . Ζ ἄλλα. K have been taken of A. And G and K are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). (ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. Ν. F . τὰ δὲ Λ. Οἱ ἄρα τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. D. Α Β Η Θ Κ Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B Λ Μ Ν G H K ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. For let the equal multiples G. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. 5. H. so C (is) to D. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. D. D. ἔλαττον. C D E F L M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. N of B. ἴσον. M . Again. καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον.5]. A. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. ἔλαττον.5]. thus if H exceeds M then K also exceeds N . Γ. Γ. and K to N ). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. and the other random equal multiples M and N of D and F (respectively). Ζ ἄλλα. ἴσον. ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. ἴσον. τῶν δὲ Β. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. E (are) to B. τῶν δὲ Δ. and the other random equal multiples L. ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ εἰ ἔλλατον. E. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Ε. ibþ. Thus. And since as A is to B. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. since as C is to D. Ζ. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M . 5. 142 .

ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. but H does not exceed L. And. Ζ ἄλλα. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον has a greater ratio to the fourth than a fifth (has) to a μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. this proposition reads that if α : α′ :: β : β ′ :: γ : γ ′ etc. I say that the first (magnitude) A will also have a greater ratio to the second B than the fifth E (has) to the sixth F . and K and L other random equal multiples of D and F (respectively). οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. D. Γ. Δ. τῶν δὲ Δ. Thus. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. And as many times as G is (divisible) by C.STOIQEIWN eþ. and the third (magnitude) λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. τῶν δὲ Δ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων. 5. M . καὶ τὸ μὲν τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Δ πολλαπλασίου ὑπερέχει. E (are) to B. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. Γ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὑπερέχει καὶ τὰ Η. Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. Α Β Μ Ν Γ ∆ Η Κ Ε Ζ Θ Λ A B M N Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. and K than N ) [Def. for the same (reasons). Δ. Μ. inasmuch as if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. ἔλαττονα. And G and G. οὕτως τὰ Α. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. respectively. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. N . ἃ ἔτυχεν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ Λ καὶ τὰ Λ. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Α. F (respectively). such that G exceeds K. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἐπειδήπερ ἐὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. Ν τοῦ Β καὶ τῶν Β. and the multiple of E does not exceed the multiple of F [Def. if G exceeds L then G. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ μὴ ὑπερέχειν· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιον μέν ἐστι τὸ Η τοῦ Γ. ἴσα. let them have been taken. C. N are also equal multiples of B and B. K also exceed L. E (respectively). Κ τῶν Λ. Θ. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second) [Prop. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. In modern notation. Θ. Ν. For since there are some equal multiples of C and E.1]. so many times let M be (divisible) by A. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. D. K are also) equal (to L. And as many times as K (is divisible) 143 . M .5]. ὥστε τὸ μὲν Η τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχειν. And let G and H be equal multiples of C and E (respectively). of some (other) magnitudes. and other random equal multiples of D and F . τὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Ζ πολλαπλασίου οὐχ ὑπερέχει. λέγω. H. (for which) the multiple of C exceeds the (multiple) of D. Λ. and if (G is) equal (to L then G. M . then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. C. H. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. then α : α′ :: (α + β + γ + · · · ) : (α′ + β ′ + γ ′ + · · · ). K are also) less (than L. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Μ. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. ὅτι καὶ πρῶτον τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἤπερ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. N ). as A is to B. εἰλήφθω. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. L and L. of equal number (to them). καὶ εἰ ἴσον. 5. H. C D G K E F H L For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. M . Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. † and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M . K are equal multiples of A and A. igþ. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. Θ. N ) and if (G is) less (than L then G. Ζ ἄλλα. Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. hence. καὶ ἔστω τῶν μὲν Γ. So. H. Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τῶν Α. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Η καὶ τὰ Η. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Β. Thus. F (respectively). ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἔστι τινὰ τῶν μὲν Γ. τρίτον δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἐχέτω ἢ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. and let the third (magnitude) C have a greater ratio to the fourth D than a fifth E (has) to a sixth F . τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα that a third (has) to a fourth. 5. sixth. ὁσαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Κ τοῦ Δ.7]. so A.

ἔλαττον. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ ἄρα Α πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Θ τῶν Α. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Β· ὥστε μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. thus if M exceeds N then G exceeds K. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ. similarly.8]. 5. ἄλλο δέ. then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. greater than the fourth. D (is) less than B. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ οὐχ ὑπερέχει· καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Μ. τῶν δὲ Β. ἴσον.7]. In modern notation. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ > ǫ : ζ then α : β > ǫ : ζ. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. † by D. τὰ δὲ Ν. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. ἃ ἔτυχεν. 5. and the equal multiples M and G have been taken of A and C (respectively). ἔλασσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. And if (the first magnitude is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. and the first (magnitude) is greater than the third. And since as A is to B. Thus. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. κἂν ἴσον. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. we can show that even if A is equal to C then B will also be equal to D. C D For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. 5. and even if A is less than C then B will also be less than D. then the second will also be greater than the fourth. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. ἔλλατον. Hence. then the second will also be κἂν ἔλαττον. ἴσον. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. κἄν ἔλασσον ᾖ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. Δ ἄλλα. Thus.5]. M also exceeds N . καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. Ζ ἄλλα. ὑπερέχει δὲ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. and the first (magnitude) καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ.10]. μεῖζον δὲ ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. and a third (magnitude) has a greater ratio to a fourth than a fifth (has) to a sixth. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. 5. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. Thus. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ν. For since A is greater than C. and if (M is) equal (to N then G is also) equal (to K).STOIQEIWN eþ. is greater than the third. ἃ ἔτυχεν. So. [μέγεθος] τὸ Β. Thus. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. I say that B is also greater than D. and N and L other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. And as A (is) to B. idþ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τῷ Δ. And G exceeds K. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. And H does not exceeds L. that a third (has) to a fourth. ὃ ἔτυχεν. Λ τῶν Β. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. B is greater than D. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). ῾Ομοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. Κ. Α Β Γ ∆ A B Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. C also has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to B. κἂν ἴσον. And M and H are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). And let A be greater than C. Η. And if (the first magnitude is) 144 . Thus. and the other random equal multiples N and K of B and D (respectively). A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. and if (M is) less (than N then G is also) less (than K) [Def. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. so many times let N be (divisible) by B. A has a greater ratio to B than E (has) to F [Def. so C (is) to D. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is the lesser [Prop. so C (is) to D. and B (is) another random [magnitude]. κἂν ἔλαττον. ἴσον.

in corresponding order. B. † G Γ For let AB and DE be equal multiples of C and F (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). ieþ. thus as AG is to DK. parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. ΚΛ. and the other random equal multiples G and H of C and D (respectively). and HB to LE [Prop. LE are also equal to one another.STOIQEIWN eþ. Let A. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ΛΕ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις. 145 . Proposition 15† Τὰ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει Parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. ΚΛ. GH. ΗΘ. I say that they will also be [proportional] alternately. Γ. Β. KL. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α T γ as β T δ. 5. this proposition reads that α : β :: m α : m β. ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α.7]. If four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. ΗΘ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὸ ΗΘ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. Thus. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. ΛΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.12]. taken in corresponding order. καὶ τὸ ΘΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΕ. KL. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· λέγω. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. thus (for proportional magnitudes). Θ. as C is to F . and DE into (magnitudes) DK. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). Thus. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγουμένα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. equal to F . so B (is) to D. as AG is to DK. ΘΒ ἀλλήλοις. Α ∆ Η Θ Κ Λ Β Ε A H B C D Ζ K L E F ῎Εστω γὰρ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ το ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. HB are equal to one another. Proposition 16† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. And. so GH (is) to KL. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται. and DK. I say that as C is to F . τὸ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΔΚ. HB. so C (is) to D. 5. And AG is equal to C. ΚΛ. Thus. For let the equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and B (respectively). ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Γ. HB will equal the number of (magnitudes) DK. (so that) as A (is) to C. as one of the leading (magnitudes) will be to one of the following. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΔΚ. τῶν δὲ Γ. LE. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. So. Δ. and DK to F . ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ [ἀνάλογον] ἔσται. so all of the leading (magnitudes will be) to all of the following [Prop. ΘΒ. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. KL. so AB (is) to DE. τὸ δὲ ΔΚ τῷ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. so AB (is) to DE. GH. † In modern notation. ΗΘ. Τὰ ἄρα μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. GH. Δ ἄλλα. so many (are there) also in DE equal to F . διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ΑΗ. In modern notation. LE. For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). C and D be four proportional magnitudes. so AB (is) to DE. thus as many magnitudes as there are in AB equal to C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. Let AB have been divided into (magnitudes) AG. Ζ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. the number of (magnitudes) AG. And since AG. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Γ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. taken λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. equal to C. iþ. ΘΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΚ. (such that) as A (is) to B. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε.

ΕΒ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. thus as A is to B. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ε τοῦ Η. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : γ :: β : δ. 5. if four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. ΘΚ. and the first is greater than the third then the second will also be greater than the fourth. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. and the other random equal multiples KO and N P of EB and F D (respectively). as A is to C. and if (E is) less (than G then F is also) less (than H). ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. if E exceeds G then F also exceeds H. so E (is) to F . thus. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. so E (is) to F [Prop. 5. ΝΠ. ὅτι καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. καὶ διαιρεθέντα If composed magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ἔλαττον. ἴσον. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Θ τῶν Γ. (so that) as AB (is) to BE. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Thus. 5. and G and H other random equal multiples of C and D (respectively). CD.15]. ἔλαττον. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β.11]. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Δ ἄλλα. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. And if four magnitudes are proportional. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. For let the equal multiples GH.STOIQEIWN eþ. and F D (respectively). 5. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. so C (is) to D. πάλιν. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Ε. ἐπεὶ τὰ Η. I say that they will also be proportional (when) separated. will also be proportional (when) separarted. so G (is) to H [Prop. CF . 5. Thus. izþ. ΛΜ. 146 . τὰ δὲ Η.14]. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. so G (is) to H [Prop.11]. as C (is) to D. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ Η Θ A B E F Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ε τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Β.15]. Ζ τῶν Α. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Α Ε Η Λ Μ Β Γ Θ Κ Ν Ζ ∆ A Ξ E G Π L ῎Εστω συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. κἄν ἔλαττον. [so] E (is) to F . [οὕτως] τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. HK. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ· λέγω. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. Again. BE. LM . ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΘ. 5. so CF (is) to DF . ΒΕ. Θ τῶν Γ.5]. and if (the first is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth) [Prop. Thus. so B (is) to D [Def. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΖΔ ἄλλα. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. † C D G H And since E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). as E (is) to F . Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΕ. Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. and DF be composed magnitudes (which are) proportional. thus as C is to D. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. But as A (is) to B. κἂν ἴσον. ἴσον. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ M B C H K N F D O P Let AB. And. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. and if (E is) equal (to G then F is also) equal (to H). And E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). And. so CD (is) to DF . since G and H are equal multiples of C and D (respectively). τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΚΞ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. But as C (is) to D. thus. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Θ. ΜΝ. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. ΓΔ. ΔΖ. and M N have been taken of AE. ΓΖ. and if (the first is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). In modern notation. EB. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ.

5. ὑπερεχέτω δὴ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. GK. since HK and M N are equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). and even if (GH is) less (than KO then LM will also be) less (than N P ). Thus. Thus. thus if GK exceeds HO then LN also exceeds M P . ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τῷ ΝΠ. then. ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. and KO. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. ΕΒ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. CD. καὶ συντεθέντα If separated magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ΖΔ ἄλλα. LN are equal multiples of AB. And LM and GK were equal multiples of CF and AB (respectively). LN also exceeds M P . Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ΛΝ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. LM are equal multiples of AE. similarly. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. πάλιν. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ· λέγω. since LM and M N are equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ΓΖ. Thus. F D. GK and LM are equal multiples of AB and CF (respectively). οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. ΛΝ. so ὅτι καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ΓΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΚ. GK and LN are equal multiples of AB and CD (respectively). LM and LN are thus equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively) [Prop. ΖΔ. But (we saw that) if GK was exceeding HO then LN was also exceeding M P . ΛΜ τῶν ΑΕ. and the equal multiples HO. I say that they will also be proportional 147 . ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. κἂν ἔλαττον. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ. † And since GH and HK are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). and thus. LN have been taken of AB. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ Η A ∆ C E B F G D ῎Εστω διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΕ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ.2]. and the equal multiples GK. GH exceeds KO. added together.1]. ΓΖ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Let AE. ἴσον. ihþ. ἀλλα εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. and KO and N P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). and. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. will also be proportional (when) composed. ἔλαττον. so CF (is) to F D [Def. 5. we can show that even if GH is equal to KO then LM will also be equal to N P . So. ΝΠ τῶν ΕΒ. Again. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. Thus. this proposition reads that if α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ then α : β :: γ : δ. 5. But GH and LM are equal multiples of AE and CF (respectively). M N being taken away from both.5]. Again. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΚΞ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. and F D be separated magnitudes ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. 5. πάλιν. Hence. 5. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. And since as AB (is) to BE. (which are) proportional. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΗΘ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and if (GK is) less (than HO then LN is also) less (than M P ) [Def. Thus. CF . Thus. So let GK exceed HO. EB. CF (is) to F D. N P other random equal multiples of EB. so CD (is) to DF . τὰ δὲ ΚΞ. In modern notation. ΜΠ. καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. as AE is to EB. if composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separarted.STOIQEIWN eþ.1]. F D. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΘΚ ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. GH and GK are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΘΞ. ἔλαττον. ἰσάκις δὲ ἦν πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. HK being taken away from both. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΜΝ ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ· ὥστε εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. τὰ ΗΚ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΚΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΝΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. and if (GK is) equal (to HO then LN is also) equal (to M P ). CF . M P of EB. And GH. LM also exceeds N P . ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλασίον τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. if GH exceeds KO then LM also exceeds N P .5]. CD. καὶ συντεθὲν τὸ ΘΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΜΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. HO and M P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively) [Prop.

ἔσται ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ.14]. (namely) DG. οὕτως τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφειρεθὲν τὸ ΓΖ· λέγω. οὕτως τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. as BE (is) to DF . ‡ Here. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. Thus. The very thing is impossible. Thus. Also. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to ὅλον. (it is) also (the case that) as CG (is) to GD. alternately. then it will surely be (the case that) as AB (is) to BE. (it is) also (the case). οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ.STOIQEIWN eþ. Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. Similarly. For if (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. 5. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΗ. so DF (is) to CF [Prop. And the first (magnitude) CG (is) greater than the third CF . Thus. so AE (is) to CF . And it was assumed that as AE (is) to CF . they will thus also be proportional (when) separated [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑ πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΖ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καὶ ἐναλλάξ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. if separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed.17]. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. 5. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. so EA (is) to F C [Prop. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. as the remainder EB (is) to the remainder F D. 148 . so CD (is) to F D. first of all. συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ὥστε καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς ἀφαιIf as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken ρεθέν. (it is the case) to the same (as F D). ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. alternately. that a fourth magnitude proportional to three given magnitudes can always be found. And. Thus. And since composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separated. Euclid assumes. so DC (is) to CF [Prop. (so that) as AB is to BE. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τὸ ΓΗ τοῦ τρίτου τοῦ ΓΖ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τὸ ΗΔ τοῦ τετάρτου τοῦ ΖΔ. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. as AE is to EB. so CD (is) to DG. or (some magnitude) greater (than DF ). ijþ. (so that) as BE (is) to EA. For since as AB is to CD. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς E B F D For let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . (when) composed. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς ἔλασσον τοῦ ΖΔ. And since composed magnitudes are proportional. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ.16]. without proof. thus.17]. so the whole AB will be to the whole CD. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ ἤτοι πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τοῦ ΔΖ ἢ πρὸς μεῖζον. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. But it was also assumed that as AE (is) to EB. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. I say that the remainder EB to the remainder F D will also be as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ A ∆ C ῎Εστω γὰρ ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. ὅτι οὐδὲ πρὸς μεῖζον· πρὸς αὐτὸ ἄρα. But (it is) also less. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. ῎Εστω πρότερον πρὸς ἔλασσον τὸ ΔΗ. so CG (is) to GD. so CF (is) to F D [Prop. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. 5. the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. we can show that neither (is it the case) to greater (than F D). so CD (is) to less than F D. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. (that) as BA (is) to AE. 5. the second (magnitude) GD (is) also greater than the fourth F D [Prop. so CF (is) to F D. 5. so the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ.‡ Let it. so CD (is) to F D. so CD is either to some (magnitude) less than DF . 5.16]. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΑ. † In modern notation. (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. Thus. be to (some magnitude) less (than DF ). Thus. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. (so that) as AB (is) to BE.11]. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ.

so EB (is) to F D. so F (is) to E [Prop. Ζ. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. ὅτι ἐὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη So (it is) clear. ἴσον. κἂν ἔλαττον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. inversely. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. kþ. third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. B. συγκείμενα ἄρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ἐδείχθη δὲ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. and the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude) [Prop.]. κἂν D E F Let A. E. ἴσον. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B. Thus. And let A be greater than C. And (the latter) is converted (from the former). Proposition 20† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. If there are three magnitudes. so DC (is) to CF . (when) converted. (being) also in the same ratio taken two πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : α − β :: γ : γ − δ. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. I say that D will also be greater than F . οὕτως τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. And it was shown (that) as BA (is) to AE. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : β :: α − γ : β − δ. and C be three magnitudes. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β [οὕτως] τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. via equality. so D (is) to E. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. (so that) as A (is) to B. (that) as AB (is) to BE. the first is greater than the μεῖζον ἔσται. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. composed magnitudes are proportional.13]. And for (mag- 149 .STOIQEIWN eþ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. ἔλαττον. τὸ δὲ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. 5. ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ε μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε. μεῖζον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. from this. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. κἂν ἔλαττον. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). via equality. (it is) also (the case). καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου by two. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Thus. and (if). δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ number to them. that if composed magniἀνάλογον ᾖ. and D. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. In modern notation. and as B (is) to C. For since A is greater than C. † ‡ In modern notation. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. Ε. κἂν ἴσον. 5. so E (is) to F . 5. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). as C (is) to B.8]. Β. so CD (is) to F D. κἂν ἴσον. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ ἀναστρέψαντι ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει tudes are proportional then they will also be proportional δεῖξαι.7 corr. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And. But as A (is) to B. and B some other (magnitude). ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ μεῖζον ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω.] Pìrisma. [so] D (is) to E. Γ. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. [Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἀφαιρεθέν. ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καί ἐστιν ἀναστρέψαντι]. if as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ.] [And since it was shown (that) as AB (is) to CD. alternately. D also has a greater ratio to E than F (has) to E [Prop.

I say that D will also be greater than F . πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. via equality. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. (so that) as A (is) to B. D E F Let A. Thus. Thus. ἔλαττον. B. 5. Thus. ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. κἂν ἴσον. κἂν ἔλαττον. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. 5. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. But as A (is) to B. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. ἒλαττον. and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ).7 corr. And. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). the first is greater than the third. Ε. and (if). if there are three magnitudes. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed. Proposition 21† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. kaþ. Similarly. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. D is greater than F . In modern notation. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. E. ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. Β. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. and others of equal number to them. via equality. and others of equal number to them.]. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. ἴσον. and B some other (magnitude). And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth).13]. κἂν ἒλαττον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. as C (is) to B.STOIQEIWN eþ. and as B (is) to C. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). via equality. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. For since A is greater than C. ἔλαττον. D (is) greater than F . 5. κἂν ἴσον. E also has a greater ratio to F than E (has) to D [Prop. F is less than D. so D (is) to E. Thus. this proposition reads that if α : β :: δ : ǫ and β : γ :: ǫ : ζ then α T γ as δ T ζ. and C be three magnitudes. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. And let their proportion be perturbed. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. κἂν ἴσον. ἔλαττον. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . And let A be greater than C. Ζ. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔλαττον. inversely. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. that having the greater ratio is greater [Prop. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. so E (is) to D [Prop. 5. 5. κἂν ἔλαττον. 150 . ἴσον. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. so E (is) to F . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. κἂν ἴσον. so E (is) to F . ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ τὸ Ε ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ζ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. If there are three magnitudes. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β.10]. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.10]. † nitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude). καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. Thus. Similarly. And (if the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. κἂν ἔλαττον. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. and D. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζον ἔστω· λέγω. and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). and (if). Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ. ἴσον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser (magnitude) [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ).8].

20]. and M are three magnitudes. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. τῶν δὲ Β. Ε. D. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Β. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. 5. Λ. κἂν ἔλαττον. so D (is) to E. E. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.STOIQEIWN eþ. (so that) as A (is) to B. if there are three magnitudes. And since as A is to B. Θ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Ν. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Ν. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. as A is to C. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Ν. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Thus. And. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῳ λόγῳ ἔσται. Θ τῶν Α. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. A. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. so E (is) to F . Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. Ζ ἄλλα. L. C. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Θ. B E K L C F M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. 5. and (some) other (magnitudes). ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. of equal number to them. Ε ἄλλα. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. kbþ. ἴσον. as A is to C. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. 5. via equality. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively).4]. since G. and (if). Ζ ἄλλα. Μ. Ν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. and M and N other random equal multiples of C and F (respectively). Κ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. Λ. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. In modern notation. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἔτι τῶν Γ. Ν τῶν Γ. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. ἃ ἔτυχεν. thus as G is to K. and H. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α T γ as δ T ζ. and as B (is) to C. B. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. thus. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). Ε ἄλλα. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). so L (is) to N .5]. as K (is) to M . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. so H (is) to L [Prop. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). τῶν δὲ Β. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed. F . for the same (reasons). and others of equal number to them. Α ∆ Η Θ Β Ε Κ Λ Γ Ζ Μ Ν A D G H ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ Α.) For let the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). so D (is) to E. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Θ. Λ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἴσον. Ζ. K. if G exceeds M then H also exceeds N . And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). Proposition 22† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. Thus. and if (G is) equal (to M then H is also) equal (to N ). if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. Therefore. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Κ. And G and H are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. via equality. so D (is) to F [Def. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and if (G is) less (than M then H is also) less (than N ) [Prop. so D is to F . καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Μ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. τὰ δὲ Μ. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. (That is. so. ἃ ἔτυχεν. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by 151 . † Thus. and the yet other random equal multiples M and N of C and F (respectively). I say that they will also be in the same ratio via equality.

so E (is) to F . then they will also be in the same ratio via equality.15]. τῶν δὲ Γ. H. thus. Ν σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. so K (is) to M [Prop. 5. And. Again. 5. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. C B A Γ Β Α Ζ Ε ∆ Λ Θ Η Μ Κ Ν ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. so C (is) to E. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. as G (is) to H. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. Μ τῶν Γ. Β. (being) in the same ratio taken two by αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. Ν. 5.21]. Also. so. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε· λέγω. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ.11]. and as B (is) to C. and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. thus. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Κ. Let the equal multiples G. so C (is) to E [Prop. as E (is) to F . οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. M . (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. thus as A (is) to B. And. Κ τῶν Β. alternately.15]. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ τὰ Δ. Μ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. via equality. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοὶς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. so H (is) to K. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. so H (is) to K. Proposition 23† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος If there are three magnitudes. But. and N of C. And it was also shown (that) as G (is) to H. and (if) their proportion is perturbed. Therefore. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. and C be three magnitudes. πάλιν. ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. E. ἔλαττον. so L (is) to M [Prop. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: ζ : η and γ : δ :: η : θ then α : δ :: ǫ : θ. so D (is) to E. Κ τῶν Α. 5. Ε ἰσάκις ἐστι πολλαπλάσια. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη D G K E H M F L N Let A. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. And since as B is to C. 5. Β. And let their proportion be perturbed. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. since L and M are equal multiples of C and E (respectively). so E (is) to F . οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N . Θ τῶν Α. and K have been taken of A. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. And. as H (is) to K. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η.16]. so L (is) to M [Prop. so M (is) to N . And. 5. two. and the other random equal multiples L. also. and L and N of C and 152 . Θ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. B. B. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so D (is) to E. I say that as A is to C. and D. τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. M . 5. 5. Μ. and F (respectively). and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ) [Prop. 5. thus. so C (is) to E [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὰ Θ.15]. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. Θ. so M (is) to N . and D (respectively). and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. as C (is) to E. εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. And since G and H are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. as B (is) to D. (so that) as A (is) to B. so G (is) to H. H. thus as B is to D. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. alternately. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Λ.16]. as B (is) to D. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop.11]. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. But. Β. Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. as H (is) to L. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἐπεὶ τὰ Λ. as H (is) to K. thus as C is to E. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη number to them. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν· καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. thus. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοις ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Κ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 two. for the same (reasons). kgþ. and K. Ζ. Ζ ἄλλα.11]. and their proportion is perturbed. Ν τῶν Γ.STOIQEIWN eþ. Ε. so D (is) to F . since G. E and F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. τὰ δὲ Λ. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. and L are three magnitudes. ἴσον. Ε. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. And G and K are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. And as A is to B. καί ἐστιν αὐτῶν τεταραγμένη ἡ ἀναλογία. And since H and K are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). † In modern notation. so M (is) to N [Prop. Εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε.

Therefore. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and the sixth (added 153 . [Def. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. AG. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. so EH (is) to F . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. H For let a first (magnitude) AB have the same ratio to a second C that a third DE (has) to a fourth F .STOIQEIWN eþ. as C (is) to BG. Thus. also. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Γ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ ΘΕ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. so DE (is) to EH [Prop. added together. added together. 5. Proposition 24† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. inversely. via equality. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. so DE (is) to F . since as AB is to C. as AG is to C.5]. 5. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ.18]. so D (is) to F ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Thus. and others of equal number to them. And. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ F (respectively). if a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that a third (has) to a fourth. so F (is) to EH. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ· λέγω. ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ.22]. (added together). and (if) their proportion is perturbed. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. 5. and as C (is) to BG. Thus.7 corr. If a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that third (has) to a fourth. For since as BG is to C. as AB is to BG. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG also have the same ratio to the second C that a sixth EH (has) to the fourth F . (has) to the fourth F . thus. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. Thus. if there are three magnitudes. And since separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed [Prop. kdþ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ· δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΒ. via equality. thus. καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. so DH (is) to HE. as A (is) to C. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. DH. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. so F (is) to EH [Prop. 5. as BG is to C. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α : γ :: δ : ζ. so DH (is) to F [Prop. Thus. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. have) to the fourth. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and sixth (added together. Β Α Γ ∆ Ζ Ε B Η A C G E Θ D F Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς δεύρερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.22]. so EH (is) to F . † In modern notation. will also have the same ratio to the second C that the third (magnitude) and the sixth. as AG is to GB. 5. added together.]. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ.

τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΘΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. and CH and E to HD—GB and HD being unequal. so E (is) to F . Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. Ε. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 together. thus if] AG and F are added to GB. and F to CH. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΓΘ.19]. τὸ μέγιστον [αὐτῶν] If four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. E. And let AB be the greatest of them. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ μὲν Ε ἴσον τὸ ΑΗ. τῷ δὲ ΘΔ προστεθῇ τὰ ΓΘ. Ζ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ΓΘ. And AB (is) greater than CD. GB (is) also greater than HD.] since as AB is to CD. Ε. ἐὰν ἄρα] τῶν ΗΒ. and CH to F . ΓΔ. have) to the fourth. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒ. and E (is) equal to AG. so E (is) to F . Ζ τῶν ΓΔ. Ζ μείζονα τῶν ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. thus AG and F is equal to CH and E. And since AG is equal to E. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. συνάγεται τὰ ΑΒ. 5. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. ἔστω δὲ μέγιστον μὲν αὐτῶν τὸ ΑΒ. Thus. Thus. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. I say that AB and F is greater than CD and E. and F be four proportional magnitudes. the) largest and the smallest [of them] is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. thus as AB is to CD. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and ǫ : β :: ζ : δ then α + ǫ : β :: γ + ζ : δ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν Ε τῷ ΑΗ. and F the least. In modern notation. then α + δ > β + γ. καὶ [ἐπεὶ] ἐὰν [ἀνίσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ. and CH equal to F . † B D Let AB. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. τὸ δὲ Ζ τῷ ΓΘ. and α is the greatest and δ the least.STOIQEIWN eþ. if four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of the) largest and the smallest of them is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). And [since] if [equal (magnitudes) are added to unequal (magnitudes) then the wholes are unequal. thus the remainder GB will also be to the remainder HD as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD [Prop. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ. Ε. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. [In fact. Α Ε Γ Ζ Η Θ G Β A E H ∆ C F ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. and GB greater—it is inferred that AB and F (is) greater than CD and E. τῷ δὲ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. Ε. Ζ. ΘΔ ἀνίσων ὄντων καὶ μείζονος τοῦ ΗΒ τῷ μὲν ΗΒ προστεθῇ τὰ ΑΗ. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΔ. keþ. And since the whole AB is to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AG (is) to the (part) taken away CH. CD. 154 . ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. † In modern notation. Ε μείζονά ἐστιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 25† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. For let AG be made equal to E. so AG (is) to CH. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. τὰ ὅλα ἄνισά ἐστιν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Similar Figures 155 .

So. ὅσα τάς τε γωνίας ἴσας ἔχει κατὰ μίαν καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. So. BC and CD. and parallelogram EC to parallelogram CF . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 VOroi. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Θ. Θ Η Ε Α Ζ Β Γ ∆ Κ Λ H ῎Εστω τρίγωνα μὲν τὰ ΑΒΓ. AH. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ μὲν ΒΓ βάσει ἴσαι [ὁσαιδηποτοῦν] αἱ ΒΗ. γʹ. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. 1. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. ΚΛ. AGB. Λ σημεῖα. ῞Ομοια σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστιν. and EC and CF parallelograms. ΑΛ. ΒΗ. so many times is triangle ALC also (divisible) by triangle ACD. δύο δὲ τριγώνων τῶν ΑΒΓ. G E A F B C D K L Let ABC and ACD be triangles. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΓΒ. two bases. ΑΚ.38]. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τῳ ΑΓΛ τριγώνῳ. A straight-line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when as the whole is to the greater segment so the greater (segment is) to the lesser. ῎Ακρον καὶ μέσον λόγον εὐθεῖα τετμῆσθαι λέγεται. of the same height AC.‡ And if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ACL). ΗΘ ἀλλήλαις. ΑΗΒ. ΑΓΔ εἴληπται ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῆς μὲν ΒΓ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἥ τε ΘΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον. BG. AK. Similar rectilinear figures are those (which) have (their) angles separately equal and the (corresponding) sides about the equal angles proportional. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΗ. aþ. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἡ ὅλη πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα. triangles AHG. ΗΘ. and any number (of straight-lines) DK and KL equal to base CD. ΑΓΔ. For let the (straight-line) BD have been produced in each direction to points H and L. καὶ τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως. so many times is triangle AHC also (divisible) by triangle ABC. τῇ δὲ ΓΔ βάσει ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΔΚ. as many times as base LC is (divisible) by base CD. Thus. 1. ΑΒΓ τρίγωνα ἀλλήλοις.38]. Proposition 1† Τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ Triangles and parallelograms which are of the same ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. and two trian- 156 . height are to one another as their bases. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσις. and GH are equal to one another. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου· καὶ εἰ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῇ ΓΛ βάσει.STOIQEIWN þ. ἔλασσον. 3. ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ΑΘΗ. ῞Υψος ἐστὶ πάντος σχήματος ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀγομένη. 2. τῆς δὲ ΓΔ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ἄλλα. ΓΖ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος τὸ ΑΓ· λέγω. for the same (reasons). and ABC are also equal to one another [Prop. And since CB. ΑΘ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΔ βάσεως. their being four magnitudes. ΓΔ. I say that as base BC is to base CD. And if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ACL. as many times as base HC is (divisible by) base BC. οὕτως τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττὸν. And let AG. And if base HC is equal to base CL then triangle AHC is also equal to triangle ACL [Prop. The height of any figure is the (straight-line) drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the base. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. παραλληλόγραμμα δὲ τὰ ΕΓ. and AL have been joined. 1. Definitions αʹ. βʹ. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν δύο μὲν βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΛ τριγώνου. and let [any number] (of straight-lines) BG and GH be made equal to base BC.

ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ἃ ἔτυχεν.5]. this proposition holds even when the triangles. καί εἰ ἴση. And since parallelogram EC is double triangle ABC. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια ἥ τε ΛΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον· καὶ δέδεικται.STOIQEIWN þ. and if (HC is) equal (to CL then AHC is also) equal (to ALC). as base BC is to base CD. base HC and triangle AHC—and other random equal multiples of base CD and triangle ADC—(namely). bþ. ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς· καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν. ABC and ACD. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. Thus. base LC and triangle ALC. sides BC of triangle ABC. so οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. 1. ἔλασσον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. Thus. thus. ἴσον. thus as triangle ABC is to triangle ACD. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram CF . οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον.15]. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΛΓ τριγώνου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. also. and parallelogram F C is double triangle ACD [Prop. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD [Def. ‡ This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. 157 . Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον.34]. If some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle then it will cut the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. equal multiples have been taken of base BC and triangle ABC—(namely). and/or are not right-angled. ὅτι. and if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ALC). † As is easily demonstrated. I say that as BD is to DA. Α A ∆ Ε Β D Γ E B C Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ παράλληλος μιᾷ τῶν πλευρῶν For let DE have been drawn parallel to one of the τῇ ΒΓ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ· λέγω. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. triangles and parallelograms which are of the same height are to one another as their bases. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C [Prop. καὶ εἰ ἔλασσων.38. since it was shown that as base BC (is) to CD. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C. 5. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. 5. 1. And it has been shown that if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ALC. CE (is) to EA.11]. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. as base BC (is) to base CD. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. do not share a common side. 5. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. gles. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. In fact. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. or parallelograms. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν. and as triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον.

16]. And F D (is) equal to AC. ΔΓΕ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι. so CE (is) to ED. 5].28]. Let BC be placed straight-on to CE. thus. and as BC (is) to CA. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.28]. so BC (is) to CE [Prop. as BA (is) to CD. ΔΓΕ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. and those (sides) subtending equal ὑποτείνουσαι. so DC (is) to CE [Prop. 6.2].2]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΔ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 5. so CE (is) to ED [Prop. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΓΔ. and those (sides) subtend- 160 . F ACD is a parallelogram. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. and (angle) BAC to CDE. Proposition 4 Τῶν ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ In equiangular triangles the sides about the equal anπερὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας gles are proportional. alternately. Again. being produced. 5. (angle) ACB to CED. F A is equal to DC. And since angle DCE is equal to ABC. as BC is to CE. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and those (sides) subtending equal angles correspond. 1. as AB (is) to BC. further. οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.34]. having angle ABC equal to DCE. thus as BC (is) to CE. so AC (is) to DE. and. καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and ACB (is) equal to DEC. angles correspond. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Ζ. as BA (is) to AC. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΑΓ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. BF is parallel to CD [Prop. And since AC has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) F E of triangle F BE. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. Thus. since CD is parallel to BF . Again. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. in equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ. and AC to F D [Prop. ἐστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΖ. πάλιν. Thus. via equality. ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΒΖ. AC is parallel to F E [Prop. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΕ. so BC (is) to CE. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ.22]. 6. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. will meet [C. thus ABC and DEC are less than two right-angles. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. And since angles ABC and ACB are less than two right-angles [Prop 1. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ· λέγω. alternately. as BC (is) to CA.N. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 See Post. ΔΕΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· αἱ ΒΑ.2]. 6. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΕΔ ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. Thus. and. πάλιν. since (angle) ACB is equal to DEC. And AF (is) equal to CD. thus as BA is to AF . since it was shown that as AB (is) to BC. so F D (is) to DE [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. and. I say that in triangles ABC and DCE the sides about the equal angles are proportional. 5. 1. and let them meet at (point) F .17]. BA and ED. Let them have been produced. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. Κείσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Thus. Therefore. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. 1. Ζ F Α A ∆ Β Γ D Ε B ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΖΒΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΖΕ ἦκται ἡ ΑΓ. C E Let ABC and DCE be equiangular triangles. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΔ. dþ. so DC (is) to CE. so CD (is) to DE [Prop. Thus. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΑΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΖΑ τῇ ΔΓ.

the sides about the equal angles are proportional. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. So.4]. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. ἰσογώνια If two triangles have proportional sides then the trianἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. 5.23]. and triangle DEF (is) equal to triangle GEF . it was assumed. Thus. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. [οὕτως] ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. so DE (is) to EF . EF (respectively). ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. 1. ΕΗΖ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ὡς δὲ τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον. as AB is to BC. equal to ACB. ∆ Α Ε Β Γ D A Ζ E Η C F G B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. DE and GE each have the same ratio to EF . for triangles ABC and EGF . as BA (is) to AC. 1. ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. (angle) ABC (equal) to DEF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ.32]. BCA to EF D. since DE is equal to EG. further. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Ε.4]. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓ. [so] GE (is) to EF . ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΔΕ. and (that the triangles) will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι. triangle ABC is equiangular to [triangle] EGF . (so that) as AB (is) to BC. Thus. καὶ ἔτι ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. And base DF [is] equal to base F G. and. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἐστιν ἴση. 1. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΗ. 1. corresponding sides subtend equal. as AB (is) to BC. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. so ED (is) to DF . Thus. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. angle DF E is also equal to GF E. and 161 . ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσας ἕξουσι τὰς γωνίας. the two (sides) DE.8]. But. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and the remaining angles (are) equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΗΕ. and will have the angles which ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. as DE (is) to EF . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ing equal angles correspond. so. Thus. so GE (is) to EF [Prop. DF is also equal to GF . οὕτως ὑπόκειται ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. equal to angle ABC. the remaining (angle) at A is equal to the remaining (angle) at G [Prop. Thus. and. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΕ. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. and EF (is) common. (That is). eþ. and (angle) EF G. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΕ.STOIQEIWN þ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Therefore. BAC to EDF . Thus. further.9]. EF are equal to the two (sides) GE. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. (is) DE to EF . ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ gles will be equiangular. ῎Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΗΖ [τριγώνῳ]. so EF (is) to F D. have been constructed on the straight-line EF at the points E and F on it (respectively) [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. and (those) sides subtending equal angles correspond [Prop. angle DEF is equal to angle GEF [Prop. DE is equal to GE [Prop. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. λέγω. 6. Thus. and as BC (is) to CA. for the same (reasons).11]. For let (angle) F EG. Ζ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ. 5. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having proportional sides.

οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. 5. Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ μὲν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Thus. and (angle) ACB to DF E. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἴση ἐστίν. so ED (is) to DF . ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ τῇ ΔΗ· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΖ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΔ. BAC. Thus. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι the triangles will be equiangular. ΔΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΔ. 1. περὶ If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. and. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. þ.32]. Thus. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ΕΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΗ.23]. ᾿Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΗΖ τριγώνῳ. DF are equal to the two (sides) GD. the two (sides) ED. and (angle) GEF to ABC. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ.9]. Thus. as ED (is) to DF . then τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. ἰσογώνια ἔσται and the sides about the equal angles proportional. and will have angle ABC equal to DEF . (so that) as BA (is) to AC.4]. equal to each of BAC and EDF . base EF is equal to base GF . τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. which corresponding sides subtend equal. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. equal to one angle. And since (angle) F ED is equal to GEF . οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. ∆ Α D A Η Ε Β G Ζ E Γ B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπο ΔΖΕ. Thus.11]. And DF (is) common. proportionally. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DGF . And angle EDF [is] equal to angle GDF . 5. and the remaining angles 162 . further. so ED (is) to DF . ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. thus. the (angle) at A to the (angle) at D. ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ F C Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. equal to ACB. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. for the same (reasons). ED (is) equal to DG [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση.STOIQEIWN þ. So. have been constructed on the straight-line AF at the points D and F on it (respectively) [Prop. And. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. if two triangles have proportional sides then the triangles will be equiangular. and (angle) DF G. 1. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΔΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Δ. So. ὐφ᾿ ἃς ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. 6. And it was also assumed that as BA is) to AC. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. as BA (is) to AC. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. and will have the angles πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΔΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσας ἔσονται. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· λέγω. angle ABC is thus also equal to DEF . DF (respectively). Thus. EDF (respectively). the remaining angle at B is equal to the remaining angle at G [Prop. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. Thus. καὶ ἔτι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ΔΖ ἴσας εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ βάσει τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. (angle) EDF to EGF . For let (angle) F DG. and triangle DEF is equal to triangle GDF . I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF .

Thus. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the point B on it [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. proportional. first of all. ὡς τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. Ζ πρότερον ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς· λέγω. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί. and (that) angle ABC will be equal to DEF . and (angle) ABG to DEF . and the sides about (some) other angles. so DE (is) to EF .4]. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. EDF (respectively). ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. then the triangles will be equiangular. zþ. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. right-angles. ABC and DEF (respectively). (so that) as AB (is) to BC. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. 1. And let (angle) ABG. and will have the angles about which the sides are proportional equal. Thus. But. καὶ λοιπὴ δηλονότι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση. καὶ ἴση ἔσται ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. Thus. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. both less than right-angles. and the remaining angles either both less than. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the sides about other angles proportional. and the remaining (angles) at C and F . Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν Α γωνία τῇ Δ. ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Thus. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. will be equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἤτοι ἐλάσσονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. (angle) DF G is equal to ACB.32]. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. And since angle A is equal to (angle) D. then the triangles will be equiangular. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. (angle) DF G is equal to DF E. and (angle) DGF to DEF . τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.23]. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. equal to one angle. For if angle ABC is not equal to (angle) DEF then one of them is greater. equal to (angle) DEF . Thus. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. Let ABC be greater. And (angle) BAC was also assumed (to be) equal to EDF . Α A ∆ Β D B Ε Η E Ζ G F Γ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. BAC. or both not less than. and (that) the remaining (angle) at C (will be) manifestly equal to the remaining (angle) at F . the remaining (angle) at B is equal to the remaining (angle) at E [Prop. 1. ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . the remaining (angle) AGB is thus equal 163 .

So. 1. But it was assumed (to be) less than a rightangle. 1. ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἐστιν ἴση. And (AGB) was shown to be equal to the (angle) at F . Thus. I say. again. ὑπόκειται δὲ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἄτοπον. [so] it was assumed (is) AB to BC. Thus. Thus. let each of the (angles) at C and F be assumed (to be) not less than a right-angle. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. BC (is) equal to BG [Prop.11]. οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ ἀπό τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀχθῇ. And the angle at C was assumed (to be) less than a right-angle. [οὕτως] ὑπόκειται ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΒΓ. again.5]. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. as AB is to BG. Thus. in a right-angled triangle. ὅτι καὶ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. Thus.9]. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάττονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάττονα ὀρθῆς. The very thing is absurd. Hence. right-angles. (it is) equal.STOIQEIWN þ. Hence. 1. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. to the remaining (angle) DF E [Prop. ΒΗ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. hence. we can similarly show that BC is equal to BG. angle ABC is not unequal to DEF . οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνῳ. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). Thus. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἴση ἐστίν. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. and the sides about other angles proportional. and let AD have been drawn from 164 . καὶ ἐδείχθη ἴση οὖσα τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. Thus. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΒΗΓ αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν οὔκ εἰσιν ἐλάττονες· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. (it is) equal. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. Thus. ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ὑπόκειται ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἐλάττων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς καὶ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ· ὥστε ἡ ἐφεξῆς αὐτῇ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. For. Thus. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. hþ. οὐκ ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· οὐκ ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς οὐδὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. 1. AGB.32]. angle ABC is not unequal to (angle) DEF . and to one another. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus.4]. or both not less than. then the triangles will be equiangular. and will have the angles about which the sides (are) proportional equal. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. But. And as DE (is) to EF . in triangle BGC the (sum of) two angles is not less than two right-angles. Thus. 5. that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF in this case also. and the remaining angles both less than. BGC (is) not less than a right-angle either. 1.13]. Thus. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας.32]. triangle ABG is equiangular to triangle DEF . 6. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ὑποκείσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. And. And thus the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. the angle at C is equal to (angle) BGC. the adjacent angle to it. 1. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . τὰ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D.32]. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. The very thing is impossible [Prop. is greater than a right-angle [Prop. ὅτι ὅμοιόν ἐστιν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒΔ. the angle at C is equal to angle BGC [Prop. οὐκ ἄρα πάλιν ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. Ζ μὴ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· λέγω πάλιν. the (angle) at F is also greater than a right-angle. the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. again.17]. ΑΔΓ If. (angle) BGC is also less than a right-angle. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. And the (angle) at C (is) not less than a right-angle. with the same construction. Thus. AB has the same ratio to each of BC and BG [Prop. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν. also. Thus. 5. so DE (is) to EF [Prop.

that if. 6. 1. proportionally. BC. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ ΑΔ ἴσαι αἱ ΔΕ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. from this. and to one another. οὕτως ἡ ΒΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ So (it is) clear. And let DE and EC be made equal to AD [Prop. has been cut off from the given straight-line. then. Thus. so BF (is) to F A [Prop. in a right-angled triἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνάις ἐπὶ τὴν βάσις κάθετος ἀχθῇ. Proposition 9 Τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. encompassing a random angle with AB. Γ C Ε E ∆ Α D Ζ Β A F B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. [καὶ] διήθχω τις ἀπὸ τοῦ Α εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ γωνίαν περιέχουσα μετὰ τῆς ΑΒ τυχοῦσαν· καὶ εἰλήφθω τυχὸν σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τὸ Δ. of triangle ABC.STOIQEIWN þ. [And] let some straight-line AC have been drawn from (point) A. jþ.† (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. AB. AF . διπλῆ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΑ· διπλῆ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῆς ΖΑ· τριπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΖ.] Pìrisma. the perpendicular is the geometric mean of the pieces. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perἀχθεῖσα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· pendicular to the base then the (straight-line so) drawn ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Επιτετάχθω δὴ τὸ τρίτον. ἡ angle. 166 . To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight-line. And CD (is) double DA. So let a third (part) have been prescribed. BA (is) triple AF . And let DF have been drawn through D parallel to it [Prop. Τῆς ἄρα δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ἐπιταχθὲν τρίτον μέρος ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄτμητον τῇ δοθείσῃ τετμημένῃ To cut a given uncut straight-line similarly to a given ὁμοίως τεμεῖν. Let AB be the given straight-line. And let BC have been joined. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. iþ. Thus. ΕΓ.31]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. cut (straight-line). BF (is) also double F A. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.2]. † In other words. 1. And let a random point D have been taken on AC.3]. is in mean proportion to the pieces of the base. Therefore. So it is required to cut off a prescribed part from AB. the prescribed third part. Thus. as CD is to DA.

διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΘΚ. 1. οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΔ. as AB is to BD. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ Δ. as CE is to ED. Let BA and AC be the [two] given [straight-lines]. of triangle AGE. So it is required to find a third (straight-line) proportional to BA and AC. so GF (is) to F A [Prop. And KH (is) equal to BG. And it was also shown that as CE (is) to ED. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. πάλιν.2]. so BG (is) to GF . οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. proportionally. And let CB have been joined. so BG (is) to GF .31]. ἡ δὲ τετμημένη ἡ ΑΓ κατὰ τὰ Δ. GE. And let BC have been joined. ἡ δὲ ΘΚ τῇ ΗΒ. as ED is to DA. and let (AC) be laid down so as to encompass a random angle (with AB). AC. and AC a (straight-line) cut at points D and E. Thus. Again. and HK to GB [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.2]. as CE is to ED. 1. and let them be laid down encompassing a random angle. as CE is to ED. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΒ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. iaþ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΑΓ. ΑΓ καὶ κείσθωσαν γωνίαν περιέχουσαι τυχοῦσαν. Ε σημεῖα. For let (BA and AC) have been produced to points D and E (respectively). Παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΖΘ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. so BG (is) to GF . Therefore. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. καὶ διὰ τῶν Δ. and as ED (is) to DA. proportionally. thus. and let BD be made equal to AC [Prop. ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι [δύο εὐθεῖαι] αἱ ΒΑ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς μὲν ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. parallel to BC. 6. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΚΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα ἦκται ἡ ΘΕ. DH (is) equal to F G. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Γ C Ε Θ ∆ Α Ζ E Η H D Κ Β A F G K B ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἅτμητος ἡ ΑΒ. To find a third (straight-line) proportional to two given straight-lines. thus. since BC has been drawn parallel to one of the sides DE of triangle ADE. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΒΑ.31]. Thus. parallel to AB [Prop. ΑΓ τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΗΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΗΕ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. and let DHK have been drawn through (point) D. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. ΘΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΔΘ τῇ ΖΗ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΔΕ ἦκται ἡ ΒΓ. and HD to GF . καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ.STOIQEIWN þ. KC. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. the given uncut straight-line. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΒΗ. ΕΗ. so GF (is) to F A. Ε τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. 1. so AC (is) to CE [Prop. And let DE have been drawn through (point) D parallel to it [Prop. AB. Thus. Proposition 11 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. of triangle DKC. 6. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ.3]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. And let DF and EG have been drawn through (points) D and E (respectively). Ε σημεῖα. 6. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ.34]. F H and HB are each parallelograms. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Thus.2]. And BD (is) equal 167 . And since the straight-line HE has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. has been cut similarly to the given cut straight-line. proportionally. 1. ἡ δὲ ΘΔ τῇ ΗΖ. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄτμητος ἡ ΑΒ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τετμημένῃ τῇ ΑΓ ὁμοίως τέτμηται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι· Let AB be the given uncut straight-line. so KH (is) to HD [Prop. καὶ κείσθωσαν ὥστε γωνίαν τυχοῦσαν περιέχειν.

as A is to B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Γ τετάρτη ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΘΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. So it is required to find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to A. and GE to B. H F Let A. Β. Β. 1. τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΗΕ. AB and AC. οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. Proposition 12 Τριῶν δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τετάρτην ἀνάλογον προTo find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to three σευρεῖν. Thus. 6. Β. (which is) proportional to the two given straight-lines. ἡ δὲ ΗΕ τῇ Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to AC. a third (straight-line). Thus.31]. B. further. And let DG be made equal to A.STOIQEIWN þ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΕΖ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΖ ἦκται ἡ ΗΘ. thus as DG is to GE. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΗ τῇ Α. Α Β Γ A B C Ε G Η ∆ Θ E Ζ D ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. and C be the three given straight-lines. so C (is) 168 . οὕτως ἡ ΔΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. 1. and GE to B. and. since GH has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EF of triangle DEF . and C. Α A Β B Γ C D ∆ Ε E Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. Therefore. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΕ. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. ΑΓ τρίτη ἀνάλογον Thus. Let the two straight-lines DE and DF be set out encompassing the [random] angle EDF . ibþ. Τριῶν ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν Α. CE.3]. ᾿Εκκείσθωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. ΔΖ γωνίαν περιέχουςαι [τυχοῦσαν] τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΗ. ἡ δὲ ΔΘ τῇ Γ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Γ τετράτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. as AB is to AC. and DH to C. DH to C [Prop. so DH (is) to HF [Prop.2]. And GH being joined. given straight-lines. And DG (is) equal to A. has been found αὐταῖς προσεύρηται ἡ ΓΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. so AC (is) to CE. let EF have been drawn through (point) E parallel to it [Prop. καὶ ἔτι τῇ Γ ἴση ἡ ΔΘ· καὶ ἐπιζευχθείσης τῆς ΗΘ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Ε ἡ ΕΖ. B.

ΒΓ μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. I say that the sides of AB and 169 . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to HF . F B and BG are also straight-on (with respect to one another) [Prop. ὀρθή ἐστιν. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒ. † B C Let AB and BC be the two given straight-lines. DB has been found (which is) in mean proportion to the two given straight-lines. Let AB and BC be equal and equiangular parallelograms having the angles at B equal. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. B. to find the geometric mean of two given straight-lines. A.STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ.11]. And let BD have been drawn from (point) B. in the right-angled triangle ADC. idþ. 1. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. igþ. ΒΓ ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. AB and BC [Prop.14]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. In equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. and C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. Proposition 13 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ΒΓ ἴσας ἔχοντα τὰς πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίας. So it is required to find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to AB and BC. λέγω. To find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to two given straight-lines. 1. has been found (which is) proportional to the three given straight-lines. 1. ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων τῶν ΑΒ.8 corr. it is a right-angle [Prop. 3.† ∆ Α Β D Γ A ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. ΔΓ. at right-angles to AC [Prop.]. 6. ΒΕ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ΖΒ. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΔΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΒΗ. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. ῎Εστω ἴσα τε καὶ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒ. ᾿Επεὶ ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ. Thus. And let AD and DC have been joined. And let DB and BE be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). AB and BC. And since. a fourth (straight-line). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΔΒ.10]. In other words. HF . Thus. τουτέστιν. καὶ κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας αἱ ΔΒ. Let (AB and BC) be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). the (straight-line) DB has been drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base. Κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. and let the semi-circle ADC have been drawn on AC [Prop.31]. Thus. ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. And since ADC is an angle in a semi-circle. DB is thus the mean proportional to the pieces of the base. Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. Proposition 14 Τῶν ἴσων τε καὶ ἴσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας.

Therefore. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· λέγω. that is to say. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ.1].7]. so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. Thus. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒ. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. let DB be to BE. as DB (is) to BE. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ. so GB (is) to BF . ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. Τῶν ἄρα ἴσων τε καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. Ε Ζ Α Β Γ E Η F ∆ A B C G D Συμπεπληρώσθω γὰρ τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. so GB (is) to BF . οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ.9]. that as DB is to BE. so parallelogram BC (is) to parallelogram F E [Prop. ΑΔΕ τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC [Prop. (namely) BAC (equal) to DAE. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. τουτέστιν. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. ieþ. Proposition 15 Τῶν ἴσων καὶ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. in parallelograms AB and BC the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. 6. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. 5. the sides about the 170 . For since as DB is to BE. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. I say that parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. and F E (is) some other (parallelogram). as GB (is) to BF . so DB (is) to BE. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. also. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. but as DB (is) to BE. For let the parallelogram F E have been completed. Thus. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΖΕ. in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. οὕτως ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ.11].STOIQEIWN þ. in triangles ABC and ADE. And so. thus as (parallelogram) AB is to F E. οὕτως In equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle) the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 BC about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. But. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. Thus. so GB (is) to BF . And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. so GB (is) to BF [Prop. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. so parallelogram AB (is) to parallelogram F E.1]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. 5. ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. also. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. I say that. 6. thus. since parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. Let ABC and ADE be equal triangles having one angle equal to one (angle). ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. and as GB (is) to BF . and as (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E. ΑΔΕ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἔχοντα γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· λέγω.

οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. BG is thus equal to DH.STOIQEIWN þ. ΔΘ ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ.11]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. as AB is to CD. And in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΔΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ. And since as AB is to CD. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. τῶν ΒΗ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ΓΘ. Ζ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ΔΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . 1. ΓΔ εὐθείαις πρὸς ὀρθὰς αἱ ΑΗ. if four straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two). 6. so E (is) to F . τῶν δὲ ἴσων καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. since the (rectangle contained) by AB and F is equal to the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ε. so CH (is) to AG. Thus. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΓΘ τῇ Ε. ὅτι αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And let the parallelograms BG and DH have been completed. οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογώνιῳ. And CH (is) equal to E. Ε τὸ ΔΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΓΘ τῇ Ε· τὸ ἄρα ΒΗ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΘ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Ζ ἴση ἡ ΑΗ. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν Ε τῇ ΓΘ. as AB is to CD. ἡ δὲ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Ε· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Ε τῇ ΓΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. καί ἐστιν ἰσογώνια. and E (is) equal CH. For AG is equal to F . καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὰ ΒΗ. and F to AG. Ζ.3]. And they are equiangular. let the rectangle contained by AB and F be equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. I say that the four straight-lines will be proportional. τῇ δὲ Ε ἴση ἡ ΓΘ. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. [For] let AG and CH have been drawn from points A and C at right-angles to the straight-lines AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. Ζ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. Thus. parallelogram BG is equal to parallelogram DH. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ· λέγω. Thus. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ῎Ηχθωσαν [γὰρ] ἀπὸ τῶν Α. and AG to F . Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ὧν δὲ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραί αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. For. the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. and CH to E [Prop. ΔΘ παραλληλόγραμμα. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. Thus.angle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the χομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. Thus. so E (is) to F . καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.14]. Γ σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to 172 . so E (is) to F . with the same construction. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. λέγω. For CH (is) equal to E. 6. and F be four proportional straightlines. so E (is) to F . ΓΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. Ζ τὸ ΒΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. CD. B C D F Let AB. (so that) as AB (is) to CD. Θ H Η Α Ε G Β Γ ∆ A Ζ E ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ.14]. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. For AG (is) equal to F . And so. 1. For E (is) equal to CH. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιε. Ε. ἡ δὲ Ζ τῇ ΑΗ. rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. in the parallelograms BG and DH the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. so CH (is) to AG. Thus. And let AG be made equal to F . E. thus as AB is to CD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ.

I say that the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines are proportional [Prop. izþ. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ· λέγω. Thus. 6. D Let A. But.STOIQEIWN þ. the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. if three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). But. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. And B (is) equal to D. οὕτως ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. And if four straight-lines are proportional then the [rectangle] contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two) [Prop. I say that as A is to B. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 the rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. with the same construction. (so) D (is) to C. so B (is) to C. the (square) on B is the (rectangle contained) by B and D. Γ ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β· λέγω. Δ. the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. Α Β Γ A B C ∆ ῎Εστωσαν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ Α. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. Thus. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. And since as A is to B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. thus as A is to B.16]. and B (is) equal to D. If three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one).3]. Δ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. since the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (square) on B. so B (is) to C. The (rectangle contained) by A and C is thus equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. Γ. And so. Β. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 173 . Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β. ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Let D be made equal to B [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. Δ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. For B (is) equal to D. Proposition 17 ᾿Εὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. B and C be three proportional straight-lines. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. 6. so B (is) to C. Κείσθω τῇ Β ἴση ἡ Δ. For B (is) equal to D. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. 1. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον [ὀρθογώνιον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. (such that) as A (is) to B. the (rectangle contained) by B and D is the (square) on B. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. as A (is) to B. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. For. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. let the (rectangle contained) by A and C be equal to the (square) on B. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. as A is to B. so B (is) to C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. so D (is) to C. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. Thus. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. Δ. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. Thus.16].

Thus. have been constructed on the straight-line BG at the points G and B on it (respectively) [Prop. and similarly laid down. 6. Thus. and ED to HB [Prop. so F E (is) to GH. triangle F CD is equiangular to triangle GAB.32]. and CE the given rectilinear figure. ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης ἄρα εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΓΕ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγέγραπται τὸ ΑΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and similarly laid down. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 show. 1. the rectilinear figure AH is similar to the rectilinear figure CE [Def. triangle F DE is equiangular to triangle GHB. proportionally.STOIQEIWN þ. further. and. Thus. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΘ ἐστιν ἴση. (Which is) the 174 . equal to angle DF E. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση. (angle) CDE is also equal to ABH.4]. ihþ. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. thus the whole (angle) CF E is equal to the whole (angle) AGH. larly laid down. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΖ. Thus. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ε λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΘΒ τριγώνῳ· ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. as F D is to GB. And since angle CF D is equal to AGB. equal to the angle at C. Β τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. D A B Let AB be the given straight-line. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΓΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΑΒ τριγώνῳ. So it is required to describe a rectilinear figure similar.4]. 6. Thus. 1. to the given rectilinear figure CE has been constructed on the given straight-line AB. for the same (reasons). to the rectilinear figure CE on the straight-line AB. so CD (is) to AB. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΓΕ· καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας αὐτῶν πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ εὐθύγραμμον τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ.32]. so F C (is) to GA. the remaining (angle) CF D is equal to AGB [Prop. to a given rectilinear figure on a given straight-line. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΔΕ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΘ. 1. and simiὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. And it was also shown (that) as F D (is) to GB. Thus. equal to (angle) CDF . Proposition 18 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To describe a rectilinear figure similar. Again. πάλιν συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Β. Thus. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. and F E to GH. and the (angle) at E to the (angle) at H. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. (figure) AH is equiangular to CE. as F D is to GB. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the points A and B on it (respectively) [Prop. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ.1]. and DF E to BGH. let BGH. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση.23]. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. οὕτως ἥ τε ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. similar. Thus. Thus. 6. Η τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. the rectilinear figure AH. the remaining (angle) at E is equal to the remaining (angle) at H [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. and ABG. and CD to AB. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Α. and let GAB. so F C (is) to GA. and CD to AB [Prop. Let DF have been joined. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Ε τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ. and GBH equal to (angle) F DE. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. proportionally. ED to HB. καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. as F C (is) to AG. So. also. And the (angle) at C is also equal to the (angle) at A.23]. And (the two figures) have the sides about their equal angles proportional. Ε E Ζ F Θ H Η Γ ∆ Α G Β C ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ.

οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ proportional. triangle ABG is equal to triangle DEF . ΔΕΖ ἄρα τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. And as CB (is) to BG. so EF (is) to BG. so EF (is) to BG [Prop. so that as BC (is) to EF . καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΔΕ. BG. οὕτως ἐστιν ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ. 6. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν ΒΓ. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. And triangle ABG (is) equal to triangle DEF . as DE (is) to EF . so EF (is) to BG. since as AB is to BC. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. And those triangles having one (angle) equal to one (angle) for which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. so BC (is) to EF [Prop. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ABG [Prop. And. And let AG have been joined. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. similar triangles are to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. BC thus has a squared ratio to BG with respect to (that) CB (has) to EF . ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show].1]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 very thing it was required to do. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. have been taken (which is) proportional to BC and EF . for triangles ABG and DEF . ὥστε εἶναι ὡς τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. as AB (is) to DE. Pìrisma. Thus. Proposition 19 Τὰ ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ.] Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles having the angle at B equal to the (angle) at E. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. so DE (is) to EF . But. Α A ∆ Β Η Γ Ε D Ζ B G C E F ῎Εστω ὅμοια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. so the figure 175 . ΕΖ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ ΒΗ. thus. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. then as the first is to the third.15]. ἐὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον So it is clear. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ· τῶν ΑΒΗ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον· καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. and if three straight-lines are proportional then the first has a squared ratio to the third with respect to the second [Def. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ijþ. ὅτι. and AB to BC. ὥστε ὁμόλογον εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. Thus. 6. Similar triangles are to one another in the squared† ratio of (their) corresponding sides. as AB is to DE. I say that triangle ABC has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΕΖ. Therefore. [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. that if three straight-lines are ὦσιν. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. thus. ὡς δὲ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. so EF is to BG. ὧν δὲ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ.9]. 5. And since as BC (is) to EF . triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . Thus. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. such that BC corresponds to EF .16]. alternately. ΔΕΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε. 6. ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Thus. For let a third (straight-line). as BC (is) to EF . 5. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to (triangle) ABG with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὴν δευτέραν. from this.11]. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν.

EC. Thus. Def. as AB is to BC.1]. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον.4. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ ἴση διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ΖΗΛ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα.STOIQEIWN þ. on account of the similarity of the polygons. Α A Ζ Β F Ε Η Μ Θ Γ E Λ B Ν G M Κ L N H ∆ C ῎Εστω ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. triangle ABE is thus equiangular to triangle F GL [Prop. so LG (is) to GF .4. and similarly ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. thus. since ABE and F GL are two triangles having one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. kþ. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. and (that) polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to that AB (has) to F G. the remaining angle EBC is equal to LGH. ΛΗΘ αἱ πλευραὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνω.6]. καὶ τὸ πολύγωνον of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος wholes.1]. so F G (is) to GH.6]. Therefore. ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. GL. 6. EBC and LGH. Hence. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΛ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΛ. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΖ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. 6. triangle EBC is also similar to triangle LGH [Prop. are proportional. ΖΗΘΚΛ. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΕ. Thus. on account of the similarity of the polygons. described. but also. οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. 5. ΖΗΘΚΛ εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διῄρηται καὶ εἰς ἴσα K D Let ABCDE and F GHKL be similar polygons. Hence. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΕ. ΖΗΛ τριγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΑ. And since polygon ABCDE is similar to polygon F GHKL. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΛ. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΖΗ· λέγω. angle BAE is equal to angle GF L. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. † Literally. via equality. and let AB correspond to F G. So. Def.1]. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΕ. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. “double”. 6. I say that polygons ABCDE and F GHKL can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. and LH have been joined. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολυγώνῳ. so GF (is) to F L [Def. and the sides about the equal angles. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. and as BA is to AE. 6. ΛΘ. 6. And since. on account of the similarity of triangles ABE and F GL. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον ὅμοιόν ἐστι τῷ ΛΘΚ τριγώνῳ. καὶ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. angle ABE is equal to (angle) F GL. 6. triangle EBC is equiangular to triangle LGH [Prop. And the whole (angle) ABC is equal to the whole (angle) F GH. triangle ECD is also similar 176 . (they are) also similar [Prop. ΕΓ. squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. ΗΛ. as EB is to BC.22]. 6. as EB is to BA. so LG (is) to GH [Prop. Let BE. (figure) on the second. Proposition 20 Τὰ ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ Similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς ΖΛ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ (described) on the first (is) to the similar. for the same (reasons).

οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. 5.22]. and as AB is to BC. EBC. So. καὶ ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. so F G (is) to GH. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστίν. But. οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. we can show that triangle BM C is also equiangular to triangle GN H. also. so AM (is) to M C. and as BM (is) to M C. (I) also (say) that polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side—that is to say. and also as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. For they are to one another as their bases [Prop. as AM is to M B. οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. ΗΚ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle F GH [Prop. καὶ ἡγούμενα μὲν εἶναι τὰ ΑΒΕ. so (triangle) ABE (is) to CBE. similarly. τουτέστιν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. (side) AB to F G. and (angle) BCA to GHF .32]. 5. and ECD are the leading (magnitudes). and (angle) ABM is also equal to F GN (see earlier). so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes) is to (the sum of) all the following (magnitudes) [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ πλῆθος. also. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν· τὰ γὰρ ὅμοια τρίγωνα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν.6]. αλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ ΑΜΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle BEC. so triangle ABE (is) to triangle EBC. οὕτως ἡ ΗΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· ὥστε καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου. by joining BD and GK. 6. Thus. for the same (reasons). the triangles are proportional: ABE. Thus.1]. triangle ABM is equiangular to triangle F GN . so F N (is) to N G. I also say that (the triangles) correspond (in proportion) to the wholes.16]. ὅτι καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ τρίγωνον.4]. the remaining (angle) AM B is thus also equal to the remaining (angle) F N G [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον. ΕΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΜ [τρίγωνον] πρὸς τὸ ΜΒΓ. and AM E to EM C. ΖΘ. proportionally. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΒΕ. ἑπόμενα δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ΖΗΛ. as triangle AM B (is) to BM C.12]. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes is) to (the sum of) all the following [Prop. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. But. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπόμενων. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ ἄρα πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν. Thus. triangle ABE has a squared ratio 177 . καὶ ἔτι τὸ ΕΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ. and LHK (respectively). And as one of the leading (magnitudes) is to one of the following (magnitudes). καὶ τὸ ΑΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΜΓ· πρὸς ἄλληλα γάρ εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΝΗ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΜ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΝ τριγώνῳ. also. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. And since as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. 5. ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. alternately. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν τῶν ΒΔ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΝ ἴση. so triangle BEC (is) to triangle GLH [Prop. ΛΗΘ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. so triangle ECD (is) to triangle LHK. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. For let AC and F H have been joined. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. 6. ὅτι καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΜ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΝ. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΜΒ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. Thus. and their (associated) following (magnitudes are) F GL. Λέγω. angle BAC is equal to GF H. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. we can also show. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. Hence. as AM (is) to M C. as (triangle) AM B (is) to BM C. ΛΘΚ. 5. so [triangle] ABM is to M BC. the similar polygons ABCDE and F GHKL have been divided into equal numbers of similar triangles. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. And since angle BAM is equal to GF N . further. on account of the similarity of the polygons. and. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ τρίγωνον. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΒΜΓ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΗΝΘ τριγώνῳ. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον.STOIQEIWN þ. as AM (is) to M C. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον. via equality. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle F GL. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΒ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΗ. ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΘ. καὶ τὸ to triangle LHK. 1. So. so F N (is) to N H. so GN (is) to N H [Prop. τουτέστιν ὥστε ἀνάλογον εἶναι τὰ τρίγωνα. And as AM is to M C. οὕτως τὸ ΕΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ. similarly. ΕΒΓ. That is to say. and. as AM (is) to M C. οὕτως ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. Thus. But. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. And since angle ABC is equal to F GH. as F N (is) to N H. that as triangle BEC (is) to triangle LGH. Thus. 6. so (triangle) EBC (is) to LGH. LGH. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. so polygon ABCDE (is) to polygon F GHKL. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον.12]. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. (triangle) ECD to LHK. thus as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. And so. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. so F N (is) to N H [Prop.

Thus. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἐστιν ὅμοιον. kaþ. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. And it was also shown for triangles.14]. For. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ to triangle F GL with respect to (that) the corresponding ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν [ὅπερ ἔδει side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. since B is similar to C. Α A Β Γ B C ῎Εστω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. in general. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν Α. polygon ABCDE also has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) the corresponding side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. ὅτι ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. Proposition 21 Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν (Rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figὅμοια. similar rectilinear figures are also to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. Β εὐθυγράμμων τῷ Γ ὅμοιον· λέγω. A and B are each equiangular to C. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν τριγώνων· ὥστε καὶ καθόλου τὰ ὅμοια εὐθύγραμμα σχήματα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. triangles are in the squared ratio of corresponding sides [Prop. ure are also similar to one another. ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Γ. Corollary ῾Ωσαύτως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν [ὁμοίων] τετραπλεύρων δειχθήσεται.STOIQEIWN þ. (B) is equiangular to (C). Thus. 6. (A) is equiangular to (C). and have the sides about the equal angles 178 . Again. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. Pìrisma. πάλιν. 6. Β τῷ Γ ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει [ὥστε καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας Let each of the rectilinear figures A and B be similar to (the rectilinear figure) C.1]. similar δεῖξαι]. in the same manner. Hence.1]. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Γ. I say that A is also similar to B. And. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. it can also be shown for [similar] quadrilaterals that they are in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. Thus. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. 6. For since A is similar to C.

and GH be four proportional straight-lines. I say that as KAB is to LCD. οὕτως [καὶ] τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. and the similar. ΗΘ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ο. and similarly described. the sides about the equal angles proportional].]. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. CD. and similarly described. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. And. If four straight-lines are proportional then similar. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ὅπερ proportional [hence. rectilinear figures KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). For let a third (straight-line) O have been taken (which is) proportional to AB and CD. I say also that as AB is to CD. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς D R Let AB. so [also] KAB (is) to LCD. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. 5. so EF (is) to GH. ΓΔ. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. rectilinear figures M F and N H on EF and GH (respectively). so EF (is) not to GH. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν Ο. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει]. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. so GH (is) to P . ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. and similarly laid out. ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. And if similar. And since as AB is to CD. so EF (is) to GH. τῶν δὲ ΕΖ. as EF 179 . so M F (is) to N H [Prop. and as CD (is) to O. let AB be to CD. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. For if as AB is to CD. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. A is also equiangular to B. But. kbþ. and has ἔδει δεῖξαι. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν. A is similar to B [Def. so M F (is) to N H. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. ΕΖ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. via equality. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθωσαν ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. as M F (is) to N H. thus. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. Proposition 22 ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. and a third (straight-line) P proportional to EF and GH [Prop. ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. as KAB (is) to LCD. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. EF . ΗΘ. and as EF (is) to P . οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· λέγω. ΝΘ· λέγω. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. and similarly laid out. so EF (is) to P [Prop. ΛΓΔ. 6. Κ K Λ Α Β Μ Ε Ξ Ζ L Γ Ν Η A ∆ B M Θ E Σ O Ο Π C N G F H S P Q Ρ ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΚΑΒ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. ΓΔ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ξ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ.1]. ΗΘ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΜΖ. so M F (is) to N H.22]. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. thus. And let the similar. so EF (is) to GH.STOIQEIWN þ.11]. as AB is to O. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. as AB (is) to O. 6. And so let KAB be to LCD. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ.19 corr. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ.

And if similar. so EF (is) to GH. And it is also similar. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. And it was also assumed that as KAB (is) to LCD. καὶ ἀναγέγραπται ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. also. (rectilinear figures) KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΔΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΗ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ. ΛΓΔ. Again. that if two similar figures are equal then any pair of corresponding sides is also equal. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. similar. M F has the same ratio to each of N H and SR. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΠΡ. and the similar. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΚΑΒ. 1. οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. καὶ ἐκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ Κ. ΓΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΗ· λέγω. Thus. and the similar. Euclid assumes. and similarly described. and similarly laid out. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ΝΘ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΣΡ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΠΡ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΜΖ.1]. if four straight-lines are proportional.† And since AB is to CD. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. thus as KAB is to LCD. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. as EF (is) to QR. thus as AB is to CD. Thus. to it. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to CH. as M F (is) to SR. and similarly laid down. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. since as AB is to CD. ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΓ. 5. But. then similar. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides. thus. I say that parallelogram AC has to parallelogram CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) their sides. also. ὅτι τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. and similarly laid out.21]. ΣΡ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΝΘ τῷ ΣΡ. and similarly laid out. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. 6. DC is also straight-on to CE [Prop. For let BC be laid down so as to be straight-on to CG. ΣΡ. Therefore. Thus. so K (is) to L. Thus. πάλιν. And let the rectilinear figure SR. BC to CG and DC to CE (respectively).11]. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. And let the parallelogram DG have been completed. And let it be contrived that as BC (is) to CG.14]. τῆς τε ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ καὶ τῆς ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ΠΡ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΜΖ. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. 6. N H is equal to SR [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ τῆς Κ πρὸς Μ λόγος σύγκειται ἔκ τε τοῦ τῆς Κ πρὸς Λ λόγου καὶ τοῦ τῆς Λ πρὸς Μ· ὥστε καὶ ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. to either of M F or N H. Thus. (rectilinear figures) M F and SR on EF and QR (resespectively).STOIQEIWN þ. so parallelogram AC (is) to CH [Prop. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΗΘ. 6. 6. kgþ. Hence.12]. so M F (is) to SR (see above). Let AC and CF be equiangular parallelograms having angle BCD equal to ECG. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. 5. have been described on QR [Props. Οἱ ἄρα λόγοι τῆς τε Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ καὶ τῆς Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι τοῖς λόγοις τῶν πλευρῶν. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. τὸ ΜΖ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΝΘ. and as DC (is) to CE. Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded† out of (the ratios of) their sides. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. (namely). ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. and similarly described. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. and QR (is) equal to GH. as K (is) to L. so L (is) to M [Prop. καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. so M F (is) to N H.9]. without proof. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ.18. Here. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. And since as BC is to CG. Proposition 23 Τὰ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. K also has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). so EF (is) to QR. 6. † (is) to QR [Prop. so K (is) to L.12]. so parallelogram 180 . Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. the ratio of K to M is compounded out of the ratio of K to L and (the ratio) of L to M . καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. And let some straight-line K have been laid down. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. but as BC (is) to CG. since as DC (is) to CE. GH (is) equal to QR.

καὶ συνθέντι ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. 6. Α Β ∆ Θ Γ Η CH (is) to CF [Prop. also.29]. and to one another. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ΘΚ· λέγω. so parallelogram AC (is) to parallelogram CH. For since EF has been drawn parallel to one of the sides BC of triangle ABC. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. since it was shown that as K (is) to L. if two ratios are “compounded” then they are multiplied together. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. proportionally. as CF (is) to F A. ἡ δὲ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· καὶ τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. via equality. as CF is to F A. since F G has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) CD of triangle ACD. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΓΔ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΓΔ ἦκται ἡ ΖΗ. as BA (is) to AE. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΔΓ.2]. Thus. Proposition 24 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. and AC its diagonal. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα ἔστω τὰ ΕΗ. as K is to M . Thus. as BE is to EA. so EA (is) to AG [Prop. 1. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. and to one another.STOIQEIWN þ. I say that the parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to the whole (parallelogram) ABCD. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων ὅμοιόν ἐστι ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΕΖ. 6. alternately. Again.18]. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. (parallelogram) AC also has to (parallelogram) CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. thus.22]. And thus as BE (is) to EA. A B Κ Λ Μ D H C G K L M Ε Ζ E F Τὰ ἄρα ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. ὡς μὲν ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. but as DC (is) to CE. 181 . πάλιν. proportionally. and as L (is) to M .2]. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον. And let EG and HK be parallelograms about AC. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to parallelogram CF [Prop. ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΗ. 5. Therefore. οὕτως ἐδείχθη καὶ ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. so DG (is) to GA. angle AF G is equal to DCA [Prop.1]. † In modern terminology. as L (is) to M . so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. so it was also shown (is) BE to EA. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. so DG (is) to GA [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς ΑΗ. kdþ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. ὡς δὲ ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. But. thus. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὴν κοινὴν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. And. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. so DA (is) to AG [Prop. the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. 6. And since GF is parallel to DC. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΑ· καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diagonal are similar to the whole. equiangular parallelograms have to one another ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 5. And K has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). so CF (is) to F A [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. 5. And. compounding. so L (is) to M . thus. as BA (is) to AD. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον.16].

ἔδει δεῖξαι. as AD (is) to DC. Thus. 182 . further. So. And since it was shown that as DC is to CA.4]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. so GF (is) to F A. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. and to one another. for the same (reasons). so GF (is) to F A. parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to [parallelogram] ABCD. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. Thus. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλογράμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ.STOIQEIWN þ. 1. and. as DC is to CB. And (rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another [Prop. ΑΗΖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΖ τριγώνῳ. Thus. so AF (is) to F E. and equal to a different given rectilinear figure. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνων τῶν ΑΔΓ. parallelogram ABCD is also similar to parallelogram KH. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. keþ. thus. So. in any parallelogram the parallelograms about παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις· ὅπερ the diagonal are similar to the whole. for the same (reasons). Thus. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων τῷ ΑΒΓΔ [παραλληλογράμμῳ] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τῷ ΚΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΕΗ. 5. triangle ADC is equiangular to triangle AGF [Prop. and the whole parallelogram ABCD is equiangular to parallelogram EG. so GF (is) to F E [Prop. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the equal angles are proportional. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. Ε Α Β Ζ Η ∆ And angle DAC (is) common to the two triangles ADC and AGF . 6. so AF (is) to F E. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΓΒ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΑΖΕ τριγώνῳ. and as AC (is) to CB. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. Thus. parallelogram ABCD is similar to parallelogram EG [Def. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. καὶ ἔτι ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ.32]. so AG (is) to GF . τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια· καὶ τὸ ΕΗ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. To construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to a given rectilinear figure. and as AC (is) to CB. καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἰσογώνιόν ἐστιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. proportionally.22]. and as DC (is) to CA. A Γ B F G Θ Κ E D H K C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον Thus. parallelogram EG is also similar to parallelogram HK. οὕτως ἡ ΑΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ.1]. triangle ACB is equiangular to triangle AF E.21]. Proposition 25 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. as CB (is) to BA. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. 6. so F E (is) to EA [Prop. via equality.

16]. And let KGH. And. in the angle F CE. And KGH is also similar to ABC. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν ΒΓ. alternately. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι τῷ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συνέσταται τὸ ΚΗΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ἴσον. equal to D. τὸ ΑΒΓ. and the parallelogram CM . and D the (rectilinear figure) to which (the constructed figure) is required (to be) equal. Thus. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. (figure) on the second [Prop. similar. and equal to D. parallelogram EF is equal to D. 6. kþ. have been applied to (the straight-line) BC [Prop. 5. as BC (is) to CF . τῷ δὲ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. to the whole. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. and similarly laid out. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. Thus. If from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. ἡ δὲ ΛΕ τῇ ΕΜ. so GH (is) to CF . 6. And triangle ABC (is) equal to parallelogram BE. But. as triangle ABC (is) to parallelogram BE.19 corr. 1. ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον συστήσασθαι. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ ἄρα τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον. And let the mean proportion GH have been taken of BC and CF [Prop. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. as triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH. equal to triangle ABC. So it is required to construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to ABC. (have been applied) to (the straight-line) CE. so triangle KGH (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. But. οὕτως τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF .45].]. ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΖ.1]. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. 6. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. Thus. Thus. KGH is also equal to D. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Κ K Α A ∆ Β D Γ Ζ Η B Θ C F G H Λ Ε Μ ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ μὲν ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. and similarly laid out. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΚΗΘ. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. Παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ μὲν τὴν ΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕ. thus as BC is to CF . L E M Let ABC be the given rectilinear figure to which it is required to construct a similar (rectilinear figure). ἔστι δὲ τὸ ΚΗΘ καὶ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ.18]. παρὰ δὲ τὴν ΓΕ τῷ Δ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. thus. so the figure (described) on the first (is) to the similar. having a common angle with it. 1. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΛ. and similarly described. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and equal to a different given (rectilinear figure) D. BC is straight-on to CF . ΓΖ μέση ἀνάλογον ἡ ΗΘ. which is equal to CBL [Prop. to ABC have been described on GH [Prop. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH. ᾿Απὸ γὰρ παραλληλογράμμου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΖ ὅμοιον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ τὴν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ· λέγω. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. from parallelogram ABCD.STOIQEIWN þ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΕ παραλληλογράμμῳ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. a single (rectilinear figure) KGH has been constructed (which is) similar to the given rectilinear figure ABC.14]. let (parallelogram) 183 . οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. and if three straight-lines are proportional then as the first is to the third. triangle KGH (is) also equal to parallelogram EF .44]. also. 1. And since as BC is to GH. Thus. and LE to EM [Prop.13]. For let the parallelogram BE. For. 6.

οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. so GA (is) to AE. then. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. and similarly laid out. so GA (is) to AE. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. I say that of all the parallelograms applied to AB. ΑΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Let AB be a straight-line. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ὅτι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ.10]. and similarly laid out. the lesser to the greater. ABCD is not not about the same diagonal as AF . Thus. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΔΒ ἀναγραφέντι ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΚ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. as GA (is) to AK. And let HK have been drawn through (point) H. 6. kzþ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. on account of the similarity of ABCD and EG. to ABCD. K Γ D F E Θ Β G H C B Μὴ γάρ. Therefore. Thus. if possible. having a common angle with it. and similarly laid out. And. 5. The very thing is impossible. ΕΗ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). Α Η ∆ A Ζ Ε Κ AF have been subtracted (which is) similar. if from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. ἡ ΗΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΑΚ. CB. 1. AE is equal to AK [Prop.24]. thus as DA is to AB. to the whole. also. I say that ABCD is about the same diagonal as AF . Thus. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Θ ὁπορέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure DB (which is) applied to half of AB—that is to say. let it have been drawn through to (point) H. GA has the same ratio to each of AK and AE. let AHC be [ABCD’s] diagonal. τουτέστι τῆς ΓΒ· λέγω. also. so GA (is) to AK [Prop. parallelogram ABCD is about the same diagonal as parallelogram AF . having the common angle DAB with it. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. οὐκ ἄρα οὔκ ἐστι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα ἐστὶ διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΚΗ. And let the parallelogram AD have been applied to the straight-line AB.31]. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line) which (is) similar to (that parallelogram) by which it falls short. And producing GF . since ABCD is about the same diagonal as KG. ἔστω [αὐτῶν] διάμετρος ἡ ΑΘΓ. and falling short by 184 . For (if) not. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἡ ΘΚ.9]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἔστι δὲ καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΓΔ. 1. ὅτι πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι [παραλληλογράμμοις] ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ΔΒ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ Of all the parallelograms applied to the same straightline. καὶ ἐκβληθεῖσα ἡ ΗΖ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. and falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar. Thus. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. Proposition 27 Πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβαλλόμενον [παραλληλόγραμμον] ὅμοιον ὂν τῷ ἐλλείμμαντι. as DA (is) to AB. Thus. ῎Εστω εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

(the applied parallelogram) falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. For let the parallelogram AF have been applied to the straight-line AB. τουτέστι τὸ ΑΔ. to DB. Ε D E N Ν Ζ Μ Η Λ Α Γ Κ Θ F M G Β L A C K H B ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΖΒ παραλληλογράμμῳ. equal to a given rectilinear figure. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to 185 . (parallelogram) GC is also equal to EK. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴσον. Let AB be the given straight-line. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ To apply a parallelogram. It is necessary for the given rectilinear figure [to which it is required to apply an equal (parallelogram)] not to be greater than the (parallelogram) described on half (of the straight-line) and similar to the deficit. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Therefore. περὶ τὴν αὐτήν εἰσι διάμετρον. For since parallelogram DB is similar to parallelogram F B. and (parallelogram) F B is common. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΔ. κοινὸν δὲ τὸ ΖΒ.STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ τὸ ΗΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. I say that AD is greater than AF . the greatest is AD. since AC (is) also (equal) to CB [Prop. Proposition 28† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι· δεῖ δὲ τὸ διδόμενον εὐθύγραμμον [ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παραβαλεῖν] μὴ μεῖζον εἶναι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι [τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν]. Thus. to DB. Πάντων ἄρα τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβληθέν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.26]. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΘ ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. the whole (parallelogram) AF is equal to the gnomon LM N . falling short by the parallelogrammic figure F B (which is) similar. παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΖ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΖΒ ὁμοίῳ τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένῳ τῷ ΔΒ· λέγω. 1. and similarly laid out. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΖ τῷ ΖΕ. (parallelogram) CH is equal to CG. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. for all parallelograms applied to the same straight-line. and falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar. ∆ [parallelogrammic] figures similar. Hence. τὸ Γ μὴ μεῖζον [ὂν] τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΔ τοῦ ΑΖ. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΔΒ. the whole (parallelogram) CH is thus equal to the whole (parallelogram) KE.1]. ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν. AD—is greater than parallelogram AF . 6. khþ. 6. Let their (common) diagonal DB have been drawn. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ τῷ ΛΜΝ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. to a given straight-line. τοῦ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμου μεῖζόν ἐστιν. since (complement) CF is equal to (complement) F E [Prop. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. parallelogram DB—that is to say. and let the (rest of the) figure have been described. and similarly laid out. But. Thus. they are about the same diagonal [Prop.43]. Thus. Let (parallelogram) CF have been added to both. and similarly laid out. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line).

and LM to GF . falling short by a parallelogrammic figure GB which is similar to D. Thus. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΘΕ τῷ ΗΒ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. GQ and GB are about the same diagonal [Prop. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΗΠΒ. (which is) similar. the whole (parallelogram) P B is equal to the whole (par- 186 . and equal to the excess by which GB is greater than C [Prop. has been applied to the given straight-line AB. And HE (is) equal to GB [Prop.1]. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΠΒ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΟΒ ὅλῳ τῷ ΞΒ ἴσον ἐστίν.18]. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΑΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. And if not. ᾧ δὴ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. But. and similarly laid out.3]. Therefore. μεῖζόν ἔστω τὸ ΘΕ τοῦ Γ. 6. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ἡ δὲ ΗΖ τῆς ΛΜ. Thus. if AG is equal to C then the thing prescribed has happened. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΣΤ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι E S B K N Let AB have been cut in half at point E [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ AB is required (to be) equal. ἔστω οὖν ὁμόλογος ἡ μὲν ΚΛ τῂ ΗΕ. GE is also greater than KL. So. of which GQ is equal to KM . μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΚΜ· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΗΕ τῆς ΚΛ. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΤΕ ἄρα τῷ ΟΒ ἐστιν ἴσον. the remaining gnomon U W V is thus equal to the remainder C. equal to the given rectilinear figure C.the (parallelogram) described on half of AB and similar ραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. and GF than LM . and similarly laid out. GB [is] similar to D. εἰ δὲ οὔ. and let (parallelogram) EBF G. Therefore. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ τοῖς Γ. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· παραβέβληται γὰρ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΗ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΗΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. And since (the complement) P R is equal to (the complement) OS [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. Let GO be made equal to KL. 6. ἀλλὰ τὸ Δ τῷ ΗΒ [ἐστιν] ὅμοιον· καὶ τὸ ΚΜ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ἐστιν ὅμοιον.25]. 6. let KL correspond to GE. let (parallelogram) QB have been added to both. and GP to LM [Prop. 1. let HE be greater than C. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΟΡ τῷ ΞΣ. [being] not greater than τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει πα. Therefore. 1. to (parallelogram) D. 6. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ ΦΧΥ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐδείχθη ἴσος· καὶ τὸ ΤΣ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον. Let GQB be their (common) diagonal.43]. Thus. GQ is also similar to GB [Prop. Thus. For a parallelogram AG. KM is also similar to GB [Prop. κείσθω τῇ μὲν ΚΛ ἴση ἡ ΗΞ. GB (is) also greater than C. ΚΜ. to the deficit. 1. τῇ δὲ ΛΜ ἴση ἡ ΗΟ. ἡ δὲ ΛΜ τῇ ΗΖ. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΚΛΜΝ. to D. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΕΒΖΗ. So it is required to apply a parallelogram.10]. 6. GB is thus greater than KM .26]. let (parallelogram) KLM N have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. ταύτῃ τῇ ὑπεροχῇ ἴσον.21]. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Γ. and D the (parallelogram) to which the deficit is required (to be) similar. J H O Z H G P F G X T A F E L U P C Q M L R S B O T D V M U Q W R D K N A Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΥΧΦ γνόμων λοιπῷ τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν. since BG is equal to C and KM . καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΞΗΟΠ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ ὅμοιον ἐστι [τὸ ΗΠ] τῷ ΚΜ [ἀλλὰ τὸ ΚΜ τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. And let parallelogram AG have been completed. And let the parallelogram OGP Q have been completed. 6. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῖς Γ. ὧν τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΚΜ ἐστιν ἴσον. KM is similar to GB]. [GQ] is equal and similar to KM [but. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described.21]. have been described on EB [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΣ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΤΣ ὅλῳ τῷ ΦΧΥ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. And since (parallelogram) GB is equal to (figure) C and (parallelogram) KM . falling short by a parallelogrammic figure which is similar to D. Thus. ΚΜ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΞΒ τῷ ΤΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΗΠ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΗΒ. Thus. to the straight-line AB.

to D. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ὑπερβάλλειν. So it is required to apply a parallelogram. And let KH correspond to F L. ΖΕ. 6.1]. the parallelogram ST . μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῆς ΖΛ. overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to D. and let the parallelogram BF .24] ]. 6. Z G K L M J F D A L M K H C D E N F Y B O Q P X A E V X B W H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. and equal to the sum of BF and C [Prop. But. Proposition 29† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To apply a parallelogram. and KG to F E. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον· P N Q O G Let AB be the given straight-line. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΗΘ. OB is equal to T E. Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ. to D. Thus. gram) overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram).18]. The constraint corresponds to the condition β < α2 /4 for the equation to have real roots. has been applied to the given straightline AB. Thus. † This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 −α x+β = 0. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the deficit running along AB. Therefore. the whole (parallelogram) T S is equal to the gnomon V W U . T E is also equal to P B. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῷ Δ [ἐπειδήπερ τὸ ΠΒ τῷ ΗΠ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]· ὅπερ ἔδει allelogram) OB. and similarly laid out. equal to a given rectilinἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει πα. (the applied paralleloραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι. But. (parallelogram) T S is also equal to (figure) C. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to AB is required (to be) equal. Thus.25]. καὶ ἐπεὶ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΖΒ. Here. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τῷ Γ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ Δ. kjþ. 1. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΜΝ· τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΗΘ ἴσον τέ ἐστι καὶ ὅμοιον. καὶ συναμφοτέροις μὲν τοῖς ΒΖ. τῇ δὲ ΚΗ ἴση ἡ ΖΕΝ. to a given straight-line. 6. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΖΛ. τὸ Γ. x is the ratio of a side of the deficit to the corresponding side of figure D. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ.STOIQEIWN þ. Γ ἴσον.10]. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. Let (parallelogram) OS have been added to both. gnomon V W U was shown (to be) equal to C. and D the (parallelogram) to which the excess is required (to be) similar. have been described on EB [Prop. (which is) similar. 6. and similarly laid out. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΖΛ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. which is similar to D [inasmuch as QB is similar to GQ [Prop. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure QB. AE is equal to side EB [Prop. ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν.ear figure. καὶ τῇ μὲν ΚΘ ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΖΛΜ. since side ποιῆσαι. to the given straight-line AB. And since (parallelogram) GH is greater than (parallelogram) F B. The larger root can be found by a similar method. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. And let (parallelogram) GH have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. 187 . Only the smaller root of the equation is found. Let AB have been cut in half at (point) E [Prop. καὶ ἀναγεγράθω ἀπὸ τὴς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΖ.

κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΕΛ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΨΧΦ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσος. This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 +α x−β = 0. (parallelogram) LP [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΕΞ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΞ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΦΧΨ γνώμονι. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΖΞ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. But. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the excess running along AB. Thus. has been applied to the given straightline AB. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΜΝ ἴσον ἐστίν. Thus. Thus. Thus. ratio. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΦΧΨ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν· καὶ τὸ ΑΞ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. 6. M N is thus also equal to EL and C. x is the ratio of a side of the excess to the corresponding side of figure D. Let their (common) diagonal F O have been drawn. M N is equal and similar to GH. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. † KH is thus also greater than F L. ἐπεὶ καὶ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον τὸ ΟΠ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Let F L and F E have been produced. Let (parallelogram) EO have been added to both. EL is thus about the same diagonal as M N [Prop. 6. the gnomon V W X is equal to (figure) C. And since (parallelogram) GH is equal to (parallelogram) EL and (figure) C. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. Thus.21]. And let (parallelogram) M N have been completed. that is to say.24]. καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τοῖς ΕΛ. And since AE is equal to EB. So it is reΑΒ εὐθεῖαν ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμεῖν. (parallelogram) AO is also equal to (figure) C. and let F LM be (made) equal to KH. GH is similar to EL. and KG than F E. 6.1]. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΝ τῷ ΝΒ. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. overshooting by the parallelogrammic figure QP which is similar to D. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. the whole (parallelogram) AO is equal to the gnomon V W X. Γ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Here. But. lþ. Let EL have been subtracted from both. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΕΛ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΛ τῷ ΜΝ. but GH is equal to (parallelogram) M N . the remaining gnomon XW V is equal to (figure) C. M N is also similar to EL [Prop.3]. and F EN to KG [Prop. Proposition 30† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην ἄκρον καὶ μέσον To cut a given finite straight-line in extreme and mean λόγον τεμεῖν. 6. (parallelogram) AN is also equal to (parallelogram) N B [Prop. Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. Γ Α Ζ Ε Θ C Β A ∆ F E H B D ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν Let AB be the given finite straight-line. τουτέστι τῷ ΛΟ. since P Q is also similar to EL [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῖς ΕΛ.43]. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΑΞ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΟ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. 1. Only the positive root of the equation is found. quired to cut the straight-line AB in extreme and mean 188 .26]. the parallelogram AO.

Thus. the remaining (rectangle) BF is equal to the remaining (square) AD. 1. And AB (is) greater than AE. οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. surrounding the right-angle.29]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ᾿Αναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΓ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΕ τῇ ΑΒ.8]. AD is also a square. AE (is) also greater than EB [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸς τῷ Α ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ. 1. ῎Ηχθω κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ. the triangles ABD and ADC about the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) ABC. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΓ τῷ ΓΔ. as BA is to AE. Therefore. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. as F E is to ED. Thus. ΑΔ ἄρα ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ.12]. the (straight-line) AD has been drawn from the rightangle at A perpendicular to the base BC. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. Τετράγωνον δέ ἐστι τὸ ΒΓ· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΔ. ῾Η ἄρα ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ε. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. † ratio. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ. Thus. the sides of BF and AD about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. and let the parallelogram CD. and similarly described. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. Α Β ∆ A B Γ ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. Let the square BC have been described on AB [Prop. And BC is a square. καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. let (rectangle) CE have been subtracted from both. the straight-line AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at E. And it is also equiangular to it. 6. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΑΕ. 6. And since ABC is similar to ABD. 2. equal to BC. τὰ ΑΒΔ.14].14]. Thus. figures on the sides τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΓ τῷ ΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΔ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει τῷ ΑΔ ὁμοίῳ τῷ ΒΓ. 5. overshooting by the figure AD (which is) similar to BC [Prop. ΑΔΓ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. Thus. so AE (is) to EB. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΔ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Let the perpendicular AD have been drawn [Prop. figures on BA and AC. laþ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΕ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ. the figure (drawn) on the γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις the) similar. And F E (is) equal to AB. in the right-angled triangle ABC. thus 189 . I say that the figure (drawn) on BC is equal to the (sum of the) similar.46]. since. so AE (is) to EB.11. and AE is its greater piece.STOIQEIWN þ. have been applied to AC. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ἰσογώνιον· τῶν ΒΖ. Thus. and ED to AE. and similarly described. 6. This method of cutting a straight-line is sometimes called the “Golden Section”—see Prop. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΖ λοιπῷ τῷ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴσον. and to one another [Prop. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. And since BC is equal to CD. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν In right-angled triangles. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς D C Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle.

αἱ λοιπαὶ corresponding sides are also parallel. BAC is equal to CDE. For since AB is parallel to DC.19 corr. ΔΓ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἄπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση. ὥστε καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὰς ΒΔ. having two sides proportional to two πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς sides. so the figure (drawn) on CB (is) to the similar.]. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). as the first is to the third. and similarly described. as CB (is) to BD. And. ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. 5. for the same (reasons). ΔΕ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. Thus. and similarly described. so DC (is) to DE—and (having side) AB parallel to DC. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then the remaining τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται. and similarly described. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (sum of the) similar. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. (figure) on the second [Prop. And BC is equal to BD and DC. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω. Hence. οὕτως τὴν ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. in right-angled triangles. for the same (reasons). ΔΓ. hence. so the figure (drawn) on the first is to the similar. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the alternate angles BAC and ACD are equal to one another [Prop.29]. and similarly described. the figure (drawn) on BC (is) also equal to the (sum of the) similar. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. (figures) on BA and AC [Prop. as CB is to BA. And since three straight-lines are proportional. 1. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (figure) on CA. And since ABC and DCE are two triangles having the one angle at A equal to the one 190 . Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο If two triangles. 5. as BC (is) to CD. ΔΓΕ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴσην ἔχοντα. lbþ. ΑΓ τὰ ὅμοια καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενα. Thus. ∆ D Α Β Γ A Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. 6. (figure) on BA.1]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΓ ταῖς ΒΔ. CDE is also equal to ACD. and similarly described. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. περὶ C E Let ABC and DCE be two triangles having the two sides BA and AC proportional to the two sides DC and DE—so that as AB (is) to AC. Thus. also. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. and the straight-line AC has fallen across them. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.24]. 6. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. figures on the sides surrounding the right-angle. ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. So. figures on BA and AC [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. as BC (is) to BD and DC. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ. I say that (side) BC is straight-on to CE. the figure (drawn) on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) similar. ΑΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΔΓΕ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΒΑ. And so. and AC to DE.9]. are placed together at a single angle such that the ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. so AB (is) to BD [Def. παράλληλον δὲ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΓ.STOIQEIWN þ.

ACE and ACB are equal to BAC. ΓΗΚ. at the point C on it. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ.32]. ΓΕ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. BC is straight-on to CE [Prop. ΚΛ. GL. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Κείσθωσαν γὰρ τῇ μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΓΚ. whether τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. BAC. since circumferences BC. Thus. ΘΜ. triangle ABC is thus equiangular to triangle DCE [Prop. the two straight-lines BC and CE.27]. I say that as circumference BC is to circumference EF . having two sides proportional to two sides.6]. and BAC and EDF (angles) at their circumferences. if two triangles. ΑΓΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and KGL are also equal to one another [Prop. ΜΝ. ΑΓΒ. ΚΛ περιφέρειαι ἀλλήλαις. CK. they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. angle at D. Thus. so many 191 . ΔΕΖ. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΓ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ. HM . ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. angles have the same ratio as the (raλόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. ΗΛ. 6.14]. and HN have been joined. G and H (respectively). οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. And let GK. ΚΗΛ γωνίαι ἀλλήλαις· ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΒΓ. Thus. ΕΘΖ. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ACE and ACB are also equal to two right-angles. so angle BGC (is) to EHF . and KL are equal to one another. ἐάν τε πρὸς tio of the) circumferences on which they stand. τῇ δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΖΜ. 3. not lying on the same side. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. CGK. Therefore. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΚ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. as many times as circumference BL is (divisible) by BC. D A H B J L G D A K G B H E L Z M N C K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΓ. F M and M N . and (angle) BAC to EDF . and let BGC and EHF be angles at their centers.STOIQEIWN þ. Proposition 33 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι In equal circles. to circumference EF . αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. angles BGC. 1. ΓΒΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν. the whole (angle) ACE is equal to the two (angles) ABC and BAC. and ACB are equal to two right-angles [Prop. lgþ. angle ABC is equal to DCE. Let ACB have been added to both. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. make adjacent angles ACE and ACB (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line AC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. ABC. ACB. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. Θ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. be made equal to circumference BC. ΑΒΓ. And (angle) ACD was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ΘΝ. ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. so CD (is) to DE. οὕτως τὴν ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. ΓΚ. CK and KL. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αὐτῶν τοῖς Η. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. and CBA. διὰ τὰ E F N M Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. Thus. then the remaining sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). For let any number whatsoever of consecutive (circumferences). But. and any number whatsoever. are placed together at a single angle such that the corresponding sides are also parallel. Thus. Thus.

εἴληπται τῆς μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνίας ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων ἥ τε ΒΛ περιφέρεια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. angles have the same ratio as the (ratio of the) circumferences on which they stand. so (angle) BAC (is) to EDF [Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα. if circumference BL is equal to circumference EN then angle BGL is also equal to EHN [Prop. 3. οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. τῆς δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίας ἥ τε ΕΝ περιφέρια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ γωνία.† and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. ὅτι εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι λόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. And it has been shown that if circumference BL exceeds circumference EN then angle BGL also exceeds angle EHN . This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. 5. † times is angle BGL also (divisible) by BGC. ΕΘΖ. ΕΖ. (namely) circumference BL and angle BGL. δύο δὲ γωνιῶν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. Thus. for the same (reasons). 5. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΕ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΖ. (namely) circumference EN and angle EHN . τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΝΘΕ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. For the former (are) double the latter (respectively) [Prop. and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ.15]. ἴση. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. δύο μὲν περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. μείζων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. and of circumference EF and angle EHF . 3. And so. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ δέδεικται.STOIQEIWN þ.27 192 . So there are four magnitudes. in equal circles.27]. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν. οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. Thus. ὑπερέχει καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπο ΕΘΝ γωνίας. and if (BL is) equal (to EN then BGL is also) equal (to EHN ). καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. ἐλάσσων. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. 3. whether they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. so many times is angle N HE also (divisible) by EHF . ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Thus. and BAC to EDF .20]. as circumference BC (is) to EF . And equal multiples have been taken of circumference BC and angle BGC. ἐλάσσων. and if circumference BL is greater than circumference EN then angle BGL is also greater than EHN . διπλασία γὰρ ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρας. as many times as circumference N E is (divisible) by EF . and two angles BGC and EHF . so angle BGC (is) to EHF . καὶ εἰ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας.5]. two circumferences BC and EF . also. But as angle BGC (is) to EHF . ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. as circumference BC (is) to circumference EF . εἰ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΝ περιφερείᾳ. καὶ εἰ ἴση. so angle BGC (is) to EHF [Def.

ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Elementary Number Theory† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras. 193 .

‡ 4. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. Σύνθετος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενος. 14. ῎Αρτιάκις δὲ περισσός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν. ᾿Αριθμὸς ἀριθμὸν πολλαπλασιάζειν λέγεται. 18. 8. And a number (is) a multitude composed of units. ῞Οταν δὲ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. Περισσάκις δὲ περισσὸς ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ περισσοῦ ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν. A primek number is one (which is) measured by a unit alone.STOIQEIWN zþ. ζʹ. δʹ. But (the lesser is) parts (of the greater) when it does not measure it. or which differs from an even number by a unit. A number is part of a(nother) number. ᾿Αριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. ηʹ. ιηʹ. or (a plane number) contained by two equal numbers. ᾿Αρτιάκις ἄρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ ἄρτιον ἀριθμόν. 12. 1. ὁ γενόμενος στερεός ἐστιν.∗ 10. 16. And an odd-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an odd number according to an odd number. ὁ γενόμενος ἐπίπεδος καλεῖται. And when two numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is called plane. Μέρη δέ. Μονάς ἐστιν. ῎Αρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ δίχα διαιρούμενος. Πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. Πρῶτος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενος. Πολλαπλάσιος δὲ ὁ μείζων τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. ιʹ. or (a solid number) contained by three equal numbers. Μέρος ἐστὶν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος. εʹ. Τετράγωνος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ δύο ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. An even-times-even number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an even number. And numbers composite to one another are those (which are) measured by some number as a common measure. And the greater (number is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. A number is said to multiply a(nother) number when the (number being) multiplied is added (to itself) as many times as there are units in the former (number).\$ 11.† 3. and (thereby) some (other number) is produced. ῞Ομοιοι ἐπίπεδοι καὶ στερεοὶ ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ανάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 VOroi. ιεʹ. A composite number is one (which is) measured by some number. κβʹ. Τέλειος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέρεσιν ἴσος ὤν. A unit is (that) according to which each existing (thing) is said (to be) one. 6. ὅταν. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. 19. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. τοσαυτάκις συντεθῇ ὁ πολλαπλασιαζόμενος. Σύνθετοι δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. ὅταν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ ὁ τρίτος τοῦ τετάρτου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιος ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ὦσιν. ὅταν μὴ καταμετρῇ. καθ᾿ ἣν ἕκαστον τῶν ὄντων ἓν λέγεται. ᾿Αριθμὸς δὲ τὸ ἐκ μονάδων συγκείμενον πλῆθος. γʹ. when it measures the greater. ιθʹ. ιϛʹ. 7. 17. And an even-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an odd number. ιζʹ. Numbers prime to one another are those (which are) measured by a unit alone as a common measure. 2. ιαʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. Κύβος δὲ ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἰσάκις ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ τριῶν ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. Περισσὸς δὲ ὁ μὴ διαιρούμενος δίχα ἢ [ὁ] μονάδι διαφέρων ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. Definitions αʹ. 15. 13. the lesser of the greater. ϛʹ. A square number is an equal times an equal.§ 5. And when three numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is (called) solid. And an odd number is one (which can)not (be) divided in half. βʹ. 194 . An even number is one (which can be) divided in half. καὶ γένηταί τις. ιβʹ.¶ 9. ιγʹ. ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδες. καʹ. θʹ. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. And a cube (number) is an equal times an equal times an equal. ιδʹ. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸν μείζονα. κʹ.

of the second that the third (is) of the fourth. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. μετρείτω. a “number” is a positive integer greater than unity. ἐὰν ὁ λειπόμενος lesser being continually subtracted. k Literally. ὅτι οἱ ΑΒ. Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple. ∗ In other words. ¶ In other words. an even-times-odd number is the product of an even and an odd number. such that n a = m b. if the remainder never measures the (number) οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους ἔσονται. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΖ μετρήσει. A perfect number is that which is equal to its own parts. †† In other words. \$ In other words. Similar plane and solid numbers are those having proportional sides. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος ὁ λειπόμενος μηδέποτε καταμετρείτω τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. HA. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΗ μετρήσει. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ.†† † In other words. let the remainder never measure the (number) preceding it. a number a is part of another number b if there exists some number n such that n a = b. ὁ δὲ ΓΗ τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· D For two [unequal] numbers. (E) will also measure the remainder 195 . a perfect number is equal to the sum of its own factors. ΓΔ μονὰς μόνη μετρεῖ. that a unit alone measures (both) AB and CD. Proposition 1 Δύο ἀριθμῶν ἀνίσων ἐκκειμένων. I say that AB and CD are prime to one another—that is to say. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς· λέγω. since E measures CD.STOIQEIWN zþ. an odd-times-odd number is the product of two odd numbers. from the greater. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. and let AF measuring DG leave GC less than itself. § In other words. until a unit remains. ἀνθυφαιρουμένου δὲ Two unequal numbers (being) laid down. an even-times-even number is the product of two even numbers. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. until a unit remains. ὁ δὲ ΗΓ τὸν ΖΘ μετρῶν λειπέτω μονάδα τὴν ΘΑ. greater. E thus also measures BF . then the original numbers will be prime to one another. AB and CD. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε· καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΑ. τουτέστιν ὅτι τοὺς ΑΒ. Α Ζ A Θ H F Γ Η C G Ε Β E ∆ B Δύο γὰρ [ἀνίσων] ἀριθμῶν τῶν ΑΒ. aþ. And let CD measuring BF leave F A less than itself. preceding it. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 20. or the same part. and let GC measuring F H leave a unit. and let it be E. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 22. from the μηδέποτε καταμετρῇ τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. m and n. Thus. For if AB and CD are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. and CD measures BF . or the same parts. a number a is parts of another number b (where a < b) if there exist distinct numbers. in turn. ‡ In other words.† And (E) also measures the whole of BA. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΗΓ. In fact. and the ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος. the lesser being continually subtracted. “first”. 21. Let (some number) measure them. in turn.

And (it is) manifest that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). ὁ δὲ ΕΑ τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΓ. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον· οὐδεὶς γὰρ μείζων τοῦ ΓΔ τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. where all symbols denote numbers. ΓΔ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΕΑ· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΒΑ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΓΔ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. if CD measures AB. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν. ὁ δὲ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρείτω. Thus. AB and CD will be prime to one another [Prop. μονὰς μὲν γὰρ οὐ λειφθήσεται· εἰ δὲ μή. And (E) also measures the whole of F A. then a also measures c. 7. For a unit will not be left. CD is thus a common measure of CD and AB. Εἰ δὲ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ. it will 196 . τῶν ΑΒ.‡ And AF measures DG. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. But if CD does not measure AB then some number will remain from AB and CD. ΓΔ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. E also measures F H. ὁ ΓΔ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ.1]. Thus. Proposition 2 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. (E) will also measure the remaining unit AH. which will measure the (number) preceding it. (since CD) also measures itself. Thus. καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός· οἱ ΑΒ. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. And CG measures F H. where all symbols denote numbers. ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΕΑ. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. And (E) also measures the whole of DC. ΓΔ μετρεῖ.STOIQEIWN zþ. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ οὐχ ὑπόκειται. some number will remain which will measure the (number) preceding it. The very opposite thing was assumed. from the greater. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. since CF measures AE. Thus. bþ. ΓΔ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And it also measures itself. λειφθήσεταί τις ἄρα ἀριθμὸς. Α Ε A E Γ Ζ C F Η Β G ∆ B ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔ κοινὸν D Let AB and CD be the two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. For nothing greater than CD can measure CD. Thus. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. Therefore. E also measures DG. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρεῖ. and let CF measure AE. † Here. ‡ Here. then a also measures the remainder of b. AF . Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΖΑ· καὶ λοιπὴν ἄρα τὴν ΑΘ μονάδα μετρήσει ἀριθμὸς ὤν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and b measures c. To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Thus. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD. Thus. But if not. and let EA measuring DF leave F C less than itself. ΑΒ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. and AE measures DF . καὶ φανερόν. ἔσονται οἱ ΑΒ. AB and CD are prime to one another. CF will thus also measure DF . (E) will also measure the remainder CG. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. In fact. And let CD measuring BE leave EA less than itself. some number does not measure (both) the numbers AB and CD. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ μετρεῖ. the lesser being continually subtracted. The very thing is impossible. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος λειφθήσεταί τις ἀριθμός. and a measures part of b. in turn. (despite) being a number.

mon measure. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. ΓΔ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. Thus. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of A. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέτρον ἐστίν. καὶ τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει· ὅπερ two numbers then it will also measure their greatest comἔδει δεῖξαι. And it also measures the whole of BA. it will also measure the whole of BA. it will also measure the remainder CF . gþ. also measure the whole of CD. καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΕ μετρήσει. Pìrisma. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. B. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. ὅτι καὶ B C D E F Let A. Β τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ· ὁ δὴ Δ τὸν Γ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ δύο τῶν Α. To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Let it (so) measure (AB and CD). the greater (measuring) the lesser. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. λέγω δή. For if CF is not the greatest common measure of AB and CD then some number which is greater than CF will measure the numbers AB and CD. And CD measures BE. Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. CF is a common measure of AB and CD. Proposition 3 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ. and C be the three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Thus. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ ΓΖ τῶν ΑΒ. Γ μετρεῖ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. μετρείτω. C. For let the greatest common measure. Thus. Thus. Thus. of the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. let it measure (C). Thus. Γ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. Β. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Η. Β. Thus.2]. μετρείτω πρότερον· μετρεῖ δέ καὶ τοὺς Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Η τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. Β. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. And it also measures EA. and C. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν.STOIQEIWN zþ. ΓΔ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. And it also measures A and B. B. ὅτι ἐὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς So it is manifest. D 197 . G will also measure DF . D. CF measures (both) AB and CD. and let it be G. that if a number measures μετρῇ. CF also measures BE. G thus also measures BE. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). First of all. CF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. And it also measures CD. The very thing is impossible. Thus. it will also measure the remainder AE. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. And AE measures DF . So D either measures. and CD measures BE. And it also measures the whole of DC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ. Β. from this. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. 7. And since G measures CD. Thus. Thus. some number which is greater than CF cannot measure the numbers AB and CD. or does not measure. λέγω δή. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ.

εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Ε τῶν Α. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. Thus. καὶ τοὺς Α.]. and C. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. ὁ δὲ Δ τοὺς Α. Γ ἄρα ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ Δ. Thus.]. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. D and C are not prime to one another. some number which is greater than E does not measure the numbers A. Β. some number which is greater than D cannot measure the numbers A. E is the greatest common measure of A. measures A. have been taken [Prop. it will thus also measure A and B. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. Therefore.]. Γ κοινόν ἐστι μέτρον. Β. Β. ὁ δὴ τοὺς Α. E is a common measure of A. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. ὅτι ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. Let it (so) measure (A. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον τὸν Δ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· τοὺς Δ. And it also measures C. μετρείτω. B. B. and let it be E.2 corr. Γ μετρῶν καὶ τοὺς Α. and C then some number greater than E will measure the numbers A. ΒΓ. E measures A. For if D is not the greatest common measure of A.]. F measures D. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. Thus. F measures E. And since E measures D. and let it be F . For if E is not the greatest common measure of A. B. B.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. B. B. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. And it also measures C. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. E. εἰλήφθω οὖν αὐτῶν τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Ε. B. Β μετρεῖ. Β μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. and C. 198 . καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. of A and B [Prop. Β. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. B. Β. B. And it also measures C. Γ μετρεῖ. and C). it also measures A and B. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. Γ ἄρα οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. the lesser of the greater. Thus. B. Let A and BC be two numbers. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. B. B. καὶ τοὺς Α. Γ μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Δ. B. Thus. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. Any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. καὶ ἔστω ἐλάσσων ὁ ΒΓ· λέγω. Thus. The very thing is impossible. 7. B. Β. the greater (measuring) the lesser. and C then some number greater than D will measure the numbers A. and C. Thus. Thus. ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. and C. I say that BC is either part or parts of A. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. Β μετρήσει. the greater (measuring) the lesser. and C. D is a common measure of A. Thus. Β. 7. ὅτι οἱ Γ. And since F measures A. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. and C). μετρείτω. Β. Β ἄρα μετρήσει· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. Thus. B. Δ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. and C. Γ μετρεῖ. and C. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τοὺς Α. F measures D and C. E thus also measures A and B. that C and D are not prime to one another. Β. B. B. since E measures A. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ.2 corr. The very thing is impossible. Thus. καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. and it will also measure the greatest common measure. Let it (so) measure (A. it will also measure the greatest common measure of D and C [Prop. I say. some number will measure them. D is the greatest common measure of A. E measures D. let their greatest common measure. and C. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α.2 corr. So the (number) measuring A. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τοὺς Δ. first of all. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. C are not prime to one another. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. and C. Thus. Γ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. and C.2 corr. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β. and C will also measure A and B. 7. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον. Thus. And E is the greatest common measure of D and C. dþ. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ζ. 7. and C. Β. Therefore. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). Β. Β. D. 7. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. and C. Thus. So let D not measure C. B. and D measures A and B. Β μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. τὸ δὲ τῶν Δ. Β. and let BC be the lesser. Proposition 4 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ· λέγω πρῶτον. Γ ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέγιστον. λέγω δή. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Δ τῶν Α. some number will measure the numbers D and C. For since A. Γ μετρεῖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ τοὺς Α. Thus.2]. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α.

D is a part of A. let the greatest common measure. Thus. καὶ 199 C D F For let a number A be part of a [number] BC. And if not. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Δ τοῦ Α· ἴσος δὲ ὁ Δ ἑκάστῳ τῶν ΒΕ.Let A and BC. Therefore. ΖΓ τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστίν· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. the lesser of the greater. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. ΕΖ. BE. διαι. D. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ ber) is the same part of another. be prime to one another. EF . of A and BC have been taken [Prop.STOIQEIWN zþ. Hence. each of the units μονὰς τῶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μέρος τι τοῦ Α· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ in BC will be some part of A. and . ΒΓ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. or does not measure. εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΒΓ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. εἰ δὲ οὔ. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ If a number is part of a number. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. And since D measures A. And D is equal to each of BE. EF . BC is parts of A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. and let BC have been divided into BE. BC is parts of A. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and F C. Α Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ ∆ A C D Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. So let A and BC be not prime to one another. τοῦ Α. and another (numαὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὁ δὴ ΒΓ τὸν Α ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. equal to D. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Οἱ Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. ΖΓ. if BC measures A then BC is part of A. A. ΕΖ. leading numbers) will also be the same part of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. first of all. or not. and F C are also each part of A. For A and BC are either prime to one another. Hence. EF . 7.2]. ΖΓ· καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ. ΒΓ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. So ρεθέντος δὴ τοῦ ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας ἔσται ἑκάστη separating BC into its constituent units. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. So BC either measures. then the sum (of the μέρος ἔσται. Β B Ε Η Α Γ E G Θ ∆ H Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α [ἀριθμοῦ] τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. ΕΖ. καὶ διῃρήσθω ὁ ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΒΕ. eþ. and F C.

the sum A. In modern notation. so many times is the sum BC. so many parts of F are also in DE. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ ber) is the same parts of another. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C. ΗΓ. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. † another (number) D (be) the same part of another (number) EF that A (is) of BC. EF . which(ever) part A is of BC. F that AB (is) of C. and EF into EH and HF . ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. D is also the same part of the sum BC. Δ ἴσοι. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. for the same (reasons). ΘΖ τοῖς Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. D. καὶ οἱ ΒΗ. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ If a number is parts of a number. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a + c) = (1/n) (b + d). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεί. τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. EF equal to A. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. DE (is) also the same parts of F . For since which(ever) part A is of BC. leading numbers) will also be the same parts of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΒΓ. Δ. I say that the sum A. ΗΒ. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another (number) F that AB (is) of C. þ. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ. Thus. Thus. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. where all symbols denote numbers. ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. then the sum (of the μέρη ἔσται. as many numbers as [are] in BC equal to A. EH (is) also equal to A. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ΕΖ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Α. and DE into the parts of F . ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. DH and HE. AG and GB. equal to A. ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς Α. HF (is) also (equal) to A. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. Δ. D is the same part of EF . Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. HF . D. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. D. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΗΓ. D is also the same part of the sum BC. equal to D. ΘΕ. as many times as BC is (divisible) by A. Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. EF also (divisible) by the sum A. Δ. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. So. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. I say that the sum AB. ΘΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. EF that A (is) of BC. and EH to D. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ· λέγω. τὸ C E F For let a number AB be parts of a number C. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. so many are also in BC. GC. thus BG. For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. And since BG is equal to A. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. D. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. 200 . Α A ∆ Η Β D G Θ Γ Ε H B Ζ ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. and another (numαὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. Thus. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὅσοι ἄρα [εἰσὶν] ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. διῇρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. ΕΖ ἴσοι τοῖς Α. ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ.

zþ. EB [is] also the same part of GC. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . HE. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. AB is also the same part of CD. HE is also the same part of the sum C. which(ever) part AE is of CF . where all symbols denote numbers. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a − c) = (1/n) (b − d). And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. where all symbols denote numbers. ἴσος δὲ ὁ ΗΓ τῷ ΖΔ. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is those parts of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. 7. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. Let CF have been subtracted from both. F . For which(ever) part AE is of CF . ῝Ο γὰρ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔστω καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. In modern notation. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. Ζ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. 7. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. which(ever) parts AB is of C. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. And which(ever) part AE is of CF . DH is also the same part of the sum C. F . hþ. † B C F D For let a number AB be that part of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a part taken away CF . taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainἅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. Thus. But. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 αὑτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. and GC (is) equal to F D. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is that part of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. der will also be the same parts of the remainder that the 201 .STOIQEIWN zþ. let EB also be the same part of CG. ΔΘ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. GF is equal to CD. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΗ. for the same (reasons). F [Prop. Α Ε Η Β A E Γ Ζ ∆ G ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρος ἔστω. DH is also the same part of F . ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. (AB) is also the same part of CD. κοινὸς ἀφῃρήσθω ὁ ΓΖ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴσος. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. which(ever) part GB is of C. Thus.5]. EB is also the same part of CG. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. † In modern notation. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΗΒ. And so. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. Ζ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὑπόκειται καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. καὶ ἐπεί. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. ΘΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. which(ever) part AB is of GF . EB is also the same part of F D. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος [ἐστὶ] καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ.5]. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a + c) = (m/n) (b + d). the sum AB. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainὅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. AB is also assumed (to be) the same part of CD. the sum GB. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. thus which(ever) part AG is of C. Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὃ δὲ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. der will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole (is) of the whole. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . καὶ ἐπεί. Thus. AB is also the same part of GF [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. also. ἀλλὰ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. Thus. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. the sum AG.

So the multitude of (divisions) GK. Let GM be made equal to AL. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. and CD (is) greater than CF . ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΘΗ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. which(ever) part KH (is) of CD. Thus. jþ. ΝΘ τῷ ΕΒ. the second (number) will also be the same part. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΚΝ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΝΘ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. N H is the same parts of DF that the whole HG (is) of the whole CD. KN is also the same part of CF . ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. the sum M K. ΝΘ τοῦ ΔΖ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΛ. and AE into the part of CF . ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΗΚ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 whole (is) of the whole. Thus. and another (number) is the same part of another. καὶ ἐπεί. the first (number) is of the third. For let GH be laid down equal to AB. which(ever) part GK is of CD. If a number is part of a number.5]. Γ Ζ Η ΜΚ Α Λ ∆ C ΝΘ G M K Β A L Ε ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη ἔστω. LE. ἴσος δὲ συναμφότερος μὲν ὁ ΜΚ. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. KH will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) AL. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. 7. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. 7. also. Thus. ὁ δὲ ΘΗ τῷ ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. since which(ever) part KH is of CD. where all symbols denote numbers. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. AL and LE. AE is also the same parts of CF . Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. And the sum M K. or 202 . ΛΕ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου. GM is also the same part of CF . and HG to BA. I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΛ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν.STOIQEIWN zþ. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a − c) = (m/n) (b − d). κείσθω τῷ ΑΛ ἴσος ὁ ΗΜ. or parts. Let KN be made equal to EL. Thus. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ ΑΒ ἴσος ὁ ΗΘ. GK (is) thus also greater than AL. and CD (is) greater than CF . ὁ δὲ ΑΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΖ μέρη τὰ ΑΛ. Thus. κείσθω τῷ ΕΛ ἴσος ὁ ΚΝ. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. which(ever) part. AL is also the same part of CF .5]. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. And the remainder M K was also shown to be the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD. πάλιν ἐπεί. In modern notation. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὤν. the remainder N H is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole KH (is) of the whole CD [Prop. ΚΘ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΑΛ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΚΘ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. alternately. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη τὰ ΗΚ. ΚΘ. the remainder M K is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD [Prop. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου. HK (is) thus also greater than EL. † F D NH E B For let a number AB be those parts of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a (part) taken away CF . Let GH have been divided into the parts of CD. N H (is) equal to EB. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. EL is also the same part of CF . the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. Again. Thus. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. GK and KH. And since which(ever) part GK is of CD. which(ever) parts GH is of CD.

and another (number) D (be) the same part of another EF that A (is) of BC. ΗΓ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΓ τοῦ ΘΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη.STOIQEIWN zþ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. the sum BC is also the same part. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. which(ever) parts. of EF . ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. BC is also the same part. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. alternately. I say that. or parts. Ε E Β B Θ Η Α H G Γ ∆ Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. BG is of EH. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. also. And hence. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου ἢ μέρος. equal to A. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. ἴσος δὲ ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. alternately. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. or the same part. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· λέγω. or part. For since which(ever) part A is of BC. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. or the same parts. equal to D.5. BC is also the same part. ΗΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. or parts. or the same parts.6]. which(ever) parts. of EF . ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. HF . GC is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. or the same parts. of the fourth. alternately. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. or parts. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. iþ. so many are also in EF equal to D. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another F . ΘΖ. D is also the same part of EF . 7. of the sum EF [Props. In modern notation. ΘΖ. And since the numbers BG and GC are equal to one another. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d. or parts. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ μέρη. BG is of EH. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 the same parts. also. ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. of HF . † C D F For let a number A be part of a number BC. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. A is of D. and another (number) is the same parts of another. or part. 7. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. of the fourth. thus which(ever) part. which(ever) part. GC is also the same part. where all symbols denote numbers. I say that. also. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. which(ever) part. which(ever) part. and EH to D. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. For let a number AB be parts of a number C. the second will also be the same parts. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. If a number is parts of a number. the first (number) is of the third. and the multitude of (divisions) BG. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. And BG (is) equal to A. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. 203 . and EF into EH and HF . A is of D. or parts. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΒΗ. HC. Thus.

of F [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. If as the whole (of a number) is to the whole (of another). so many parts of F (are) also in DE. 7. 7. so a (part) taken away (is) to a (part) taken away. But. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα τὸν ΓΖ· λέγω. AG is of DH. or the same part. 7. DH is also the same part of F . C was also shown (to be) the same part. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. AB is of DE. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸν ΖΔ ἐστιν. of F . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· καὶ ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. and DE into the parts of F . ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. GB is also the same part. ῎Εστω ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. Let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. C is also the same parts. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. then the remainder will also be to the remainder as the whole (is) to the whole. 7. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. GB is of HE. AB is also the same part. or the same parts. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα. ∆ D Α A Θ Η Β H G Ε Γ B Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. or parts. C is also the same part. of F . of F . AG is of DH. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 AB is of DE. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. or the same parts. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καί [ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. ΘΕ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐδείχθη καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν ἔσται. or parts. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. AG and GB. or the same parts. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. I say that the remainder EB is to the remainder F D as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. which(ever) part. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. or parts. C is also the same part. thus] which(ever) parts. AG is of DH. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. And so. which(ever) part. C is also the same parts. or part. or the same part. or the same parts. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. alternately.9]. And thus. AG is of DH. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ἀλλ᾿ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη.6]. or parts. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. where all symbols denote numbers. And. καὶ ἐπεί. iaþ. of F [Prop. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C. of HE. or parts. καὶ] ἃ [ἄρα] μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. which(ever) part. Proposition 11 ᾿Εαν ᾖ ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. † C E F For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καί. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d.9]. ΗΒ. And so [which(ever) part. DE is also the same parts of F . ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. HE. or the same parts. 204 . which(ever) part.5. for the same (reasons). τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. of DE [Props. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ μέρη. In modern notation. DH and HE. also.

Δ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. so AB (is) to CD [Def. as EB is to F D. οὕτως οἱ Α. 7. Γ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Β. B. Thus. Γ. ἅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ Β. or parts. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Thus. so A. 7.20]. Δ.5. where all symbols denote numbers. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. D that A (is) of B [Props. For since as A is to B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸν ΖΔ. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. D. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸν ΓΖ. D. B C D Let any multitude whatsoever of numbers. of the remainder F D that AB (is) of CD [Props.8]. Β.STOIQEIWN zþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.6]. AE is also the same part. C. C (is) to B. καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ Α. 7. the sum A. 7. οὕτως ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως οἱ Α. Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. In modern notation. the remainder EB is also the same part. thus which(ever) part. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ ἢ μέρη. I say that as A is to B. ἔσται ὡς εἷς If any multitude whatsoever of numbers are proporτῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. of the sum B. Δ. C (is) to B. be proportional. (such that) as A (is) to B. or parts. D [Def.20]. so C (is) to D. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. of D [Def. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. or the same parts. A is of B. C is also the same part. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β. as A is to B. thus which(ever) part. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ Α C Ζ F A Ε Β E ∆ B ᾿Επεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ. of CF [Def.20]. ibþ. so AE (is) to CF . 205 . so C (is) to D. 7. Thus. † D (For) since as AB is to CD. 7. AB is of CD. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a − c : b − d. καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. the following so (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) will be to (the sum of) all of the following. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ tional then as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. or parts. A. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β.7. so A. C is also the same part. or the same parts.20]. or parts. 7.

so E (is) to F . οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ.13]. of D [Props. so D (is) to E. 7. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a + c : b + d. For since as A is to B. or the same parts. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ If there are any multitude of numbers whatsoever. be proportional alternately. πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ.10]. A is of B. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ If four numbers are proportional then they will also ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη.9. C. thus. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. Γ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ Δ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. A.20]. thus. Δ. C. 7. D. I say that they will also be proportional alternately.20]. Thus. so C (is) to D. (such that) as A (is) to B. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ.STOIQEIWN zþ. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d. † ELEMENTS BOOK 7 In modern notation. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. In modern notation. 7. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. ὡς μὲν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. 7. For since as A is to B. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα. and (some) other (numbers). alternately. idþ. A is of C. Β. B is also the same part. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. so D (is) to F . as A is to C. so B (is) to D. ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῷ ἔσονται. of equal multitude to them. as A is to C. (such that) as A (is) to C. so B (is) to D [Def. of D [Def. καὶ δι᾿ and (some) other (numbers) of equal multitude to them. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. where all symbols denote numbers. Again. Γ. E. πάλιν. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. and as B (is) to C. via equality. alterately. as A is to D. which(ever) part. igþ. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. F . οὕτως ὁ D E F Let there be any multitude of numbers whatsoever. C is also the same part. or parts. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. Ε. Ζ. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. as B is 206 . alternately. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. so E (is) to F . or the same parts. (such that) as A (is) to B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. or parts. † B C D Let the four numbers A. where all symbols denote numbers. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. thus which(ever) part. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Γ ἢ μέρη. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. I say that also. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. so C (is) to D. οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ· λέγω. so D (is) to E. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 7. Β. B. B. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. since as B is to C. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. so B (is) to E [Prop. and D be proportional.

and HC are equal to one another. In modern notation. 7. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so the unit GH will be to the number KL. and EF into the (divisions) EK. so A (is) to D. So the multitude of (units) BG. GH. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. and let another number D measure some other number EF as many times. and LF are also equal to one another. also. alternately. For since the unit A measures the number BC as many times as D (measures) EF .20]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΗ. τρίτον ἀριθμὸν μετρήσει καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τὸν τέταρτον. ΗΘ. alternately. HC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EK. Thus. 7. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ μονὰς τὸν ber measures some other number as many times. also. ΛΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and another numἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν μετρῇ. And the unit BG (is) equal to the unit A. as the unit A is to the number D. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΚ. and the multitude of the (units) BG. 7. ΘΓ. so BC (is) to EF . οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. and HC. the unit A measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF [Def. ἰσακις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς If a unit measures some number. ΗΘ. 207 . † to E. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΚΛ ἀριθμὸν καὶ ἡ ΘΓ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΛΖ ἀριθμόν. KL. and LF . alternately. as A (is) to D. the unit A also measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF . ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν ΒΓ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν ΕΖ. Thus. GH. Thus. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. Thus. Let BC have been divided into its constituent units. ΗΘ. HC is equal to the multitude of the numbers EK. and the numbers EK. Α ∆ Β Ε Η Θ Κ Γ A Λ Ζ E H G K C L F D Μονὰς γὰρ ἡ Α ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΒΓ μετρείτω. ἔσται ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. the unit will measure the third number as many times as the second (number measures) the fourth. ΘΓ μονάδων τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΚΛ. ΚΛ. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. Proposition 15 ᾿Εὰν μονὰς ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῇ. KL. as the unit BG (is) to the number EK.13]. And since the units BG. so (the sum of) all of the leading will be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. this proposition states that if a : b :: d : e and b : c :: e : f then a : c :: d : f . thus as many units as are in BC. And as B (is) to E. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ. so BC (is) to EF . KL. ΘΓ μονάδες ἀλλήλαις. GH. and the unit HC to the number LF . also. ΗΘ. ΛΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. And thus. ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. This proposition is a special case of Prop.13]. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. ieþ. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς τῇ Α μονάδι. LF . ὁ δὲ ΕΚ ἀριθμὸς τῷ Δ ἀριθμῷ.9. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν ἑαυτῷ μονάδας τὰς ΒΗ. then. ΘΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. ΚΛ. so C (is) to F [Prop. LF . 7. ΚΛ. so D (is) to F [Prop. † B For let a unit A measure some number BC. and the number EK to the number D. GH. as A is to C. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε.12]. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. 7. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΚ. where all symbols denote numbers. so C (is) to F . ΛΖ ἀριθμῶν. thus as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. KL. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Δ ἀριθμόν. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. ἰσάκις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ ἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν τὸν ΕΖ μετρείτω· λέγω. ΛΖ. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. ὅσαι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μονάδες. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. BG. equal to D. I say that.

tively). 7. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 iþ. And 208 . οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. If a number multiplying two numbers makes some οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον τοῖς πολλα. B thus ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. this proposition states that a b = b a. C is equal to D. A measures each of C and D an equal number of times. izþ. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) D. 7. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ. B thus measures C according to the units in A [Def. And the unit E was measuring the number B as many times as A (measures) C. Thus. † Let A and B be two numbers. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. Δ μετρεῖ. alternately.(numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will πλασιασθεῖσιν. the unit E measures the number A as many times as B (measures) C. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let B make D (by) multiplying A. For since A has made D (by) multiplying B. And the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it. Γ πολλαFor let the number A make (the numbers) D and πλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. μετρεῖ measures D according to the units in A [Def. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ. A thus measures D according to the units in B [Def. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Δ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς πολλαπλασιάσας ποιῇ τινας.15]. Β. Proposition 16† Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινας. In modern notation. Ε ποιείτω· λέγω.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. I say that C is equal to D. since B has made D (by) multiplying A.15]. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς E (by) multiplying the two numbers B and C (respecτὸν Γ. If two numbers multiplying one another make some (numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will be equal to one another. Thus. And the unit E also measures B according to the units in it. For since A has made C (by) multiplying B.15]. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. πάλιν. Thus. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. Α Β ∆ Ζ A B D F Γ Ε C E ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. 7. where all symbols denote numbers. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις ἔσονται. ἰσάκις δὲ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν ἐμέτρει καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Α ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. Thus.15]. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. Again. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) C [Prop. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. 7. so D (is) to E. I say that as B is to C. have the same ratio as the multiplied (numbers). ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ.

And let A make E (by) multiplying D. ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. so C (is) to E. For since A has made D (by) multiplying C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. C. And if the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) the second and third then the four numbers will be proportional. † the unit F also measures the number A according to the units in it.13]. Β πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. so D (is) to E. Let A. and D be four proportional numbers. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. alternately. ihþ. Ε ποιείτωσαν· λέγω. (such that) as A (is) to B. as the unit F (is) to the number A. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον (other numbers) then the (numbers) generated from τοῖς πολλαπλασιάσασιν. so D (is) to E [Prop. as the unit F is to the number A. C has thus also made D (by) multiplying A [Prop. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. as A is to B. this propositions states that if a c = d and b c = e then a : b :: d : e. οἱ τέσσασρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. C has also made E (by) multiplying B. So. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. Γ. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Thus. I say that E is equal to F . καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. for the same (reasons). where all symbols denote numbers. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα πολλαπλασιάσαντες If two numbers multiplying some number make some ποιῶσί τινας. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Δ. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. And thus. as B is to C. this proposition states that if d = a b and e = a c then d : e :: b : c. 7. so C (is) to D. the unit F measures the number A as many times as B (measures) D. them will have the same ratio as the multiplying (numbers). Thus. Thus. and let B make F (by) multiplying C. † For let the two numbers A and B make (the numbers) D and E (respectively. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. And so. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Δ. so D (is) to E [Prop. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β.STOIQEIWN zþ. 7. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. as B (is) to D. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. for the same (reasons). 7. by) multiplying some number C. Thus. I say that as A is to B. B. Ε πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. where all symbols denote numbers. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 δὲ καὶ ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Δ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. In modern notation. so C (is) to E.16].17]. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ἔσται τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου γενομένῳ ἀριθμῷ· καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. So the number C has made D and E (by) multiplying the two numbers A and B (respectively). ijþ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If four number are proportional then the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth will be equal to the number created from (multiplying) the second and third. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ.20]. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Α. 7. In modern notation. Β. 209 . so B (is) to D [Def.

also. so C (is) to D. † B C D E F G For let A make G (by) multiplying C. and has made E (by) multiplying D. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τούς Η. so A (is) to B [Prop. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. where all symbols denote numbers.17]. In modern notation. so G (is) to F [Prop. as A (is) to B. Β οἱ ΓΔ. kþ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ πεποίηκεν. the number A has made G and E by multiplying the two numbers C and D (respectively). Thus. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. as C (is) to D. 5. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. Therefore. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν. thus. the two numbers A and B have made G and F (respectively. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. Again. ΕΖ· λέγω. G has the same ratio to each of E and F . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ.18]. But. so G (is) to E. I say that as A is to B. as A (is) to B. as G (is) to E. E is equal to F [Prop. with the same construction. so A (is) to B. so C (is) to D.STOIQEIWN zþ. so C (is) to D [Prop. Ε πεποίηκεν. So.7]. ὁ Η ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Ε. I say that CD measures A the same number of times as EF (measures) B. Thus. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Ζ πεποιήκασιν. ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. Thus. and the lesser the lesser. 5. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. and vice versa. And. But. δύο δὴ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. as G (is) to E. as A is to B. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Η. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η A ῾Ο γὰρ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. The least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. as C is to D. But. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. 7. 7. ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. this proposition reads that if a : b :: c : d then a d = b c. B has also made F (by) multiplying C. since E is equal to F . ῎Εστω δὴ πάλιν ἴσος ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ· λέγω. so G (is) to F . so G (is) to E [Prop. let E be equal to F . For let CD and EF be the least numbers having the same ratio as A and B (respectively).9]. 210 . ὡς δὲ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. as A (is) to B. For. so G (is) to E. πάλιν. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. by) multiplying some number C. And as G (is) to F . thus as G is to E. 7. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. Proposition 20 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. the greater (measuring) the greater. Thus. but.18].17]. again. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. τὸν δὲ Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. also. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. in fact. Thus. so G (is) to F [Prop. 7. And thus. ὅτι ἰσάκις ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β.

῎Εστωσαν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. HF . GD is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. Β· λέγω. ΘΖ. if possible. Thus. τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ μέρη τοῦ Β. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΓΔ μέρη τοῦ Α. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β A Γ Η Ε B C E H Θ G F Ζ ∆ D ῾Ο ΓΔ γὰρ τοῦ Α οὔκ ἐστι μέρη. EH and HF . 7. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. 7. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. CD is not parts of A. as CG is to EH. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. Β. ἅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α. CG and GD. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. ΗΔ. ὅτι οἱ Α. ΕΖ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. Let them be C and D. ΗΔ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις.20. Thus. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. For CD is not parts of A.12]. CD measures A the same number of times that EF (measures) B. ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ. (it is) a part (of A) [Prop. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Α μέρη τὰ ΓΗ. Prop. Thus.STOIQEIWN zþ. so will (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop.13]. οὕτως ὁ ΗΔ πρὸς τὸν ΘΖ. ΕΖ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκεινται γὰρ οἱ ΓΔ. Thus. And since the numbers CG and GD are equal to one another. For if not then there will be some numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. So the multitude of (divisions) CG. Thus. Let CD have been divided into the parts of A. ἔστω· καὶ ὁ ΕΖ ἄρα τοῦ Β τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. CG and EH are in the same ratio as CD and EF . kaþ. let it be (parts of A). ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς ΓΔ. GD will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. Prop 7. HF . ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ.20. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Β μέρη τὰ ΕΘ. being less than them. and EF into the parts of B. I say that A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. For.13]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Δ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. 211 . ΘΖ. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. οὐκ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· μέρος ἄρα. so GD (is) to HF . 7. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τοῦ Β τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. Proposition 21 Οἱ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. thus as CG is to EH. so many parts of B are also in EF . The very thing is impossible. And EF is the same part of B that CD (is) of A [Def. as many parts of A as are in CD. Thus. 7.4]. οὕτως ὁ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ· οἱ ΓΗ. Let A and B be numbers prime to one another. For CD and EF were assumed (to be) the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΓΗ. and the multitude of (divisions) CG. 7. EF is also the same parts of B that CD (is) of A [Def. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. Numbers prime to one another are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. Thus. so CD (is) to EF .

Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός.20].STOIQEIWN zþ. καί ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. Let A and B be the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Δ. which are prime to one another. Β ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. same ratio as them are prime to one another. for the same (reasons). And since C measures A according to the units in E. Proposition 22 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων The least numbers of those (numbers) having the αὐτοῖς πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. the leading (measuring) the leading. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. so 212 . ὅτι οἱ Α. Β. The very thing is impossible. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. So. 7. Thus. and let it be C. οἱ Α. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. And as many times as C measures A. For if they are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. so many units let there be in E. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 7. there cannot be any numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B.16]. Thus. Thus. A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. since the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Ε καὶ τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. μετρείτω. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάττων τὸν ἐλάττονα. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. Let it (so measure them). the greater (measuring) the greater. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. Thus. E also measures B according to the units in D [Prop. E measures A and B. kbþ. I say that A and B are prime to one another. Therefore. 7. D also measures B according to the units in E. Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους.16]. ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Β. ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. Β· λέγω. E thus also measures A according to the units in C [Prop. and the following the following—C thus measures A the same number of times that D (measures) B [Prop. So as many times as C measures A. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας.

καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. οἱ Γ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 7. I say that C and B are also prime to one another. Thus. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. D and E are in the same ratio as A and B. ber measuring one of them will be prime to the remaining (one). Let it (so) measure (them). Proposition 23 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For if C and B are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and B. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· οἱ Δ. kgþ. which are prime to one another. Since D measures C. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. And (D) also measures B. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. C has thus made A (by) multiplying D [Def. many units let there be in D. Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D . Β ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. as D is to E. and C measures A. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. being less than them. ὁ τὸν ἕνα If two numbers are prime to one another then a numαὐτῶν μετρῶν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. Β πεποίηκεν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to one another. τὸν δὲ Α μετρείτω τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Γ· λέγω. Thus. Thus. D measures A and B. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. A and B are prime to one another. If two numbers are prime to some number then the number created from (multiplying) the former (two numbers) will also be prime to the latter (number).15]. C has also made B (by) multiplying E. Thus. 7. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Επεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. for the same (reasons). Thus. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν πρῶτοι ὦσιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ.17]. ὅτι καὶ οἱ Γ. μετρείτω. Since C measures A according to the units in D. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. And as many times as C measures B. Β ἀριθμός. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. οἱ Α. Thus. and let some number C measure A. The very thing is impossible. The very thing is impossible. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. kdþ. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. So. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Α. 213 . some number does not measure the numbers C and B. D thus also measures A. Β. So the number C has made A and B (by) multiplying the two numbers D and E (respectively).STOIQEIWN zþ. καὶ ὁ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. and let it be D. so A (is) to B [Prop. Thus. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. so many units let there be in E. C and B are prime to one another. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Δ. some number does not measure the numbers A and B. Ε ἄρα τοῖς Α.

and the following the following [Prop. Δ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. E measures B. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. keþ. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. And A and E (are) prime (to one another). Δ ἀριθμός. οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Α. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ· καὶ ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. And it also measures C. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρεῖ τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Γ. 7. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ζ. And (numbers) prime (to one another) are also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Let it (so) measure them. I say that C and D are prime to one another. 7. ὅτι οἱ Γ. For if C and D are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and D. so B (is) to F . Ε πρῶτοι. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ ἐκ τοῦ If two numbers are prime to one another then the ἑνὸς αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. The very thing is impossible. Β πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν τὸν Γ πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. 7. And let A make D (by) multiplying B. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. prime to the remaining (number). Thus.21]. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Thus. But.16].15]. and some number E measures C. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. οἱ Α. And the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. ὅτι Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to 214 . μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. Thus. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Β. number created from (squaring) one of them will be ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. which are prime to one another. so many units let there be in F .23]. And since C and A are prime to one another. Ζ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἑκ τῶν Ε. the greater (measuring) the greater. E measures B and C. and let it be E. 7. C and D are prime to one another. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and F is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. Γ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.15]. For let A and B be two numbers (which are both) prime to some number C.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. F also measures D according to the units in E [Prop. as E is to A. Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. the leading (measuring) the leading. 6. Β. ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. Thus. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. A has also made D (by) multiplying B. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. So as many times as E measures D. some number cannot measure the numbers C and D. 7. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· λέγω. οἱ δὲ Α. οἱ Γ. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. Thus. Thus. E has made D (by) multiplying F [Def. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four numbers are proportional [Prop. Β. in fact. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ.20]. μετρείτω.

Thus. Δ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτος ἔσται. Β ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτος ἔσται. οἱ Γ. Β πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτός ἐστιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. C and D are each prime to E. Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. Α Β Γ one another. and let C make F (by) multiplying D. καὶ οἱ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. A and B.24]. both be prime to each of two numbers. Thus. Thus. 215 . C D For let two numbers. Since A and B are prime to one another. And let A make E (by) multiplying B. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 οἱ Β. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Δ. for the same (reasons). For since A and B are each prime to C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ Ε. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Γ. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Γ.STOIQEIWN zþ. I say that B and C are prime to one another. Α ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτος ἔσται. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself. C and B are prime to one another. Δ ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. And F is the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. If two numbers are both prime to each of two numbers then the (numbers) created from (multiplying) them will also be prime to one another. kþ. the (number) created from (multilying) D and A will also be prime to B [Prop. D and A are each prime to B. ∆ A B C D Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Α ἴσος ὁ Δ. E and C are prime to one another. Δ γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ζ. ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Γ. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· οἱ Ε. Thus. D and B are thus also prime to one another. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. 7. Β πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους εἰσίν. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Δ. ἴσος δὲ ὁ Α τῷ Δ. E and F are prime to one another. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. Γ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν.24]. For let D be made equal to A. Α γενόμενος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. καί οἱ Δ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ὦσιν.24]. and A (is) equal to D. C and D. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. I say that E and F are prime to one another. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Α. ὅτι οἱ Ε. Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ A B E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. 7. Α πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτός ἐστιν· καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἑκάτερος τῶν Α. E and D are also prime to one another. And C is the number created from (multiplying) D and A. οἱ Ε. 7. So. Thus. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B will thus also be prime to C [Prop. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D will also be prime to E [Prop. And E is the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B.

C and B are thus prime to one another [Prop. For since A and B are prime to one another.. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. οἱ Δ. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. καὶ συIf two numbers are prime to one another then their ναμφότερος πρὸς ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν πρῶτος ἔσται· καὶ ἐὰν sum will also be prime to each of them. and D and F . Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. † B C D E F Let A and B be two numbers prime to one another. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν.26]. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. ἐπεὶ οὖν οἱ Γ. Therefore. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸν δὲ Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. since the two numbers A and C are both prime to each of the two numbers B and E. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. Proposition 27† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. In modern notation. Thus. τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν.25]. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. and A has made C (by) multiplying itself. 7. καὶ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερος ἑαυτὸν ποιῇ τινα. καὶ οἱ ἐξ (of two numbers) is prime to any one of them then the ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. Again. and let it make F by multiplying E. Ε ὁ Ζ. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι οἵ τε Γ. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. then a2 is also prime to b2 . ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. οἱ Γ. And if the sum συναμφότερος πρὸς ἕνα τινὰ αὐτῶν πρῶτος ᾖ. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and C is thus prime to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E [Prop. οἱ Α. etc. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. and let it make D (by) multiplying C.25].25]. If two numbers are prime to one another and each makes some (number by) multiplying itself then the numbers created from them will be prime to one another. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. where all symbols denote numbers. Γ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. and let A make C (by) multiplying itself.STOIQEIWN zþ. κἀκεῖνοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται [καὶ ἀεὶ περὶ τοὺς ἄκρους τοῦτο συμβαίνει]. Therefore. καί ἐστιν ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῶν Α. οἱ Γ. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. 216 . πάλιν. 7. I say that C and E. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. D and F are prime to one another. Ε ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοί εἰσιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 kzþ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 7. are prime to one another. And let B make E (by) multiplying itself. original numbers will also be prime to one another. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. Β. 7. and F the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E. since C and B are prime to one another. ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. C and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. and if the original (numbers) make some (more numbers by) multiplying the created (numbers) then these will also be prime to one another [and this always happens with the extremes]. Γ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν ἐκ τῶν Β. this proposition states that if a is prime to b. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. κἂν οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοὺς γενομένους πολλαπλασιάσαντες ποιῶσί τινας. khþ. Γ ὁ Δ. as well as a3 to b3 . Ε καὶ οἱ Δ. And D is the (number created) from (multiplying) A and C. since A and B are prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Β.

διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΑΓ. καὶ τὸν Α ἄρα μετρεῖ πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. And since D measures each of AB and BC. And it also measures BA. ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ὃν μὴ μετρεῖ. Thus. For if AB and BC are not prime to one another then some number will measure AB and BC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τοὺς Β. I say that B and A are prime to one another. ὁ δὲ Α τὸν Β οὐ μετρεῖ. since D measures CA and AB. Thus. Thus. D measures AB and BC. ΒΓ μετρεῖ. For if CA and AB are not prime to one another then some number will measure CA and AB. Let A be a prime number. ΑΒ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁ ΓΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. Let C measure (them). μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers CA and AB. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D Συγκείσθωσαν γὰρ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. and let it not measure B. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. Thus. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. Α Β Γ A B C ῎Εστω πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α καὶ τὸν Β μὴ μετρείτω· λέγω. ΒΓ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. CA and AB are prime to one another. And it also measures AB. for the same (reasons). Every prime number is prime to every number which it does not measure. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 29 ῞Απας πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἅπαντα ἀριθμόν. Let it (so) measure (them). πρῶτός ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. ΒΓ· λέγω. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. kjþ. οἱ Α. The very thing is impossible. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. and A does not measure B. Therefore.STOIQEIWN zþ. (which are) prime to one another. ὁ Γ ἄρα τῷ Α οὔκ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. ΒΓ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. it will thus also measure the remainder BC. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. AC and CB are also prime to one another. again. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΓΑ. AB and BC. ὅτι καὶ οἱ ΑΒ. ΑΒ ἀριθμός. CA is prime to each of AB and BC. Since C measures B. μετρείτω. ΓΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. (despite) not being the same as it. Α μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός. AB and BC are prime to one another. which are prime to one another. ΑΒ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For let the two numbers. Α μετρεῖ. Thus. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. I say that AB and BC are also prime to one another. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. ὅτι οἱ Β. ΑΒ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ ΓΑ. A and B are prime to one another. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΑΒ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. ΑΒ μετρεῖ. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers AB and BC. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Β. The very thing is impossible. it will thus also measure the whole of CA. For if B and A are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 217 . Thus. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. ΒΓ ἀριθμός. οἱ ΑΒ. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· λέγω. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΒΓ μετρήσει. which are prime to one another. ῎Εστωσαν δὴ πάλιν οἱ ΓΑ. μετρείτω. καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΑ μετρήσει. I say that their sum AC is also prime to each of AB and BC. C is thus not the same as A. be laid down together. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΓΑ. some number cannot measure (both) B and A. it thus also measures A. And since C measures B and A. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τοὺς ΓΑ. The very thing is impossible. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. ΒΓ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. let CA and AB be prime to one another. and let it be D. Let it (so) measure (them). μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΒΑ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. which is prime. D measures CA and AB. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΓ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. and let it be D. So. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Β. So. Thus. μετρείτω ὁ Γ.

some number will measure ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ σύνθετός ἐστιν ὁ Α. Proposition 30 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί If two numbers make some (number by) multiplying τινα. similarly. Proposition 31 ῞Απας σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. And since D is prime.20]. the greater (measuring) the greater. ὅτι ὁ Α ὑπὸ πρώτου by some prime number. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. Let it (so) measure (A). So. the leading (measuring) the leading. For let it not measure A. ὁ Δ ἄρα ἕνα τῶν Α. lþ. τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. I say that D measures one of A and B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν.STOIQEIWN zþ. we can also show that if (D) does not measure B then it will measure A.15]. Β μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. one another. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Thus. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. Thus. 7. And D and A (are) prime (to one another). as D is to A. D measures B. 7. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. A has also made C (by) multiplying B. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. D measures one of A and B. I say that A is measured ῎Εστω σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. 7. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α. τὸν Α μετρήσει. Β πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους τὸν Γ ποιείτωσαν.19]. A and D are thus prime to one another [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 show. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. so many units let there be in E. and let it be B. then it will also measure one of the original (numbers). τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. 7. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Every composite number is measured by some prime number.21]. Let A be a composite number. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν it. Therefore. ὅτι καὶ ἐὰν τὸν Β μὴ μετρῇ. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. and (numbers) prime (to one another are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. For since A is composite. and some prime number measures the numκαὶ ἕνα τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρήσει. since D measures C according to the units E. τὸν δὲ γενόμενον ἐξ αὐτῶν μετρῇ τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. so B (is) to E [Prop. οἱ δὲ Δ. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἐπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρείτω τις πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ· λέγω. For let two numbers A and B make C (by) multiplying one another. Β. Τὸν γὰρ Α μὴ μετρείτω· καί ἐστι πρῶτος ὁ Δ· οἱ Α. Β μετρεῖ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. and the following the following [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Thus. D has thus made C (by) multiplying E [Def. And as many times as D measures C. But. laþ. ὅτι ὁ Δ ἕνα τῶν Α. ber (so) created from them. in fact. the (number created) from (multiplying) D and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B.29]. And if B 218 . Α πρῶτοι. and let some prime number D measure C.

And if C is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. will measure the number A. and let it be C. every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. Εἰ μὲν οὖν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Α. and C are prime to one another then they are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. and C. Γ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. in this manner of continued investigation. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. some prime number will (eventually) be found which will measure the (number) preceding it. B. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. I say that A is either prime or is measured by some prime number. Β. Β. In fact. The very thing is impossible for numbers. And if (B is) composite then some number will measure it. ὃς καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει. So it is required to find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. C thus also measures A. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. Α A ῎Εστω ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Β. εἰ γὰρ οὐ ληφθήσεται. In fact. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἀριθμός. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἀριθμός. or not. if A is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός.31]. some prime number will be found which will measure (the number preceding it. ὧν ἕτερος ἑτέρου ἐλάσσων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον ἐν ἀριθμοῖς. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Β. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And since C measures B. and B measures A. and C are either prime to one another. B. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τό ἐπιταχθέν. So. 7. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. ὅτι ὁ Α ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. if A. prime number. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός.22]. For A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. Let it (so) measure (B). ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. To find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as any given multitude of numbers. ὃς μετρήσει. Proposition 32 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. B.STOIQEIWN zþ. Γ. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. τοιαύτης δὴ γινομένης ἐπισκέψεως ληφθήσεταί τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. And if (it is) composite then some prime number will measure it [Prop. Οἱ Α. μετρείτω. 219 . ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. each of which is less than the preceding. Β. every composite number is measured by some μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Α Β Γ A B C ῞Απας ἄρα σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ Thus. Every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. B. lgþ. Β. is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. μετρείτω. And if (C is) composite then some number will measure it. εἰ μὲν οὖν οἱ Α. And if (such a number) cannot be found then an infinite (series of) numbers. Thus. ληφθήσεταί τις ἄρα πρῶτος ἀριθμός. lbþ. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. which will also measure A. Proposition 33 ᾿Αριθμῶν δοθέντων ὁποσωνοῦν εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. which will also measure A). Let A be a number. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. 7. μετρήσουσι τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν ἄπειροι ἀριθμοί. Let A. and C be any given multitude of numbers.

Β. For if E. And (M ) measures A. so many units let there be in M . then there will be [some] numbers less than E. G measure A. Γ ἰσάκις μετροῦσιν· οἱ Ε. D. Thus. Β· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. Β.3]. M thus also measures A according to the units in H [Prop. Thus.13]. Γ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. C according to the units in K. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Ε. B. F . Proposition 34 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν. (both) measure. Λ μονάδας· ὁ Μ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. And since H measures A according to the units in M . λέγω δή. for the same (reasons). C (respectively) an equal number of times. respectively. G are the least of (those numbers) having the same ratio as A. And if not. So. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Ζ. L. Ζ. Κ. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. Ζ. So. Η ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. Γ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν. Thus. Thus.15]. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ ἕκαστον τῶν Α. B. Β. G measure A. C (respectively). Ζ. H has thus made A (by) multiplying M . according to the units in M . ἔσονται [τινες] τῶν Ε. let the greatest common measure. ὁ Θ ἄρα τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. C (respectively). ldþ. μείζων δὲ ὁ Ε τοῦ Θ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ Μ τοῦ Δ. Thus. Thus. Γ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκειται γὰρ ὁ Δ τῶν Α. F . εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. respectively. Η ἄρα τοὺς Α. Γ μετρεῖ. and C. Let them be H. F . F . L. 5. So it is re- 220 . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. B. Ζ. K. H measures A the same number of times that K. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. B. Δ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Θ. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. Ζ. C (respectively). B.19]. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν To find the least number which two given numbers ἀριθμόν. B. Thus. E. B. 7. Η ἄρα τοῖς Α. Α Β Γ ∆ ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε Ζ Η Θ Κ Λ Μ A B C D E F G H K L M Εἰ δὲ οὔ. L measure B. G which are in the same ratio as A. Γ μετρεῖ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Μ· καὶ ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Κ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν Ε. M measures A. Ζ. C. so many units let there be in E. Η ἕκαστον τῶν Α.20]. Η. E has also made A (by) multiplying D. Β. C (respectively). C. F . B. οὕτως ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Thus. Ζ. respectively. Β. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν Κ. Β. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Ε. Β. And as many times as H measures A. F . C). of A. Γ. and C have be taken [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. B. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. G which are in the same ratio as A. F . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Μ καὶ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. so M (is) to D [Prop. C. οἱ Ε. C (respectively) [Def. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. according to the units in D [Prop. B. G are not the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. And as many times as D measures A. there cannot be any numbers less than E. Β. respectively. M (is) also greater than D [Prop. E. E. M also measures B. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. F . καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Ε. And E (is) greater than H. B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. respectively. Β. Λ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Κ. Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. καὶ ὁ Μ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Θ μονάδας. εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Ε. And since H measures A according to the units in M . ἔστωσαν οἱ Θ. Η ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. C. B. K.15]. Μ.STOIQEIWN zþ. 7. and C. Let A and B be the two given numbers. Β. Γ. So I say that (they are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio as A. Γ. B. Β. Thus. Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. Thus. For D was assumed (to be) the greatest common measure of A. G are in the same ratio as A. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and D is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) H and M . G. as E (is) to H. οἱ Ε. The very thing is impossible. Β. Γ. 7. 7. And thus E. καὶ μετρεῖ τοὺς Α. 7. L also measure B. for the same (reasons). and C.

Thus. the greater (measuring) the lesser. Δ πεποίηκεν. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Β. 7.19]. Thus. 7. The very thing is impossible. C also measures D. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. and prime (numbers) are the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ.21]. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F . Β A C D E Ζ Οἱ Α. so many units let there be in F . Α Γ ∆ Ε quired to find the least number which they (both) measure. And B measures E. 221 . ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. εἰ γὰρ μή. as A (is) to B. ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Β γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. A and B will (both) measure some (other) number which is less than C. Let them. Β μετροῦσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). or not. first of all. And as many times as A measures D.20]. οἱ δὲ Α. Thus. So let A and B be not prime to one another. C is the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. A and B do not (both) measure some number which is less than C. Thus. as the following (number measuring) the following. For if not. μετρεῖ δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Ε· μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Δ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.17]. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. Ε· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. F and E. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. ὡς ἑπόμενος ἑπόμενον. be prime to one another. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. 7. so F (is) to E [Prop. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. thus as B is to E. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. And A and B are prime (to one another). Β Ε A F C D G Θ B E H Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. λέγω δή. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. 7. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. Α Ζ Γ ∆ Η B F For A and B are either prime to one another. οἱ Α. so many units let there be in E. Thus. And as many times as B measures D.STOIQEIWN zþ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ. Thus. A and B (both) measure C. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. Ε τῷ the same ratio as A and B (respectively) [Prop. Thus. B measures E. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ.33]. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. 7. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α.16]. A has made D (by) multiplying E. Thus. and B has made D (by) multiplying F . 7. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. so C (is) to D [Prop. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. Β μετρεῖται. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). Β πρῶτοι. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying B and E (respectively). have been taken having ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. And καὶ εἰλήφθωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον let the least numbers. the greater (measuring) the greater. Ζ. Thus. Β οἱ Ζ. B has also made C (by) multiplying A [Prop.

Β τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. οὐκ ἄρα οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ· μετρεῖ ἄρα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Α Γ Β Ζ A C ∆ Ε B F D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Δ πεποίηκεν. And since A and B (both) measure E. the greater (measuring) the greater. Thus. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΓΔ μετρείτωσαν. The very thing is impossible. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Η μετρεῖ. ὡς δὲ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος If two numbers (both) measure some number then the ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν μετρούμενος τὸν αὐτὸν μετρήσει. Η τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. A and B will thus also measure DF . A and B will (both) measure some number which is less than C. so H (is) to G [Prop. ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. so many units let there be in H. ὅτι καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. Thus. And as many times as B measures D. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. and E measures DF . οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Η. and B has made D (by) multiplying H. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. least (number) measured by them will also measure the same (number).20]. Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). εἰ γὰρ μή. so F (is) to E. the greater (measuring) the lesser. A and B.19]. Ζ. For if not. A and B (both) measure C. Β μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔπει δεῖξαι. B has also made C (by) multiplying F . as A is to B. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. Ε ἐλάχιστοι. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F [Prop. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσουσιν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Η πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. Β ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσουσιν. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and G is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and H. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. And E measures G. Εἰ γὰρ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ. (both) measure some number CD. E cannot not measure CD. thus as E is to G. And let A make C (by) multiplying E. A and B do not (both) measure some (number) which is less than C. And F and E are the least (numbers having the same ratio as A and B). Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. And as many times as A measures D. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸν Ε· λέγω. as F (is) to E. which is less than E. οἱ δὲ Ζ. And as A (is) to B. C (is) the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying E and G (respectively). καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Ε. Thus. Thus. Thus. C also measures D. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον.17]. Thus. For if E does not measure CD then let E leave CF less than itself (in) measuring DF . ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. Thus. I say that E also measures CD. And (A and B) also measure the whole of CD. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Θ. The very thing is impossible. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and (let) E (be the) least (number measured by both A and B). leþ. Thus. (E) measures 222 . 7.STOIQEIWN zþ. For let two numbers. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· οἱ Α. 7. so C (is) to D [Prop. Thus. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio an equal number of times. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. Β μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. E measures G. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. A has made D (by) multiplying G.19]. καὶ οἱ Α. also. they will also measure the remainder CF . Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῶσιν. Thus. Thus. 7. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐκ τῶν Β. Thus. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. Thus. so many units let there be in G. λέγω δή. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν Η μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 7. Θ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ὁ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΓΖ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η. so H (is) to G.

And E 223 . To find the least number which three given numbers (all) measure. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ζ. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ πάλιν ὁ Γ τὸν Δ. A. ὁ δὴ Γ τὸν Δ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. For if not. Β. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ οἱ Α. λέγω δή. Β. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ. Let them measure E (which is less than D). And let the least number. Β μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. Δ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. A. 7. the least (number) measured by D and C will also measure F [Prop. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. A. Β τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. Thus. Β. and C (all) measure the least (number) D. So. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. Γ τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. and C (all) measure E then A and B thus also measure E. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ· οἱ Α. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ [τὸν Ε· καὶ] οἱ Α. Β. 7. And C also measures [E]. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ζ· οἱ Δ. 7. Β. ὁ δὲ Δ τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. Thus. Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. For let the least (number). ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. μετρήσουσιν [τινα] ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. Δ μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. B. Thus. καὶ οἱ Α. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Γ.34]. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. B. B. εἰ γὰρ μή. and C cannot (all) measure some number which is less than D. Β. A. Proposition 36 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν.STOIQEIWN zþ. The very thing is impossible. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν.35]. So it is required to find the least number which they (all) measure. and C be the three given numbers. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Γ μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. Thus. Β μετρούμενος [τὸν Ε] μετρήσει. Thus. D and C (both) measure F . B. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 (CD). ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. A. Β. and C). 7. again. For if not. So I say that (D is) also the least (number measured by A. and C (all) measure F . μετρείτω πρότερον. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. A and B thus also measure F . B. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ὑπὸ δύο τῶν Α. ὁ Ε ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Γ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and C). Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστον τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. Thus. εἰ γὰρ μή. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure F [Prop. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. Β τὸν Δ· οἱ Α. B. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ε. the greater (measuring) the lesser. Thus.35]. measure (D). measured by C and D have been taken [Prop. Β. καὶ οἱ Α. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ. καὶ οἱ Α. D will measure E. Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Since A. Since A. Since A and B measure D. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· ὥστε καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. B. And A and B also measure D. first of all. and C will (all) measure [some] number which is less than D. and D measures E. Let A. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. Thus. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. A. ὁ δὲ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. And C also measures F . 7. B. Hence. B. So I say that (E is) also the least (number measured by A. Γ τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. and C (all) measure D. So C either measures. μετρήσουσί τινα οἱ Α. E. λέγω δή.34]. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. and C will (all) measure some (number) which is less than E. D. Β. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. or does not measure. Β. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. Β. A and B thus also measure E. lþ. Let them measure F (which is less than E). let C not measure D. Β ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ὁ Δ. measured by the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. D. B. Let it. D measures F . B.35]. and C [also] measure E. Thus. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure [E] [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

C is the Bth part of A). and C cannot measure some number which is less than E. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας. a Bth part). ὥστε ὁ Α μέρος ἔχει τὸν Γ ὁμώνυμον ὄντα τῷ Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔστι For since B is a part of A called the same as C. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ. and δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ μέρος ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ. Thus.. E measures F . I say that A has a part called the same as B. Thus. which(ever) part the unit D is of the number B. And μέρει ὁμώνυμος ἔστω [ἀριθμὸς] ὁ Γ· λέγω. 224 . ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. ἡ δὲ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Β. A has a part C which is called the same as B (i. the unit D thus measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. Thus. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. The very thing is impossible. ὃ ἄρα μέρος the unit D is also a part of C called the same as it (i. E (is) the least (number) which is measured by A. B. ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμου ἀριθμοῦ If a number has any part whatever then it will be meaμετρηθήσεται τῷ μέρει. Thus. Thus. B. lzþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Α. so many units let there be in C. B. and the unit D also measures C according to the units in it. (number) measured will have a part called the same as the measuring (number). Proposition 37 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ μετρῆται. alternately.e. Thus.. For as many times as B measures A.e. C is also a part of A called the same as B (i.STOIQEIWN zþ. καὶ τῷ Β For let the number A have any part whatever.e. ὁ μετρούμενος If a number is measured by some number then the ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἕξει τῷ μετροῦντι. A. A has a Bth part). B is the Cth part of A). ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Β τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Γ. C is also the same part of A. ῾Οσάκις γὰρ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ.. sured by a number called the same as the part. Proposition 38 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμος μέρος ἔχῃ ὁτιοῦν. Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γάρ ὁ Α ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Β μετρείσθω· λέγω. And the unit D is a part of the number B called the same as it (i. μετρεῖ. ὅτι ὁ Γ τὸν Α let the [number] C be called the same as the part B (i. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. the greater (measuring) the lesser. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 is the least (number) measured by C and D. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Γ.. ὅτι ὁ Α ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἔχει τῷ Β. Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α μέρος ἐχέτω ὁτιοῦν τὸν Β.e. lhþ. Since B measures A according to the units in C. 7. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and C.e. For let the number A be measured by some number B. Hence.15].. I say that C measures A.

and C [Prop. Β. So I say that (G) is also the least (number having the parts A. Ζ μετρεῖται. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. have been taken [Prop. ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ τοῖς Α.38]. Thus. And A.e. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α. ἔστω ὁ Θ. E. 7. B. B. E. ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμων ἀριθμῶν μετρηθήσεται τοῖς Α. ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. Α Β ∆ To find the least number that will have given parts. Let it be H. Β. H is measured by D. καί ἐστιν ἐλάσσων τοῦ Η· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Ζ. and F . Let A. B. Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμὸν εὑρεῖν. and C (respectively). ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. B. G has the parts A. and C are parts called the same as D. Ζ ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἐστὶ τὰ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ ἀριθμοῦ.. ῾Ο Η ἄρα ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἔχει τοῖς Δ. the unit D measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. B is also the same part of A. Proposition 39 ᾿Αριθμὸν εὐρεῖν. Γ μέρεσιν. thus which(ever) part the unit D is of the number C. there cannot be some number less than G which will have the parts A. Ε. Ε. and F [Prop. Β. D is the Cth part of C). 225 . an Ath part. And (H) is less than G. and F be numbers having the same names as the parts A. B. and C (i. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Δ. C measures A. a Bth part. and F . and C be the given parts. E. measured by D. Ζ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Η. Ζ. and F are numbers called the same as the parts A. E. and F (respectively). 7. And D. and C). G has parts called the same as D. B. B. Thus. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. E.37]. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. and C. Β. And let the least number.STOIQEIWN zþ. Β. Γ μέρη. and a Cth part). H will thus be measured by numbers called the same as the parts A. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστος ὤν. Β. 7. Β. Ε. εἰ γὰρ μή. Since H has the parts A.15]. Thus. and C (respectively). τοῖς δὲ Δ. B. and C. Β. So it is required to find the least number which will have the parts A. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. Γ μέρη. Ε. Γ μέρη. E. Ε. G.36]. ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ ἔχει τὰ Α. For let D. The very thing is impossible. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ Α. Thus. and C. Γ A Ε B D Ζ C E F Η G Θ H ῎Εστω τὰ δοθέντα μέρη τὰ Α. alternately. Γ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Ε. Thus. ljþ. Γ μέρη. there will be some number less than G which will have the parts A. For if not. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ δοθέντα μέρη. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ Δ. Β. Thus. λέγω δή. B. Β. B. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. τοῖς δὲ Α. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. Ζ· ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. and C. B. 7. Γ· ὁ Η ἄρα ἔχει τὰ Α.

226 .

227 .ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Continued Proportion† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras.

Δ πρῶτοι. being in the same ratio as them. οἱ δὲ Α. μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Α τὸν Ε ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. F . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the following the following [Prop.21]. Thus. Β. ᾿Επιτετάχθωσαν δὴ τέσσαρες. Β. Δ. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς λόγος ἐν ἐλάχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς ὁ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι proportional numbers. F . Ζ. Ζ. And since A. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος [τῶν Α. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Α. B. For if not. the greater (measuring) the greater. 228 . let A make F . G. And let B make K (by) multiplying E. Β. C. let E. and the multitude [of A. as A is to D. B. prime to one another. Γ. To find the least numbers. D. H]. Η. thus. The very thing is impossible. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Α τοὺς Γ. πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔστωσαν· λέγω. further. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Θ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες αὐτοῖς. Θ. ἐν τῷ δοθέντι λόγῳ. Δ ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. I say that A. Thus. C. ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. (expressed) in the least numbers. the greater (measuring) the lesser. And the least numbers measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. Let A. Δ. Β. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Ε. E.STOIQEIWN hþ. G. as many as may be prescribed. A. 7. F . So it is required to find the least numbers. Δ] τῷ πλήθει [τῶν Ε. Θ ποιείτω. (so) E (is) to H [Prop.20]. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ἔστωσαν ἐλάττονες τῶν Α. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. Let the given ratio. let B make E (by) multiplying itself. And A and D (are) prime (to one another). H be less than A. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Η. C. F . Let four (numbers) have been prescribed. Β. Ε Ζ Η Θ Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D E F G H ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. And. D be any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers. and let it make D (by) multiplying B. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. Γ. οἱ Α. And. Γ. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν αὐτοῖς. via equality. the leading (measuring) the leading. Θ ἐλάσσονες ὄντες τῶν Α. And let the outermost of them. Δ οἱ Ε. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself. Ζ. οἱ δὲ If there are any multitude whatsoever of continuously ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. C. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. be that of A to B. C. Δ. B. 7. A measures E. (which are) continuously proportional in a given ratio. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. B. and the outermost of them are τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶ τοῖς Ε. Γ. ὅτι οἱ Α. And prime (numbers are) also the least of those (numbers having the same ratio as them) [Prop. bþ. (which are) in the ratio of A to B. D] is equal to the multitude [of E. Proposition 2 Αριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. ὅσους ἄν τις ἐπιτάξῃ. ὅσους ἂν ἐπιτάξῃ τις. 7. Θ]. as many as may be prescribed. Γ. G. D. Β. are not in the same ratio as them. B. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ. Γ. Δ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. H. Β. B. Thus. H. be prime to one another. Ζ. C.14]. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ ποιείτω. being less than A. G. Η. B. Η. Proposition 1 ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁσοιδηποτοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον. A and D. G. C. D (respectively). H (by) multiplying C. further. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Η. ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. Γ. D are in the same ratio as E. ELEMENTS BOOK 8 aþ. E.

as A (is) to B. Κ πεποιήκασιν. and the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio are prime to one another [Prop. E. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Γ ∆ Ε A B Ζ Η Θ Κ C D E F G H K Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ἑκάτερον δὲ τῶν Γ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. Thus. For since A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. πάλιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. B have thus made D. A. so G (is) to H. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. Β τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Δ. But. G. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. οἱ Α. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. and H to K. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. D. ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. And thus as F (is) to G. B have made H. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. And thus as A (is) to B. H. Again. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Θ. C. οὕτως ἦν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.17]. K (by) multiplying E. Δ. 7. K by multiplying C. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Η. E and F . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. thus as D is to E.27]. as A is to B. And since A has made F . C. Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. 229 . 8. D. A and B are thus prime to one another. G. Θ πεποίηκεν. But. and have made F . and has made D (by) multiplying B. since A has made G. Κ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. Θ. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ. Thus. Thus. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ.22]. so F (is) to G. And as C (is) to D. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. since A has made D (by) multiplying B. Κ πεποίηκεν· οἱ Γ. respectively. 7. Ε πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ. Thus. [οὕτως] ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. Κ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Again. so D (is) to E [Prop. But. πάλιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. [so] C (is) to D [Prop. ἐπεὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. D. And thus as A (is) to B. E. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. 7. [οὕτως] ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. and G to H. ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. C. 7.17]. οὕτως ὅ τε Η πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ· οἱ Γ. Ε πεποίηκεν. (so) D (is) to E. (so) A (is) to B. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α.18]. And since A has made C (by) multiplying itself. so H (is) to K. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Δ. 7. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. thus as A is to B. ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσα