FOREWORD This document is an attept at a faithful transcription of the original document.

Special effort has been made to ensure that original spelling, line-breaks, and vocabulary are left intact, and when possible, similar fonts have been used. However, it contains original formatting and image scans. All rights are reserved except those specifically granted herein. You may distribute this document in whole, provided that you distribute the entire document including this disclaimer, attributions, transcriber forewords, etc., and also provided that you charge no money for the work excepting a nominal fee to cover the costs of the media on or in which it is distributed. You may not distribute this document in any for-pay or price-metered medium without permission. A word about the original copyright. By my best research, the original copyright on this work was not renewed. In accordance with the Copyright Act of 1976, the original copyright date of this book, 1939, means that the original has passed into the Public Domain.

DEDICATION
Special dedication to my very understanding wife Mylinda, my enthusiastic son Christopher, and my beautiful daughter Allison. -Kirk Lawson

WRESTLING
By E. C. Gallagher
Wrestling Coach, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College

A. S. BARNES AND COMPANY Publishers – New York

Copyright, 1939, A. S. BARNES AND COMPANY, Incorporated
THIS BOOK  IS FULLY PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT  AND  NOTHING   THAT   APPEARS   IN   IT   MAY   BE   REPRINTED OR   REPRODUCED   IN   ANY   MANNER,   EITHER   WHOLLY OR   IN   PART,   FOR   ANY   USE   WHATEVER,   WITHOUT SPECIAL   WRITTEN   PERMISSION   OF   THE   COPYRIGHT OWNER.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowledgments   of   appreciation   is  made  to   Joe  Mc­ Daniels, National Intercollegiate Champion three times; Eldon   Jackson,   Letterman   1939   Wrestling   Team;   Jay McVickers,   Intercollegiate   Champion;   Earl   Van   Beb­ ber,   Squadman   1940   Wrestling   Team;   and   George Chiga,   Canadian   Champion   and   member   of   Canadian Olympic team. These men posed for the pictures in this book.  All of them are exceptional sportsmen and wrestlers. I   wish   also   to   express   my   appreciation   to   John   H. Whipple of the Whipple Studios, Stillwater, for the pho­ tographs appearing in this book            The   Author

PREFACE
I believe that individual sport has a greater place in Intercollegiate  Athletics and  that  a man will get  many  valuable   lessons   from   meeting   in   friendly  competition another man equally as good as he is.   For this reason  and because my wife has asked me to write the book, I have spent a year collecting the pictures and working out   the   descriptions   in   this   book.    I  am  giving   to  the  wrestling public the best I have in the different groups of holds, trips, locks and counters. E. C. Gallagher Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College Stillwater, Oaklahoma

THE CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS........................................................................ 5 PREFACE......................................................................................... I.Standing................................................................................ II.To Bring To Mat................................................................... III.Holds.................................................................................... IV.Escapes................................................................................. V.Falls...................................................................................... VI.Miscellaneous Training........................................................ 7 11 23 28 35 76 89

WRESTLING

Chapter One

STANDING

Figure   1. Standing positions are in all probabiliy the most important of all. To learn the proper stance one must apply himself diligently. In the first picture we have what is known as the Square Stance—exposing both legs to the same degree. Your opponent is likely to try for either leg or both. Most good wrestlers have what is called the “sugar side”; meaning they have developed a defense that will protect one leg better than the other. Test out the positions and fall into a stance exposing only one leg and give it protection. This stance is shown in the second picture.

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 Wrestling

Figure 2.   The Ideal Stance: one foot slightly in front of the other, legs well appart, trunk leaning forward, the front leg giving protection, both hands ready to block or tie up opponent.  Or if he should get one leg, counter him with your strongest hold, a switch wrist lock or an arm drag.

Figure   3.    The   tie   up   shown   in   this   picture   is   the   standard   usually   given by the referee. This is Collar and Elbow.

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STANDING

13

Figure 4.    This stance is a Muscle Grip.   You grasp each other by the fleshy part of the arm where the deltoid inserts into the hemures.

Figure 5.   This is the most common block for a leg dive.  It is one of the best positions   to   work   into   Chain   Holds.     I   have   figured   that   the   top   man   who blocks has twenty­one chances to eight over his opponent.   As the hold pro­ ceeds I will explain what I mean by chain wrestling.  Please observe the posi­ tion of the top man's hand.   Also observe the top man is blocking using his legs which are four times as strong as the tackler's arms.   The positions have advanced two links.

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STANDING

 Wrestling

Figure 6.    As number six progresses please notice top man's right knee; it is getting too close to the mat to be safe.   If his knee comes in contact with the mat   the   under   man   should   charge   hard   in   the   direction   in   contact   with the   mat.     He   must   also   make   up   his   mind   whether   to   continue   forward   or back up.

Figure   7.   You   can   now   see   that   the   top   man   has   committed   the   error   by touching the mat with his weight on his knee.  There are many factors to con­ sider   from   here   on   out   –   knowledge   plays   an   important   part,   strength   also should be considered, endurance is another factor.   You must decide quickly or you may spend too much of your strength and accomplish nothing.

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STANDING

15

Figure 8.  A good fortune has smiled on the aggressor.  A bottom man tackled. The top man blocked and made the mistake of giving down on his knees.  The offensive   wrestler   was   alert   and   countered   with   a   quick   charge   toward   the right knee, which takes his opponent under for a clean take­down.

Figure   9.    In   this   picture   we   have   the   defensive   man   as   countered   by   the offensive man with a Quarter Nelson.   The man underneath has to make up his mind quickly whether to charge or back out.   If the man underneath con­ tinues   to   charge   and   the   man   on   top   strengthens   his   position   the   problem will develop as shown in the next picture.

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STANDING

 Wrestling

Figure  10.    The   top  man  has  strengthened   his  position  by   keeping   his   legs straight,   his   weight   properly   placed   and   he   increased   the   turning   pres­ sure on his opponent's head.   The under man must make up his mind quickly or it will be too late.

Figure 11.   In all probability the man making the charge has gone so far that he will  be rapped and  brought  under  control.    This  picture  is  another  good exhibition of chain wrestling.   It is in the third move at the present time.   In further   explanation:   one   wrestler   made   a   tackle,   is   blocked   by   the   top   man quickly   applying   the   one   Quarter   Nelson   and   trying   to   complete   the   move­ ment and bring his opponent under control.

Wrestling

STANDING

17

Figure 12.   In this picture you see the conclusion or what may be the conclu­ sion of this series.   The attacker is brought under control and is being forced down to produce scoring points.  Not only is the man on the defense in a weak position by is in danger of being pinned, with a Nelson and Crotch.   It would be a good thing for the wrestler to pause at this time and learn the Break or the Crotch and Half­Nelson.

Figure  13.    It   is   a  difficult   problem   to   convince  an  American   wrestler  that he should not take the Waist lock and allow his opponent to take the outside position.  I have never seen an American with a strong enough bridge to avoid being   pinned  with  this   combination.     All  foreign   wrestlers  try   to   encourage their opponents to take this body lock.

Figure 14.    They  immediately fall back into  a high bridge with their oppo­ nent on top  of  them,  but   not  for  long.    The opponent  is locked  tightly and is gradually rolled under as is shown in this series.

Figure 15.    Here we have the conclusion of this series which should clearly demonstrate   to   you   what   you   have   been   told.     Try   it   for   yourself   and   then you will be convinced.

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STANDING

19

Figure 16.   In the next  three pictures an attempt will be made to show one of   the   cleverest   Pick­ups   developed   in   the   last   few   years.     Place   your   right hand on your opponent's neck and use it to guide him around the mat, at the same time observing what he does with his left foot.  Pressure must be applied in a manner which will cause him to step forward and across with his left foot.

Figure 17.    If your movements have been correct, your opponent will assume the position shown in the second picture of this group.   All you need to do now is to drop quickly to the right knee putting pressure on his neck; reach for   his   right   ankle   with   all   the   speed   you   can   command,   and   complete   the picture as is shown in the next paragraph.

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STANDING

 Wrestling

Figure 18.    The value of this hold will not be appreciated until it is tried out. The   student   should   remember   that   other   combinations   can   be   worked   out. I have seen a high school boy work the above combination and complete two take­downs   on   a   National   Champion   in   the   first   thirty   seconds   of   a   match during the Olympic try­outs.

Figure 19.  In the next five pictures wll be shown a new hold called the Arm­ Drag.  It was first called to my attention during the Olympic try­outs in 1924. It is shown here  as a chain wrestling  hold  to make it more  effective.   Also from this same combination the Single Leg Pick­up is a good variation.  Please observe that the wrestler on the left is tempting his opponent.   The opponent is resisting by pulling down.

Wrestling

STANDING

21

Figure   20.    When   the   wrestler   applying   the   hold   feels   resistance   the   right hand is changed from left to right, and pressure is exerted as shown.

Figure 21.    In this third picture of the group please note the offensive man's right leg. It is being thrown in between his opponent's leg to keep him from stepping   over.     This   counter   position   of   stepping   over   has   practically   ren­ dered the Arm­Drag useless.

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STANDING

 Wrestling

Figure 22.   Notice how the hand is being used to push the opponent by, and how the offensive man is going to come up behind, if he can keep his opponent under   control.   Another  point   to   consider   is  the   using  of   the  left   leg   by  the offensive man to bring his opponent's right knee to the mat.

Figure 23.    Before  concluding  this  series I  want  to  call your  attention  to  a common   injury   in   which   the   defensive   man   sprains   his   left   wrist   when   he puts out his hand to break his fall.   The fifth picture merely shows the con­ clusion of the series.  I want to warn you that unless you are clever and light­ ning fast this position will cause you more trouble than it is worth.

Chapter Two

TO BRING TO MAT

Figure 1.   In almost every match the man who is down on the mat comes to a standing position while the man riding him retains a grasp around his waist. He may either have a Wrist Lock, or have a Double Grip, on the opponent's wrist.   The method shown here is the most effective and humane that I know. The rules do not permit a slam except in a modified way.   When the man is brought   to   the   mat   the   man   executing   the   movement   must   have   one   knee in contact with the mat by the time his opponent comes in contact with his trunk.  Let us turn to the next picture.

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TO BRING TO MAT

Wrestling

Figure 2.    When  the man is  tripped  he  is  given  a  push  forward  an  usually falls as shown here.  His arm tied up and his leg scissored to prevent a counter. I have never seen a man injured with this variation.   The Olympic rules per­ mit slams.

Figure   3.    Although   this   picture   is   likely   to   develop   into   a   foul   hold,   it   is shown so that you may properly defend yourself.   In the first place do not let your opponent tie up your arm completely.  If you keep your arms free you will be in a much better position to counter him with a Switch or a High Wing.

Wrestling

TO BRING TO MAT

25

Figure  4.    This  picture   shows  how   simple  it   is   to  protect  yourself.    It  will have   a   tiring   effect   on   your   opponent   when   he   tries   to   lift   you   before   he slams.     Don't   give   up.     If   you   are   alert,   there   is   always   a   chance   that   you may reverse position and come out on top.

Figure 5.   In this picture we see one man about ready to give his opponent the   Fall­back.     If   his   opponent   has   the   better   balance   he   may   even   come out  on  top.     The   man  behind  must  throw  his  opponent  to   either  side  or   he might   find   his   opponent   sitting   on   his   stomach.     I   have   seen   at   least   ten wrestlers win about this way.

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TO BRING TO MAT

Wrestling

Figure 6.   This picture shows a High Bridge, the kind seen in International competition.   It is not unusual for a foreign wrestler to take a bridging posi­ tion and hold it for three minutes.  Sometimes they get the praise of the judges, for this defensive action. Quite often they grasp their opponent and pin him with a Spot Fall.   I have seen a Turkish wrestler make sixteen bridges drop­ ping backward and turning Back­neck Springs in one circle of the mat.

Figure 7.    The  most  bridging  exercises involve  simply  rolling  over  on your back and bridging with the shoulders for or five inches from the mat.   This picture   shows   a   wrestler   going   back   and   forth   first   on   hands   and   knees, face down; then on neck and feet. Whatever you do, learn the High Bridge. It  is   the  most   important   bit   of   information  you   will  ever   get  for   use  in   the Olympic Match.

Wrestling

TO BRING TO MAT

27

Figure 8.    No other  part  of the body is called  upon to  do more work than the   neck.   Most   exercises   given   to   strengthen   the   neck   are   inadequate.     In most cases the neck had only to support half the body.  The most violent exer­ cises   you   can   take   are   just   about  as  violent   as  the   regular   match.    I   would recommend   that   you   go   carefully   with   the   above   combination.     Add   some good   limbering   up   exercises   and   you   should   see   much   improvement   in   a short time.

Chapter Three

HOLDS

Figure   1.    The   most   important   hold   used   in   riding   an   opponent   invovles the use of the Waist Lock.   The most important escape from the Waist Lock involves   the   use   of  the   Side   Roll  or   the  use   of   Winging   tricks.     I  consider this   group   of   three   pictures   the   most   important   in   this   series.     You   may realize  why  I  think  this  series important  when   I  confess   it  is   the  only  hold called to my attention that I could not solve.

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Wrestling

HOLDS

29

Figure 2.    Always keep your legs as free as possible.   When your opponent starts   to   wing   you,   throw   your   feet   high   in   the   air   and   shift   them   to   the other   side   of   his   body   with   your   right   hand   grasping   the   opponent's   right wrist and left going into his crotch as shown here.

Figure 3.    Many good variations can be worked from this position.    I have not been able to  solve this problem, without using strength alone.   The im­ portance   of   this   position   can   best   be   appreciated   when   you   are   wrestling under Olympic rules using touch falls.

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HOLDS

Wrestling

Figure 4.    Being a  good rider  depnds  upon leverage, initiative, and a com­ plete   sense   of   balance.     Let   us   assume   that   a   man   wrestling   in   defensive position   is   like   a   table   with   four   legs.     The   top   man   is   working   to   destroy one or more of these legs.   Also notice the position of the underman.   Note that he has his hands well apart and is taking it as easy as possible.

Figure   5.    If   the   man   on   top   has   difficulty   in   destroying   the   arm   support then  he  must   attack   the   support   given   by  the  legs.     This  will  cause   him   to brace   himself   with   his   left   arm   and   make   it   an   easy   matter   to   reach   out and take his left wrist breaking down the second leg of the table.

Wrestling

HOLDS

31

Figure 6.    You should  now place your weight, making  it a difficult  task  to get   loose.   Keep   your   weight   on   him   in   the   direction   of   his   left   shoulder. Keep his left wrist pulled away from his body and you will have one of the easiest rides you have ever tried.   By changing your weight slightly you can wear your opponent down to a helpless condition.

Figure 7.   The next  ride is one of the most  difficult  to break.   Your oppo­ nent is forced over to the mat as with the preceding ride but with one extra lock.     The   principal   strength   of   this   variation   is   such   that   it   is   sometimes called a Twisting Hammerlock.

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HOLDS

Wrestling

Figure 8.    The Twisting  Hammerlock is shown as it is usually  applied.   At this   stage   it   is   not   fouled   but   is   likely   to   become   fouled   if   pressure   is   ex­ erted.     If   any   opponent   gets   this   hold   on   you   he   would   probably   shift   his weight to   the other  side and  with  his  right  shoulder  against  your  chest  will force you over into a fall.

Figure 9.    This next ride is one commonly used by the professionals.    It is used   to   wear   your   opponent   down   to   a   helpless   condition.     Many   times   I have seen Strangler Lewis apply this particular form of rides.   If your oppo­ nent   should   obtain   this   lock   and   get   on   you   he   may   slip   his   right   hand   in between your legs and throw your shoulders for a fall.

Wrestling

HOLDS

33

Figure   10.    In   this   position   the   right   hand   is   going   to   be   changed   to   hold the leg of the man underneath, broken down.   It is also  preliminary to tak­ ing   the   Head   Scissor.     It   is   the   meanest   Head   Scissor   known.     Although   it does   not   choke   your   opponent   it   cuts   off   the   blood   supply;   and   if   he   is down long enough it might make your opponent unconscious.

Figure 11.    In  this  ride  we find  you  have  broken  down  your   opponent  and are   shifting   your   weight   from   side   to   side,   holding   your   balance   to   keep him   under   control   at   all  times.     Please  notice   how   easy   it   might   be   to   slip your   left   hand   between   your   opponent's   legs   and   rock   him   on   his   shoul­ ders for a fall.

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HOLDS

Wrestling

Figure   12.    This   position   is   a   very   good   one   to   work   into.     It   keeps   your opponent   under   constant   threat   of   being   thrown   with   a   Half   Nelson   and Arm   Lock.     From   the   position   shown   slip   on   a   long   Half   Nelson   and   roll your  opponent  over  on  his  right  shoulder.   When  you  have  him  under  con­ trol tighten or shorten your Half Nelson and turn on the power.

Figure   13.    Sometimes   your   opponent   is   endowed   with   super­strength   and endurance.   There   is   no   better   way   to   take   the   fight   out   of   him   than   by the   method   shown.     The   top   man   has   a   Hook   Scissor   and   Half   Nelson   on his opponent.   He will keep this hold for about two minutes.   The under man will  have  dissipated  his   strength  by   this  time.    It   will   be   an   easy  matter  to roll him over and pin him.

Chapter Four

ESCAPES

Figure   1.  Here   we   have   what   is   known   as   a   Half   Standing   Switch.     This is   usually   used   when   the   under   man   is   being   brought   to   the   mat   after   a go­behind.   Quite often this Switch will work so easily that the referee will not give any points to the man who has previously gone behind.

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ESCAPES

Wrestling

Figure   2.    To   continue   the   Switch   you   must   look   out   for   the   following counters:   the   Re­switch   and   the   Step­Over.     The   Re­switch   is   best   blocked by  withdrawing your  arms from  the switching position.    The Step­Over  can be   stopped   by   grasping   your   opponent's   ankle   with   your   left   hand.     Then turn and come on top.

Figure   3.    Most   wrestlers   usually   use   the   conventional   methods   of   escape. This   movement   produces   power   and   surprise.     The   tighter   your   opponent rides you the better it will be for you.  Notice the top man's right arm around your   waist.     It   is   being   held   between   the   under   man's   abdomen   and   right thigh.   The movement also encourages the top  man to take the Waist Lock.

Wrestling

ESCAPES

37

Figure   4.    In   this   picture   the   under   man   grasps   his   opponent's   right   wrist in his right hand, and his left arm in his left hand.   From this half­standing position   he   turns   quickly   to   the   left.     This   will   bring   your   opponent   to   a position of defense.  Please turn to the next figure.

Figure 5.   This figure shows the top man completely disorganized.  It will be necessary for the escaping man to drag his foot out from between his oppo­ nent's   legs.   Also   you   will   be   ready   to   hold   your   opponent's   wrist   just   long enough.   Turn quickly to the right taking a Crotch hold with your right hand.

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Figure 6.   The next series is devoted to the study of the Cross­Scissor Ride. This   position   has   been   used   successfully   in   the   Southwest   for   the   past   fif­ teen years.   It has many followers who can punish their opponents and pro­ duct falls.  In Figure 6 we have the beginning of a series of tricks.

Figure 7.    Observe carefully the top man's riding position to break the Cross Scissor   Ride.     You   will   have   to   know   the   field   of   positions   to   successfully break   the   Cross   Scissor.     Grasp   your   opponent's   left   elbow   in   your   right hand, the object being to give him a felling of security.   Straighten your left leg slightly.   This will cause him to slip downward about two inches.   Then proceed as in the next figure.

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Figure   8.    With   a   twist   of   your   body   and   a   quick   jerk,   thrust   your   left elbow through and grasp him as shone in this picture.   If you use this break and   get   it   down   good   in   style,   you   will   not   have   any   difficulty   in   shaking off your opponent.

Figure 9.   This figure is shown to give you an idea of the work done with both hands and neck.   The neck must be pulled out from under your oppo­ nent's   arm  and  you  must  come  on  top  with some  kind  of  a  Crotch  hold  or your opponent will kick loose and roll away to become free.   Always try to clamp on a pinning combination after you break a hold of this kind.

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Figure 10.   In this picture we are attempting to show another break for the Cross Scissor Ride.   We have named it The Limber Man's Method.   The ob­ ject   is   to   break   the   Scissor   on   the   leg,   spin   out,   turn   toward   the   head   and come on top.   When you first assume this position use your feet to unhook the Scissor and go into position Number 11.

Figure 11.   I want to call your attention to a very important move.   This is the only instance in which you turn away from the Crotch.  This is made nec­ essary by your opponent's left arm.   As soon as your leg is freed take short steps   and   run   around   toward   your   opponent's   head   as   shown   in   Figure   12.

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Figure 12.   This picture does not show it in full detail but you must hang on to your opponent's arm with your arm, and bore into your opponent with your right shoulder. Use this break as rapidly as possible or you may be recaptured by your opponent's throwing his left leg back into scissor position.

Figure 13.   In the next three pictures I will show the break for the cruelest hold permitted in wrestling.   This hold is nick­named “The Guillotine.”   The man who is riding in this picture would like very much to have his opponent take a Headlock.   If the under man should attempt a Headlock the top man would take a Reverse Half Nelson.   He would either pin him or tear his side.

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Figure 14.    As soon as you realize what your opponent is trying to do, ram your   right  elbow   on   the   mat  and  shove   it  straight   forward;   press  hard  with your   back   on  your  opponent's   shoulder.    Please  note  that  you   have  his   arm in a crimp  similar to a Reverse Wristlock.   By leaning back and putting on the   pressure  you   can   cause him   to   unhook  his   arms.     When  your  arms   un­ hook, spin quickly to the left as in the next figure.

Figure 15.    This  figure  shows   the  hold   in   the  final stages  where  the   under man has not only broken the hold but has come out on top.   Don't take this position lightly because when you are once clamped in it you cannot get out.

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Figure   16.    There   are   several   important   parts   to   the   study   of   the   Hook Scissor.    In   the  first   place  you   should   never  permit  your   opponent   to  make you carry his weight.   I have never seen a man carry his opponent's weight without   being  exhausted  at  the  end  of  two  minutes.    My  first   instruction  is to  roll down on the bat in  such  a manner that you make this weight carry­ ing null.

Figure   17.    The   next   break   I   wish   to   show   is   called   the   High   Bridge   and Turn­Up­Hill. Spread your feet wide, turn on your back and reach for oppo­ nent's head.   Try to make him feel that you will pin him if he does not im­ prove  his  position.    In  order to  improve  his  position  he will have  to  loosen his scissor.  At the first move he makes to loosen his scissor, turn out and come  on top.

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Figure 18.    The next move is called a Three­Jerk Break.   As soon as a man puts   a   scissor   on   you   drop   to   the   side   that   the   legs   are   hooked   on.     Now grasp   his   knee   and   give   three   quick   pulls.     At   the   same   time   putting   pres­ sure   on   his   ankle   with   your   right   hip.   The   complete   break   is   shown   in   the next picture.

Figure 19.    First observe that the man breaking the Hook Scissor is turning up­hill.  That you  must   turn up­hill  is the most  important  bit   of  information concerning   this   hold.   This   bit   of   instruction   will   apply   to   any   wrestling position involving a roll.

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Figure 20.    The  next  break  is  called  the  Old  Standard.    it  has been  named Old   Standard   because   it   has   been   in   use   nearly   twenty   years.     Drop   to   the side on which the scissor has been hooked using the bottom leg to loosen the hook.   At the same time bringing the ankle of the foot of the straight leg to the position shown in the next picture.

Figure 21.   Bridge sufficient to keep the shoulders from touching.   With the  weight of your hips press down on opponent's bottom leg.   Pull leg overhead  and spin toward your opponent.  Come up behind as shown in Figure 23, page  46.

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Figure 22.    This picture shows the finish of the break.   Notice that the man breaking  the  scissor  follows   the  fundamental  rule  and  turns   up­hill.     It  is  a sin to roll  of the mat.   It is a bigger  sin to stay on the mat and be ridden.

Figure   23.    In   all   the   breaks   shown   so   far   the   man   breaking   the   scissor dropped   to   the   side   on   which   the   legs   were   hooked.     Here   is   one   instance where   you   drop   to   the   other   side.     Follow   the   figure   exactly   and   you   will have a fast break to throw your opponent under.

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Figure 24.   Observe that the same rule of turning up­hill is to be followed. Also   observe   that   you   press   down   with   your   hip   on   your   opponent's   other leg.  Speed is an important factor.

Figure   25.    Drop   to   the   side   which   the   legs   are   hooked.     At   the   same time   whip   your   legs   out   straight   and   grab   the   straight   leg   by   the   ankle. Push   forward   on   this   leg   and   at   the   same   time   reach   back   with   the   right arm,   take   a   Waistlock   to   complete   the   escape   and   come   on   top.     Whatever you   do   wrong   or   right,   don't   permit   your   opponent   to   ride   you   and   make you carry his weight.

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Figure 26.    No matter what has been said for or against the Wristlock, it is still a good hold.   Instructors should teach their men the defense and offense and also the foul positions.  In the next few paragraphs will be shown a num­ ber of usable Wristlocks. Please observe Figure 26 for the first combinations. Then turn to No. 27 for further investigation.   The man underneath puts on a   Wristlock,   hooks   his   to   to   prevent   shifting,   and   watches   for   two   things.

Figure   27.    Will   his   opponent   bend   his   arm,   or   keep   it   straight?     In   this case he is keeping it straight.   All the bottom man has to do is jerk the arm over his head, keep the toe hooked to prevent shifting, and come on top.

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Figure 28.    There are several important points to be considered.   When the bottom man pulled the top man's arm over his head he pulled him up as far as possible.  He also reached with lighting speed for a Rear Crotch hold.  This keeps  the  opponent  flattened  down   on  his  face  and  permits   the  man  under­ neath to come on top.

Figure 29.   Here we have the same start we had for the previous series.   The difference is that the top  man elected to fight the position with a bent arm. The bottom man elected to counter by turning the arm into a switching posi­ tion  being   careful   not  to  permit   his  opponent   to  make  a   Twisting   Hammer­ lock out of the hold.

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Figure 30.   At this stage  of the movement watch  out for  the following:  the Step­over with the opponent's right leg.   Unless you take a Rear Crotch hold he may back up and cause you trouble.

Figure 31.   No difficulties should be experienced if your opponent is kept flat on his face.  This can be done by exerting pressure on his arm as indicated in the figure.  Please observe that the final picture was taken left handed.

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Figure 32.   In this figure we have a problem when the man shifts around to straddle your leg.  As quickly as possible bring your knee in front of his thigh and kick him over your head.   As he flies through the air be thinking what you are going to do when he hits the mat.

Figure 33.  This figure shows in detail the Kick­over.  Be careful not to release the tightness of the hold.   Keep your opponent's arm bent, with his hand on his own chest. As he rolls over turn your face to the mat and turn his back to the mat.   he will have a tendency to get away from you and you must jerk back on him to stop him.

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Figure 34.   Please observe how the variations are changing.   First we had the leg hooked outside, then the defensive man straddled the other leg.   Now he has shifted clear and he is making a natural block.  he is not out of danger as we can see by  the next figure.

Figure 35.    The top man should look out for a Keylock.   If his opponent is alert, it is likely that he will slip on the Keylock before the top man is even aware   of   the   danger.   the   most   important   part   of   this   series   is   that   the   man must be thrown directly over the head and not from side to side.

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Figure 36.   In the next two figures we see the Rolling Wristlock being thrown into a Keylock.   The under man has not only come on top but has a pinning combination.   Always   lie   across   your   opponent's   chest   until   the   Keylock   is obtained.  Then shift to Figure 37.

Figure 37.   Do not permit the Keylock to be applied in such a manner that it becomes a Twisting Hammerlock.   It may become necessary to grasp your hands and pull across the chest.  Take my advice and practice both sides of the variation.

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Figure 38.   We continue with the defense for a Wristlock here.   These posi­ tions are put in so you will know what to look for.  It is a natural thing when you put a Wristlock on a man for him to block it the easiest way.  The easiest way   is   not   the   best   way   always.   The   defensive   man   has   made   the   error   of straightening out too flat.

Figure 39.  The man applying the Wristlock throws his top leg over his oppo­ nent   and   reverses   him   to   roll   underneath.     When   the   movement   is   con­ tinued we find the bottom man coming on top with a real pinning combination.

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Figure 40.    Here we have the man with the Wristlock finishing off his oppo­ nent with a Double Front Grapevine and Wristlock on his arm.   We find the under man is a helpless condition being forced down for a fall.   Although the figure does not show it the man on top must not use the Reverse Wristlock. If he does he can be thrown off by the under man.  Practice this and you will get the feel of it.

Figure 41.  Up to the present we have figured on the Scissor being applied to the weak side.  It now becomes necessary to show it applied to the strong side. This combination also involves the legs.   Again I want to call your attention to the Step­over.

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Figure  42.    You   can   see  the   development   of   this   hold.     The   man   with   the Wristlock is using the left leg to keep his opponent from shifting over.   he is also turning his Wristlock into a Switch.

Figure 43.   As the Switch is completed the man is flattened out and pulled forward. After the series has gone this far it is almost impossible to escape. You still have that lurking danger of him stepping over you with his left leg.

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Figure  44.    I   am  actually   ashamed   to   show   the   merits   and   demerits   of   the Wristlock. After building up your hopes to a high point, we come along with one figure which will stop all Wristlocks and produce falls and score near falls. As I have said before, you will want to have a referee who will stop the hold before it goes to high up your back.   When you apply this position grab the skin on your stomach if necessary.

Figure 45.    In the next three figures we have a Winging Trick.   When your opponent   on   top  of   you   keeps   locking   his  arms   around   your  chest   take   the outside hold and pivot on your shoulder, throw your legs high in the air, so high, in fact, that they will fall across your opponent's body as shown in Fig­ ure 46.

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Figure 46.    Again I want to  caution  you about  turning   in the  proper  direc­ tion.     Always   remember   to   turn   to   the   Crotch   in   every   instance   with   one exception, and that exception is in the Cross Scissor Ride.

Figure 47.  In this final figure of a series of three, we have the top man turn­ ing in the proper direction.   He is also maintaining a grip on his opponent's arm to pin him if possible.   I want to repeat that the best time to pin, or go into   a   pinning   combination   is   immediately   after   changing   from   defense to offense.

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Figure   48.    Until   fifteen   years   ago   the   Winning   Tricks   were   very   small   in number.  I have called your attention to the four legs of the table.  By combin­ ing  foot   and  leg  positions  with  every  known  winging  trick  we have  opened up a new field and shown some of the principal Winging Tricks.

Figure 49.   In Figure 48 the under man merely hooked his right toe over his opponent's right calf and grabbed his right wrist in his left hand and fell to the side.   The result of this movement is shown here.   Unless the top man is very clever and fast he will come out on the bottom.

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Figure 50.   In this figure we are showing the proper referee's position for the top   and   the   bottom   man.     Please   observe   the   broad   stance   the   under   man occupies.   The top man has his arm loosely around the opponent's waist and with his other hand he grips his opponent at the elbow.  Coaches cannot agree on the position of the top man's head.   This position is as good as average.

Figure 51.  Here we have the beginning of a Sitting­out series.  Please observe that   the   top   man   has   stopped   the   bottom   man's   attempt   to   sit­out   by   using the Short Waistlock. The top man's position can better be improved by pull­ ing his opponent further between his legs

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Figure 52.    This shows that it is not always possible to use a Short Waistlock and we find the top man attempting to hold on with his hands locked.   If you should find yourself in this situation try to keep your opponent from pulling your hands high up on his chest. Turn to the next figure where the completion of the movement is shown.

Figure 53.   Referring to Figure 52, the bottom man is ready to bring his arms down hard and bring into play the big  muscles of his back and chest.    The trouble with this position is that only one thing can happen, the bottom man can escape.  When his opponent's hands are broken apart, he turns on his face and meets his opponent on hands and knees.

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Figure 54.  In a close match the top man has so many things to guard against that he forgets about the position of his head and allows his chin to slip over his opponent's shoulder.   The under man reaches up quickly with the corre­ sponding arm and takes it as shown.

Figure 55.    To complete this position, the bottom man must keep his oppo­ nent's head under his head.   In other words, pull his opponent's head down­ ward to the left.   A mad scramble usually results and the under man comes free or comes on top.   Remember the most important thing in the execution of this escape is to keep your opponent's head underneath.

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Figure   56.    Quite   often   when   the   Sit­out   is   attempted   the   bottom   man   is pulled   back   between   his   opponent's   legs   who   assumes   a   sitting   position   as shown here.  This position would not be too dangerous if he did not stay there too long.  Turn to the next figure and see what is happening.

Figure 57.    The bottom man places a hand on each knee of his opponent and tries to straighten out one or both of his opponent's legs.  As soon as he accom­ plishes this he shifts his tail to a sitting position locking his opponent's knee joint.  All he has to do now is complete the picture as shown in Figure 58.

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Figure 58.   I have seen more good men reversed with this  position than in any other manner.  It not only ends in an escape for the bottom man, but quite often the top man holds on too long and gets himself into a pinning combina­ tion.   Observe how easy it would be for the bottom man to take a Crotch and Half Nelson as he comes up.

Figure 59.    In this picture I am showing a break for a hold discussed in the last three pictures.  Do not permit a man to sit between your legs.  As soon as you get into this position come out of it by using this variation: hook either toe in your opponent's knee and fall back kicking him over on his head out of position.  I have never seen this break published.  It is a new version.

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Figure 60.    For the last several years nearly every individual coach had some variation   of   the   Sit­out.     Here   is   the   Old   Standard.     It   is   mighty   important to know.  When the referee says go, take a short step with your outside leg, at the same time grasp your opponent's wrist.   Bend your inside elbow toward opponent's crotch.

Figure 61.   Shoot your inside leg through, at the same time jerking loose the Waistlock of your opponent.   Continue the forward movement and turn your face   to   the   mat.   Whatever   you   do,   don't   pursue   the   man   underneath   as   he will always come fre when the variation goes this far.   We have not finished with the Sit­out yet, so turn to Figure 62, page 66.

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Figure 62.  In the next three figures we show a very clever series which recap­ tures the opponent after he has gotten free.   Here are the instructions; when your opponent grasps your Waistlock and pulls it free let it come under his arm in the position shown here. Now turn to Figure 63.

Figure 63.   This shows the position the under man will be in, and will appar­ ently   be   free,   but   the   top   man's   hand   lies   on   top   of   his   right   shoulder   pit. Before   the   under   man   is   aware   of   his   being   recaptured,   he   will   be   turned anti­clockwise and pulled down to a position shown in Figure 64.

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Figure 64.    This figure is self­explanatory, but it shows one particular thing. You   cannot   change   directions   of   a   movement   started,   with   any   power.     It also   shows   the   best   time   to   get   an   advantage   is   immediately   after   your opponent thinks he is away.

Figure   65.    In   the   next   two   figures   we   show   a   variation   that   you   must   be on the alert for or you will come up on the little end.   When you are under­ neath,   your   opponent   may   reach   through   with   his   left   hand   and   try   to break you down by grasping your right arm. Counter him quickly by grasp­ ing   his   left   arm   above   the   elbow   and   whipping   your   left   shoulder   to   the mat.  Continue the hold by studying Figure 66, page 68.

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Figure 66.   At  the  exact  instant your  left  shoulder  hits  the  mat  throw  your legs in the air high across your opponent's hips and he will fall to the posi­ tion shown in this figure. You may change this variation to a one leg Step­ over   instead   of   throwing   both   legs   over.   This   position   is   called   Near   Wing with Step­over.

Figure   67.    In   these   two   pictures   we   are   attempting   for   the   first   time   to give a break for the Keylock.   There are one or two points to be considered. First,   do   not   let   your   opponent   force   your   own   hand   up   your   back   in   a Hammerlock   position;   instead   keep   your   hand   on   your   chest   as   indicated here.

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Figure   68.    Proceed   as   follows   to   break   the   hold:   lock   your   hands   across your  own  chest, place  your  feet wide  apart, bridge  and  put   pressure  toward your   opponent,   not   away,   bridge   and   roll   toward   him.     I   realize   this   is   a very   brief   statement   about   so   important   a   position.     You   must   practice  this variation many times before you will be able to work it successfully.

Figure   69.    In   the   next   four   figures   we   publish   information   concerning   a reverse to come from the bottom to top.  It is the first information to be given in   this   important   series,   the   movement   to   start   from   referee's   position   on the mat.   The first movement is started as indicated here.   The bottom flips his inside arm back over his opponent's.

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Figure 70.   The first  objective of the under man is to loosen the Waistlock of  his   opponent.     This   brings  him   to   the   position   shown.    He   assumes  this Foot   and   Leg   position.     He   tightens   up   on   his   opponent's   right   arm   with his left, putting slight pressure toward the front.

Figure 71.    Now  comes the  reverse.    Take  a  deep   step  with  the  right   foot, pulling   your   opponent   up   with   your   left   hand,   grasp   under   his   arm   with your   right   to   reverse   him   and   bring   him   into   a   pinning   hold   as   shown   in figure 72.

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Figure 72.   Let us review what the under man has accomplished: He comes from   bottom   to   free,   scoring   points,   gets   credit   for   a   take­down,   places   his man   in   a   predicament,   and   scores   additional   points   for   a   near   fall.     This variation   was   the   best   series   called   to   my   attention   for   the   year   1939.     It will   pin   more   men   in   the   next   Olympic   try­outs   than   any   other   simple variation.

Figure 73.    Any book published on wrestling would show several variations on   the   Switch.     I   have   tried   to   show   a   series   that   will   work.     In   the   first figure we show a Leg and Arm combination designed to put pressure on the shoulders.   Please observe  what the bottom   man is trying to  do.   He keeps his knee in front of his opponent's right thigh and grasps his own leg.

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Figure 74.    By the time the hold progresses this far, he has moved his hips farther   out   to   get   more   leverage,   and   he   has   changed   his   right   hand   to   his opponent's waist.   I fhe desires only one thing, and that is to come free, he is in position to kick his opponent over his head.

Figure 75.   This  is what he does as shown here.   This brings  the two men up to their feet on even terms, scoring an escape for the under man.   How­ ever, the top man may be thinking at the same time and when he is thrown over he tries to come up out of the mix­up with a leg hold of some kind.

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Figure 76.    As  described  in   the  previous   figure,  the  top   man  refuses to   be kicked   over   and   comes   up   with   a   leg   hold.     The   best   position   for   a switcher to be in is to have his shoulders toward the mat.

Figure 77.    In   the  next   four   figures  we  are  showing  a  simple   Switch   with­ out the use of the legs.   Whip over your right arm, putting your hands into your opponent's crotch. Lean back and put a terrific pressure on your oppo­ nent's   shoulders.     Make   two   separate   moves   to   move   your   buttocks   farther from your opponent.

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Figure   78.    You   must   continue   the   pressure   until   the   right   side   of   your opponent's   face   is   in   contact   with   the   mat.     The   object   of   flattening   your opponent's face is to keep him from reswitching.

Figure 79.    In this  figure the hold  is  progressing successfully.   Your oppo­ nent's right arm has been allowed to go free; you have avoided the step­over of your opponent's right leg; you have shifted your left hand into position to pull your opponent forward.

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Figure 80.    This leaves only the final conclusion.   Improve your position as quickly as possible.   Move into  a good riding  position  and get set, for your opponent will not wait long to start to get loose.

Chapter Five

FALLS

Figure 1.    The study of falls  is  one of the most  important departments.    It is always disappointing to be pinned.   This is likely to happen unless you are thoroughly trained in offense and defense.   This picture shows a Headlock or Side Chancery.  It is seldom used as an offensive hold in America but in Europe it is used quite freely both as a defensive and offensive position.  The value of this hold depends upon your opponent's ability  to bridge or otherwise break the hold when applied as shown in Figure 2.

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Figure 2.    The type of Headlock shown here is a special edition.   Not only does  it  have   the  power   to   produce  a   near  fall,   but  it   also   has  the   power  to break   your   bridge   if   you   have   one.     Please   notice   that   the   top   man   used his leg to bring his opponent on his shoulders.   He also uses his left hand to push   his   opponent's   elbow   across   his   face.     This   combination   produces   the most difficult hold to break.

Figure 3.   The next series shows one of the best pinning positions.   It com­ bines the European Arm  Hook with an American Head Scissor.   If you de­ sire   to   use   this   as   an   Olympic   hold   merely   leave   the   scissor   un­hooked,   in view   of   the   fact   that   a   touch   fall   counts   make   this   hold   one   of   the   best with which to get a spot fall.

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Figure 4.    To  get this  position,   first obtain the Arm  Hook.    Reach  through with   your   right   hand   and   grab   your   opponent's   right   wrist,   then   give   him pressure   with   your   chest.   The   next   thing   to   do   is   to   run   around   and   step over his head.   Both of his arms will be tied up and he cannot protect him­ self from the Head Scissor.

Figure   5.    Here   we   see   the   completion   of   the   hold   which   will   produce   a fall or a predicament.   This is especially effective against an American style low bridge.   This type of Figure 4 Scissor is legal and cannot be changed to a choke hold.   This hold will wear your opponent down to a weakened con­ dition   making   him   highly   susceptible   to   further   attack.

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Figure 6.   In  this series we have what is known as a Double Open Scissor and   a   Half   Nelson.     Bar   your   opponent's   arms   under   his   chest   mounting with   Open­Leg   Scissor,   and   hunch   him   forward   to   break   him   down   with his  chest  on the  mat.     Now  reach  back  with  left  to   opponent's   right  elbow; use a long leverage and bring the arm around as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7.    Continue the  pressure of  the Half  Nelson until  his  shoulders are nearing   the   mat;   then   slide   the   right   arm   through   deep   into   the   Half   Nel­ son position, rendering your opponent helpless as shown in the third picture of this series.   Don't make the mistake of being forced too high up on your opponent's chest.

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Figure   8.    The   most   important   points   are   in   regard   to   the   application   of the   Scissor.     If   you   hook   it   first   allow   your   opponent   to   turn   his   back, then   quickly   snap   a   Reverse   Hook­Scissor   or   leave   the   legs   unhooked if you desire.   If the legs are left unhooked, bear down hard with your right knee;   also   lift   up   hard   with   your   left   leg   to   break   his   bridge.     To   further strengthen the combination put a Reverse Wrist Lock on his left arm.

Figure   9.    The   next   series   is   called   the   Step   Over   Head   Scissor   and   the Spiral   Ride.   Please   observe   the   starting   position   of   this   ride.     the   top   man reaches   through  with  his   left   hand,   applies  pressure  with  his   chest  to  bring his   opponent   to   the   mat,   then   changes   right   to   opponent's   ankle.     Then   he puts his right knee behind his opponent's left arm.

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Figure 10.    The next move is to step over his opponent's head with his left foot   and   at   the   same   time   to   jerk   up   on   the   opponent's   near   ankle   to   start him   to   roll   on   the   mat.     The   secret   of   the   strength   is   in   tying   the   oppo­ nent's   arm   inside   the   Hook   Scissor.     You   must   have   this   hold   applied   to you in order to fully appreciate it.

Figure 11.    Please observe that the arm is included within the Scissor.   Also observe  that the  top  man is  making  himself perpendicular  to  his  opponent's body.     You   do   not   need   to   touch   your   opponent   with   your   hand   after   the Scissor   is   once   applied.     Another   important   point   is   to   rock   him   back   on his   shoulders   and   observe   your   progress   by   glancing   to   the   left   instead   of to the right.

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Figure   12.    In   this   pinning   combination   we   have   the   preliminary   for   the Head  Scissor.  In   order  to   make  this   a  success each   move   must   be  followed carefully.     Break   your   opponent   down   and   make   sure   that   he   cannot   re­ turn   to  the   normal  position.     If  your   opponent  is  able  to   return   to   his  nor­ mal position, it will be possible for him to back out of the Scissor.

Figure 13.    This shows the method employed to keep him flattened out.   To do   this   properly   change   your   right   hand   to   your   opponent's   left   wrist   and pry   him   forward   on   the   side   of   his   head;   press   down   hard   with   your   left elbow.   If your opponent attempts to regain his normal position grab a Read Crotch and heave him forward to flatten him out.

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Figure 14.    Here we have the top man making  his move to apply the Head Scissor.   Move   quickly   around   to   his   head,   putting   your   left   knee   at   the side of his face using your knee as a pivot point.   Lift your opponent about a foot from the mat and clamp on the Head Scissor as he rolls over.

Figure 15.    The important points  to be observed are many.   Be sure to get the   Scissor   placed   well   down   the   side   of   his   neck.     In   hooking   your   feet be sure to get the top leg in the forward position.   Pull his arm back under your   left   hip   and   roll   toward   him   to   bend   his   neck   and   destroy   his   ability to bridge.   This is a brutal pinning combination and must be used with care.

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Figure   16.     Here   we   have   one   of   the   most   important   figures   in   wrestling. It  is   the  Half   Nelson  and   Crotch.     Please  observe   the   following  points:   ob­ serve   carefully   the   right   on   or   the   top   man,   and   the   position   of   his   left hand   and   forearm.     Put   your   pressure   in   your   right   shoulder   and   lift   up with   your   left.     You   will   find   this   position   of   great   importance.   More   fel­ lows are pinned with this hold than any other.

Figure 17.   This hold is usually broken when the under man slides his right hand through between his chest and your chest.   To stop this, grab his right hand in your left and push it back to the mat.   Put your weight on his chest and try to wear him down.   If you think he is about to escape take the Key Lock as shown in Figure 18.

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Figure 18.   The value  of this hold   is much disputed.   Some  of the leading coaches   say   it   cannot   be   applied   legally   and   produce   a   fall.     Others   say   it is   legal.     It   is   generally   agreed,   however,   that   if   this   hold   is   applied   as   a Twisting   Hammerlock,   it   is   quite   easy   to   injure   your   opponent   if   you   turn on too much pressure.

Figure   19.    In   this   figure   we   show   the   application   of   the   Three­Quarter Nelson with leg combination.   This  is good for a quick fall when wrestling under Olympic rules.   It was a favorite hold of the late Farmer Burns.   You will   have   to   practice   this   combination   to   fully   appreciate   it.     When   apply­ ing this hold do not force your opponent or you may injure his neck.

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Figure 20.    Here we see the hold being applied.   Please note the use of the right  leg to  balance the opponent on his shoulders and head.   The deciding factor in the application of this hold is whether you can balance your oppo­ nent   as   indicated   in   the   photograph.   Notice   the   pressure   is   downward   and forward with your leg.

Figure 21.    In the next four pictures we show how to break the Wrist Lock and   change   it   to   a   Half   Nelson   and   Crotch.     When   your   opponent   puts   on the   Wrist   Lock   shift   quickly   into   the   position   shown   here.     Be   careful   not to permit him to apply the Key Lock.     Also make sure that you are going to have the cooperation of the referee.

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Figure   22.    In   this   figure   we   have   the   top   man   permitting   a   Wrist   Lock to   be   brought   up   behind,   and   at   the   same   time   the   top   man   is   putting pressure with his right shoulder in his opponent's armpit.

Figure   23.    In   this   position   you   see   the   application   of   the   right   knee   to break   your   opponent's   hands   apart,   and   throw   him   into   Half   Nelson   and Crotch.

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Figure  24.    You   should   review   Figure   22   and   see   how   clever   the   top   man takes   the   Crotch   hold   and   gets   into   position   to   apply   the   Half   Nelson.     It was   this   combination   that   Frank   Lewis   won   the   World's   Champion­ ship at the Olympic Games in 1936.   These different positions are good ex­ amples of chain wrestling.

Chapter Six

MISCELLANEOUS TRAINING

Your   preliminary   training   for   a   wrestling   season   should   cover   the   period from   September   first   to   January   first.     It   goes   without   saying   that   you should   have   lived   as   clean   as   possible   all   your   life,   because   a   man   once dissipated   will   never   be   quite   as   good   as   one   who   has   taken   good   care   of himself. Begin   your   training   by   doing   cross­country   running,     starting   with   the half­mile   for   a   few   days   and   gradually   work   up   until   you   can   do   two miles  without   feeling   tired  the  next  day.    When  you   reach   this   stage,  begin to   run   only   every   other   day   and   take   wrestling   instruction   on   the   days between.     the   brain   must   be   prepared   several   weeks   in   advance   of   the muscle in  order to  get the best  coordination.   I mean that you  cannot  learn a   hold   by   trying   it   just   before   the   match.     The   paths   of   reflex   are   not developed,   and   you   will   not   be   able   to   use   anything   explained   just   before the bout begin. Begin   your   mat  work   by   learning  all  the   easy   holds   and   all  fundamental positions,   then   do   your   studying   systematically.     Never   go   to   the   mat   with­ out   having   something   definite   in   mind.     Learn   each   group   of   holds,   taking a   few   each   day.     And   practice   each   position   more   than   six   times   before taking   another   hold.     If   this   plan   is   used,   you   will   be   able   to   think   faster than   your   opponent   when   you   get   into   a   regular   match,   and   that   will   win for you if you are in as good shape as he is. Always   supplement   your   work   with   some   form   of   calesthenics.     Those that   will   work   out   the   lateral   trunk,   abdomen,   front   neck,   back   neck, biceps,   and  triceps   are   the   best.    To   do   this   quickly,   lie   on   your   back   and raise   both   feet,   keeping   the   knees   straight.     This   exercise   works   out   the abdominal   muscles.     then   with   the   weight   supported   on   the   sides   of   the feet   and   one   ar,   and   with   the   arm   straight,   raise   and   lower   the   hip   to the   mat,   working   out   the   lateral   trunk.     Then   bridge   on   your   back   trying

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to throw your arms in as many positions as possible.   Especial study should be given to the High Bridge.   Turn face down on the mat and work out the front   muscles.     Chin   for   bicep   development   and   follow   with   rope   skipping or running to develop endurance. Watch   your   diet.     Eat   enough,   but   not   too   much.     You   can   eat   nearly everything   but   do   not   eat   anything   between   meals,   or   take   cold   drinks   of any kind.    Get at least   eight hours  of  sleep and  don't  try to  take too  many activities.     You   cannot   work   five   hours   a   day,   miss   meals,   wrestle,   study, and do several things and be in anything like wrestling condition. Study   each   day's   work   before   you   go   to   the   mat,   and   have   your   work­ outs   progress   in   violence   and   in   the   things   you   are   to   learn.     Each   do   go back and see if you have left anything undone, or have failed to completely or partly, learn any of the holds, trips, or counters of the previous lesson. Watch   your   physical   condition   and   if   you   feel   you   are   not   as   good   as the   day   before   or   lack   strength   or   staying   qualities,   you   no   doubt   are   a little   over­trained.     In   this   event,   (skip  one   day)   omit   one   day's   mat   work and   reduce   the   amount   of   exercise   until   it   seems   to   keep   you   in   the   best of condition. It   may   be   that   you   are   undertrained,   and   will   have   to   go   back   and   start over.   Take some form  of endurance work to build up to where you can do the work you should.   If this be the case, increase the distance you are run­ ning   and   the   muscle­building   work,   but   do   not   take   enough   to   over­do   the thing.     If   too   much   calethenic   work   is   taken,   the   muscle   tone   is   increased to too great a degree and a sluggish and slow moving muscle results. Remember   that   man   is   an   animal   with   very   little   natural   coordination and   abilithy   to   perform   with   hands   or   feet.     This   is   nearly   all   acquired   by constant   practice.     For   example,   a   bird   can   fly   without   using   any   thought or without the front  brain at all.    A man has to think or he cannot do any­ thing   at   all.     It   may   be   only   a   slight   effort   to   him,   but   he   has   to   be   con­ scious   of   what   he   is   doing   and   for   that   reason   is   considered   the   poorest developed animal when it comes to natural condition.  During   the   past   fifteen   years  I   have   made  a   special  study   of   the   feeding of sugar.   I notice that there is a definite relation in strength to the amount of sugar you eat, up to a certain point.   When I found out you have to have sugar  to   have   endurance,   I  selected  four   different   sugars  for  the   experiment –plain   white   sugar,   brown   sugar,   Karo   syrup,   and   strained   honey.     Many things were considered—energy and sickness due to overwork were the most important,     For   all   purposes   I   found   brown   sugar   and   Karo   syrup   about even.     I   also   found   out   that   man   who   has   had   sugar   can   definitely   control his   weight   and   recover   more   rapidly   from   the  ordeal   of   making   weight. If   you   are   properly   sugared,   you   can   stop   your   weight   on   an   ounce   while, if   not   properly   sugared,   you   will   have   a   tendency   to   drop   weight   even after  you have  weighed.   I found twelve  spoonfuls  to be the proper amount to eat each twenty­four hours before weighing in.

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MISCELLANEOUS TRAINING

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Another   experiment  I  conducted  was  one   to  determine  the   proper   starva­ tion schedule as to length of time.   I found four days the best.   for example, if   you   are   making   weight   you   should   starve   over   a   four­day   period   to   lose the   necessary   weight   if   you   want   to   have   strength.     It   is   only   a   question of nature adjusting  itself to the use of the tissues of the body in the easiest manner.     Never,   under   any   conditions,   make   your   starvation   period   thirty­ six   hours,   for   you   are   the   weakest   at   this   time.     Let   us   take,   for   example, a  definite  problem:    A boy  must  reduce  five  pounds   to  weigh in   on  Friday at   3   P.   M.   and   this   is   Monday.     Lose   one   pound   by   Tuesday,   two   pounds by   Wednesday,   three   pounds   by   Thursday,   and   five   pounds   by   Friday. I   am   also   assuming   the   man   has   sugar   after   his   work­out   Thursday.     After he weights in give him heavily sugared tea and after one­half hour feed him a light  meal.   he is allowed water, but  not  to  excess.    He should  make two and a quarter pounds  by the time he suits up to  be at his best.    Remember he will continue  to drop in  weight if you  have not  given him  sugar  and he will go to the mat flat weight or under.   This would  be a definite handicap that you can avoid by the proper feeding of sugar.

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