SANSKRIT

.

CO

R KALE

[

OT!LAL BANAR8IDAS:;3
u

DELHI

PATNA

H

VARANASI

HIGHER SANSKRIT

GRAMMAR

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES,
BY

LATE MORESHWAR RAMGHANDRA KALE,
Author

B.A.,

of

the

'Sahityasarasangraha? &c. &c.

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS
DELHI
::

PATNA

I:

VARANASI

Publisher

:

Printer

:

Snii clap

Lai Jain
-,

Shantl Lai Jain
Shri Jainendra Press,

Motilal Banarsidass,

Bungalow Road,

Bungalow Road,

Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-6.

Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-6.

1961
By a.rangement with

M/S Gopal

Narain

&

Co.

f+

\

Books available at

:

Post

Motilal Banarsidass, Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, Box 1586, Delhi-6.

Motilal Banarsidass, Nepali Khapra, Post Motilal Banarsidass, Bankipur, Patna-4 .

Box

75, Varanasi.

PREFACE
has been prepared with a the Indian University students. The University examiners have been, of late, evincing a desire to exact a more thorough knowledge of the obscurer and therefore more difficult parts of Sanskrit Grammar, than was required formerly. In fact, a student of the present day, with Sanskrit for his second language, must, if he wishes to pass his University Eaxminations with credit, acquire more than a general knowledge of the various departments of Sanskrit Grammar, while none of the grammars now accessible to the Indian student, with the exception of one or two, supply him with the necessary information on the various topics discussed in Dr. Bhandarkar's books, the original Sanskrit works. though ingeniously sketched and^Jadmirably executed, are admittedly meant to introduce a student to the vast field of Sanskrit Grammar. Dr. Kielhorn's Grammar aims more at brevity and perspicuitv than at fullness of treatment
present

The

Grammar

view

to

meet the growing wants of

with conciseness. Prof. Whitney's grammar is too elaborate, and therefore too high for the ordinary student. Prof. Monier Williams' grammar and others, though excellent in themselves, are expressly written for European students and are more suited to them than to the Indian students. I have, therefore, done my best to bring the present Grammar upto the requirements of the high standard.

Now, a few words on the scope and arrangement of the work and I will conclude. As remarked by Dr. (Now Sir) Bhandarkar* "Grammar was not an empiric study with Panini and the other ancient grammarians of India." In fact in the hands of the ancient Grammarians of India, Sanskrit Grammar rose to the dignity of a science and must
"Introduction to the 3rd Ed. of the 2nd

Book

of Sanskrit.

>

ii

be studied as such. To quote the words of the learned Doctor again "its study possesses an educational value of the same kind as that of Euclid and not much inferior to
it

in degree.

For

to

make up

a particular

from the mind

of the

go through a certain process of synthesis." To split up, therefore, a general rule of the ancient Indian grammarians into a number of the
cases it comprehends, as is done by some praticular modern writers on Sanskrit grammar, is not to build up but to destroy, not to simplify the difficulties of the

student

has to

For a Grammar, then, to be practical and correct, in my humble opinion, it must be based on indigenous words understood and studied in their genuine scientific spiiit. In writing the various chapters of this book (except the one on the 'Conjugation of Verbs') I have closely followed Panini as explained by Bhattoji Dikshit (the Ka^hika of Vamana being also
occasionally referred to). Many of the rules given are translations of the Sutras of Panini, much matter being thus compressed into a small compass. The original Sutras where necessary, are given in foot-notes as help to memory. Sandhis and declensions are very fully treated.

student but to embarrass him.

Compounds which

c play such an important part in San krit

literature, and which, yet, are very summarily disposed of in many grammars, have received special attention,

almost everything in the Siddhanta Kaumudi being included. The formation of feminine bases which is not considered separately in other grammars has been treated of here in a separate chapter (VI). The seventh chapter deals with the Taddhita affixes (i. e. affixes forming secondary nominal ba&es) which, for the convenience of the student and the occassional referer, have been arranged here in an alphabetical order, each followed by a number of the derivatives formed by it. The question of gender which so much perplexes the foreigner has been dealt with in the eighth chapter, while the ninth treats of "Indeclinables." The first nine chapters thus form what may be called the first part of the book, in as much as they deal with all that relates to the noun (declinable and indeclinable) But a special feature of the pres nt Grammar is the chapter on the 'Conjugation of Verbs/ No part of Sanskrit Grammar is more difficult and

iii

perplexing and therefore more calculated, to tire out the patience of the young student, than the conjugation of Verbs. It is, therefore, written with a special attention The general rules given are to th3 student's difficulties. amply illustrated by example. Almost all the roots which are likely to puzzle the student in conjugating
'

them

in

a

conjugated.

particular tense or mood have been fully In the eleventh chapter, all the verbs which

change their pada when preceded by particular prepositions are given in an alphabetical order with illustrations where necessary. Two more chapters, one on syntax and the other on prosody, have also been added. The chapter on syntax contains almost everything given in the first
2G chapters of Prof.
tion,' the

Apte's 'Guide to Sanskrit Composisame original having been followed by the both. The chapter on prosody is based on the Chhanclomanjari and the Vrittaratnakara. The book closes with a list of
verbs (added at the suggestion of my publishers) containing almost all the roots in Sanskrit and giving the 3rd pers. sing, in the important tenses and moods.

be seen that I have spared no pains to useful and as complete as possible. Also such of the technical terms used in original Sanskrit Grammars as the student always meets with in Sanskarit commentaries, are given in their proper places with their
it

Thus
the

will

make

book

as

explanations.

In writing this

Grammar,

I

have occasionally used

Monier Williams's, Dr. Kielhorn's and Whitney's grammars to ail of whom I make ample acknowledgements. My special thanks are due to Dr. Bhandarkar whose two
books of Sanskrit were my chief guide in writing out the chapter on the 'Conjugation of Verbs,' and to the late Prof Apte to whose excellent 'Guide to Sanskrit Composition,' I am indebted for some of the illustrations given in tha Thirteenth chapter. I have also to thank

my

help

friend Mr. IJUdhavacharya Ainapure for his occasional and for the pains he took in preparing for this Grammar the list of Verbs added at the end and carrying it through the press.

into

This being th? first attempt of the Author to bring one volume che various departments of Sanskrit

iv

Grammar as full and as concisely as possible, the Author hopes that the public will take an indulgent view of the work, and pardon him for any of the inaccuracies,. mistakes of typography, &c., that might have crept in
notwithstanding his best care.
for these to say that the
It
is

a sufficient

excuse

whole volume was written and Before carried through the press in less than a year. concluding I have also to thank Mr. Vinayaka Narayana,
Proprietor of the firm of Messrs. Gopal Narayen & Co., my publishers of this Grammar, for the care with which he passed the sheets through the press.

Lastly I beg to say that I shall be very grateful for any corrections and suggestions that may be sent to me by my indulgent readers and critics and will try to profit by them if the book reaches a second edition.

1894.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER.
I.

PAGE.
...
...
...

The Alphabet
Rules of Sandhi :1

...

... ...

1

II.

12 12

Svarasandhi

...

...
...

2
III.

Halsandhi
...

22

3 Visargasandhi Subanta or Declension of nouns, substantive
...

...

28
32 34 54
65 82
87

and adjective
1

...

...

...
...

2
3

Bases ending in vowels (Section I) Bases ending in consonants (Section
Irregular bases
...

II)...
...
... ... ...

...

4

Words

of irregular declension
...
...

IV.

Pronouns and their Declension

V.
VI.
VII.

Numerals and

their Declension

102

Degrees of Comparison

... ...

... ...

HO
113

Compounds 1 Dwandwa
2

...

or copulative

compounds
...

...

115

Tatpurusha or the Determinative com-

pounds
3

...

...

121

Karmadharaya or the Appositional compounds
...

... ...

...

133
144

4
5

Upapada compounds
Avyayibhava

Bahuvh! or Attributive compounds
or the Adverbial

...

147-

6
7
8

compound 1 6fr General rules applicable to all compounds 16& Other changes in connection with compounds
..,
...
...

171

VIII.

Formation of Feminine Bases
tion of the

...

...

180

IX.

Secondary Nominal Bases derived by the addi-

Taddhita or Secondary

affixes.

194

2

CHAPTER X. Gender
XI.
1

PAGE
... ... ... ...

219
223 224

Avyayas or Indeclinables
Prepositions
...

.-,
...
...

... ...

2
3

Adverbs
Particles

...
... ...
...

...

228 230

4
5

Conjunctions
Interjections

... ...
...

...

231
231

...

XII.

Conjugation of Verbs
1

...

... ...

233

... Active Voice (Section I) with Bases unchangeable (a) Roots

235

(1st,
...

4th, 6th and 10th classes)
(b) Roots of the
classes
larly
(c)
1st,

...

24]

4th,

6th and 10th

which from
...

their bases irregu-

248

Roots with changeable bases (2nd, 3rd, ... 254 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th classes)
General
or,
...

2

Non-conjugational tenses and moods

295

The two futures and conditional
(a) First

Future

...

...

... ...

298

(b)
(c)

Second future and conditional
Perfect
(1)
(2)
... ...

300
306
321

...
... ...

Irregular bases

...

Periphrastic Perfect
...
...
... ...

329 332

(d) Aorist
1st Variety

... ... ...
...

...
...

332
333

2nd
3rd
6th

... ...

...

340
344

...

...

7th
4th
5th

...

...
...

...

354
347
352

...

...
.

CHAPTER
(e)

PAGE
Bencdictivc
Section II
(a) Passive
(b)
...
...

...

...
...

356
359
359

...

...

...

...

Non-conjugational tenses and moods
1

...

364
364

Perfect

... ...

...
...

... ...

2 Aorist

365
367

2 Derivative Verbs (Section
(a)
(b)

III)
... ...

...

Gausals
Desideratives

...
...

...

368

...
...
...

376
3S4 392 399

(c)

Frequentatives

...
...

(d)

Nominal Verbs

XIII.

Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

...

XIV.

Verbal Derivatives or Primary Nominal
Bases
...
...

...

...

416
468

XV.

Syntax
1

:

...

...

...

2
3

Concord Government
Pronouns
Participles

...

...

...
... ... ...
...

470 475
508

...

...
...
...

...
...

4
5

510

Tenses and moods
Indeclinables
I

...
...

518
532
1

6

...

APPENDIX
1

:-Prosody
...

...

...

Samavrittas

...
...

...
...

3

2

Vishama Vrittas
II
:

24

APPENDIX

...

...

...

24

Dhatukosha

..15-61

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE WORK.
OF
THE NAMES OF THE WORKS AND GRAMMATICAL, &C.

Amara.
Bhatt. or

Amarakosh.
Bhatti.

Sis.

Sisupalavadha.

Bhatti-

Uttar.

Utcararamacharita.
or

kavya.

Bh.

Bhartrihari. Ni. Sa.

Vop. A- or

Bop.

Vopadeva.

Atm

Atmanepada.

Nitisataka.

Vai.

Sa.

AbL
Ace.
Adj.

Ablative.

Variagyasataka.

Accusative.
Adjective.

Dev.-Devibhagavata Purana
Hit.

Hitopadesa.

Adv.
Avy.
Bah.

Adverb.
Avyayibhava.
Bahuvrihi.
Causal.

Kad.

Kadambari.

Katya Katyayana. D. Kav Dandin's Kavyadarsa
Kir.

Cau.
Cf.

Compare.

Kiratarjuniya.

Comp.
Dat.

Compound.
Dative.

Mai.

Mb.

Malavikagnimitra. Mahaor Mah. Bhas.

Den.
Des.

Denominative.
Desiderative.
.

bhashya of Patanjali. Mah. Bhar. Mahabharata.

Freq
Inst.

Frequantative.
Indeclinable.

Meg.
Pan.

Meghaduta.
Panini's Sutras.

Indecl.

Instrumental.
Locative.

Rag.

Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa.

Loc.

Nom.
Ramacharita.
Pass.

Nominative.
Parasmaipada.

Ram.ch.
Sak.

P. or Par.

Abhijnanasakuntala of Kalidasa.

Passive.

Pot. P. -Potential participle.

Sid.

Kau.

SidhantakauBhattoji

P.P.-Past Passive participle.
Pres.p.

mudi,
shita's

DikPron.

commentary on
siitras.

Present participle.

Panini's

Pronouns.
c.

&c.

&c.

&c.

&c'

&c.

g.A HIGHER SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. The correct name for the Sanskrt alphabet is Daiva- nagari sometimes abbreviated into Ndgari. Perhaps in the word Devanagari we have a history of the times when the Aryans entered and settled in Northern India. Bengali. or (a) which it is written is that. Chapter I. * Wf f 'TIT ?Cr ^TCFifUcqrai qf fffi: I Dandin. in that alphabet which is used for the Vernacular ever. . Marathi &c. 1. THE ALPHABET. those of a brilliant complexion and Nagari means the Aryan settlements within the language was spoken. or the refined language. That character.em ployed in the cities of gods. ( shine. The Aryans from r%g^to who were much fairer in colour than the aborigines of India are the Devas referred to in the name Devanagari ). in ( e. Sanskrit. (6) precincts oi which the sacred The Sanskrit language is generally written in different parts of the country. is the language of in Devas or gods * and the alphabet called Devanagari. ). ( how- which the earliest monuments are written such as the inscriptions containing the edicts of Asoka ) and which is employed throughout Upper India is generally considered to be the real Devanagari.

3^ a soft unaspirate. SANSKRIT GBAMMATI. Since ehort vowels include the long and the protracted vowels ( See 3.2 ^ 2. purpose in Sanskrit These " Its grammar as they enable the grammarians to express several letters. ? . or groups of letters. 55^ a soft tetins is aspirate &o.* These express nearly every gradation of sound. as in Greek - for the different letters oi the alphabet. * Thus given by Pamni gr^or | : Vowels: =s<^ I i <raft^ \ 1 ^fr^ I | Consonants : U^f? 5or 5W4944 14 sections by or ara called the which sutras revealed by Panini. *T < a hard consonant. Each of these significant technically caUed a n?qr^R'. in a very convenient and condensed form. ) another ^ ( <r' is generally employed to mark a . and every letter stands for & particular and invariable sound. whole the means technically alphabet. f^ means f . SivasutraQi. 5 ^ e. it will be seen. 3-. g. s^. [ 2 The Devanagari alphabet consists ot forty -two letters or varnas. it. fsr a soft convowel. For any and this letter. and thirty-three consonants or vyanjanag. Each section ends with an indicatory letter called ' The alphabet. 7. with the following fc^ added to is not only expressive of itself but of all letters that intervene between it &c. is divided into ^ which is not to be counted among the letter^ of the alphabet. (a) Note : This explains why there are no names. qtn. a. aqqr means sr. nine vowels or svaras. serve an important. and fw any consonant. ^ sonant. ' Siva. sr^ any Similarly 373^ semivowel.

or without a nasal sound. and fCTTO or circumflex. ^ *> u. The crowing of the cock in the morning represents in its three stages these three kinds is of vowels. 27. OTr^*^*TT%qr.' 3. 1 . Long vowels 3cr &. 55. (3) Protracted vowels aft ^ 3. 6 u TO. consist of five simple viz. vowels <*> tir. <H^M or grave. ?rro or long. 2. =* ^ r 3 the Plata or protracted vowels are not commonly to be met with in classical Sanskrit. I. aft 3r. (e) and 3HHI1%^ Vowels are also further discriminated into 3<flrt or acute. protracted also called prolated it. and four diphthongs and (a) A vowel may ( be zg*? or short. the vowels are usually given as thirteen. 3T ^ ? e. aft an. | ^ f 3. 1. The nine primary vowels f.or the by some ) according The vowels are thus div "' . ^ r. ^ ai. aft o. ^ As e 3. aft. c5 ^ 1 3.! ^lf%<fc or nasalised. 37 3. arg . 5. Pan. if JV. represented by the thirteen signs given above under (1) and (b) (2). The time. . H f \. viz. <> time required to prononnoe into (1) (2) * Short vowels 3T a. so f^ means f and nothing ebe. 7 t ^ and (g. 8. and. ^^ ai 3. 3f means 3T. . I. I * 3FR&\Z$^$yr: Pan.required to pronounce a short vowel called a matra. g. ^r ^ o 3.s THE ALPHABET. Eaoh of these vowels may be again of two kinds. * and aft ^ an 3. HT &d 3TT v. : g^nr is particular vowel 3f ( of six kinds e. but 37^ means ) only. A long vowel hat two inatr^s and a Plut* wowel t three.

&a* Bg. last four aft and sft. 1. different modifications of each <r. I : I : I Pan.SANSKRIT GRAMMAR that which proceeds [ from the upper part of the vocal organs. 61. 9. X. |r: 2 4.* 'in classical Sanskrit. while **ftft But these are ignored arises out of a mixture of these two. JT ^ : m. &c. ) and ushman or sibilants. 145. ^ b. Bg. 3-. mutes (3) ^* - r th gr Up *-* *' g 3 ^ ^b t. Antastha ( or the Semivowels. C The consonants are divided into spars' a or mutes those involving a complete closure or contact and not an ap- proximate one of the organs of pronunciation ). pb. . unmarked. q^ p. X. SR. vr ( 5) wJ bh. IT g. 4. intermediate .. V. 2. of for f . g. 29. Bg.. q. the Anudatta is marked with a underneath. and Svarita has a perpendicular e. They are marked only in Vedic works: the Udattn is left horizontal line stroke above it. Thus there are eighteen the vowels gr. These are represented by thirty-three syllabic signs arranged as below : f (1) ?F^f of ^e group $ ^ k. d. ' ^ ^ u qjr ^ ^ ^h ^ (4) ?W^ V' or the group or the group ^ th.^. *ffa'3T:.kh. there is no long 1 and the have not their correspond- ing short vowels. and twelve of ^. <& \ 4. 31. g or the group ^ ^h srn. &c. 78. 3ta<"M that which proceeds from their lower part. .

a dot it is to which within a semi-circle placed above the be pronounced e. 1. and (often substituted for i" and *. Tavarga^ (b) Semivowels Sibilants j[ as and Pavarga respectively. the other. placed denoted by the sign letter after is '. v.ALPHABET. The rest are called sonants or soft consonants. if (e) IT s ^ r. :THE Besides these 55- (d) Sonant Aspirate h. when pronounced symbolically before ^ o^. ^ a. is (a) And called a sort of hard breathing known as Visarga (geneIt if rally Visarjaniya : by Sanskrit grammarians). two vertical dots after tne it which it is to be pronounced. for In Marathi 5? is generally substi- The first two letters of the five classes and the sibi- lants are called surds or hard Consonants. In pronunciation is a harder aspirate than The Visarga not an original r. is 6. we have two more 553- characters occurring in the fgfr v eda. ' denoted by is a dot placed above the letter after which it to be pronounced. . e. tuted for the final & of Sanskrit words. In addition to the characters given above there are in Sanskrit two nasal sounds : the one called Anvsvara. viz. called Anunasika is i. *J. q.). g. y. as for |%> Jfef> jftf* &c. 5^ sh. and 7 <*r It is written . e. -character but only a substitute for a final ^ s or ^ (b) Jihvdmuliya given ( fSrgrqigfrr ) and Upadhm&niya ( are terms to a sort of Semi-Visarga. e. 5. denoted by letter after * t. . These are also called the five classes designated kavarga. Tavarga. respectively. g.

. the nasals and the semi-vowels belong to the to the second class. vowels Dip. are pronounced with a slight asand are piration designated as Alpa-praila. Nasals. are pronounced with a stronger aspiration are call. In the following table the nether stroke (see is a 10 below) omitted. (a) The organs of pronunciation are the five pares situated in the mouth. Gutturals. tflird letters of the rest belong first For the sake of convenience the and each class are sometimes called "nnaspirates. Labials.d Maha* 7. lips.. thongs. [7-8 These may be regarded as the spirants of Kavarga and Pavarta respectively. the throat. It should be supposed to be present." In the following table is given a complete classifica8.Unas. Dentals. Linguals. viz. tion of these letters according to the organs with which they are pronounced. first class. S St. the teeth and the Note.SANSKEII GRAVMAB. . Some consonants prana. the roof or upper part of the palate. The Five Simple Unas. Classes. * f though not a semivowel is put here as it is a guttural. The first and third letters of each class. Palatals. rate. the palate.Aspi. Lg. rate.Aspipirate. while others which. pirate. as ^.

while the root of the tongue 0. 9. letters are Those called ^oj or homogeneous whose effort place of pronunciation in the mouth and the required to pronounce them is the same or equal. (b) As already remarked. in the system of F&nini. its 7 This can be more easily remembered from which is as follows : Sanskrit form The mars.* Letters which are not ^TToi or similar are called *^OT is or heterogeneous. is that of the Jihv&maliya. % is dental and labial. a vyanjana or consonant The is that which is pronounced with the help of a vowel. A svara or rowel that which can be pronounced letter. a are nether stroke written with consonants. 10. slanting without the help of any other to denote their imperfect character. there are no separate names s*rorn i for * 4*4 1*4 WH Fan. aft and are guttural and labial. (a) frith Hence the consonants are given. The nose the organ of pronunciation of the Anuavara. . linguals are called cerebrals q- in som^ European Gramaft is and < are both guttural and palatal. L 1. therefore.9-iO ] THE ALPHABET. an sr added to them for the sake of pronunciation.

with a vowel added to it. fr e. and Kefa which is the to ^. Exception : *>^t. change their form slightly and others entirely. ^ when following upon ^ remains unchanged. g. ar^Tt the letter 3RKTC the letter < ^ >. The remaining vowela when compounded with a consonant become r. &c. however. to consonants and the changes which some (a) undergo when compounded (a) 3? are given below. except the two mentioned before.. simple or conjunct. ^ ko. It is then neceesarily called a . kl. The word gnT is therefore used letter. t similar- ku. (b) In compounding consonants they should be taken in the order in which they are pronounced. *r> ^ > t> ^> c > ft %%>. IT vowel ^r ing ) immediately preceding another conscnant ( or the . 9 tra$ ^ Sga.8 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Dame sometimes given 3T Anusvara and Visarga. viz. [ 11-12 the letters of the Sanskrt alphabet. A vowel by itself or a consonant. wnen com- pounded with other consonants. as ^+an=^fea. gra. as 3? +37=91 ka.1. % ke. the last consonant takes a vowel. t*na ought to *?na as <mr. the preceding ones generally losing their nether and perpendicular strokes when combined be written as rfqr e. fr kr. g. kr'. p . Some letters. is called an Akthara or a syllable. < k..^+f =foki. The form* which the vowel signs assume when added letters (b). e. ae an affix to denote a particular '. |f kai. g. respectively. 11. &c. &c.written above the xollowis denoted by the sign consonant as ^ rka. ^r Ipa. 12. under is and added to a consonant denoted by the rein ova I of the nether stroke.

( =*r. ^ $y k-sha. . ^r t-na. ^ t-ka. ? t-ta. stha. kra. k-va. W t-t-ya. 7 th-ra. 3^ n-^ha. fT ?r g-na. & ^ k-na. 5: il-ka. <j. -g <PT kh-na. ^ j-n-ya. <RT th-ya. | VET d-ya. k-la. ^T k-n-ya. c^ o^ n-va. d-ma. ET gh-ma. j-va. kh-ra. sr t-va. ^^ g-'-ya. ?jf $q k-sh-ya. ^T k-tha. ^^ k-t-va.gh-ya. oof n-na. ^r dn-ya. ^?r or ^ k-tra. TT t-t-v. ?sr. ?^T t-ka. ^. oy n-tha. ^ D-ha. ^ n-gha. >l. ) jn*> the component elements are scarcely discernible. ^ir k-ya. <&t. | d-gha. r ?-ma. W g-la. ^ k-sh-va. and JET ( ^+ e. ^ dh-ra. ^ n-$a. ^IT k-sh-ma. q g-'a. rq g-ya. stra. sp^r k-th-na. *n?JT gn-n-ya. ^> k-ta. ?q nr t-tha. ? ^r gh-ra. <rg- a% n-ta. 5-9h-ra. n-k-sh-va. 5: D-ma. ( d ) A few consonants are written in two ways. T3(. ^ n-ja. :- ) The following are the principal conjunct consonants $ k-ka. ^f tra. In the conjuncts 9 ( c ) ^ ^ ( -f ^ ) ksh. ?s^ kh-ya. T^ gya. ay n-dha. ^ gh-ya. ^ t-ma. ^SF ^ *-*.5 12 ] THE ALPHABET. ^p d-ga. jp D-ga. z* gh-va. ^fzr k-kya. ^?r k-kha. ^ D. ^ ^T H7 5fT j-jha. <f?^ k-tya. WIT n-ma. kta. 57 gh-na. n-da. ^r t-t-ra. g n-gh-ra. p-ya. ^*T j-ma. ^. ^-^h-va. ?fi. ^7^ t-n-ya. ^or k-kiia. qgr. -^ ? ^T n-k-sha. ^r k-sh-na. ? i&\ D-kh-ya. 33- j-na. n| g-dha. ^PQ D-ya. *T k-ma. ?F or gj k-ra. Il-k-ta. r*^ t-in-ya. Q-kha. t-k-ra. sr -na. ^ t-pa. ?q.

th-ya. sr p-na. ^ gq sh-t. dh-ma. ^r r-k-sh-ya. 5^r 1-. n-da. 5? p-ra ? p-la. ^| sv-ya. T ^ 1-la. eh-ya. ?S r-gh-ya. ?g n-p-ia. v* 3^ v% th-va. 5 d-ra.. M s-ra. 5j- y-ya. T dh-na. ?r s-na. *ir s-r-ya. f4 r-t-ya. ^ sb-va. co^ ah-n-ya. ^ y UQT cS^f t-8-n-ya. ^ d-ma. ^ g^ sh th-ya. 3. RT v-ya. d-dh-va. 93F 1-ka. ^. wi n-ma. ?<r 1-pa. 77 m-ya. ?c^ t-p-ya.gif d-dh-ya r d-bha. gf r-ka. ^ n-d-ra. g^r sh-tya. q* sh-p. wr n-ya- p-ta. dh-ya.. ^ r-kha. $ r-k-sha. ^ dh-ra. ^ Of sh-ma. JT -v-ra. d-na. ^j sh-th-ra. wr or &? t-r-yu. % d-bra. j cof sh-na. ^ r-g-ya. ^?r d-v-ya.10 t-ya. ^ b-na. m-la. V s$a.r-ya. ^ g" ^ s-^ya. +q b-ya T bh-na. f m-p-ra 9^ m-ba. 5- vr IT :g- th-na. -^ s-ya.ra. sh-p-ra. r-t-s-ya^ ^ r-d-dh-a. ^ bh-va. n-ra. ff ^ n n-na. *w t-9-ya. c^ y-va.d-gha. c^ p-s-va. % d-v-ra. ix y-'a. m-pa. &c. qfy p-ma. **T b-ja 7 ^b da. 3. n-dh-ya. ^ u-dba. 5r n-t-ya. % d-ba.. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. &o. sh-t-ra. ^ r-tt-ya. . ? b-ba. Fif 1-ma. ?f +% n-dh-ra. ^ t-v. -sa. ^ s-va. n-ra. c*r 1-ya. *^ m-va zsr m-bba. ^ij d-bh-ya. d-da. JT v-na. dh-rya. . si d-ya. *q b-dha. . x>y ^T m-na. ^ r-ga. VRT ^b-n-ya. c^ p-sa. s-sa. ^ bh-y *q- a. c^ p-va. iia . v^ 79 n-ta. cq p-pa. ^ n-t-ra. c^ p-ya. d-ga. y v*r d-va. ah-la. [ 12 ^ or -ET t-ia. gj d-i-ya. H b-bha. d-dha. v^ dh-va. s^ v-va. eh-t-va. ^ bh.

Vrddbi. the vowels : Simple V. The vowels 3TT 3^ are called Gana. . **r s-n-ya. w ^ s-t-ra. |{ h-la. is omitted. and il The former is need to mark the close of a sentence or the firut half of a s'loka or poetical stanza. Short vowels when followed by a coninnnt c. 1.. *r s-pa. e. -. The signs of punctuation. Gnna. are only two. 3?. five g h-va. &r s-t-ya. -*a. and which is to be understood from the context . f* s-na. rirama or pauae c*n be indicated only at the end of a sentence. *r s-ya. : Sometimes consonants are found in conjunction e. ] THE ALPHABET. ae in frWrj. osrntf *or ^^^rrsn^'r. The mark is 14.onsnn*** are said to be prosodially long and the syllables 3R[ aad 3fT. 51. }gr h-ns. s-kh-e. &c. g. AB sandhi is of primary importance in Sanskrtr IS. f h-ra. ^5$ r-t-s-n-ya. sometimes nsed to show that something. therefore. \ (a) 3T The sign tr called Ardh&kara ) is Avagraha ( and which represents half generally employed to mark the elision of *ffr $ short gf after or e. afr and the syllables 3fnr and called Vrddhi*. h-na. %^ (%-f grft is )> ^Toyt^f^l ( The double mark^s elision of 3ff after initial (ft) sometimes nsed to indicate the grr . long fT^T-*-3!T^=?nn66^. s-pha. 2} I. g. H f&f H MT . ^-. ^y r-ha.13-15 s-ka s-t-va. q:. g. w s-ma. gr ^-ma. Gana and Vrddhi vowels and The ^IT^are thai substituted are for the simple vowels will appear syllables from the following table 15. II or w w s-ta. s-tha. IT w -*a. afo may stand for aqjsr. the latter is employed to denote the close of a s'loka.

Kau. RULES OF 8ANDHI. 17. SvABASANDHI. SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. n Sid. By Sandhi ( from 3^ together.12 16. *. ^x Chapter II. 125. PT. ^ 5. 2. in the case of the finals it and words in a sentence. and \n to join ) is letters meant the coalescence of two contact with each other. 18. The numerical figures in Sanskrt are : ^ 1. be followed by a is I P&n. HV 540. 1. 3. Samhita the extreme contiguity of letters. . [ 16-19 The three semivowels zr. 4. t *jffi*q3 ifonsRPrr ^najroiffi: i RRI *rew ^ 5 *n i%w- U^KT. 6. OB THIS COMBINATION OP FINAL AND INITIAL VOWELS. 9. S. 7.* (a) coming in immediate Samhitaf or sandhi is necessary in the case of the in- ternal structure of a pada prepositions t and roots joined to- gether and a compound word sentence '. abort or long. JT and ^ are sometimes sign nasalised and then they are written with the anunatika over them. 109. 0. 4. while in that of a initials of the different 0. o. If a simple vowel. &c. ^. 19. This couplet gives the rule for the observa- tion of Sandhi. \> V. $. . ( *rar*T ). I depends on the will of the writer. These are combined to express larger figures precisely in the same way as in English. \. 8. as |r.

except the nasals. + *lf%: = ^saTT%: Kr- wp ^ft: = ITfT'f -f a great sage. I m I ^ ^of 1. J 3TT|Ti: Pan. = arerefr<r> to gain knowledge. ^ 4- cjaRr^ = 5Tf|^T? > : the <% Ikara 3 pronounced substituted by the sacrificer (since there for both). b m ).r:. f the first of them is t *i3 S*rof w. VI. 3?$ :^pr. short or place long. 86. the : I semivowels.^q^jr: = friendly instruction.g. sec. fj^-j. so three forms altogether *raW.20 I RULES OF SANDHI. ?fT--3^: = Wfi^:.-. *^r+3riT:=%rqrfT-i 3T5T + STRfitT. VI. and 1. ?T^-4-^^TT: =<TT?^rf The /Aora pronounced by you. =T^f^r^ according to wish or desire. ftgr^K: also and 20- When e. . (a) If a consonant be followed by homogeneous consonants . the substitute for 13 similar vowel. 3^ or 3TT is followed by f 7? 3t 5> . 101. short or them both is the similar long vowel e. ^or + 3j^: = f>cof[^: ff OT : Krshoa'a thigh. g. Pan. fm + ?*grr = *Hx^jT the wish of Rama. (a) is is no long long is If ^f or ^ be ( followed by a short *% or c. 3^=11^5**. the of both} JJOT letter corresponding to the latter takes the %q + 555: = 3^$: Vishnu. shua's prosperity. f + 3CTr-=it3^lT:> also fir^^^r^: videj 23. qTR-f-i !>^C:=^R 5^^ the great lord. STT+ 3T*T**=tn[T**ff: T%rr + 3TTg^: = foir3T: eager = 3?<T?r?n *!?T + ?3r = faT* 3UT 4- ?^ :=^3?: the strength of the atmy. long. short )<3 =5- or <% a-n(^ optionally substituted for both. I ?s ?rr Vdrttikas on the above.

II. so aJffrETf: also be- comes and y$K:. -dropped. then frwr^+s^ + ar + frrr^jwirftj: by tbia rule. Ad. (&) of ^[ to 3?^-fgrf^fr=3^f)rf5afr a complete will be explained further on ). A consonant of the first five classes except ^coming after a semivowel is optionally doubled. 1. I Pan. or^ army . but nfe^n^ ( & 3 3^?r^ is not mentioned in the Sutra ). . ^ 5 Pan. sr+3T?~J?fl?: principal reasoning. self willed.* 3>wr-t-3Ef|[: [20 general =ffoif%: by the rule. ra + 3rS: = S*te:> may be the ace. 65. snr%:. The first ) forms a counter-exception to > part of the sfitra (mz. 89. Properly an army consisting of El 870 chariots. of srgTTTiT followed by . 21. VI.14 optionally SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 9. and also a third form 5ur^r%: ( vide below (b) ). a ( which see ). 2S-26. Exceptions ing cases f (a) Vrddhi substitute takes place in the followis When a word ending in 37 pi.J (The change (c) ik to When 8J e - is followed by f^ and %r& both derived from 9 **+%*'=&* '> one acting wilfully. d. 4. VIII. Virtikas on the above Sutra.$?. (TC&CT?: v : ff^&Kv 4 forms altogether. sec. as elephants. the ^ being 22. dropped. r. Similarly sfor: full grown. a young chief guess (or this bull trained to the yoKe). 65610 horse and 109350 foot. P. and sr by 3T* 3S and grf. t many 3 3 JT^mTR Tsfrsrs^rft 1 ^fn^ ^i^^n: u <T2^n%: ^?^T!% II ?5tfTKI!Sf ^ !i^Il^l?f ^T'n Maha-Bhar.

1. t ^ R??R SF^J?^: I Pan. ^nof: (Name also of a country.. KT^-}-3TtW= *l*ltaviH re-birth. q&Hfcj. for ^r is grammatically 21. also for sr-< < very considered to be similar to 3F much wishes Ikara. Exceptions If a preposition ending in 3^ be followed by a root (a) { beginuiDg with qr or aft. quakes very much. the word ^oi comes after . ^+qfW=%% ^5^ the majesty of god. is (/) When* a preposition ending in 31 followed by a root having an initial $. 1 ^r^. so 3fH<UiUI debt for a ) %mium ^5iWf a debt contracted to liquidate a previous debt lit. VI. but if the root be a denominative. 92. the country with ten fortresses)^ ST^T (^- ^^ river into which ten other rivers flow). . qroa?. the Vriddhi is optional. 1. ?rr t tf% Pao. : * gW+*K<1=SWX'' ( blessed with Lipping ). vrddhi is optional* ^+3^1$=^^ IIjfl I Pan. ST-Hf3^=?t3W bums something near. acts like a bull: as the 5^ is long. sr. =ffUT. medicine against Birth *nd f^rr+a^cgept=f^ftfiicHJif longing for : knowledge. as S<THlt^3ri$=T<n^?n VTgfrtr. 5*T ^tcf > bnt rtmrS: very adorable ^srssrefi 3t*%ZT () When and calf. but if the root be a denominative.20-21 (d) ] RULES OF SANDHI. she alone. 3? is followed 15 is ( When by 3^3: and there an mat. VI. VI. 1- 1. 94. 88. T*R" sr+qt<n=7ro^ principal ( debts. Tat.VI. Pan. 91. q" or aft is substituted. When 3^ or 3TT is followed by ^ or ^ and aft or 3*r '^ and aft are respectively substituted for bothf.

-crqrsq-: a servant. Vartik. 37^ the name of a country of the Sakas + ?^vj a well 5r^r^:.or q^g derived 9th conj. from fq^ cf the 4th. 95. (d) tTne vrddhi is optional when the ending the lower 3T of a word is followed by sfrg a cat. 3^ + <WT=3^I?iri know. an ^ when the word is repeated. ( why . f And also in the case of an onomatopaeic wording in 3. g. or or (0) 3frer lip. 1.16 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. but cftcT I snail dine at your house ). sending or directing: sr + trwT. sfaf: (from (b) *When 3j is followed By erg in an indt finite sense. as . after ( sr. but not in the case of a monosyllabic word n[ + gi<T = mfKT. with an initial comes after or form of the root f to go. ceding vowel = ^4 country + 3^:=^^^: . qj^+fi^srTi?^. only the or <^ is optionally dropped. (c) f ST followed by aTp^ and 3^ ( P^P- ) is dropped e. 6th place. in a compound The final ie vowel or the in final consonant with the pre- the case of the following words dropped when followed by certain words in a compound f . [ 21 Counter-exception: grow. ^RT% m \* 513^^1135 <N^J ^^T^.^ followed by %ft e. vridhi takes *q + <rTFT = *$rS. If a rj. Vart. g. : IT is substitnted for both ^-fxr9r= 1^5" ^r^f^T where will yon dine to-day ? ( The place beiug not definitely known). ^r *srn* sr-t-ff%vy^=^f^r^)i xr-fr^:r=^. or q^ to aj.. a woman of bad character. VI. not ar^f?. from 3T^ + qY5 which is bat 3r%ff equal to ^-f f*: 3^ 3TT + ?ff -I- . + 3?HT=^2T one who move* from one *j>. Bat sr?:.& f 3Tta#T* *>*" mansion to another. and <rq.

so rirtfSMIl the pole of a plough.name of the cele- W^ l brated author of the utras of Panini Mahabhasya fit ( a vast commentary on the to be adored wfth joined hands. figure liko thatt)f ^ &c. but ^RT^f. and requiring grammatical explanation but not actually found in the gaUa may be classed under it? g. CTT+STl': =*rRlp: an antelope with a a skin kind of bird. worcU of similar formation Sandhya adoration. (i) of the present art VI. Ordinary students may pan over these except eec. + 3nRl &:=cRT53rT%*. 8. jfm?-l-3Ts*':=*fln-d: ( the white line left by the parting of the hair on each aide of the head ).?^ are . qT3+3for-=?TO3T: portion of the creator. 3% aad. for them*. when the meaning of the word is 'The last line or limit of a i boundary. e. Several of the above words e. 2 .sjag-: ( derived from * a dead egg. lit.' *T^+t^=ERr TT wish. The following rule* and the two (a). R^-f 3?fr:=RW?. are followed by respectively substituted a dissimilar vowel. may have more han one 06. ^. 17 bad character. f^ + 3TT f = ??^7f g^T-fyn^T:= adored by the wise.^e enemy of Vishnu.21-22 <*rf ] RULE* OP SANDHI. but HT*n*tT. TI. (6) given 20. form when combined.' one with a beautiful or spotted skin. under B. jrr -f. iJ^-f-Tr TW . g. 5#T*T.b rn ? ) flWT . y. lit.= 5^ ! +TnTBT.' by the N. When f . 35 ^r. This is an Akrtiga^a i. are given here to avoid confusion. general rule: g. though they properly from the subject of the next section. 1. O. the sun. sinfr-^r. or to 'who tradition fell down from the bands of a according certain sage as he was offering water to the enn at the time of ). short or long.' . H. 22.

?f? + 3Tg^ :=^5. 53. ^TTW- I Thus there are four forms W^rR:. ^5+^qTW-=S*prrer: and a consonant. + gff3 H^. (d) A consonant except ^. and ^rfip 3^. exeept a nasal or a semivowel. is optionally : coming after ^ or s preceded by a > vowel : doubledj. Similarly ^4. VIII. 4. no vowel follows*. is followed by a soft unaspirate or aspirate ( 3rd or 4th letter of a class ) it i changed to. VIII. (<) Semivowels. and optionally 53334313*17: Hari's experience ) by this rule. 5 r: a horse iu a well. so ( ?r = and 23. g. 4.== the by general rule-. 46 X . when preceded by a and ^raM- lettei of the first five classes except --jrara optionally doubled-. 3T% ^^% I P4n. Wf^ft:. 0/xT5N-3*3r = grijnr. Vishnu here. is optionally doubled.r.18 (a) SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. if preceded by a vowel. long x e. are optioand when so they are shortened if nally not combined. at the end of a word followed by a dissimilar vowel except in a compound. qojttft % ^r^ Vlft. [ 22-23 A consonant except 5.3rR: =IT^R:. : thms s-qm^^* -* s^m*: ultimately. and In f5+3TT^: of course there vrT^+^-^^En^TJandvrr^f^: is no possibility of any other form. fa) f s. the soft unaspirate ( 3rd letter ) of its (b) When elassf . but . short or long. 47. tft^r + tft (a 4. t war t TO IT | Pan. ^t or cj.*.

the word if) is 1 also changed to 37^ when followed VII. . VI 78. 3TST. only whan 0. 3^ N. 1J7. and <t flTgr^tRr. g. ^ffnfflTrC o ). the seven sages.3tfo'' = ^ TSTPT A Brahmana saint. 1. ^a: intent on or ayn Tt^: longing to Note Two vowels brought together by the disappearance of an intervening consonant or visarga do not coalesce. and when not combined are shortened if long*. at the end word followed by a short are also optionally not combined. (a) 7 ^ at the end word and preceded by 37 or grr is optionally dropped when followed by a vowel or a soft conso rfT q%. ^ if=^ leader. when followed by a vowel. for : Vi8hoa}^--3^: = 5frir^: A t. the afr or 3?r is brought in by virtue of a termination. and aft. short or long. ?> 3" 19 of a and eg. 4 x 3Wa5 + which ought necessarily (c)The 3ft ot to be cat off. fit to be lopped off. are changed and 3Tr?^espectivelyt. if)>+ V=17^ a cow from as milk. and TOftt'fluilH 24. in the case of roots. 7. navigable. e g + for . <?r. expression an ^ to SIT. t <RIOTTTO: Pan. fw*nt + S=ft*orfir* or OT: or fnrr getting money . VI. . =qr^: or the purifier of a fire. ft : i *xvs$w P*9. E. ( a eomp.25-24 (&) 3T | RULES OF SANDHI. \ Pan. ghes &c. This rale holds good. e. 3rr.19 1. . e. (b) aft with tr. VIII 3.^"rr^rsq^ accessible produced by a boat. . 3Trsr.ft -I. 1. aTRrr 4. g. when followed by a termination beginning become 3?? and respectively {. . J m^r ft Jif'fr i x nj?tw8W^r^ 80. r-f^?^:=^nj|r^: tee the preceptor. 79.

1 No When sandhi is possible in the case of x vis.*. substituted for 3?T. but but ^5 ^g tftnf $nf ( what is fit to be removed but which may not be so ) trpT. | i 1. so^w what can be conquered. ending in 9ft? be followed by 37. (a) a dual from (whether of a noun. 26. 109. sw is optionally Optionally retained. 1. f . What in are called the Pragrnya exceptions. is and ar$r it recessarily changes its aft to sra. . t ^^rjftqt N smft PdQ. similarly.20 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR.9. TOTtgr: & lattice-window. pronoun or verb) or o. 9f$r+*T=$T+*r=8TW what can be reduced. be curbed When its q- or aft at the end of a word is followed by 37 5 is the latter merges into the former and the sign sometimes written in place. but if it be followed by (a) JIf the word iff.^-. 125. $fft ( in the [ 24-26 by the word it Veda and ) in ordinary language when means a particular measure of (d) length*. 81. the 3? and if by a vowel. ia The q- of the roota f$r and i$r changed to ^ when fol- lowed by the q* of the potential participle indicating cap ability f c. g. PaD. i PaD. { tfi ftmwr fr. 122-24. VI. VI. Oh Hari. ffV qftj f%^ frfh nf ^^5 <T^ IiVI V^rtikai. *& qfRfWt Pa?. 1. 1. e. f^+3pr=ffc&Y protect. VI. VI. g. It+3nr^=ThW[> *fhwn8C and *nmn* a multitude of cows or chief among cows. . 37. 5T*T ( what ought to it may not be always possible to curb as ) 25. ift+f^^ an excellent bell.Tagli: four miles.

sp5f and pluta vowels. blend with a following vowel ( ^t Pan. 21 When f or 37 follows the ^ of the pronoun sf^* (fc) 3tran% the two sit down. A vowl ( 1 ) becomes pluta under the following uitpumstances:-| last The salutation from a male person othor than a . The < of the Vedic forms gufir and I 5** also . 49. 14-H T: I HHrfw^8& I tra. ) remains unaffected by a following vowel. an N. I tf5gt 5Tl^^R^?Tra^i^ I Pan. * 13. e. being ifNfa the 30.1. 2 84-86. irjf ^cor ^ 3I5T >TtIfT Coma Krshna here is the cow gMing. P^&D. when followed by a vowel. 12. 3ff <rf S *F*% ah. vowei of a sentence uttered in reply to a 8 udra when the x 1. { ^ l%fR^tt^l 82-88. ^ffrift *Tftt ari^fSre: &c. ). in the termination of ing the sense of the loc. term. () * ing a preposition. VII. and sometimes the words in which they occur are technically called II. a little warm of a ) &c. P^ . B. g. 3?t} 0. 4. you think BO . anft f 5TT: these lords- 9? 3^ Ob. but ( a Particles consisting of a single vowel. where ifKV stands for loo. Similarly a Vaidic word havr &e. f f?jf T TO5T. ( but not ending the loc. . IV. except sn mean' exclusive or inclusive or used as little. All these vowete which do not blend with others. . Rg. doefl not 3T^ 0. 3. 12. g. 'final aft noun the vocative case optionally combines wlien followed by f|n $ fWfr ff5r=f^orftm. or a limit Oh India. (d) When an indeclinable ends in g. 11. . Bg. 1. X. ^r^i Vartikas on the 4atter VIII. dropped by g^fg^F Pan.26 ] RULES OP SANDHI. VIII. 2. I.

which is said in reply to 3Tft*T3[*r fS^fJ I. bow to you. coming aftercare not changed into e. 4. f%%r: that which spreads Pan. 41: 1 . % *TR. But a if the sentence end in the word tff : or in the name of Kshatriya or e. g. to a person. and Rama colkcts: : 3ro"= = ^tH-f%9[=^n%^ Reality and knowledge. :-(!) '"Dentals the corresponding palatals. but the last * in *rt 3ff5RCr *& *nft" or in 3TT5r^T% is not pluta. g. Exception lustre. and that of the particles vowel of a sentence addressed from a distance % and % used in such a .SANSKEIT GRAMMAR e.*. fn* (3*^*9* g-. 28 Wfien contact with: (a) t$r or ^ or a consonant of the dental class comes in ing letter of the 5T for CT a consonant of the palatal class. Oh Krshna. au^m final Vaishya the -last 3 or * ifo W * ^ WSWWfrWlhc or 9* ^ ^ vowel becomes optionally srrs^f^r^ft^sr^n^cr or (2) ^^ i The e. pluta y. vill. preceded by a letter of the fiwt five followed by any vowel. I Pan. [ 26-28 name or tfee" family is actually mentioned* g. t \ 27 The particle classes except 3^ and changed to a. WlffoSra Be yon victorious. the correspondktter class is substituted for the former. WT. f%g II. sentence. HALSANDHI. ). is optionally &$ i%^rf^[ and f^ ^ (by 26 c. O " Devadatta. 49 44. \ ** live long. for in the 1st we have the name of a female and in the 2nd no name at all. Devadatta. 3-38. VIII. OB THE COALESCENCE OP FINAL CONSONANTS WITH VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.

IV. but ^f^+ffST^flffei*^ abundance of ghee. I followed by ^ is changed ** T^pffifR^!^ Vdrt.28-31 ] BTTLES OF SANDHI. 4. group 3^ be followed by qr^it does > not substitute its corresponding ^gual[. ). <r^+s^:=<r^gro7: this acd (sec : 22 sec. 4. A commentary OhKrshna. 30. So qporeffl Ninety-six. except ^ or *r. -4. If a letter of the ?r. ?f?m^ I Unrrr^iiFHq- The that alone. 42. VIII. as the exception excludes 29. one who pounds. Exception *(1) If a letter of the lingual class coming at tie or a letter of the dental class. 3 is substituted for letter of the latter class for the former. f%rRraf mere knowledge. JTf frT and 5f*rfr the ^ ^ remain unaffected.( gee Rag. I Pan. coming at the end of a nasal. ^-f ff:=^?ff | ( since the of f^is not at the end of a word ) he praises. B. word be followed by a substituted for it}.) Murari. ^+^s-: = *i?qe : sixth good man. *nF + word gj$ ^rq. . thou jon that. If the nasal belong N. VIII. 22 ) is irregularly formed. end of a word be followed by as well as the dentals except the ST of srp^. 45. If a consonant. WGririf: six towns. 31. Paja. 23 (b) w ^ and the corresponding or a consonant of the lingual class. nw+TO^Tm^TO: Rama goesj R&nia who is sixth. A letter of the dental class. 43. tt:(^. to a termination the change is necessary. VIII. P&n. the ncsal of its class is optionally . ft. six months. eleo ^7 + ^^:=^!^: these lixj but six good men } 5^ ( ees 30.

W &W 4. Similarly ^r is not x *3[ I at the end of a word is changed into an Annswara * t t jftiST Pan. and by this <*rrerR: the possessor of speech. a nasal ! or ^. b . ^. bnt qT^pszhrifk speech faltecs ( as followed by any of the letters mentioned in the rule ). 23. the nasalised f taking the place of the destruction of thatj re^ + t%^=f^fWr%Tef man writes. ?T^5Jt%5T.18 optionally changed to ^-r .. 60. 62. X -tfj^Htf ^aiq^i^!^ Ffe Pan^VII. 61. *rsr + 5K:==*nrfft: (see T 5TT. 4. 28. 33. finally rrfi33: : aud and and ftfeg ?: that Siva 1 ( see. I ^iSTOf: <&W PaD. VI. to [31-36 ^ learned w. I.) 6. ( see sec. a semi-vowel. i 63. except a nasal or a semi-vowel. 3. of that underg 22. ^coming after any of the first four letters of a olass ) is optionally changed to the soft aspirate ( 4th letter olata}. 34.'I. |i^?T^^l^ I Pan. is changed to the first of its class. ^f^^Tf^ rising up . a similarly and gr?$t|5Wf3 upholding. when followed by a hard consonant. 3. ). 36. a. 56. VIII. 10. changed intoqr when after the preposition ( see. and ?T + flrf: by the above. VIII. 24 and Pan . 20. VIII. r 3i*&\& *si^ i Pan. 32.<n[-*-% f:=<T^+fiRr and then + fOT. 35t3^^^ = ^+*3n^=SCWn* and 33[*JT^ and then g^jfTO. sj letters of a class preceded by a word ending in any of the first four and followed by a vowel. Any consonant. ^t%5Sf.S ?f? ?[?!+%*:. ). The ^ of *srr and *<TP^is ). I 4. and to the first or third when followed by nothing. Brhaspati.SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. I 4. 35.

f%n r$5<T^=f$S far^ by ^ what does he shake >. ai*>H or or to which people. But *T^+ir+%=iTwret as ^ wozd. pi. 2o salute Hari. followed This change is optional in the case of ^ when r and comes after e. An Anuswara ^ is optionally when : at the end of a word*. g.3r + frr:=ai + cF tlih). and bo followed by a sibilant. 3ra. ^\\^(: woven. g.5 36-38 ] BULKS OP SANDHI. bnt if this * be followed by ^. VIII. + it. necessarily . as sj . when followed by a consonant. . grPffrT: doest. but R?9> he thinks. and letter belongs. TOP* fa =*r$TTf*T ( nom. e. semivowel or f srr^^-f *3fr=3U*h^ he will overcome. a. and hard unaspirates are aspirates optionally changed into hard when followed by 4. VIII. ar. e. irrRT^+*l^i?fil= ( at the end of a pada grammatical form). fame ). 3. f^-f ^f^=?^ ^Ifq or f?*if% thou 4^-ffT it similarly : or ^H^TT T^ff^T a reutrainer. are turned into an Anuswara when followed by a consonant except a nasal or a ^ and q[. ^ and % respec- tively are suffixed to them optionally. + ?H so : (^7 tne preceding rule and then) arr^rT: marked (by 3T^r-f frT = 3Tf^rrT: calmed. The word ^5TR is an exception (see 25 V not at the end of a pada. (a) is not at the end of a Pin. Pan. $i%?n obstructed. ^TCTrKT: or year If 5: . of q^rg. g. is followed hereby as sj ia q- which is a semi-vowel. are optionally substituted for what does he conceal? yesterday but ! and ^^ and what so f%9T^i|Q} 37. or % ! s^ . and if by (b) the nasalised ^ . ^ or ing followed by any consonant except q to the nasal of the class to which the followchanged ^ when in the middle. 48-52. honoured. 38.

4. then by 28 ^ ^5^t^ word if after ^. 32. [ 38-41 Uq+q\'=ST3FS-: XTTTO man gone before. 32. VIII. 4. 28. but ^Tir+3?n?=TW SHT (as these are two separate words). g. If changed to ^or j ^ ) is at the end of a word* be followed by 3. e. ^r. 3. the individual soul. best reckoner. 37. q^or ^ and qfi-r*. g. VIII. 3. 39. ( mttg *MIUs3l8:j 1 . 3. VIII. or ^p short or teng in the same changed to r^ even though A vowel. ) tfs^rg:. Pan. g*TOT+ TO: =Wf *!*:. gr. ^TN-f 5TT OTrby the sun. Ob.- the Bixta the ^u^g:. * ^: t ft t fir ^ I I fc I fW?1% ^T%?^ $T 5^ Pan. VIII. so ^qcroir^: the 40. If the ending ^ of a word be followed by ' sr . ^+ good men. B^r^gft: good Achyuta. . ^+3nj:=*|^fg: and Sambhu existing for all times 5 and ^^35: = ^5=^3: ' dropping ^ (a) j being changed to and ^5:^5: and finally by ^rs^fg: 20 a. ^ 3. sixth good counter. t ^Tf 5 ai$<4l<'o4Hftft PaD. a semi-vowel except c^ . or a letter of the guttural or labial class or 41. a nasal. 31.. e. g. 1. is optionally inserted between them J e. This change does not take place when f IB at the end of a word x frJTTCI p^ VIII.26 sibilant SANSKUIT GRAMMAR. %r optionally inserted between them. T? \ Pan. ^THT = ^ror. * six g* *i:+*F*n=W5*ntf: or g+*reT. f^nm^&c. and optionally (by (by 35). ^ coming . ?T5^^5. VIII. 22.=^rqfft so OT +w:=w?e: or^r^r: that good man. or and q[ at the end of a word and preceded by a short (a) vowel double themselves when followed by a vowel |. 3. is comes between ^. 2. I Pao.

VIII. 3Tft:$ffaft &c. The word ^^a? * 9 capable of having 108 different forms as several e&tras are brought to bear upon it. Pan. as + g=<IHSi. a grown up manj but 3$TT*3T the milk for a man. word gfq^. when it is followed by a hard consonant except a sibilant. g. a letter of the guttural class or 3*. and d may be omitted by begincers. 3. ^TT^: a man-servant. 3. This change takea place even substituted for sj. (a) x The ^ of 5^ is optionally nasalised and has ^ added to it as above.-f^-{-5|rft^y: bkd.42-43 42. Exception Sections a. 43. q. and vfv&j the son. 55 57. VIII. rrfr TOOT ^is preceded by M. the Anuswara again is and ^^cfT optionally changed to an Anunasika. a semi!> ^ %\OT t^ which 9 < i 3T/fcrs!r*R*ft: I Pan. or ^ g. and ^ N. 5^+ = 5^ti%^. 59. . . ending of the words frq(. of ^ nom. . ] BULBS OF SANDHI. 27 ^ belonging to a aubstitue ( 3Tr%5T ) or a termination and not at the end of a grammatical form is changed ( &jr<j4j ) to q^ when preceded by any vowel except 3T or 3fT> * semivowel. Dut 5 belongs to the if an anuswbra e. B. The *j of ^r^is changed to an Anuswara and Yisarga when followed by a form of the root g. neu. preceding a vowel a semivowel.. a bow.. J^H^ account of a (b) man % s^at the end of a word ( except srorq ) followed by is itself followed by a vowel. b. ^g^ intervene!. so s*S5r. 58. 513. g. 1 Vart. as e.0. a visarga or pi. f^ri%^: a male kokila ^jrft^:=5i|. rfl' I Pan. *raC + 3FftT=^f^rf is affixed to the . 3. VIII. 6. a nasal or $. but they are not given here as being tedious and of no material value. c.

28 SANSKRIT GBAJOIAR. CT at the end of a word followed by any 3. VI. 1. g.CTqc^fa^r a ghee-pot I^^TaTH.j by ^\^j also undergoes this . [ 43-45 vowel. rm^|U<3. undergoes the same changes*. sec. (d) sf q[-ftrn? ^ when = followed by f q. 3T[^ny?J I ?>l^ q^T^l Pan. 73. I but it is changed to =f by I- 28. may he not cut. precedes fgr^JTTT*. f d^ I Pan. undergoes this change H *-y \{% ^<nff > and r:Trff. a sacrificial vessel. srr. vat eimilarly ^%^+^rc?=xTrlF3IT*rc3 and ^fifmmq. ^T^ ^f^[=^t^f? ^t^T^ to whom? ^ . a fine handle of a sword. (e) sr$TRrTnT^ a good man spreads. save. the i Pan. 3Hl-\-tt3[m'=3tt^&f%iTfft he covers. it f. <j letter or not. magnet. long. ) ^rrf^f*Rgr^j[ off. followed 4- The { of ^f. . The ^ of optionally. 7. except that of the particle JIT and the pre- 44. e. and ^rff|ff^f^[ Oh Krieapa. a nasal or g. VI.snr^nr^:. ^T^ is necessarily inserted between and the preceding short or a long vowel at and when vowel. 45. or ^ is substituted for the visarga when the following sets are combined: ^: + ^:=^^:. change optionally. . similarly 3nd*$d** wherefrom. Properly is I inserted. but 5 prT as the ^ is not at the end of a word. VlSABGASANDEI. %? + amr-lljiq^iqT Siva's is so %fW^rl what cut again and again. the sun. a g. > Oh Krshna. VIII. ^ & position shadow-. great darkness. the present time. ^^n?. optionally the end of a word.

ir*Wt : I I Vart. 40. | Pan. for: f: Pan. ^rf^7T9T^[ bad ( q?WyMH> ft: ^rf^^T. ar%S5qr: towns fit to be entered ( aa is a noun ). but TT. is WrTT Vishnu. Hari walks: =gr. ^fr: !fc-qfr| a brother's daughter. it is not changed to q?Tnff apeecn desires. 40. ^rn^rr^C Bftd milk: T5R?9?^ little short of ^ fame . ghee. 'HflvfclWj^. VIII. <r or ( and ^. changed to w* 0. 36. Pan. and to f when preceded by f or &f and short or long. 3. ?. changed to r when preceded by . ). is dawn with fame. fffra%. followed by selves not followed by a sibilant. goes. 3T. g. Oh father. the protector : 28 ). 3. VIII. S^JStflK puts in the front. VIII. and 5^: when prefixed as indec^ or IT and t|. and followed by the terminations qr^r. Z(3R^ ^rA|H almost ever. If the visarga y a substitute for a final ^. Rama by or *r ). Vartikaa.45-46J] Q^ of KULBB OF BANBHI. how5- be- fore $!**. I V. ^r 29 nothing. q*YnT. but ^: f^nj: ( as the and optionally when followed by -sr. is Viaarga. q^ltfeiujft he desires fame. 3. 39. ^T. g. Pan. THT^ and followed by a hard consonant or by : are changed to a Vitargaj aa ft!T 77% Ha ma reads. ^rr J. ^ ^ them- Vide ^ is ^f . Vinarga. 3. (b) x The Visarga to of ST>TJ linablea verbs beginning with ^r optionally changed to H in the case of the former and necessarily in that of the latter . but sn?f!where m?f: is an indec. VIII. 3.or ^ is sm^urorw . followed ffHHVJMT (a) Bama who would standj fft: to- ^r?t or ffr^^frT &c. . ^. not belonging an indeclinable . 38. 34-35.

VIII. is substituted for * a BO term. and not Visarga JRTJJ: olosed. 3. 3. irqwsn*. and ^:. optionally nuder the same circum- stBncesJ. the labial class T%'-t-sr?q^=:T%r??J5^ without obstacle. grq^rff^ an iron iron-smith. Pan. (/) Visarga coming after the first 3? of indeclinable and forming the member a word other than an of a compound is changed tog. but : sf><TJj ^tft aa the ^rac. 3fnr^?TT a bridle. but ^gc^TTH^ havits where 5-: t^Tg: is not an adverb ). Pan. VIIL 4. The ending or sr: of a word changes visarga to ^ optionally under the same circumstances when the presence of the following word ia necessary for the completion of the sense. g. | 3. and by c$r. : ^. ^*. 42. q?H. <prr and ^Jiolr X e. <rr$r. 3^n?^Tt: an one who desires iron. all of change their Visaing* to ing four parts (e) ( ^ them adverbs showing frequency.when followed by a derivative of the roots f. 44-45. 3.30 (<?) SANSKRIT GRAMME. Sfmhfoff^ disa bad action. ^rf^: is qrriT- a big ghee-pot ( as the word an uttara pada ). gr [ 46 * Visarga. l^^ftfff or 7%:q?ftfir does twice. 43. as ^rrq^^ju^-^T a pot for ^r1?> ^f"4^i'l clarified butter. preceded by f or ia and not belonging to * termination. P&n. VIII. VIII. 3. ar^^^off a kind of iron pofc arq^W Pan. fWfUft or ^r^^ifk turns into ghee. g: ^% ^r is an exception. VT5:^rm **53>?% mBTg ^w: ^g^% but no connection here between the words ^rfqr and fifr. * $ T%:> or *$ fair: optionally retains it* w when followed by fift ^tRT or f^TOCTT?r hides or scorns. 41. . if followed by : except in the case of a hard consonant of the guttural of CT changed to m: often. Pan. or makes a as is but there f^T bow. And necessarily when at the end of the first member of a compound. pot. VIII..

so : MMM^ Visarga preceded by HT dropped necessarily when followed by a soft consonant. the change 3. is optional and if by ^. (b) The ^ tion.). so yr^^ft the sun rises. ^r: +. . **:gjm: one desiring heaven ( where an indec.46-49 ] BULKS or SANDHI 31 but iftiOTC' is Brhaspati. I ^ &c. finfttj. preceded by any vowel except aj or 3fc and followed by a vowel or soft consonant. is changed to ^ .rrr:-%*T it 49.g. VIII. nft 5TR^r Bhago a bow to thee . not followed by a declensional tormina always changed to ^ but if followed by <rft J and other words snch as f}^. + 3r^=*jr sr^T ! of the particles ^p> ^ift: and or ^fnrs^ Oh Achyu. it is also optionally dropped when preceded by 3? $ 48. <H[ and %*: change their visarga to under the same circumstances as those ^ no comp. ( see should be saluted. tlT*r%*: 47. a cow or : bull comes.q- Pan. when it is not dropped is changed to ^ in both these cases. but frog qq* si ^ TJT^T (where the ar after sub<rq-: is pluta).). and : producing great fame (as the word q-^ is not the : first member of the com. TOT^^ bufc 3TO:<r when there is is the latter member sWHp. Sft: +5Tq-rer=gRsfaiar Hari conquers.m&: + *i 5f=*rRK3 ( for here the visarga is &c. e. Siva is adorable. aro: (0) *The words when followed by mentioned above. Exception obeys ta 5 The Visarga ?ft 48. stituted for ^ ).. 3TOV *lff Oh you go. ) IT^T: T&nft (as there is no comp. (a) Viearga. am^H. ia of 3ff^. <r<rc (as %f for substituted Visarga ^ and not ^ preceded by ( ) short 3T and followed by short & or a soft consonant is changed to ^ f|R: + 3^ = r^ 25 ). and optionally when followed by a vowel. Virt. and followed by a vowel except ar. \ 47.

Pai"vra. 51. nouns. 52. f5+S:=fS: fg+ft ) p. so that ^ the two vowels may combine f. *f)Ml5: or 3*5:iffT* Inst*frrfff: Brhaspati. is dropped before a consonant when they do not end in ^ or are not used in a negative Tatpurusha. * VI. I. qq. (c) 3ftf RFRT^ * protection of Saman to be chanted *^ or ^ followed by ^ or ^ respectively 3T. and OTa. 14. %^wftf STfPi viAft Rg. + OK*=S5Tr Hari is sports again. sing. 1. p. 24. 3*f. t . by day. 111. I 3. SUBANTA OB DECLENSION In the present chapter Deehnrion or the inflection of subatantive and adjective. II. THfT ^jrtle<J t Chapter III. in order to meet the exigencies of &<> the metre. irf& as not existing of ^: and q^f: is considered f Sometimes in poetry the wben followed by a vowel other than 3f. ' [49-52 substituted for it5 3f$:. VI. The crude form of a noun ( any declinable word ) not yet inflected is technically called a Pratipadika ( grffrrifris ). a?^n%T^: that is not Siva ( a neg T tr^c^T f() The ^ of the nom. fR.32 and nft> viearga is SANSKIUT GRAMMAR. but 3Tffqr^ dual. (b) ). 3. 134. 3TfTf day by day. or the lord of the day. of ^ to grow. g. t <HRft: ggfilCT*HHEKH1% *fo Pan. is droppped t and w the preceding ft f or % i* ( short is made long. 0.4-CPT:=^t form W: graceful.:+^q-=ff^. 3*5t^?*T the form of the day 4|<w) Tffif^T} <R^yaf: day 3^%: and Bight. g ^ ^:. or<ff?f: or a^rrff: a leader. but 50. 132. of ^ q^ t : Tat. the sun.f%^:} but this Kudra. is considered.

8.nT. the dual two and the plural three or more . H. or I). 2.). or N. or V. . Accusative (Ace.). These genders.).) aud plural (pi). It will be easily seen that the term servile letters ) first letter 55 is obtained by taking the and the list It in the sfltra. 1. numbers and oases will. f The general terminations Ace. 54. and Locative (Loc or L. e. three genders: masculine (fern.). Gen.baa a feminine garde? and the neuter (Ben. There are eight cases in each number: Nominative (Nom.). or G. B. DECLENSION. *n*rx WTJT SFI% wnq. 21. 56. JT nw IHH. ? in g/gr added or prefixed to in STH &c. * 55. e. The ques- tion about the determination of the gender of nouns will be considered in a separate chapter. 3 . or A.).).g. Dative (Bat.). common with ( Panini 's system of nomen- have certain Its them. Ins. be denoted by their abbreviations enclosed into brackets after each. N.s^3TW| Loc. for the s*ke of convenience. Some of these terminations.) Instrumental (Ins. Vocative (Voc. 83 gender (mas. Dat. 22. i. %. dp ^T.55-66] 58.). as in clature. dual (da. 5 Ab ah srat. The singular number denotes one. or D. Declension consists in adding the case termination to the crude form or base.). a^atr^ $nr as given by Panini I dftCI*4 ll$K*q l*Kff flN l*wi UKhCT^QlWCt IV. A noun . art". Nom. Sup (QTf) is the technical term for a cue termination in Sanskrit. O. g^. There are three numbers : -Singular (fling. These express nearly all relations between words in a sentence. <vre . Ablative (Abl. or Ab. Genitive (Gen.

Plural.. in general. Dual aft . f zom The declension of adjectives does not. SECTION 1. ft^ The artf >> A. Declension is for the sake of convenience divided into two classes: j I I. it differs from both. V. f The Vocative B: is considered to be a it different aspect of is. A. which termination* given above undergo when applied to several of the vowel bases are so numerous. . Aeu. * rest like the mas. V. Dual Plural. and Sing. Ab. diner It will not. be that of substantives. It therefore. that it has been thought . N. DECLENSION OF NOUNS ANI> ADJECTIVES. supposed have no separate terminations of its own. BASES ENDING IN VOWELS. the nom. the points of difference only will be noted. it sometimes coincides with the original stem. at others. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 60. L. D. BASES ENDING IN CONSONANTS.34 57. given here separately. the general Not*: The variations and modifications. II. [ g 57-60 Tho following are the normal case-terminations : Mas. Sing. 59. 58. O. * i . In the sing. and is identical with to in the dual and plural. I. ( 3H^ 3TT *n*C N. Fern. I.. BASES ENDING* IN VOWELS. therefore. sometimes with the nom..

TTR ^ 62. * inn. (a) iftqr mas. ssifg or So 3q^ f or otjgQ &c. 3PTT a cow-herd. * The ^ of & is changed to or by 41. Decline all nouns ending in 37 mas. ) is optionally formed . Nouns ending in an Mat and 63. dropped before a vowel termination beginning with the Ace. nouns ending in The final 3ft is take the general terminations. 90$ has serf*. 73. Nouns ending in 61. similarly. N. A* V"\T Sing. ti*in rmin. A. oomp. The G. nouns ending in 3oi|f^ g. See p. but simply to give the forms and leave the students to find them out for Every word declined here should be considered a model and words alike in form should be declined similarly to it. Plural. 5TPT . at the end like that of o4jgfH- words ending in 3*3 ( substituted for of a Tat. plu. 37 Mas. (a) The Loc. Ins. i ji 3111 j.. sing. Dual. 35 advisable not to notice them here. 99 N. knowledge. ^FT^ f9 fnr: ^I*^ TTm )9 . and Neu. sing. Mas. of ^ is . Sing. 31 Dual. 1. ti*n. of 3T$^ a day. Plural. themselves.60-63 ] DECLENSION. and nen. as being tedious. TTJT m. 3nTnV rest like nrr. Rama.

. Ab. V. D- Ab. strength-giver or Indra . fit >r N. -vgOTT one who inhales smoke. The '65. A. fr^:. g 66. nouns ending in Irregular bases: 3ft similarly* The Voc. plu. sing. g. fffT name of a Gandharva. Ace. ' ding. fin the goddess of wealth. V. no and derived from roots ending in (a) If the latter e. rest like 5^: and ff^ respectively. ^TfT^. 64. 67. WT fen. and an*- other comp. and L. Ab. Decline similarly f^qr sr^r the protector of the world r ^FOTCTT a couch-shell-blower. W JCi. 5$. > Decline all other fsn. G. D. member be not a root the final an* is not dropped. ^tR^T one who quaffs the some-juice.36 SANSKRIT GBAMMAK. of all meaning 'a mother' is rf 315 and ^^ respectively . [ 63-61 N.

Noons ending in f and 69. Plural N. I. G. Dnal. N. mas. N. . I. Ufa fern. 3R Sing. V. on pronouns. ] DECLENSION. 37 declension Several adjectives ending in 3T follow the of pronouns. ift: or * or preceptor. for which see the chap. 7 mas. Ab. and neo. Sing. jft &c. HWT fffliroi D. Ab. A. inteller' Dual. . Hari. tfftj. A. V.68-69 68. fern. inft Plural.

A. D. nouns ending in or ij take the augment -^ before vowel case terminations. G. A. I P4n. I. <*. Ab. V. water. I. snft $3 N. a cow. V. i. N.'. D.38 SANSKRIT OBAMMAB. A. Nieu. 73. . VII. V. Ab. 1. fern.

or D. V. Loc. heavy : white. Ac. V. &$ neu N. V. Da. D. Gen. singolars and Gen. neu. : or : or 5T%*ft-' L. Ab. A. and Loc . nouns in f and 3 in the 0. G. ff. Adjectives ending in $ and ^ when used with neuter are optionully declined like mas. Ab. 70. Ab. honey. duals^ nen.09-70 ] DECLENSION. pure. or . or N.

and like gft in other cases. : 72. Ab. Decline all other nouns and adjectives fern. Irregular bases mas. gftftfr [ 70*72 D. ending in or 3- mas. or 71. ( arfifcaftfa: ( TWT ). Y. a master. n Ob. (a) The words 33% a good friend ( $Tfr*rar: ^rwf ). is " 7io8.40 Ac. and A. q^r A. g^: or Ab. fj^r SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. . 5. but arftflrf^T (qr^fr*TfrioRI*ff: ) one who has abandoned a female companion declined like sr^r- is declined like yfc Ar . q*- v. friend. similarly. ^T^fjr fom. or one rr ). 3fl$fTf% a close friend friend. TOfrftr a great having a great friend q^R: fr^r q^> TW ^nar are declined like ^rr% in the N. and neu. D.

and du*l and like the plural. 96. D. ( a aftgoftlQ a descendant of Uduloman ( ) is declined like $ft in the sing. of similar derivation (see Fan. -f f^ ( f ) added 3ra?zwf by r=~rW^.. Words 75. ?TfTT *T ) are declined like $ft regularly. I. nfafar is firn: 3W* 1W declined like ?ft mas. 65. 144 4.. * 9% name of a > From Pan. 62. ftf irr*J: N. . D.73-75 ] DECLENSION 41 i. 66 and IV. or osnrrorr^.-r IV. Ab. & ir^ fern. ^\/. ) plu. the Gen. nrt/ A river. the final ^ being dropped ( Pan. 105 ) also substitute their originals in the plural. ending in f and 3? mas. the original word vj<jfR being substituted. a bride. V. & woman. mnjimm. 73 Compound nouns ending with qft such ( as rqft &c. 1. VI. ia optionally 74 06. N. and fern. II.* ( 6 ) Words 1. sage. like that of f& . A. 63. 4. ).

1.42 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. and e. 3^1^- ^FT mas. is declined like ^i except in the Ace. ^ of the nom. b. fc*^ a pblegmatic woman. a late. plu.* snft: . and mas. : $ 2TRT Mas. nouns in f similarly. STOT a a ) The words fffr woman in her <Tr?ft monthly coarse. nouns ending in ' n antelope as srfmffiT 3TWr ifmsnfr: 76. D L tree > - Ab. *?rfr smoke. A. which is fern. afSRT: &c. ^ an army. [ 75-76 Decline ( all other fern. - Decline xg-^ a mother-in-law. do not drop the wealth. ^^ gj- the jujube clats JJ^TIJ rice-gruel. g. a of compositions. D. v. fleet as the windj | Un&di IV. . A. aif^jpj. q^. and other f sminine nouns in similary. a boat.

F. VI. V. except in the Aco. is changed to f^r or 3-^ before the vowel terminations*. as added to the root it. N. Root nouns in f or (a) ^ M. nouns of this description are optionally declined like the Da. and Loc. 85. Rule of Sandhi The fending f short or long. (b) ^r in But if a root at the end be the ending ^ or gr of a many-voweled nonn having not preceded by a radical conjunct conso- nant or the root noun has a preposition termed irfff (e. and ( cJ$lfr?3ii?rau<T: ) 3lfifiwfr mas. which is ^"Sfrmfrr and respectively. (TTT& the sun. 82. . ^ ^giw^'r: Pan.76-77 ] DECLENSION. &c. singulars and the Gen. The word sr\J7 derived with the affix t%qr . one having like many good wives. Gen. I V. Ab. similarly. Ob*. 4. 83. 77. g. is declined like which 77. 43 L. of nouns derived from roots with the affix r%<r (o) and of *r. should bo declined like ^rrasTRT. t: 5'T P^n. V. plu. 4. A. or g-. Decline (^gq: *WW *7W) T^W^fr mas. 4. 33? 3Tfft&$Rr fern. f^nr Pan. Decline qrfr ( qrrar 3^ ffa ) WH a way or horse. it is ) or a cr^or word governed by the root preceding ?r. I VI. tfr: . the fern. plu. Var. changed to ending in Tgj-. >ifT except in the case of g\fr and nouns fem. see. VI. N.

44 I.V. D.ft is made np by adding arraf N. A. and fern. Decline similarly $. far:-irr:.V. Ab. Ab. sing. ^. the Loc. Ab. ( N. SANSKRIT GBAMHAB. Decline similarly %ifr &c. See * on page 45. D. A. of nouns ending in I* . [ 77 fan tftar* tfrft: I. I. . . g*r *-$ D. L. Decline similarly r.. mas. ^r. I. E*> ir. snftr Ab.

loc. which : I Pan. sing. A. I. &o. optionbefore the vowel terminations. Ab. in the case of words ending in tff. sing. STI^ is snbsitnted for the :ft. and mas. Jreqi-ftsn &o. 2. before the ally like the mas. g. &c - mas. 47. an and the word I rt?iqi^Fr . A prtoipadika ending it vowel substituted for when . option7TT ally like the mas. sings. Decline similarly g^ ( ). Yoo. new. V. VII. smr 99 Hill*|5 D. Da. like like N. Gen. V. Gen. I. vowel terminations. and fern. Decline similarly err ) $mr ( ^mfl^ is rorfhfr except in the Norn. I. m. sing. 0. ' fern. A. and Loo. 8. ST5OT <TTOT: ^TW ^TT *em.. V. p^( the thunderbolt of *<9TC> Indra or the god of death). W s^% Pin.. Ab. like the rest like spfr mas. pin. A. mas.t in a long vowel hat a short becoming nen.77] DECLENSION. 116.

^^ f^-^r S^T-TT nr^fr &c. A. G. Decline similarly gasfr. A. mas. and fern. Decline similarly &c. before the vowel termination. gr^T ne u. fT &c. optionally before the vowel terminations. and fern. V. V. optionally like the v. I. is ^x ) self-existent. Dual the mas N. and mas. and f. L. <JTinfT. A. ^- mas. V. N. A. Q. mas. sing. . I. like N. N. of ^ ^c^vfr. The L. tji^4Mf Ab. 3jr^- ^r^ o like ^i-^ &c. Ab. also according to Kaiyata. o.46 SANSKRIT QBAMHAB. [ 77 5^ ( 51 ^TOft U^f: ) w.

V. I- D. sjjj. ^gfr should be declined like . sTTTf^aFcfrr^ ^TRt. A. N. D. gfaw . The rest like the other ^nff Decline flimilary TT^r- Words like si^afr. 47 fern.77-78-] DECLENSION. L. obs. &c ) *rcfr. Ab. ) *jHfaxyffrm ( ) ^tu ) ( ^^m^^rfrf^ ( *&\. ( ) ^r^nrf^s^cftm ( (^f . I. V. rs r**. ^sr ^^ ff^ ) ^^fr. ^ xi ^ST \ vit5i^4i*i^^9niin / N. Decline similarly 78. V. A. Ab. 5*pf a widow remarried. f% ^^. G.

g. neu except in the Gen. duals forms which are grftf^qt: 80. Mas. f^rOT R*<4v3frc >.. N. VI. the rest like the mas. G. 0. D. I fWfret: i Pin. plu. a woman. finnj ^t: G. and Loc. and L./. Hm^RT: grfiftfr:. SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 3ifii%w Ace. 4. N. finn ^fiv^rf^ ftnfr .V. . words ending in 37 not derived from roots.48 79. f%rq> v. mas. ^ irfiiffer^ ^nfr> 3rf8f%niT" respectively. grf^f%r". Ab. . fir n ft >. Ab. Ab. *:. A. lars.* fa<4\ [ 79-80 N. singu- arf^feim. A. V H. i. ^ft f%nr i D. 79. 80. name of a Gandharva. u7te*T 4<fft<j: 99 _. 3tfH% D. 5ft/fl. the I.

^^. the Voc. I. and 2. air . Sid. and change their ^ tc arr in the Nom. P4n. ^ Nouns derived from roots with the affix PAn. H 8 o 4 . ( Nouns SI. The ^^ ^ 3 (raand as also a maker. and to 3*n. and changed to &% eiida Aoc. D. 49 Decline similarly ?vig.81 ] DECLENSION. III. VI. Kau. 11. in the five inllectious. mas. V. ^3. v. and Gen. ^.80. one who strings together |*rift ffir mat. Decline similarly ^3. ant sn$n^ ^rjg first sing. i. 135 ). 4. 33. 511*** c TaflrJ 3$Tf &c neu A. qnj. and Gen. ending in ). and ti. 133. A. snch as ^fr the worda *?n?/. fern.& is lengthened in the in 3?^. sing. the creator. &o. r 1 the before Ab. A.

II 97 ^F?I% ^nr^ri ti^fa^ f?^ i wr : ff^ 5151^: Tr^^^r 5rf^=ft finm rfi^Rr P&n. 98) 82. Kau . as also the words 31^5 one who praises (Un.50 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR Ab. nni:(t) > A. G. plu. ' ^ 3 Un. . 92). and ^req^r a charioteer. Kau. fern. VII. -V. ^ a man (Un. sing. \jrar except which See below. ^cr m. R?|^ A. N. nouns should be declined like is *gr*r:. ^ f?^T^ ^im 5f ^C $*-. ^N^i 'HSTO and. vrrg:-3<n: [ 81-83 Decline similarly and other in the Ace.. with the exception of ?rcrT a grandson. 95. and dual} e.) . &c. gffc a daughter. 3 . Decline similarly q-jij a huaband's brother's wife. 97. II. except that of the Gen. a mother. a husband's brother. and HHT^ or a husband's sister. do not change their dual and plural and Ace. plu. II. i ^w 7 Sid. 5f^: I 4. The woid ^r? a jackal. The Gen. plu. is declined like a word ending in necessary in the first five inflections and optionally before the vowel terminations beginning with the Inst.. a father.J g. qp[ a husband and ^^j & sister. ^ to y. \ Tan. VI. of ^ ia r. fqRV-^ rest like RfffT^ rest like The ^r? The ^Q* Decline similarly ?TT<. 9. N. I. Nouns expressive of relationship like fq^ m. r%:(i. sing.. or iTr^* \83. 3N^ in the. V. W1<{ f^- \ Sid.

therefore. v. - Ab. G. and optionmas. D. torm. Ab. N. I. D. also ( by T%T3T 5Rf which with 96. gftjr :-^reY* (o) SBlj 1. . uing.) the^fli. The word frogKTJ ally like tKJrc sing. A. the imitative sounds of the roots <F and rT and <|^ and ^rqp^ are take a to ^ show what the forms of such words will be. is declined like H$ g. <&:. neu. V.. and ^5. Decline sr similarly. . ar : A.83-84 ] DECLENSION N. f becomes 3?t^T and becomes is declined like Ois. There are no words ending in or <. r5WaCT^-S% % in 5j Words ending 84. if there be need to use such words. in the^iw. before the vowel terminations from the I. VIII.

implying &c. Here simply the terminations should be added and Sandhi rules observed. OTT N. forms the Yoc.. does not % % But the Sutra ^^WlrH^J: P*D. ^m: . Just as it Nom. f. I. %* A. V.BANSKBIT GRAMMAR. Ab. G. I*- IHI similarly. . 9 ! fWT 'tl^' >. fWT ^Ir %*TI^[ f5f: D. Ab. G. { 84-86 N. %: ^5f flT isi ) m. 99 Decline $\+ Words ending in tr and <h 85. L. forms in the case of words like the miter giving stopa it do in the case of BO does also. 1. V. %ViT- Ab. 69 (<?g^tTi^ f^F?n^ aifn^S^Vf^M) (Kau. A. *tt. A. that % thereby *The Kau. wealth.. D. V. ffirac I. ones. VI. *g3t are of also like the Nom. Iff N.%: |9 ^^t* ^n^ Ij - specially mention this form.) seems to apply in the present and by dropping the final ^ we get the form %.

) sre srft I- changed to 47. *ff mas. G. the moon. Ab. 2. ^Rm[)jchanged to Should bd declined like ir changed to sr should be declined like : I Pan. G. / the iky. when it should be declined like T *-/ N. &V IT: N. V. eing. L. nea. 1.* Noons ending in 3?r are regularly declined. . The nea. D. be declined like 3TTT except before the consonantal terminations. a ball or a cow. jrff scRafc Words $ 86. ending in aft an(3 aft- Vriddhi first ( 3ff ) ia substituted for tha ^r of words ending in aft in the five inflections except the Ace. 53 Decline similarly ( f: OT ) one who has thought of fforoa. Ab. I. VI. and plural. ^ The neu. Decline similarly ( *5cT: tf: 'Tt: D. 90. A. A. ) should I. I. 1. sing. N.85-86 ] DECLENSION. srr ia substituted for gfr in the Ace. fern. 93. L. VII. Decline similarly ^c: ^r ) The and a ship. &V..

of grrr is &A. one a door and other words ending in ^ or < f. The plu. of these bases consists. S9-.34 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. m. ff*Trs-T?:S. fern. G. N. A I. ^R^r: 3Tirf% Decline similarly 3^qor^. The rest like the * See 91. p^. to (6) ( optionally changeable inserted between <^and fj. of STT is N. neu.. ^ and ?. s^.&V. Ab. SECTION II. After final w the 3 of the loc. mas. and Fern.-^?rff.f. 87. who counts well. naming the goddess of wealth or a lotas otT-OT-^fT ) Mas. 88. [ 87-89 BASKS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. I*. first and in or ^. ^ . a. loc. N. Bases ending (a) 3. %> . and r. is changed to 3. grr:. sing. for the most part. D. Bases ending in any of the . . grirror . in adding the general case termi- nations and observing the rules of sandhi. The declension four letters of a class. ? ) may be optionally mat. The Norn.

( e ) ^ IB prefixed to the f of the N. 5. A. If there be a first general rule the f^ of the nom. *fff>ft *rfwvr: Ab. *r: 90. 55 or Decline similarly $ir*T. ^rffrj. r. ^. (a) As a dropped. N. g. or.9. IT. plural in the case of neuter nouns ending in a consonant except a naaal or a semi-vowel* but not in the case of a noun derived from the frequentative base. v. g. Bases ending in f. The rest like Decline similarly . class The final letter is changed to the first or third of its when followed by nothing. ?. N. A. A. . & V. V.} . N. 91. ia and*. & Ace. 3. 92.89-92 ] DECLENSION. g. f . or fj. wnc and other words ending in . to the third when followed by a soft consonant and first when followed by a hard consonant and remains unchanged before a vowel termination. . <*>*[. singular conjunct consonant at the end of is a word the (6 ) consonant only retained. In. a holy stick. Paradigms : ^rii^I/.*.

plu. or |^and ^. ad ^ of w^ * when followed by any consonant except a nasal or a semi. ^ . The ^ But the si of the root-nonns qr changed to 3? as also the of 3^ ' f^BT^. and ^sr^is a bold or impudent man ' and the ^of snch words as f%tr^ &c The ^ of ^5^ is optionally changed to g^or gp. dual. ^. VIII. tne ^ changed bo .vowel or by nothingf. 2.* (b) The ending or ^ of root-nouns and the final are changed to ^> ^% "^ ^r3T. or ^ when at the end of a word. and to IT when followed by a soft ^ ^ consonant. ^ of ^ar and * %: ^: Pan. ^. ^ 93. 30. Pin. Norn. [ 92-94 LOG." V. *$5T.56 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. I. (a) or is changed to ^ when followed by a hard Consonant or by nothing. A. ^or ? . V. Nom. N. sing. Neu. i f . pi &o. A.^! . 5. as also the The XT of %-fe^ri is changed to ^. and to o* 3- T^TT^ (0) is similarly changed to when followed by a soft consonant. 94. So %?%3T? N. Bases ending in ^ . dual. A. 36. The rest like the mas. V. N. VIII. 2.

I.) ^r^r^ A. a kind of metre is followed by a hard consonant or by nothing. * is changed to 1)5. A! ft 5: I ?i^W: *tfl I fl 'gg^^^l^l^'H' ^ff^ I I P^. (b) In the case of roots beginning with it is changed to Bunder the ^ same circumstances.*. Paradigms TT^(/. and ends with tr. . *j and in the case of the root r? it is changed to vj under the . v. 59). fj^ shining. optionally be inserted between 57 3 may ^ and the loc.94-97 (d) ] DECLENSION. (a) ^when at the end of a pada or when followed by a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel. it is optionally changed to q. A. ff changed to ^ when TT before a ^ g. w f ^ ^ ^o"r when is followed by changed to an unaspi- rate letterf. 2. VIII. KTT v - ^*i . speech. to ^or CTJ (d) and fi^. g. ^ or^tr before nothing: or when the final soft aspirate or When a mono-sy llabio root (or root-noun) begin s with ? .* () The ij^of sfstJT^ /. 97. 31-34. 2. and to soft consonant ( Pan. (e) Before vowel terminations to final ^ may optionally be changed ^. T> ^ ^T^: ^T^WT^ MiP^: mn&t* ! Tl Ab. (c) when forming par* of the roots g^. g^ becoming faint &c. \j . III. above-mentioned circumstances. t 'J^T ^!W*?fW f*: Pan. 37. * . XT TT N. 96. VIII. m%> 9TO*^ ^1^11 ^r^rr . or is respectithe ? ir^or ^. pi. or vely changed to *r.

the .58 G. N. ^ and Kg. N. 7^ msn^ is derived from 5>*Ki| ffffi mentioned in the qjoni^ g'oup.*> XC^eaTj * n^ ir.. |^and words ending in 3? t^[ 37*If> f^n^j ft^T^. Decline similarly ^nfrg^[. The other I ^ &c. <KC. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR sre: srrer: [ 97 ?rarq( G. root nouns in ^. Loc. plu. f^CT f f^T^> f%fi^. Kau. &C. f Hereafter only the first letter will be given. sun. jj^j SJT^^> f%^. derived from sni^ mentioned along with ^r ^^R^ Sid. dual I. is fgrf^'vrrT &C. ^r . dual. L. the third letter should always he supposed to be understood. Sing. . *TT% *TJ L. ^ and *r. and words ending in fj[^. mx&t^ Decline similarly .

the rest like $55^. S^ Ab. Sing. N. 59 Loc. dual. N. N. : or Deoline similarly fw^ *g. dual. or ? or or or . jfa& and | &c. A.79 ] DECLENSION. *?# } ?&r. W^ ft* fo<T STx^ XT? fT* Irregular base : 5^ N. N. Instr. sing. I. pla. dual. pin. V. dual. 5^3^ 5?f: mas. Loc.

N. g. 1. ftsq- I. plu : f^^ the sustainer of the universe^ a lord 3. V. 108. (1) The ^ of &l\W : < Indra y. VI. or /em. 99. 132. VIII. or or The remaining forme like those of the mas. 3. A. 128. I ^If S3J ff^l^rra coibine into ^T by Pan. See 20. the Ace. 56. those mentioned above. an and . N. V. V. 100. t (WT *TCl: Pan. 89. ' is changed to ^ before the consonantal terminations. 4. VI. The neo.60 SANSKRIT GBAMMAR I 97-100 Neu. IRREGULAR BASES. VI. I Pan. A. VI. formi of these have no peculiarities other than 9. 5^n"T^ ^Tr^T^ ^Tf^rrf A. I * Pan. 98. 1.* e. The erf is changed to of root-nouns ending in *r^ before the vowel terminations beginning with * ff. becomes ft-^T when followed by n^t ( tnafc particular form of the root-noun ?r^ ) N.

Decline similarly 55^^. ^TTvqr^i Loc. plu.. V. A. 102 ox. &c. N. to q^ before and to ^ before the of the termination. Ab. of ^[^. ij^ &*-* 101. sing. I- Ab. The ' rest like 103. fT The The ^ of g^TRg/. v. ^m^f^ 5*1* > ^tf*!^ &c. 61 A. are ij$:. The words 3re<n^ change c * kind of priest to ' and sacrificial food' their final grr ^ 3^- before consonantal terminations the preceding becoming . xJMMg: 7 Ins. Inst. V. Norn. g. sing.100-103] K. and dual TTT^F. DECLENSION.-'a vr shoe' is ohaoged e. Ace. A. ^^rf^f.

^vsrs^ 13^ ) a companion. V. a|r^3. and the preceding semi-vowel is changed to its corresponding long vowel before the vowel terminations after which 3i is dropped. A. ) ^^jy^ every- )adoring a deity. go' to worship. becomes f*r>^ Q<^ similar circumstances.^[ following. ogoing to that ( all these derived from (a) In the is Nom sing. going where. ' Nouns derived form the root ( ( to go ' by means of such affixes as fk^.62 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR [ 103-104 N. In other .. going away. ^H:3?5^ going srffT-StS^ ) western. respects these words are declined like words ending in . dropped before all terminations beginning with the plu. aqoTj northen. fl^r &c. ( i^v^^a f^wfo. its 3T is changed to f if not preceded by a long vowel. N. under otherwise it remains unchanged. L. A. sr^^ becomes 3^. When 3755? is not preceded by a semi- vowel. I. Bases derived from the root 104.^ following. such as ( m-3T5^) eastern. ( ) ) (mT^-3^) with or well. L. I. V. The nasal of Ace.

Ab. I. N.V. srnat Ab.V. The forms N. A. pin. N. lust. L. G.104] DECLENSION 63 N. N. t L. plu. plu. e. g. D.V. L. A. Loo. of the rest should be similarly made up. . I. sing. A. A. duel.

4. When 3*5^ is JHo-T^ means to worship or ' honour' the nasal of not dropped and these words are regularly declined. A. VI. The neu. their final ^ only before the consonantal termina- g. forms should be similarly made up. I Pan. N. * < ' They drop tions* .64 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR [ 104 Neu. V. The (b) rest like the mas. . 30.

N. ( derived from K bounding become man ^ an ^ E^T. V. The rest like the mas. A.V. Neu. beautifully I. plu. A. Loc. dual dual. ^s^ before consonantal terminations. A. G. y. snftr Jnsafc srcs or N. 0. I. L D. &c. L. s. ^3^ a heron a ^ ame an d &c. A. 5 . H. The remaining froms should be N. ftfe fti. V. The reat should be similarly declined. &c. 105. sing. V. N.%^t Irregular Bases. &c.104-105] DECLENSION. &o. N. Neu. 65 N. similarly made up.

that thej change their terminations. V. the moon. g.66 106. t^^f ^fff^r? I 3W*iir<cB ^l 3* Vart. They have no other peculiarity than this. 4. 14. ^ to ^ before consonantal g. A. 0. A. ) not belonging to the Vocative ^ . N. is regularly declined. of noons ending in q<^ or and in 313. sing. a. N. *the rest like the mat. V. Bases ending in ^ : is leng 108. A. The penultimate 3? of nouns ending in thened in the Norn.eu. strength. sr^rr^ m. A. N. "3^ stfi 3rfSl. There are a few nouns derived 107. if it does not belong to root nouns. Kau.V. from the roots ending in '3. Nouns ending in q[. or N. t SANSKRIT GEAMMAE. VI. n. one who is tranquil. not belonging to a root ii lengthened when followed by 5 ( fj. j ^ . 35-1^ [ 106-108 0.f. The rest like the not. n. Sid. I The penultimate vowel J 3T?^eFrR^ ^WiHt: I Pan.

&o. nn^ age. sing. <hrfg: Neu. . the ^3^ S*^ 55 ( a bow. are similarly I. I. dual. V. wq^^ good-minded. good. Decane similarly e. g. ani^ protection. The rest like ^fj^g. TOT ) one who wears a garment well. Decline similarly q^T^. &c. g^ or ^^ such as xi^M^ flaring upwards &c. . ff*^ an oblation. dual. af^a^ Wind ClVfg^ long-living. the mind..A. plu. Loc. N. I^T. anxious-hearted &o. N. milk. sing.108 ] DECLENSION 67 D. &c. A. N. 99 Decline similarly ill-minded god Brahmi. ^r^ an arm declined. fame ^r^ (a) Nonns in ' ^. vr^rfff^ lustre. e. N.V.

To feminine nouns ending ^ simply add the terminations. Instr. ing. sing. dual. sing. Loc. g. N. . 37 before the consonantal terminations. I. sing. 5^ET^ name of of Sukracharya is 3T%fT. well. Obs. I. the preceding nasal being dropped. plu. 35$CT and is a$MI respectively. splendour. The first two change their ^^ ^ to ^ before consonantal terminations while the last two change their ^ to ^ under the same circumstances. The remaining forms should be similarly made up by adding the terminations. 3?%f^ time. 5^: tj^tti Neu* gTO : N. 111. dual. and 4 Decline similarly fqug'mfe NU4 109. ^5F5^rT^ dnal. of ^^ &c. |j*: The rest like ^??H3[. the other forms are regular. ^ Irregular bases. N.-. g^R^ in S^R^ name TWT. ^nj^ one who kills desirous of killing. sing. A. that falls. .68 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. the Voc. of 3^Rand 73R:. s^JW- dual sftwn Loc - 112. Mas. The rest like India. except that Nom. . The Nona. V. V. V. sing. N.f^^f^ a destroyer. -L. N. I. sing. becomes of the Nom. . The ^rr of 3ct-^i^n^ uttering hymns. *n^/. 110. [ 108-112 Mas.

I. 3 ffl%'$r/ a blessing. is changed to ? even when either a nasal. a man. m. Pan. A. V. a companion. g. coming after ? or 3. The remaining forms 113.A. ?r^^ m. . VIII.of to read. speech. Sing. a yoke. 114. is lengthened N. ^fr^[ one stepping well. . 3% r: flfaft^ wishing wishing to do. Ab. like those of the mas. short or long. gf. catting well. e.112-114 ] DECLENSION. 5*rr D. V. ! the words f%^ before consonantal terminations. 58. The rest like the mas. ggf^. 3. 3^ a town all/era. their final in the Nom.f. The penultimate f or 3. The ff belonging to a term. V. and after a guttural letter. and also of nn[. 69 Neu N. or a visarga or I 7 ^ or S> intervenes. is changed to visarga N.

70 SANSKRIT GEAMMAB. V. Loc. Mk 3: iff: PKf f^RT ffiwn\ 'fit It '" ifr- . note p. H^. 66 .: 5j is Nouns ending in 3^. Plu. N.* the 3? of JTf^ i* lengthened fore this ^ except in the Yoc. be- talented. sing. A. I. is 3T and the final ^ in the first five inflections. 37 is lenthened in the Norn. fipft* The remaining forms like those of the mas. The final dropped in the Nom. N. \ 114-115 The remaining forms should be similarly made up by adding the terminations. sing. and inserted between g. or fern.*. L dual. See ft.. *q. A. dual. sing. and 115. . ^^r and the following words should be similarly declined. 10 N. V. sing. sing.

G. 71 D. optionally in the case of those of the 6th class. N. ] DECLENSION. and of causal. jfttflt Decline similarly having cows. and not at all in the case of the remaining participles of the present tense. not lengthened.V. (a) TOCT iifift irfrf^ The : reit like the mas. . of roots ending in aft of the 2nd class. in rot or q^. vfnrg. In the case of the dual of the Nom. and the Ace. 116. sing. The rest like the mas. *HtT. except in the Norn. desideraiive and nominal verbs. Ncu.A. Ab.A. Participial hues ending in 3*3. is oc. great. mas. and 10th classes. The declension oi these does not differ from that of noons in 3KT rr is in which the 9f of irg. vftacu tfraft ifrjrff: f. neu. The rest N. V. 4th.5 115-116 I. and of those of the Fat. ^ inserted before the final g- neoes- larily in the case of the present participles of the roots of the lit. mas.

JV. JliH in^. A.73 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 3 is not inserted at Pre. of roots of the third class in the case of the participle of the and of the Parasm. mat. of these ends in $ being the same as Norn. dnal of the Nen. giving. great. The fern. ^. ^5TCn . Mu. wa*. . &c . in other participles o* the Present the mas. 2[fbe^ * an ^ ^oq^ . A. Par. Decline &$ ^ m. however. [ 116 being. sf' 5 ^ pin. V. a drop of water like 3^^ all & nw. rflit I J Decline q"^^. .5 ^ftq^ &c. and Ace. 3Tnnj. like g^ . similarly. Tne rest and Fa. 3?^cJ eating. mat. neu.. inn* W<ft A. 3^3 f*. 3T$r^. like ^N^. snrrflir The rest like sftro Decline all W^: *raw: N. a deer. the world> (5) n. V. in the case of the Norn. Voo. siro^ awaking. and snra. A. N. N. &o. and has no declensional peculiarities. v. fre- quentative and the participles ^rm^. it is optionally inserted : ^ N. V.

sj in sjg. a sacrificer. con- sonantal terminations. In the Voc. Voc. and neuter nouns and optionally in the Nom. ending in 373. the Voc. sing. Nouns tfOT. V. it is optionally dropped in the Loo. the creator. 73 N. plu. srnrar The rest like Nouns ending 117. and before all is dropped in the Norn. A. The 3f is dropped before the vowel terminations beginning with that of the Aoc. and Ace. of the Nom. A. Ace. sing. 3T is In the case of mas. mas. and ^ of neu. N.116-117 ] DECLENSION. . nouns the preceding lengthened in the first five inflections and f in the Nom. D. only. dual of the latter. of neuter nouns. and ^. except when it is preceded by a conjunct consonant having ^ or ^ for its latter member. iieu. A. a king. 3Wim the self. The 3T and f are lengthened in the pin. <T^R^ mas. argrdt Decline similarly &c. TTios. q-T^q. nouns is optionally retained. of sing. v. V. eing. 55^ $5?ft ^fitT-ft STWJ.

ffQT^ . marrow. 9- Ace. a boundary. pin. sing. V. nfa( * boose. ii ^fwfc ). Decline similarly ^ifa( a hide. jest. The rest like the mas. V. . sr&f^[ a of the word day or the sun &c. ft carpenter. [ 117 99 Ab. ^ffTTO. Loc. irf|R^. old fcc. ?|^ sport.74 SANSKBIT GRAMMAE. 3773 an armour.. N. sing. 4|R*4< greatness. lengthened when the ar is dropped & Horn. ^[ happiness. ^IH< auspioiouB-named. 3lforiW[ &c. jr^r: Decline similarly ^Tm^fsm.

D. a house. &c. nfft-Rft Decline similarly o4lU< the sky. fftH^C ^ bladder.. L. the sun. V. only. !m^ lover bymn. 'name of Indra 7 . mas. I. N. Irregular Bases. A. f^rar . Ab.. G. apfR[ and nouns ending in (^ lengthen their in the Norn. 118.117-1 18 ] DECLENSION. the ^ of 5^ is changed to or after o^ mas. sing. ^TR^ lustre. V. A. 75 5TO3* neu. N. L. Ab. D.

76 D. &c. ' mas. VI. A. I.' was. &c. < a young man/ of Indrs. G. Ab. G. &c.* T A. Neu. name of a deity. v. name 119. > and The ^ of 5f^ TOF. 4. SANSKKIT GRAMMAR. A. L. N. [118-119 ^t fro: S*Wn* TOW >. .' is changed to ^ before the 5^ vowel terminations beginning with that of the Ace. <& dog. plu. 133. ^T I Pan. V. ^*j[ It "cnH 1^ 99 D. ma. Ab.

&c. &c. in other cases declined like N. N.V. meaning ) (and finally to risarge when a day ' changes its final to followed by consonantal termina it is ' tions or by nothing. V. A. V. sing. * Also the optional forms in 3 in the Voc. N. I. The 120.A. . I. rest like the maa. 77 N. V. L. ^f ^ n. &c. L. Ab. A. I.J 119-120 J DECLENSION.

a^f 3ffoft 3^^:j V. e. Tat. when n5. ) is declined like a word ending singulars. 121. 122.. V. 3T^?T:. Words ending in The ^ may be Pan. 4. ^ in all cases except the Nom. ^q. I. in a. A. and Voc.^iRtT' Nom. D. JHJrdu. ie declined as ^J^ 53 Frfefir . except when preceded by the negative particle 3^1 ( forming a neg. the rest like 3^5. 11. is declined like ^fjw^ : jfiTrfe* terminations and like *J3T* * nen consonantal the takee the vowel terminations. 3T^fr. a horse. SANSKRIT GBAKHAB. 3?^: &c. 3T&[ OT. Ace.78 G. But regularly declined like 3f^ ( gw^ ^ T%rar^ rw ) is q^t^ . mas. [ 120-122 when mas. it is declined like Obs when it N. A. 3R^Tf 3R^foft &c. r N. optionally retained (3tai(i$ &o. VIII. ) by . MU. 3R??fr. Voc. The rest like the mas.

^|7^< one haying a garland. eloquent. . G. I. V. mas. 5^73 one having a stick. Ab. D. I f%SWRW?n> I ^W \ TO %fa : I Pan. I. and 3$n$ft( name of Indra are irregular. 85-88. a wealthy man. N. Decline similarly ^rf^f the moon. 123. STRlirrfN d all other words in f^. <Tftirc3g?n*n^ 1. V. ^TDecline similarly 99 The rest like the mat.122-123 ] DECLENSION. A. $n?^ . j?f^[ a churning handle. imR^ &c - Irregular Bases. V. N.* They drop their f^[ before vowel terminations beginning with the Ace. an elephant N. plu. A.. ^f^t an elephant. The first five forms of qr%I a road. D. * VII. neu. A.

SO SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. and before the { of the Nom. m. f^ffofr N. fij^rr in the m. sing of the neuter. sing. before the vowel terminations beginning with those of the Ace. Decline similarly nfqig and ^t^n^f. ends before which the preceding short any. f%5ra[ . Voc. V. the penultimate 37 being lengthened before In the Nom.3f. the in qig. These are the perfect participles derived from roots with the affix q^ to which the intermediate f is prefixed in 124. dropped and the Voc. *. They have a 3 prefixed to their final ^ in the first it. g. Voc. final ^ is ^ before the consonantal terminations and Nom. [ 128-124 Ab. is dropped. and Ace. dual of the neuter nouns. howdoes not insert the sj in the first five inflections. some five cases. Orsn ft^r^ Ab. and Ace. sing. A. The final ^ of a root is changed to changed to 3 before q^ reappears before this 3*. a learned man. the latter word. O. $r: Nom. plu. ever. if is ^ is substituted for 5>. *rif Heit? Basea ending in :-nijf-'F Ace. inflections. .

all comparatives in fqr^ auch similarly. in other respects. in the first Comparatives in q-^ are declined like bases in 3-^ five inflections and the Voc. n . dual Bases in 125. 81 N. ^^fi% nouns in fij^ similarly. more praiseworthy. g. ^T^ honouring or serving the gcds. siog. V. N. V. dual. Decline n. I. ^f^T^ one who has sat.^"^ one who has heard. m. HlT^qq. ) (comparative of SRM N. Nom.> ^r^^. I. Nom. G.124-125 ] DECLENSION. ft'** The rest like the mas. Jl^^. OEe w b k* 8 stood. rest like 8. The H. Stfta^. ^J%. 6 . e. A. fjfcfr^ one who has carried. and like nouns 0. sing. T%fT Decline similarly ^T?j^r^ or ^<l-q^ one who has gone. JU|^ bountiful. g. I. &o. The rest like Tfm^. Neu. <te 4^ft ITf^. sing. A.Decline &o. A. and.

they follow the declension of nouns in 3. ffij- and the 127. Ab. age. become 3JW*. I.before consonanUl 1 terminations.82 SAXSKHIT GKAMMAB. . 1. 75. Ab. ^F^ra. sr^/ iti 3T in the N. D. 3[q^. L. is declined in the plural. [ 126-128 WORDS 126. * and then in sing. . rest should be similarly declined. and a^r^C respectively before the vowel terminations beginning with the I.. and changes water. 128. 3TT^:-3?^:-3^:-3T?r^>3(|?^:-3^rri3r-3Tcg. . %j curds. . OF IRBEGULAB DECLENSION. a thigh and 3if|sT n. it lengthens its q to 5. VII. A. ^rf^j an eye. other respects they are declined like V. a bone. . A. optionally assume the forms before the vowel terminations : V. srvfT The words ^TTf/ old one not getting old and f^r a god.

^ 7 terminations beginning with the Ace. <fr D. all ^. V. . an arm. 1- qi^J*V_ ui 99 5T^T^Wf : L. like nw and &c. A Ab. The words optionally assume the forms q^. I. 129. t . 63. A. . plu ^ft-^w. VI.128-129 ] DECLENSION. 83 Decline f^rar &o. N. like V. 1. The S rest like the ma <TT3> ^Pcf.

A- . is also 77i. . A. v. a table -land. ^3. Ab. The remaining words should be to the declensions similarly which their various endings follow tfl^ *w. which is qrrvj^.A. I. [ 129 Neu. V. declined like 35 with the optional forma from declined according : the Ace. G. a foot. Or. D. a sum mi t. A.V.. foqif. Ab.84 SANSKEIT GBAMMAB. The <: 5fft rest like mas. night. L. pi. N. N. V. N. N.

month N. A. N. A I. _ ^ 3T^3^n. the nose. I. L. A. heart. D. I. blood.129] DECLENSION. A. n. m. a tooth. I. L. N. N. *TR 4TTO wi. N. iS^rfri mwmm* *w . _. . I. D. L. L. A.

. N. A. . [ ^ m. w. HiOutll. T^fff> if^-T^l^ 1^H ^T^( ^- n. ?T^ A. 5? * 1*. A. .86 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. airc: i flesh. soup. the liver. flfT A- . water.A. dung. N. W. I.

may stand for all cases ex- cept the Nona. jjrRfT from knowledge/ ^ . 10. The following inffix suffixes are sometimes cases. | Pan. I. the word form- ^ addition of the terminations 3TFTT *nd 3TfTW to the 1 ^ff"Tf^5 14. . PRONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION. By Nonx also }. Sanskrit: ed by the The following 35 words are termed* 'Pronouns' in 5 ^rJ. 3. ven. there'. ^^T: from ' the real state of the thing. D. 3^*.' A 'a tf*^ bow'. sense of the Ab. farewell' &o.' 'hail.' year 'ease. ^|% as -q^ 'the lowest world/ an of era'. 7. an army.120-132 ] DECLENSION. 132. added to nominal bases to express the meanings of (a) The ^^ added to the base of a . and *in that place. * 3. in reality. ?riy P^n. A. 3Tn* Betting. everywhere. (though they may be used for the . *r . 3flT> ^cm (. ^?nr <in every place. as ft-r generally case. are indeclinables. V. e.* added to pronominal adjectives. 130. (If) The suffix 5T is used is 131. ft *. V. &c. as smr3[?T: noun gives it the from carelessness'. 5j^ &c. few nouns such ^r 'hea^^^ 'a 5^ Chapter IV.'*. denote the meaning of the Loc.

n. and which become ^. i ^i^^r^f ^ 20-53. The declension of the first two of these pronouns the same in all the three genders. and honour JV. T^g[ 1 and {%&. A.f. i i Pan. Personal Pronouns. The pronouns :' 3T*R^ 'I. VIII. ?r^ g. 133. R^ G. q- and & respec- ^R. Ab. . and . 1. q-ffT? TcTR. ^?Tf. f 132-133 pronouns ffa% 9 q^ 7 tively before these. HT n.88 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.' g$R[ 'thou'. RR. L Ab. 3^f^* m. L. G. B. .. e.

ff^Wat( see Syntax < Pronouns ' ) fire similarly declined. f Pan. Kau.%!^: ^ftifrwrac *$&*'. . *3T^ *nr?rfr H^cf: N. and tf * this is surely your deed/ and ^sor: &o. be used with them}. Kau. 89 be declined like H*T^.' ^ fqr^t ^T T ^nt (Sid. &c. Pan. 72. VIII. 24. &c. 3T^H^. The following couplets illustrate the use of these short forms ^3 *W : II ^: ?r ^: u Sid. *HrfT*3 (SidKau. VIII.133-134 ] PRONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION. always protect us.+^rreRT^ (and not *: > <m? (Sid.j ff^r ^c^TffcTc^ But if &c. 1. ) a sentence (b) The shorter forms may be used in one but verb. Kau. known properly from rf: revered throughout or capable of being all the Vedas. 17. * nor can they be used immediately before the particles ^r. and not ^r ^5^. 1. 3*5 and q^-f. Kau. 18. ^ ^mfr ( Sid. (c) These shorter forms are not also used immediately after the Vocative case except when a qualifying adjective follows it. aa TO ^If my house. as 5ft ^ftsgmy lords. (a) The optional shorter forma of the pronouns and 3^R^[ 5JT^ &re never used at the beginning of a sentence or of a foot of a metre. 73. J Sid. 134. ) protect us always'. protect I *T?T^I 3T5?ra ^qn?ltl P4n. ^ having ^rrsfat sf|^ ^^ &* 3Tt^t ^r^rf&i *rf^rfar as there are two verbs J.) 'Oh God! do thon Kau. not not < ). 1. 5 or 57. VIII. A. 'Oh merciful Hari. may Krshna. but us. iJ I Vart. g-f. these <pr particles do not connect these forms they may Hara and Hari are Obs.

m B. TT?TT <T^ *TTfitffa> i. pi. was. ^Tf^ HO^ . Ab. ^IH terminations f^T3[ and fq-..90 . sing of the first two is Q d rrqr fei** IQ other respectively ^: and tr^f: mas. shorter forma ( [ 134-135 there. but must to thee when there ) is anvades' a*. I V4rt. ^. D Ab. respectively. A. . ^RT^. Ab. I. *: ?T^ ?f> A. N. D. pronouns ending in 3T are similarly declined. sings. except in the Nom. wat. 'that or he. All ^ firq 'this' . and L. she. G. O. <TC& ?fr bow ( already described only. the subsequent ?T mention of a thing already fTO 3T *fR: c mentioned be used qrKTT V ^Tr^f?(T. and ^r like nouns in & and are declined cases they become ft and tr-ft the G.' 2 136. and of which are J. L. I. L.' qr^ 'this/ The pronouns and 3TT3C 'that'. 5ETT^ and ^rri^ / OT . pi. Demonstrative Pronouns. N. The Nom. sing. it. (<J) The may or may not be used when is no 3^1457 ).. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

T: I Pan. and TOO. similarly. A. and A. N. D. . 4. 24. ( nnd Gon. ^ cases like the The following N. I.... Ab. Duals when there 3i^i>$T see g 137 ). at aff N.^ [9 optionally substituted for f^ and ^^ the Ace. in is II. A. G. The rest like the mas. Sing. <? *$* tsflr Nom. as HT^ which means the same thing *T 1 Decline ' <r^ . A. G. I.135 ] PRONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION. T. <rn Ab. N. L. Inst. Neu.

D. The rest like the mas. &o. A. Fern. Ab. ^r iFRS'g.92 Notes: SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. visarga of ^: and trq : is letter except 8? in which case 1 [ 135 The dropped when followed the usual Sand hi 50. <TT 3TWrfSi but tr^tsT^tFI. D. Ab. A. Vide ?r A. N. Ab. by any takes place. I. N. 99 . N.

& A. Kao. e. 3?^ id used of a person or thing is used of one that is absent.^ The pronouns q^ *TI fern. Fern. 93 N.. teach him prosody. while is q^ to one nearer still. . The 136. base Sid.' 3T*nfh The family of them both is pure. The following couplet : ( Karika ) gives a rule for the correct use of theae pronouns and used with reference to a person or thing near at hand. The optional forms of Sing. a previous clause. Inst. and Gen.135-138 ] PRONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION. araft 3 Ab. A. f^ and TT^ in the Ace. mas. mat. and neu. i. base qr. ^ 137. 'who. wealth ample/ 3 138. fern. g. a. has studied grammar. rest like the mas. at a distance. N. and their rr^ft: sr^rf ^^ * . The Relative Pronouns. is anvades' a* Duals are to he uaed whc-n there their proper forms have already been used in & Loo. D. which'.

*T A. ^ The Inter rogati ye Pronoun*. L. Afas. A. & A. [ 138-139 ^ man ^_ ^ N. N. *W *FFir: js /^W N. A. D. & . 1. L. Base basest. ^. The pronoun fa^mat. . G.fem. . *T> D. I. G.AMMAB. Ab.94 SANSKRIT GF. Ab. T^ .. A. ^ * D. N. G. N. Ab. The | rest like tbe 4 139.

f^ 5 Aw. &c. of -as ^ much and ^^7 ? and q^ added ftr. The sense of the reflexive pronoun is in Sanskrt. in the sens? of indefiniteness. Indefinite Indefinite Pronouns. ^Tr?^5[. a certain one. expressed by the word 3firR^ '**&' which is invariably used ^ 140. or f ^ m*^ ( f Tf ^1 li^e that. & A. ^T and r%^ ? a n(l g.5 139-143 ] PRONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION. and before ). <fct<ri: N. ^f%^fc ^OT ^^Tl^. like this. SnTTft. The terminations given above are also added to genders. ^ and f ^ q^ become . the varioafi pronoun f%^ in ff<T. T%trf how . Ah. ^TT^^. gtf 3[?^f?WR *TCT: ^fff ^nw: " all they (the wives of Das'aratha ) saw in dreams that they " were guarded by dwarfs . a^d qr respectively before T% before q^ and f and ^r ^. 95 B. pronouns are all the formed by the additiop n cases of the or 3q^ and sometimes of f?^ e. ji 142. so fr or ^rr G 141. % flias. &c. and by the reflexive adverb *ro^ e. ^ cTfTKRmR^r ?q^ ( ? rnucD. formed by the affixed ar^ added to and f%^ in the sense f^ asi and ^^ror^^in the sense of 'similar to'. 7 14H. . aa tfe$n^<i Ir7f%r^ interrogative adverbs at some time. are Correlatives to q^. in the masculine gender and singular number. . ?j^r^T. to y. &c. ^f^f%^ some. The remaining cases liko the Reflexive Pronouns. somewhere. g. Correlative Pronouns.

96 144. 0. ( Rag. q. <r^Kor ^^(q^Fftf &c. g. Nom. Plural. g. SANSKRIT GEAMMAE. They are as more commonly used 9T?'ff<3r3T\WMrMI^ as the first members of compounds. *T^ and r%^to show number or measure e. Sing. qTfTT R^s% &. before these. g. 44. [ 144-146 added to ?r^. and 5H5 . a^sft^ HdRdT> pionominal adjectives and q*<^r^. g.added to 3T?R?1. I. 8 Eeciprocal Pronouns. and Ace. is by the repetition of the 5^ trj. 5Fnrft: the rest like 5 R. $m 145. 146. e. 9. 14)j adverbially e.) &c. and cf^ . changed respectively and cTfsp|j in the sing. 3"^ &0- (^ u - 24. Possessive pronouns are formed by means of the affix . mine' 3rcR3ffcT 'our. Reciprocity expressed 3f?q-. ours*" . 'my. Plural. e.. q-fSr 'as many/ and how many'. g.-Possessive Pronouns. Inst. ifa 'so many'. These are generally used in the sing. and gR^. and . and 3TWr> and mlTT in the to secondary 3T Rm^ plu. Mas. These are declined in the plural only.X. my. tr^ and |^ added to s?f^. and also VII. SrftcWmr: (Sifl. mine' 'our. ours* Sing. and Ace. and 3sTft The affix aim is < take no termination in the Nom.

and Ace. Plural. ^ ( of many )/ mas. A. It therefore. N. Pronominal Adjectives. B. These are declined regularly. 3TTrf JT ( is not a pronoun.. ^. of the neu. 0. ' thine. as it is not mentioned in the Sid. 317 ( declined in the dual only ) and srvrq* ( which has no dual according to Kaiyatft and other grammarians) both meaning 'both/ f <K & Q<1 H. JV. r. jroup 4Juf^ is. *rw and ffor all having the same 148. yours.' 'one of many/ ^^T 'who or which of two/ ^fir 'who or q<fedH which of many/ qrcTT *who. f%^. . which is formed by adding *^. 3TT or f is a possessive pronoun by 10 147. . H^MJHU^I^-HI 1W mdNl^l^l ^IT Kau.' iHiMUi T. like ^ nouns ending in itself. Plural. meaning. ^c. ). Sing. G. thine.or which of two/ jr^-jr *who or which of many/ <f^ <that $oe ( of two )/ ?nnT 'that one are declined in all the three genders like e. (fcflil &. * gwtfv your. N. 97 mas. 7 jrqaft? 'one of two/ like ir^ except in the Norn.146-148 ] PRONOUNS AND THBIB DECLENSION. .' ^CR^pT yours.' r^mf thy. J5. declined like nouns ending in 37. sing. *thy. Decline ^f. g.> mas. S. gfwr 'another/ 3t?*nrc 'either of two/ fflt 'other. fern. ' fern. Sing.

SANSKRIT QBAMMAB.

[

148-150

3$ mas.
N.

'all.'

A.

L
D.

*nror

fNYuiNi

Ab

G
L.

Fern.

N. A.
I.

D.

Ab
G. L-

>**
N. &. A.

OT*
is
is

The
( a)

rest like the mas.

not a pronoun and ^mV tfm: Norn., Jingo CTTTHTO G. plu. as in the Sutra of Pail.
I

7 CTT when it means 'equal in nouns e. leolined like 3f; g. frtf:

1. 3.

10.
:

149.
(

03s

?cr

and ?w

(

the 10th and llth

^wrRs

)

the ore

ud^tta), the other <^|^|^ (anudatta), both synonymb of are declined like ^r$. The former is of the form f^g;

according to some and then it the terminations ; e.g. tQT?^ Pftft
150.

is

?3tt:

declined regularly by adding Nom. &c.
class
n.

^ when

it

does not

mean " a

" or
but

<

wealth
it

"

is

a pronoun aod is declined like

^* m.f.

forms

its

150-154

]

PEONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION.

99

and Ab. and Loc. sing, optionally like rrtr when Nom plu.; but $37: 'people of one's class' only ( declined like ^ftr ). 151. 3jnU is a pronoun ( and therefore declined like " exterior, n.f.) when it means outer; or what is to be worn
plu.

Nom

mas.- as ^% or ^jj: 'one's own'

^m

garment"* except when followed by 5^; it is like nouns ending in 3? in the Nom. pi. and declined optionally Ab. and Loo. sing, of the mas. 0. g.
out-aide, as a

*T STTOPT:

(

garments

).

But

152. %JT meaning 'half is a pronoun, but it is optionally declined like TTO in the Nom. pin. mas in other respects it is declined likd 37.
153.
if$ 'prior, eastern', 3T*T

'posterior,

western', ^t%ur

Southern,'

g^R

'superior, northern, subsequent',

3HT

'other/
space,

and

aro?[ ^inferior, lower,'

when they denote

relation in

time or person with reference to a particular thing or point of time &c. and are not a name, are pronouns f and are then declined like 9$; but they are optionally declined like rot in th* Nom. plu. and' Ab. and Loc. siog. when ma*, e.g. Nom. ^}:
or
&c.. but ^T%UTT: <IPT^T: ( skilful musicians ) only, and not for ^T%or does not show any rektion herej so ^WfT* ^T9 :

and

not ^pft, as
154.

s^m:

is

a

name

here.
is

n;$r

when a numeral

declined in the sing,

and fg

in .the dual only; fj[, is considered as f, and they are both declined like 9$ in all the three genders; 9 y.

Mat.

fern.

mas

fern. &c. neu.

N.

:

I

Pan.

I.

1. 36.

g|fboM*C

I

Vart.
.

1. 11.

34.

100

SANSKRIT GRAMMAB.

[154-157
t
rest like

A.
J.

<r*5n
<j%sr

<n?T*
<TOTT

tf

D. Ab.
G. L.
(fcjr

qr**&

^^

span* The

the mas.

MM. q^j^ N. A. The
it

rest like the
'one' is declined

cr^

when

does not

mean

in

the dual and

plural also. The various meanings of 5 155.

V&

are:

U

or chief, pre-eminent, xnnr or foremost little, q^TR or sole, only, ^rvTROi or common ( as 3ttWS^Tg?rRf3r ff

or

^

%g:

),

*WR or
(

the same

(

as gtf Kr^Tr^?jt JTR

),

and

or number
156.

one

).

HOT,

^TCH, 3(^T,

3Tvi,

^W,

and words ending in

the termination
of pronouns}
157.
e, y.

OT

optionally form

their

Nom.

plu. like that

11

-Pronominal Adverbs.
that are moat

The pronominal adverbs

commonly

met with

I%^

7

are derived from the pronouns a<r, q<!^, *^[, and ^r? and the pronominal adjectives ^cpc c. by

f^

r

means

of such affixes as

^

' ,

7,

;:

f

,

^

&c. added in the sense of the

Ab. or the Loc., ^T, f^Rin, f| &c. showing time, fu^t showing point of time, place or direction, 3TT, 3Tf^ 3tTTf &c. expressing direction, TIT, $r+&c. expreseing way or manner &c.; e. g.
See
130.

t ti^l'tffi^TT^"

^y&
I

^T ^'Tl^?'?^ 3l^TT ^T^T Pan. V. 3. 15-19. 21.
I

I

^ ^^ ^T
' .

V.

S- 27.

arrf?

^
\

>

i

Pan. V. 3.

34. 36. 3.

MK^^^Trl

msi5

;

HWW

P&n. V. 23-25.

157-158

]

PRONOUNS AND THEIR DECLENSION.

101

W^T, thenj d$|rflq, at that time; then, therefore; TOT, so, ?nr, there;
Oft, thence, thereupon, therefore, &c.
,

therefore; f?r:,

now,??*n*, thru; 3^, here, from this, hence;

now; f , here. nowj frr^ thus; 3^: hence,
therefore;

aw

*$, when;
where;
q^f:,

when; *nrr s; q^ whence J? since, because,

^

here.

^f}, when; qp^r, when;
^5T,

sp*r^, how; where5 ^, where; ^r:, where, whence; ^5, whence, how.

wf^,

always; everywhere, on

?ar^f,

always;

^ff:,

all sides;

*rg=r every-

where, in all places. q^f: further on, beyond, &c.
3*:, S^ffTec before, in front,

&c.

or

own below.
,

or
behind, below, downwards. from behind, afterwards, T^cTRl,

westward, &c.
or in
the south, on the right side. 3Tm^, ^^^mft to or in

SMS
158.

tne

north, &c.

When

member of a compound, or a sentence having the sense

a pronominal word is used as the subordinate or of is at the end of an Inst. Tat. of the Inst. Tat., or at the end 01 a
,

Dwandwa,

it is

not declined like a pronoun*;
I

0.

g.

3|

Vart.

<{|<JI4<m*l

I

Pan.

*

I. 1.

30. 31.

102

SANSKRIT GBAMMAR.
not
r

[

158-159

wfor T*I* and not

Dwandwa comp., however, it is optional!/ deas WrT$9^ or a clined like pronoun in the Nom. plo.,*
in the case of a

CHAPTER

V.

-^OfrS'****^-

NUMERALS AND THEIR DECLENSION.
159.

Cardinals

and

Ordinals

mat.
1

/

2 3

*
3 v

fie

ft

4
5 6 7 8

H
vs
<z

9 10
11 12

IS
14

16
Pan. 1.1 32,
f
}

Th word qf^

^

also denotes ten. Cf.

Rag. IX. 74.

becomes

tuted for

^

)

necessarily when followed by and ^T^, optionally when followed by
^ff

^

( substivnr,

after
b.

which

3-

is

changed to

^ and

vj

to

^

.

y. ^TTT ( vide

169.

)

159

]

KUMERALS AND THEIR DECLENSION.

103

17
18
is

^
%
?<<.

;nre5T5r or

or
or

rr^Rn^r,
v4tiffci&T

o^tY, oif^fH^rjr,

otff or orfT or

osftt ofaaiiffriH.

22

23 24

^ ^
9

5T'f^^rf&

^^rfif^TRT

rrq^ifif^T, o^fr,

^rft^r, o^fr, or of^nr, or oMdU, ojfr

"<"
w yi

>

>>

>

25

9H

>

26
27

^
9v

T^J^T^nn

^T^^T,

o^fV
"*(

,,

99

),
>

>/

F,

o^ or
,

oiff

30
31
32

^

^o

i^SJuiH^f

l^ttfty

$TT or fg^f^ffr oj^r

33

34
35

36
37

^^ ^^ 3V ^H 35
3\s>

38 39

3<s 3<l

41

V?

<pP^?1Tfi[?tT^

104

SANSKBIT GBAMMAB.
5TO*Tf?STS or
fg^^ipfsiq.
aiHMNififcl^ or

[

159

49

VR
V

43
44 45 46
47

48
49
50
51

^

grc^^uffd or

52
53

Ho H^ H^

q*m$l</
^^r^rn^m
ftlM^I^I^ or
KIH*''!^*^.

qs^n^T, o^

or

H^ HV HH H^ *W H^

54
55 5o 57

58

3>'i<

or

59

or

63 04
5

53 3nr*i% sv

or

159

]

NUMERALS AND THEIR DECLENSION.

105

68 69

^c

S^
\So

*i*i^fe or

70
71

ti urn

/<"?

ttHmtiH* oift

vs^

it<etiHi?T

H*ilHd>

orff

or

72

vs^
VS3

S'lfVHPf or

73
74 75

V9V

^
IT

an
vs^
vsvs

76
77

78
79
80

vs<s

vs^

?f^fiV.M or

Co

82
83

<^
<-^

84 85 86
87

<^V

<JH
<i^

iv?
<:<-

88

89

<i9

TCf5T?fff or

90
^2

^o

**
9.3

ffTii5r^ or

93

SUJRaf^ or

106

SANSKRIT GEAMMAB.

[

159-160

94

V<*

95

*H
<^
^V5

96
97
98

9

3KLM<4f<f or

99

200 9 o o
300 Boo

i%5T?T neu

or^^
firSTrT

nu. Or
r r

1000 \ooo ^rfw

10,000 8T5?r

".

100,000 s$r

eu,

or

ma9
neu.

Each of
160.

these is ten times as great as the preceding.*

The

cardinal numbers between fiferft and

f^T^and ^TflR^a>
tr^, T%, &c.

up number may also be

to SCT; to

made U P b The ninth intermediate made up by prefixing q-^Ffr, 3T^ or q'*W
i4

^^ be fleen

are

the lower.

to the higher. In these compounds (5, |% and &&^ aie changed ao ^r, 9<P, and 3^1 necessarily before f^rfff and fg^r^, and optionally before the rest except SR^nm before which they

remain unchanged, f

wtfr
:

t*4lflft

cqq^Ki^
47-49

fTtTT:

^:

II

,

Pan. VI.

3.

161-163

]

NUMERALS AND THEIR DECLENSION.

107

The cardinal numbers between 100 and 200, 200 and are &o. 300, generally expressed by means of atnN added to the number showing the excess and then optionally prefixing the whole to 100, 200, &c, e. g. <rqnf^fc $ra or ^Fn^^nt 101,
161.

or

r3*$rtfre3T<T

After 1000

this

srfre
.

may

H2, traro^ft** $ra 150- &c. be repeated 'with every multiple of
177639,

ten er hundred;

^
also be used insted of

Similarly

OTT may
754.

arrq^

*

9-

Or

these

may may

also be, at times,

expressed

by the copulative particle
162.

^ as ^HT 5f 3nm% ftSTRW 720.
be used, instead of

The Tad.

affix 3f*

in the ease of the cardinal numbers ending in ^^T^, the numeral RsTTfT and those ending in 313 t. 0. in the case of the numerals

111-159, 211-259, 811-359, &c. and qualifying the numerals ^nr and qffif before \vlaeh the final 3^, grf^r and 3^g^ are dropped

^m^ HI, ft^T 5T<t 120, q^r^T 217, f%^t 1%^nt 330 and so on.
163.

^

150,

The

ordinals

from

ir^, rj,

f^

^%

and

^

f are

ordinal from other numerals up to formed inclusive are by dropping the final ^ and adding 17 ^513; and after ^r^[ up to *i<i^^l< by simply dropping the ;j. The
irregularly formed.

The

ordinals from fgr^ri% t above are iormed by adding ^rr or by dropping the iff of fersrfk and the final coneonant of the rest;

the compound numerals, in this latter case, change the final vowel to 3T, while the simple ones ending in a vowel i. t.

:

i

^riftsrasa'
2.

i

Pan. V.

2.

45.

46.

^Tff^r^TOf^'^

I

Vart.
\

t ^T^filTiraSft

'&$

Pan. V.

51i,

so

q^^: ^5^:
y

&c.;

'Vart. efar,

Pan. V.

2. 54, 55.
.

V.3.56,58.

108

SANSKRIT GBAMMAB.
and

(163-160
first

snrfir

form their ordinals in the

way

only; as

*?&&:

or trgpfffew:, but

*f%<m

only,

^m

has invari-

ably 3ma*T.

DECLENSION OF THE NUMEBALS
164.

(

CARDINALS AND OBDINALS

)
"*

^
<3

( <rj T
),

^gT ( ^TO/m.
165.
is

), T% ( fitaV* )> fem.)y ft ( are all adjectives and takes the gender, num-

*T>.

ber and case of the nouns they qualify.

declined in the sing.

dual and plural also
particulars see Alone. E. g.

it may have the ( though For further * n tlie dmtl alone. and ), ft 154. f% and ^5^ are declined in the plu.

mas.

fem.

mas.

fern.

A.
D. Ab.

?fa[

A.
iffQW
D. Ab.

fiinwp

G.

neu.

N.v. A.
The
166.

sfrflr

N.V.A.
The
rest like the mas.

rest like the mas.

^T33R(. These are also adjectives agreeing in case with the nouns to which they are applied. They are dech'ned in the pi. and are uniform all the three genders.

7333

m

N.V.A.
I.

Dat.

&

Ab.
:

ft^Tt

m^^

Pan. VII.

2. 99.

166-169
G.

]

NUMEBALS AND THEIB DECLENSION.

100

L.

^[ and

the following cardinals

up

to

ought

to be declined like 167.

and other cardinal numbers up to

are all feminine substantives, the numerals ^TrT, ^Kf5T, &c. are all neuter, with the exception of $$r which is 72011. and and 3TWTO both of which are fern. OTTZ which is fern, and
mas.

and

have

no
25

^

declensional

peculiarities.

They
or

are
e. g.

declined in the sing,

and so

used

with a plural noun;

Brahmanas;

qfrl^irnre^nfa

:

;*>: or ^frf*: by 111 men or women; q with Rs. 999 &c. They may be made to have duals

and plurals by being used as
STTSTOTRr f%5T?TT:

fixed

standards of counting*

0. g.

many

twenties

of

Br$hmanas ;

\^

two hundreds of women &c.
168.

The

ordinals are declined regularly except:

156 ) and fjrfor and ^fft^ which are optionally ( see and LOG. sing ; declined like pronouns in the Dat. Ab. Gen.

NUMEBAL ADVEBBS.
169.
(

a

)

^^

once,

f|:

twice,

T=T:

thrice,

^5: four

times; from

onwards adverbs of frequency are formed by before which final ^ is dropped 0. g. q^i^jF^: five adding ^^:

qn^

times, ^nrfir^: seven times, &c.
( * ) ^T^n* or ^^q-ij; in one way or part, f|qr or gpjr or \$ in two ways or parts; fgTjr or g-qri or Ifir^in three ways, &c.; ? in four ways, <riT or frS^TT in six ways, *wn, s?^TT, &c.

Pan. V.

3.

42-46.

O

SANSKEIT GRAMMAB.

[

169-171

( c )

<rs3r: one

by one; fer

:

two and two, by twos; ao

170.
(

Other derivatives from the numerals:

is added to numerals by the Taddhita affix ^ which for five ( rupees &c. ) ending in 5^ and fif e. g. <ngra?: bought for bought for twenty forty; %tff?ne: ^*Tnfo?*: bought

a

)

( ooinf , &c. )

" collection of parts" or "; . y. ^TgW ( ^g^tfV / ing of four parts or a collection of four; so <na?TO OT is optionally changed to 3TO after f$ and f^

(

b ) *by

means of the Tad.

affix

a^ in the lense of "

consisting
) consist-

(fern, ift);
.

9*

%&

or

of two parts, or a pair; f-jr^q- (_qr /0m. ) twofold, consisting or =nr or fiftf? (.^/m. ) threefold consisting of three parts, a
collection of three, a triad.
( e )

collection of five,

a collection of six, by means of ^ and 3R y. a decade, &. of & collection ten, 331^
.

^

Chapter VI DEGREE OP COMPARISON.
171.

or and

HIT are the

most common terminations

of the

comparative and the superlative degrees respectively.! They are added to that crude form of words which they assume, before

the

Inat.

duftl

termination;

e.

g.

WJtta<jUfcUl*J<1

33*-

similarly

* See Chap. IX. Intro,
:

Pan. V. 3.65.57.66.1.1.22.

When

atit'aya or

excess of the one thing over many is to be shown ?nr and f gare the affixes used; and when out of two things one is, to be separated as possessing some quality in excess ft? and

are affixed.

<r?

and

rm may

also added to verbs.

171-176]

DEGREE OP OOMPABISON.

Ill

172.

Before these the

final

f and

^ of

optionally shortened, e g. sftSTTT or m?rn, T ( more lame ) or *T5?m, ^dUT, ^Tgrfm, &o.

a pratipadifca are or |%nTT;

Tmm

^Tf

and ?rw when attached to verbs, and indeclinables forming adverbs, assume the forms of <TTT^ and rTPrn^*
173.
JTT

or
&c.; but
174.

rt^T:
fii^
of

a^j- (higher).

is

and $%

the

superlative.

another termination of the comparative degree These are added to adjectives of

Before these the last vowel of a word with the quality only f. following consonant if any is dropped; e. g. P wfT*m wf^; &c. but <ri%er} <*,
tnfnre;
,

w^

,

only.

175.
affix

The
are

3

possessive affixes at the end of words and the dropped before ir^ and fgr{ and then these
e. g.

terminations are applied subject to the above rule;
talented

so ^rrfrqia

,

WI^B' ^rom $rfo^ one having a garland &c.

176.

f

is

substituted

for

the

^

(short) oi a base
the Tad.
aff.

preceded by a consonant before

fq^, ?F and

to r?T

and air

after r%^C 7 or
)

Pan. V. 4. 11. arr is added a word ending in qr or a tubanta or
I

tiiianta (

ms^^rf
f.

except when they form adjectives.
.
I

t

3T3ITafT (

J

fr* and f y ) ^N^MI^ Pan. V. f^rnt^W gHTO^rg Pan. VI. 4, 154.
I I

3.

58.

*

^T *3T^Ht:

I

Pan. VI.

4. 1J1.

vf^T I ^ ^S[W ^ I I Pin. I 60-62. vi 4. SUT: Pan. 3. q.112 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 176-177 f^T thin' comp. : ^ i &c. Sfcf$ig 3S 'strong. t^r. fW ft Pan. drop iheir final portion beginning i^ or q[ ) and the preceding vowel takes guna. I Pan. respectively. chief 'broad' ^ ygSf 'much' ^fpr^ ^'aoft' 177. f. &c. a^m^ is The following an alphabetical list of the irregular comparatives and superlatives that are commonly met with: Positive near'* 'little't Comparative Superlative- wide'f 'mean/ 'smalP 'heavy 1 'restless or anxious' 'satisfied' ? $ A. tf^ftq^ superl. I mhstituted for ft^. &c. v. ^ 3. w.. 167. V. 4. . 64. firm' <rft3? 'head. WT. VI. The words ^9 with m^ ( . 3. 158-159. forj. P&n. 36. 4. *^ ^^^ long' 'distant' 'praiseworthy' 'dear' x w^ or ^q-R^ i -W <> r t t yno"^"!' tfeHH^d^-WIH Pan. VI. *r ^8^253^5**%sj$pnirr irf^t i#w 156.

COMPOUNDS. first We will * See note x H. and super. The throe will be treated in their proper pjftoes. ' m ^g' mvch 91 * firm. ) is the general term. Vritti ( 17fr. viz. ^TgfRf or the formation of derivative Verbs from 'primitive roots.to intensify the meaning .177-179 ] COMPOUNDS. well ' t much ' ' great lovely 'steady' ' ' big. Sometimes the terminations ^ and tpr are added to the comp. Tbesa or tho formation of words Vrittis are five in number . % q^f% from roots by primary affixes cTf%a^r% or the formation of derivative -bases from nouns by secondary affixes . p. S. G. or the formation of a compound word by the composition of and irtp^^fTw or the composition of words in several words . Chapter VII. large ' much short ' ' ' 178. 112. for any complex formation in Sanskrit requiring explanation or resolution. which one of several nouns generally alike in form is retained. in JOT and 53. 8 . troat of the last two in this Chapter.

( see below ). g. hatak-ya ) consists in the The expounding (a) When the VigrahavaJtya cannot be given. e. Kan. * Samasas'*'. ) 183. into combination with one andther and forming what are called 180. ^Rtf&T: a fool. *TSra( + S^ =*nTS$T : : > &c. words are simply between the component joined together. compounds.114 SANSKRIT GRAMMAS In Sanskrit simple [ 180-184 words. and again may In a compound. Sid. 181. whether substantives. its grammatical position in a sentence. e. ). required by ffTC^+ 3R:=fis[3r!T: 182. giving its Vigraexpression of the various relations existing between the objects or ideas denoted by the various members of a Samasa by means of the proper eases or subordinate sentences. as a general rule. gfSrfBT' name of the eldest Pandava &c. In a few cases. the compound is called nityasamasa ( ^ftjrfr RcHimifr: to throw together. the remaining words (those ending in a consonant ) generally assuming their crude forms before the consonantal case terminations. in short. the power to exprees the various relations that exist between the The last word only takes the case termination several parts. or cannot be given by nsing the words actually compounded.. (a) compound words or. Final vowels or consonants (modified as mentioned abo^e of preceding members of compounds combine with the initial letters of the succeeding members according to the usual rules of Sandbi. have the power of entering verbs or indeclinables. 184. become the member of a new compound. 9. be compounded this A compound tLug formed may further with another simple or compound word. adjectives. of a Samasa (i. the intermediate members retain their case endings in which case the compounds are called '^-llv?:' (3T3^). * From 31^ with ^nr . without any relation whole the compound word has parts being actually expressed .

J * This is true only generally speaking. The Ekasesha is not strictly speaking a subdivision J Dwandwa. Sanskrit grammarians do not regard it as a Dwandwa. 22. 2. ^ tnr: ^T> are three ^ species of the Dwandwa- viz.' I* should be further remembered that since it is not a samasa. would be connected by the copulative particle ^r (a*d). It is not a Divandwa. or Adverbial. These names themselves mean nothing t. For there is a fifth componnds. Compounds ( 1 ) Dwandwa N. They classes are from simply proper names distinguishing the various one. : i Sid. do so at all DWANDWA 166. OR THE COPUDATIVE COMPOUNDS. if not compounded. There <TTft<TT5 which is the same as qrofT w. ^T 5=^:1 Pan. though ' it may be so regarded for the sake of convenience. they do not denote any of the characteristics of the different compounds. ^rj ^crr-compounds not governed by any of the rules given under the four chases but explained on the general principle that any sulanta pada may be compounded with auy otiter subanta pada. consists of A Dwandwa compound two or more uouns which. B. and (4) Acyayibh&va 185. viz. It is a separate Vritti by itself ( Vide 179 \ of ). . HHIKi&-8[ and qg^tq-. .' remarks Bhattoji Dikshita. another ( to which they vaguely refer if they ). (2) Tatpurusha or Determinative. 115 are divided into four principal classes:*or Copulative.Kau. (3) JBahuvrihi or Attributive. 'as it does not contain more than one subanta ( 3j5f3r^tU*ngr^gy ). its filial vowel does not become udatta. II. According to some there are six class of kinds of compounds.185-186 J COMPOUNDS. f as TfR^fr *hich is equal to TT^T ^T. e. ?d^H*. Hz. as in the case of a Dwandwa compound. ^qf g^r $: f^r 5TmT mg^T^T <> TrTST g.

singis daj aud night species Sainah&ra Dwandwa that of Dwandwa which implies an aggregate or the things enumerated in which constitute a complex idea.two or more in num- is ^ the gender of the whole. 4. the several members of a is Dwandwa. dual of but Exceptions a mare. differing in gender. I n. 9. In. %v ftftrvftfr sn^t^irrm: P^n. has its '. called Itaretara It takes the it according as the objects denoted by ber. players on 26. and insects and animals between which there is natural autip&thy. 4. the gender of the final noun cock mzfr a pea-hen ). .. II. 4L 8. 2j 7. compound ' are viewed separately.116 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 4. e. y^ down the Dbava and the Khadira trees member is of equal importance 0. it 'cut trTOT^ft In this species each own independent meaning. is always of this naturej hands and feet. ar^W gr^^T ^ 3fiW<W ( ** ( dual ) a horse and ). dual or the plural are . 4. .fiKfc: ^rrra^: Pau. as also of countries ( and . Dwandwa. When fijFF<T. sleep and tear 7 but all that characterises animal life. II. of words denoting limbs of 189. ^ffSfrtre: t ffr snuhttiSwis^RR i Pan. 6.* as f^FfdW^f fft ( fom. gftist 188. U. inanimate obiects things or grars and not qualities ) names of rivers not villages ). [ 187-^189 187. this meaning of the different members is subordinate species the to the collective sense of the whole compound. Thus 3rrfRl%raqi^ does not merely mean 'food. Pan."nd horse-men RiiJfitOTS* WTWiTSa' niftfi<n<mfi9vr Pan. 4. f A Dwandwa compound ( the body of an animal.. II. w&ff 3^TTT3T: **<". It is always singular and ntuter. *. parts of an army. players on musical instruments.

corn. but *i*rnnpT 8B these gender- ^far ^T^T ( of countries. birds.^r: kinds of corn. . but 3fry?y3rT<%H->J> louse ^r 1%^TT a nit ^T J^$^|nnr names two ( villages of that name )j two names of the same gender )j ^ ?j^rfRT^. Dwandwa * -Vr: . birds. rfrrfir^. The names. of the words- ?ro and W* p t and 3fq-^ t Trpr and things 3^*aT ( jTBtrs ). ifirr the rivers in Ganges nd Sopa. blasts. the plnral. condiments. are laid rulea ( The following compounds are always what they down to ba ( though they do not conform to the proper Samahara ).a kind of sweetmeat ) fried barley or but tf form and do not differ flavour. ^^iHM^ similarly ^maq-an ( kinds of deer kinds of grass. herbs.189-192 J COMPOUNDS. viz. corn and grass-. and words of opposite import not qualifying are optionally compounded into a 8 am aha* . 3fl|v ^^ys? 3TfJH^^H a snake and an ichneumon. parts of an army. instances in order ^^rrW ?iRinTra' ). Names pairs of trees. insects. grass.f only when they are taken in as but 192. 190. a ) D wand was: TNT*I . deer. deer. 191. 117 rioc mridanya and panavn ( kinds of tabors rsq-sa. form a Ssmahara-Dwandwft. of fruits. as these denote qualities. &c.

. frar ^r <fr?rr ^r %sr ^ ^T?TT two words be taken at a time the ^r ft<j<?t<3:>^!^R : . When words ending in 35 and implying relationship or literary . : Pan. the blood by last but one word changes its 55 to 3?T. . 197 a). VI. (i)Itaretara and ghee. 3TT is vowel of the preceding word. and sticks grass. Pan. but ^fciT 3rf?T or (i) The word its followed by the word ^ffar or lengthens r . i 26. also f^cTT ^ SST^ ( HmTft^T the ftcTnmrft eft HTHT Pan. &c. 192-194 so 9ft$ffrTOC> camels apd rabbits. . 3. ?^r^ camels and asses. (a) When names of deities well known to be in constant association substituted for the final with each other are compounded. I Kau. *&*W holy 8 grass and soft grass or shrubs. as jtar'^T ^rTT ). * 5t?TT ^T 'qftJTr ^ !arircTr?r two priests BO ^ 5 called. W^prfqfr honey holy and the Saman and x mh)d irregularly ( the D verseg.avocation are compounded together. 32.118 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. word x. g. 3. ( bufc if may> at every step. VI. ^|^HH% ( *T^+ WT^ ^ of CTIT3 dropped and a? added 4. 27. 25.^forgA. The same happens when the word g?r follows a word ending in under the same circumstances. as Pan. V. Sid. [. . ). 77 ) 193. VI. ra89 and jmr*frW?re(. VI. ) speech to iw^ by Pan. 3. ftcn'jsft'? ^ and ( vide 194. be changed into - 3TF. wand was: ^TW^T curds and milk. 3. ^[|^T srf^T: I Vftft. except errg in the case of the o.

When Samahara-Dwandwa ends in : a consonant of the palatal class or ^. ^n^F^J of dawn and the sun. t f^fr errar i ft*w sfaam* i P^n. ^striR^ an umbrella and But srTI?$T^ ( as it is not a Sam. 9TT3FW*. night '. 4. The following compounds are instances of irregular D wand was: sfiseT gfafr ^T SjnSTTSfasft or f^rezfiterft t earth. ) 3Tror-r-<mr=5WTcfr. 196. so qranglft. 4. house and q^means mation. ) quoted further on ( 3^<f* V&rt.l 3fWTrft and arraTOir husband and U ^r ^ s^tsa' ^ftneV. a word of regular fori ^^Tcfr is considered by some to be ' a. r^p^rn^ a bark and 37^ . 3. When several words of the same form ( or disform but of the same import x ) are compounded toonly one of them is retained with the necessary numberPan. shoe?. added in the cae of these compounds accordV. VI. V. Dwa.. . ). 30. 29. [ ' A final ST is ing to a Sutra of Pan. a 119 g 195. 3? is added to it and speech skin.or ^. ). ^. 77. trnfr ^ ^873T-rTT ^ meaning day and 197. ^gw 3Wft%r ^TTITWT3C 3*18?!^ ^TTT^ m^TW thighs and knees. similar in gether. JT^ in the Vedio literature the a master ' m Hence the full word ^rqcfr wonld mean * 1 ' mistress of the house. under 284.a ^f ?^r &c. 106.195-197 ] COMPOUNDS. ( a ) heaven and tfa e 3^+^=OTWrnp?f goddess (&) wife. garland.

. 70. *mar TTOW *mr. gender is retained. 67. 68. also ift ^ ftoT ^ (toft ^^7^V ^r ^ ? ). as in the following examples: WcTT ^T t*TOT ( ^ ). V^d^R r^ ?iff ^TT^m. 2. 3*. 1. 3ty?T5ff*iy I 34. fern. ot In the case of the mas. I syllables should be placed STOC ftnni Pin. ^r m ^ ^T ^ or ?ftx. and there are more than one of such words one of these should first. {b j ff Words -beginning with a vowel and ending in 3r ought to precede others. and fern. as ^T aim 198. and neu. as 3T^f5T: or iril^^l-'. j ^uif|(i ^ V&rt. 72. i 2.Tilifl Iule should have preference even over the above rule in case both would be simultaneously applicable. 9. II. genders the one me ( a ) mas. [ 197-198 . nw TTOS* *TTOT ^ff TTHT: i This is called t^^Hfl^:. S1 d Kau. fftnfK (e) * t t || A word that has fewer 1. Pan. see alsc193. l is retained. A A be placed the rest being arranged according to the will of the speaker or writer. II. 2. ^^irprr^f^ftiT^m: ^ri Virt ' - tt 3f3TT^nT^ II I Pin. The following rules should be observed in arranging the various members of a ( Dwandwa Compound: when a) word ending in f or 7 should be placed first. 2. on Pan. gender that of the ntu. 2. 71. m^ft **3%3Wr T^r: faTT-WTTT i I Pin. x W^l ^ c^KiPi ^fHrg^ Pan. 1. 72. 33. Aft firi Pin. 2. In the case of words of the gender I mat. 2.120 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.* as ^ &FBT ^ffb similarly This principle is farther extended to some wprds dis- similar in form. II.

g. the names of seasons and stars. . ($. . and or abverba. &c. 2. the oae that baa more . should of more important significance as ( & Also a word others. Pan. uuder this latter circnm astrononucal stance. (6) V^pnda. S^FRKiaift. that 201. ^5T^fl[ a Sudra so 3W5T5T or and an Arya.Vartikas on the above Sutra. $5TW5T^. . 202. first According to the grammatical nature of the or attributive member the Tatpurusha is divided into six varietios:- (1) Tatpurusha proper or the Inflectional. These are either nouns. while in the case of words of the V|U|fj group ( a sub-division of TT^T^rfff^ ) the rule is observed optionally f . 121 first number of and in case there ore more words th. should be placed first. II. called Tatpurusha. 31. 3frJT7*F?ft. I I I I .5) Pradt and Gati or the Prepositional compounds. (3) Karmadfiaraya or the Appositjlonal including ^Dwigu'. precede d ) * Names of the four castes of men should be arranged according to their order. IL 200. beginning from the highest and so should be the names of brothers beginning from the eldest . 9- m^ow%*fite3grr: 199. adjectives The final vowel of a feminine noun ending in any of ^gvHTnrer. In the case of words of the TCT^pfTTT^ class that which ought to be placed first is placed last. should be arranged according to their order. (2) Nan or the Negative Tatpurusha. %*^rft.tn one having a* equal short syllables syllables.108-202 ] COMPOUNDS. When a compound consists of two members and the is determines the sense of the other. first TATPURUBHA OB THE DETERMINATIVE COMPOUNDS. as %*^f$Tf$Rcrtf??rT:. V4HlMMq^: Vart.

203. the Accusative case is with fsm.).as the (a) *n%^ ^TTT%: final. fr member ift la of compound used adjectively is to 3. 24. 1. as srnfr gfrTt^t or ^frR^nrnr: one who . or 37 and forming the second shortened. srnr + 3mir^=sronfTfive 3Tnfan^ ( Tat -).f'^llrffon one who has overcome pain f ^^IM'rf: one who has obtained happiness. rotr. srnr and anrr^r may also be placed first. gTW *T*ft going to a village. in the * 'ftftmlvmJHW I I Pan. compounded $g> and Krishna as ^or f^ii. a passenger. : ff^rama. others f .under the same circumstances* f%g: (Tat. STTTO. f- &c - but qxOTJT- is not If the final f or 37 be not a FT 1 fern. f>corfrrT: one who has resorted to ( as his refuge 5^ 3OTO . termination. A word expressive of the duration of an action or state is (ti) compounded with another expressive of the action or state. II. ). has obtained livelihood. [ 202-204 a the affixes grf. The first variety cons is ts of such Tatpnrusha compounds as have the attributive member in any one of the There are six sub-varieties of oblique cases when dissolved. sTrfar. 2. (a) A noun in qmar. changed e. f%5TT TT^T qR*T f%r=ra: having variegated cows. mary-veined ^5: (Bah. Trr.* 3^ ^g: 3l^r^g: &c. ^^ : something bought for cows .122 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. I. similarly BTTq^r^fH^P: or sftfr^FRT: smr^fRr^T ^f. . I t ^tftai f8rcfl<?lriMidri*ltilr<J4d!4|Cfll<4& Pan. the aft of . . srnr.). srggr *nrwr q^amqF'. 3???T*rr. Tatpurusba. it remains unchanged^ 55 tfr. 48. g. this corresponding to the six oblique cases 204. B.?]Uj|df|- Virtika. &c.

28. . sg^T . ( c ) with the wordsft ^f. tt ^JsfrreSNJK W^J*<j6 ftuu l UW 5Wii^: J I Pan. ggS &S( %% ^H* ' * happiness lasting fo a moment'. II. II. 1. 32. X ^cfarr cTr^ffWT 9019^7*1 Pan. 1. and words having the sense of g^T. o/. ( as the new moon. knife.^T^OT^r^: severed by means of a a ) x with is . fqr^TO: equal to hia II. and g^TT. . 1.'. I 1. A noun in the Instrumental may be compounded what another expressive of an effect produced by denoted by the noun in the Instrumental case. p. V. &&% R5T. p.26. Bhatti. as ( HHj 3*TW ^l^'a silly fool'. r^r: I II. 1. 31. 10 d ) Sometimes a preposition or a word denoting a period of time may take the place of the Accusative^. I P^. as mfft&cT ' 'half done.' JTRnTTOT-' ( srfirq^sr: ) 7 what marks the commence- ment of a month 205. 30. b) with verbal derivatives when the Instrumental has instrument or means of thes ense of the agent or the the action. ^T. II. 29. ( \^tf -r- g^T. . The word ^|T forms an Accusative Tatpurusha with a participle when censure is implied or contempt is to be shownf. Pan. and with aref as ^iffgWr W&.204-205 ] COMPOUNDS. . *r?5T. l. 123 Accusative case. ( c ) ^q^f m^f: ti^rH^lw residence for a year 7 &c. ^T. as irr%5T f^: JTT3T ^?5T: WTcf^f^T: like his mother. II. g. 3J^f 5rctf$n5F x torn with the nails &c. as sftoiT 5rra: fftsrra: saved by Hn. 27.^T^Tr*i wealth obtained by means of grain. Pan.

of the Instrumental Instances of the Aluk of the Instrumental! ( t. *<lone does not drop its case term. *rer ^5Jf *T1*5J5: a quarrel 3?J*rer:. 36. wood for a sacrificial post. ^fT.may take the done by one's 206. religious 'duties' jmfcT *W 3TT^m:g^iT: 'thin by the discharge of ' W^TI^: younger by a month. JTT^nwfeftrr^fT%S: Pan. 3?r^R[ followed by an ordinal number retains iU case ending. at srjrR^T T8HT: 207. Vart. t 3Ttlf:^ftV^IT^^rT^nn:| Pan. blind from ^i 8 birth'. 34.' another noun signifying an article of . father. () Sometimes ^-q. ffcT. ^|M|rM. as *STT 3TfH7t: *WCT : rice mixed with curds. II. other- WttfJFTT. ^s^^TT<fr. jpr^T5HT. The compound with 3^4 is a nityasimasa and takes number of the noun it qualifies. 5W wd *(%*.food or ( something eatable. II. HT%HT 17* ticnlar wrwt. 3. 3*^ 1. BO W!<rfTOFJ : ( less weight ). x VL I 3. W^T^rnflr. 35. ) honestly^ 3fnTHIg>dH ^one with * might'.124 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. the noun in the Instrumental case denoting tome kind of condiment used to season it or another article' of d )* With food mixed with it. [205-207 by one wiMa. &c. e. ' < * ) and with the words *. when proper names. in which the noon in the Inst. as thing expressed by the noun in the Dative case ( a . self. * 3T5PT the gender and ?T^rn *rgiff ! W^TOT fWmoi^ I Pan. a par( in wordi >. . 1. 3%f qTTT : SJ^VTRT: fried rice mixed witn place treacle. ( A noun in the Dative is compounded x a ) with another expressive of the material of which the is made-. ^rr^Tf: l one having an elder brother'.

man ( an oflicer or a servant ).-.207-211 ] COMPOUNDS. A noun in the Ablative oasu is. ' transcending thought as a sinner '. I. &c. i%3TTO f*T : ( water-gruel ) ottering to the bhutas( certain created beings ). 125 broth for A Brahmana. be compounded with any other noun. having tho sense of these> and ia thero an . ft ( 5^: ^f^S^^ the king's a ) It ** n t compounded with verbal derivatives . after. A noun in the Genitive may. ife fj?t ifffiiT^ good for a cow f 208. g 211. n. and - as 4V.-//^ of tho Ablative) J as 210. ^n^-W ^TWTW ftiar words : from a afraid of a woil. ( i ) in a law cases with the afl and 3^^t * ^^?T: ^Wn?f ' ?Rrfnr: : deprived of happiness. 39 . as t I F&B. fallon from heaven. >fillT rather with tho VT. compounded* words thief j ( a ) with words expressive of fear or tfrflT. Instances of the Aluk of the Dat. II. near difficulty. ' or a fool. i. II. as a general *r=r: rule. c ) in the case of the words Tf9T a little. ?Tf^T^nE<T: ' afruid of waves ( '. and words. t . Vartika. 209.

5)^. 2. ^RTW ^rrr. 5Tm^T 3J3jT: (fnTTO. from which a singling out sgorf f^3T : is made ( ) is not compounded with any other words. gfc^T^P ' * one who destroys. ( b ) f A. e. 9 t * f%vrhSr i Pan. ^ST^. srfsr^cTT. Hm<fc his master or brings bathing water for him. &c. I the action. to a respect ($or) is not obligatory. 2. e. ( ah Inst. 10. 'past participles meaning approved of or showing the place of the act. II. Exception*: Bat a compound is allowed in the case of the words UMfr ona who employs aa sacrificing priests.126 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ending in ^ and are and denoting the agent of c not 3* $rer. Tat. *ft& servant who bathes ^TT35. . and others not very important. II. aa\Pan.esteemed ) if by the good. 9T5ronn*T3:> ^1*3?: ^^H^v fnf^ft- &c. a^PT^. ^a?T?rf. g. words denoting qualities. words implying satisfaction ' honoured or present participles. is. remarks Dikshita. as c ) J A noun in the Genitive is not compounded with ordinal ' numbers. qfT^RT ^T%?f: 'satisfied with fruits' of course. are justified ( 3TRrlfflf 5^R fif^ST: rT^fTO i ). &c but ^T^T - ^T ' the thunder. <<f*%TO a waiter at meals. 11-13. himself uses such compounds as ?9 I Pan. verbal indeclinable's and verbal nouns ending in ^q-. fN$HIqj[. place of sitting I Pan. . when it does not mean a holder. spepific Genitive ( t. afr^^r <rnre>: &<M but as the are? here does not denote the agent. bolt-bearer'. II. ^npW^T^ni^. rar ( m-. The prohibition with word expressive of u quality &c. ^raf W:. *r. 2. allowed in these cases ). Hence compounds like anfiftc^^.

. gjfolg: (see further on ) &c. ). is a wonder. Compounds like fiSfnTTOSTT. Tat. fwrii[ftcf alms. snrc ^W^r and ajvj n. and the ft? (I) If the ^ ia it does combine dropped. stTOaPT: first. here N B. hence ?f: Pan. &c. N. 3. Exceptions.211-212 ] CoMPOUiroa. B. are compounded with nouns in the Genitive expressive of the whole ana are placed the forepart of the body. similarly and g are compounded (2)*The words f^mq". ought to be considered as Instrumental Tatpurushas. 2. g. used as an object in a sentence. 14. j <j^. . Compounds like yM^fodt. t it ^mor ^T I Pan. I ( STOTJRTcJ^? ). not a cowaTTSOTT *T^t ^TtrS'TI^7T herd. whiter than all othera . some call these Norn. . ^1 with nouns signifying the whole of which they are parts. fifcM fSr$TT*TP fi[ffarf*Sn. and are optionally placed first. is not compounded* as ' the milking of cows by one. 3T^^q?T^: &c. ) fSrg^T. 2. <? ^nnzr S*FT: 212. but mere Tat. word denoting a quality ends in with a noun in the Genitive. but fTTRT'<i: as ( 3^ is mas. ^tfta. but Tf rfH f$r$TFn: ( begging qr^ half of the quantity alms a second time Note. iMUfl:.II. In order that the above rule should hold the noun expressive of the whole must denote a single object. ^ f^T5^T: ^^fi^TcfT. a ) A noun in the Genitive. II. ( when the agent and object of the action denoted by the nouns formed by krit affixes' are both ueed. Tat. are not strictly Gen. 3?q-5t. as the case of the first word determines the name. e.

^TWT: 5^: or and optionally when followed by g=r and censure ^rtfrgsf a bastard. otherwise < t ) whtn the words *f^> f&l and q^q^ are followed by gr^ r ' ^fs^ and 5^ respectively} aa ^r^t^f%: skilful speech.* A word expressive of a period of time is compounded with passed since a certain occurrence as of the STHTW * jn*fr occurrence. 5. and not ^TtTTSf: ttc. S. : is la compounded with placed first. . ?. 'A worn expressive of a part another signifying a period of time and 213.128 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. < '5^1^^^' Pan. a knave. Brihaspati. one who robs another in his very presence ' hence ' a goldsmith. mid-day j r<n:. that has 214. a rogue/ ' in the following cases: ' Indra. 21. the whole means a fool. as Also whbn %*RfU followed by fifr*nd . expressive another OW 'one since whose birth a month has elapsed'. J is ' (d) plied. but : im- * t- nn: 1f?mfnRT Pan. I I ' Vartikas. ' : and SHWK^: Q4^iy: a king of Kashi. [ 212-215 the first 3rnrmf< among pupils. RVSTTaf &c. retain its case ending The noun in the may a ) when reproach ii to be implied. i^^ft^n^>: a particular appearance of stars in the shape of a staff in i the skyj ' * q^Qcfi^: while he ( c ) :: is looking on. 'sons of Ajigarta. IL 2. eo 215 Genitive ( f Instances of the Aluk of the Gen. VI. crr^nRm: lord cf speech. 3(5 fMTgfran* baM of a number oi pippalis &c. WTT 5dnFf& P&Q VI.

i J uus-IjniT jft i i Pin.q^: but ( . tj& f%?nr a rogue. 8. fN[. 3T?cTr. but f^r when 4 noun in the Locative is compounded jpfVor. G. invested with. ^^. ). 23. g. compounds given e. similarly sfir^rrai: said in contempt of one who srrq^n &o. . ^fK^q*: a kitd of poetic composition. ^fnr*?: ?fr the affix f^TT^fhr: *. adorned. fr' neces- pupil of the ftg. in the list There are a few Loc. BO fthara:. &c. 41. i. is necessary. 3^^ lf3^T. n. t 3. \^ is so the always with greffr )i aflffq^^ WT5?TT: cooked in a pot. 5 3?^5T^. uncompounded 216. ant. and optional when followed by pr*r to and qfft. well-abiding frog t. and *?*r. dried in the 81in . ^R5T. a word ending in q? 129 ( e )* When is is compounded with another it is and there the aluk the relation by blood or some kind of learning. &c. one who knows nothing of the world VI. The initial ^r of ^pr is optionally changed ^ when preceded by FHH or ft^y and when there is aluk. as TIT.skilled in diceGod ( when compounded compounded form is ^ e. 48. 9. ^. II. ^^r ^RT^!^ TORW sr^ft * H.215-216 ] COMPOUNDS. 1. 0. 84. having a similar sense. tftftrT a ) fwith sftu^-. .-^r^r. or mg: ft^. 85. ( ^^H^fff: or j^: ^rr. so &c. ?wr shoi: { r%^5^TO3r^ qr^^wm^iiT i i P^. dependent on coinpolsory. f^TST. 42. 3. Tat. Sid. (6)| implied. 40. 24. hotri\ m3:*TOT. viu. and sarily when there is no aluk in a compound* 9. fts<*. is with <ft words 5T meaning a < crow ' when contempt is \-?TT3iT f cfl^^nS^T: very greedy. g.

' similarly cfl^jfofcit. is an aluk of the Loc. so |pr- 373T3>ftiT tree. 3 9. IJ.. VI.44. as * boasting coward'. These compounds are ( <i(|^H nitya ( obligatory ). > vide ) IV. ( c ) * with another.. if^nff ' clever in eating only ' t. . 9. term. 45-47. ). as 9ft 3tM|tJj|^: riaigifcq &c. consonant or as auutiMdW* ?wf%fm: ' ft** ' wild sesamnm yielding no oil. p. t ^TtRTarr^fT: I nsri $ft Pin. with an alul of the is Loc that of a mungoose this thy action on the hot ground. e.180 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. hence anything not answering to one's expectations. as remarked by Bhattoji ( <Hq|IM|4|Uli%(^nn cft^ *r d ) with potential p. *T8t4 ( b ) below. In some cases there means the same~as ffimu$<fc. when they both imply a name ( ^for )i there is an aluk of the Loc. participles in tion. and with the implied. carpet knight'. 'a ' a housebraggadocio'. as 'OTmM$c4$U<f similar to t !$y5?n?flHwn: B^KIIK i i i I 1. 5. bamboo ' (also r^KTT :. 8.. VIII. when the nonn ends in a s?.. <n^rfacTP Note: Words of this class do not enter into further combi- nation with other words. participles expresses a part of the tgqTT^ day or night. S*Tf*nM*m)5 when it implying an obligathe alnk by 217 with p. . ( e ) | (**nO-.2. Si. ^sq"!^: hero'. of his I 216 outside the pale own village. 61. 7 aeed to express the inconstancy of a person. : ~~!TT3d*' ^. 33- may take the place of the Loc.an insect in the fruit of the Vdttmbara it metaphorically &o. p. but p. <TT^$3ld: ' a good-for-nothing fellow'. participles when reproaeh irtcf^' is * 3^% g^.

51^. ^. &c. fo^ or a lotus-. cases. aluk takes place in most an elephant. e. and ^r in the ' ordinary language. it (d) f When the compound not a name. 14. ^T? and *f as . ?ET<7 comes after wj. ( a ) Aluk necessary in the case of the words-(l )iff and *pj followed by fi^. 20.16. after it when jrr^. aluk necessary when 3f comes. 15. ( 2 ) f ^ and ^followed by **$j gi^gaE. (&& fi& ** qjqaift and 3J^:. ^TT: a heavenly ear. ?fl*^W ( 5T*% a kind of grass fjflr 3^ft ) who the one into a tfcUMHwhispers spy.VI. Pan. but inJr having ). of a word expressive of time when compounded with 3^5? and words ending in the affixed tnr and ?R T-fis rf--9> &c. as Hlfu3<. ). 8.5$ll<f! an ascetic. \ 3. 3. stationary in the sky. Additional instances of the aluk of the Loc. 5!%^R: a fish. is compounded with a verbal derivative and the whole is a name. ^ \ frrrTT &^ rl^^T^T^i P TTTTm^l Pn. ^^T^. firm in battle. . VI. 19. 4 (b) * When a noun in the Loc. as jrftfgr:. being. but ^<M &c. Exceptions J:. (e) There is optional aluk of the Loc.NTo aluk takes place in the case of verbal derivatives ending in ^ and I the words t ftr^-. and f^fj and optional or q^r: produced in the rainy season. is 131 217. g. ^T?. VI.217 ] TATPURUSHA. 3T?^I?>: and except g\h[ gjffig'mr ( ( 3 ) 3T*<T and roriollowed by words expressive of parts of the body ( ) and followed by g& not *ftcT3r hair on the the breaat: Bah.

] proper sm^ Off [ sr ^f^Tt^ that which does not move from its place. !lTR-*Rrm:. ^^: ^r^: [ r sfelUdffd that which does not go far ]. &C. KaD or the Negative Tatpurusha. 3. q&: [ sr ^^n<^. The ' if is not changed to 3? or a^ in the following caaeft-qrerc '* that which does not shine/ <a cloud.132 SANSKRIT GBAMHAB. (a) The negative changed to ar before a conbe compounded with any onant and a^ before a vowel.6. cant and not denoting time is compounded with m^f anc with *c* aluk ie optional. the physicians of the gods. * . or does not go to heaven being burnt down with the dead body ] ].73. 2. VI. the case [ 217-219 () *When a noun in JLX)c ending in gj or a conso$rq-. VL 3. ng- [ *T CTrer that which leaves no cavity. 75. H^i" [ 5f ^Ff OTH. * X OT ^T^rfTf%W%(f not the point) Tatvabodhini. from water ]. 18. fa . 5TgT%: [ * g^nfffit' ] name of a demon slain by Indra. Pan. 3. 219.' 1%^T: one who does not know* / Hl^fMP f ^TTJ dWf*J|J 5T ^yH||: wf|^rq|: x ] the two Aswins.' rqrg[(pre. for the mungoose is supposed to belong to no particular species of animals ].2.) ' one who [ does not protect. ^nmiflum^d^ ( is ?**. may noun to form the Negative-Tat purushaf. 77.<ft 5^: fTOTJffJ^V^I Pan. non-existent. ine not a Brahmaoa. or not good.74 . particle sr 218. VI. 13. p. fc-^pr:. II. I Pan. hence a star. [ sr q 31$ 7 *$ ^fWJi | 5T*T when it Pan.VL 3. sr 9P7: 3R^9v Rrr[. as *r srr^roT: ^fliflm:.

t iMHi"iiS *tmi*MMH: I Pan.nfr: or ' mountain or a tree$' bnt MT: ^cJ-' ' Sudra that cannot 3W move. i 3CT3T. . sucn as 5tirsr. KABMADHA'BAYA OB THE APPOSITIONAD COMPOUNDS. B. J " Amara III. . i. ' N. while N. The more important of these words are sqrJT. &o. Panini defines a 'Karmadharaya' as Tatpurusha both the members of which are in the i. same case relation have the same case when dissolved. 1. does not qualify an animal retains its q optionally as . e. between the Tatpurusha proper and In the case of the former the attributive Karmadharaya member has one of the oblique cases when dissolved. 3. 1 3<rm<T ainrrRrft: *rm*ronfr5t Pan. It may thus be a noun or an adjective qualifying the other member. cf. 42. 56. The difference is this: in the case of the latter it it in apposition to the other member. 221. 01 220. 56. rison ( ( a ) f ) A word expressive )f the standard of compa- be compounded in a Karmadharaya with another denoting the common quality or ground of comparison. no mention &[ 2. II. ^. B. It should be noted that some of these are Bahuvrfhi compounds. as ^T fr 33TTT VHA*JHT dark like a cloud. 1.219-221 ] KABMADHA'BAYA. fiff . All these words are included under what is called the group of simr. Such compounds CTRTiT may are called ( &) J pared ( sqifr Similarly a noun denoting the berg on or thing com) may be compounded with word* indicative of excellence. n.

' while in the other to fp<? or the face in which case the figure will be 'Rupaka*.134 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. as bold as a tiger g^. in fact if it I be expressed there can be no Nott. ( a simile ).ma^^g: a moon-like face i. adjective may most cases | as tfitf be compounded with the noun it Jft^RT^. e. these are called former the In the The difference between the two is this common quality of comparison is actually expressed. As * So when. Such compounds are called is a general rule in such compounds the qualifying wora placed first. as gjf TO?OT and when to the sJMHIH as in diisolve t ft^Wuf f%^or 5jfi3[ I Pan. . e.' . &c. as )j *.as in g^q^r H$\W applicable in its expressdissolve the comp. in either Dissolved way there will be no difference in the formation of the compounds but there will be difference both in the meaning and in the metaphor. . qualifies An in . II. the common attribute ed ( is *TO ) sense to the grr^q. 1. [ 221-222 the common attribute 7 TTiT jrt" S^TSTTin a man (of similarity like a tiger ( ) being made. as delightful as the moon . compound as <j^sr: sq-fgr f^ *g^: The above Karmedharayaa may be dissolved as &c. 57. 2. a blue *%?*& ^ ^ lotus &c. : while in the latter it is left to be understood . are termed 222. but there are several exceptions which are given below. ^orWRft I but snTTfrefr TTR: ^BTO" froi*nr: where the comp. Compounds like &c. 3$ *H<tW<* g^H<4H 1. is necessary.?frf ^ 5. In cue case prominence will be givon to =tF3[ or the moon and the figure will be 'upama. .

^TOT. The last mentioned words. fag9 apposition to them. no class is meant (b) here. ^fte lame. when compounded n with certain adjectives.* Jaimini who fif^T. 1. . 3. 5TT7 hard. . Words expressive of the persons or things condemned Pan. ^nm% ^r%?(: Pan. retain their own gender invariably. as STT^rarerclf&CT &a 'an eminent Brahmvna' &c. VI.. t ST3f*HRR%ar Kau ). II. forth a calf for the first time'. 64. ^u^ blunt. ' g. 42. II. 38. iffr. I I I 1. fire'. i t ^rrn. ^Yvfr. bald-headed. ^3f. Pan. all of which denote excellence. % may 3. fifTcy. mixed with a ^forSifaqq^ fftp: '* cow tbat ' naa brought )'. 65. as ^mf^?Tr is turned tawny on account of his having practised penance in 7 the sun. II. according to 3^[: <Rl< . 66. 1. 2. I ^SRITfS ^?*S: . ( H?Tr%T^TT M^rf^r 5f Amara. (e) ^^ and ^r. I II. *fi%f^ ( mfarffRT ift: ). f^^fR: ' a young female ele"butter-milk pnant'. gender denote! a class or species. )-ftg*T an excellent cow'. 53 54. fife Pan. ^[. ifT%$: 'a milch-cow (jnrsnjnfaiT ift^n ^ barren cow'. 3T|%*?fte: little small water-. Sid. IT 1. dull. J The words sfcPT. &c. optionally precede the words in or g^rr^^mi^.* ^*m^ Pan.222 ] KABUADHA'BAYA *The quali6ed word if it 135 ( a ) is placed first and is always of the mas. 'TN'^MJufT 'a cow whose calf is one year old/ $39ftl%qr: an agnihotrin t Brabmana of < the Katha branch of the Yajarveda.' f ( a teacher of the Katha branch/ some) five (also mas. but ^WKf iTHT%^r. stiff.

(4 &c. 1. Pan. [ 222 or reproached are placed first. ' an unbeliever'. silly potter.' (d)* placed Words first. T*tv. ^r$. IL 1 49. compounded only when they aak a ( question with reference to a class snf^ family).' i ( <[: ). !TnoT snr . qfl9| are t $RT and first. in apposition to ^. Pan. oo. except in the the words a*ore and f^ . 5^nr:. 3?3R^. aa ifcn&tuiMtiRj** marian/ 'one who has forgotten his <ft bad gramand therefore can grammar make no use of his knowledge. IL 1. 1. 63. as ma-qrrf^rf: 'a bad munfe$aid a mean. 62. a female mendicant/ WC:-^T 'a deHcate (^)S TEe words ^r^.' is a sceptic' or qr<T. and are placed :p. . < so wtimtmsat* who case of barber. qpcTT-9?nT-3>?: ' 'which Br&hmaoa. of the Katha branch*? ^fff-?fm-^yt^: branch'? which J Br&hmaDa of the Kalipa But *?w 9: ( which son* (/) J The word ^inf ( and also ^ffrft changed to ^TTT placed first when compounded w^Lth one of the words as ' * ) ^OTTSnror a young female ascetic'. and ^r^. and the II. II. grrff. 'KI I H Pan. ' iffT and ^g^ are also ^Mi^K4>: an eminent king/ *mifrKt. i .116 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB.

^HTT*. according to some. IL i i. The lorm q^CK ( found need by great writers ) also may be defended. 9^. being a subsequent one ought o^hrr to have preference over the preceding Sutra ^4*fel&fe & c and The form may be justified we. flV44 and on?. according to others. mU". are always placed first in a KarmadLaraya compound. mr^> TORf. Kshatriyas.222-223 ] KABMADHA'RAYA. com- pound with anv tudanta ( a declinable word ) but only vfhenthe Name of a con whole compound is an appellation* e. an eminent warrior'. 4. ^wr. &c. bat 3W5$i out of ' 223. ' the hinder part or side of the body.-B. g. g. and Bramaoas.' the old grammarians. J i: where 7*53 means or * drawn Names of quarters and numerals form a < Karm. Vaishyas.' ^RTftnT: the last being in the same category or predicament': a sole warrior i. 187 words ^T hindmost.- ^r How do you justify the form For the Sutra &c. 9t<TC when followed by 3n$ is changed to 797: as WWT ' ' master or lord'. and Pitris. serpents.* f The words *%. 8u. should have sfr^: We reply. t A^A 1. afareTv'o**1 4 9*9 3n> ^IT^nf^M mimavua philosophers/ ' 'an old logician. by supposing that the rule operates in most cases only I ? - a ^ ew ) : i Pan. 61. ll. S'udras and Nishadhas or barbarians. ^rjnfq-: tellation of stars/ 'Ursa Major-. &c. ft These are gods. ) . I. men. ( Vide Shankarfich&rya on Brah. *&q: ' an excellent physician' H^ 'uplifted. ei ^rnn^ P&n. 3im and g^^ are com( A ) pounded with another noun when they are used as terms of praise or excellence. n. Gandharvas.

trees. The compound forbidden in other cases. TT^T: * ' sidelong looker a frown of displeasure/ see Bh.' so Bah. ^FW^. 54 Pan. a derivative meaning such as is usually denoted by a Tad. IV. by |% and the nouns and q% and a ) f ^ w (a by < f^or r denoting a species-/ ^fJeratw ^^: ' bad horse.' ^frfr ?$TT : 'Northern. the son of six mothers.V. ^ ^r' Vart: ) TW^frw ^5r Pan. 3. %%$*: ( $f%rT: 5^: ) a bad man. II. 224.Tad. qsrf where jS^non pendently-. town [ 223-224 <Name o : a in the east. 107 ) aff. VI. ) or when the compound itself becomes the first member of another compound or when the compound forms a proper name. ^3*: &c.-* $5^: 'speaking ill. is changed to ( 1 ) ?p^ when followed by a noun with an initial vowel in a Tat. vfat ' ' from the eastern hall <Th5f5TT3J: being in ( be * Tad. The particle ( ^ forms a Karm. is &c.) ' 'coarse food-/ but faraf: ^q-: ^: ' < 7 having bad camels ^r^tr: three inferior things/ mpj: ' a bad chariot. aff. a ) *But words denoting a cardinal point or numerals may compounded with any other noun when a Taddhita termination is to be affixed to the compound so formed ( or it conveys in addition to its sense as a Karm. which are names. $& STT3JT T^TTcJr. 51 added by ' Pan.. comp. 51.138 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. so qn + *rr$=wn$ is lix mothers' -I. TTT^a^:. a cr*<r and ^rraT fiwt *TW It not used inde- Tf^TOI: &c. 2. | . ( 1. compound with any other word. a bad speaker/ ^uj^ a kind of fragrant grass/ ( 2 ) <a little/ To ^r when followed by qrRftt and 3r$T and when meaning and optionally when prefixed to 55^. 101-107.

( b ).. forming compounds of words given above with one another those be- ginning with with qffc it 3^ are placed first. i.. I ( Tatv. however..warm Two l adjectives may also be as compounded into what is the H Wl WTnf^faTW Two ^^^or:. wrinkles. of the participles expressive of two consecutive actions same individual may be compounded together. r-' I P^n. com p. <rf&cT> t.224-225 ] KARMADHA'BAYA. cFtrof. ( c ) $rnH3TT^. the one * expressive oi the previous action being placed F: similarly ^RT3T%*T: ' : 'first bathed and first. all meaning lake. { The word 5^ first-. ' with the words is ^Sf^fff. Sid. II.^. su^r ^TPT: then anointed''. 60.. *i%T having and placed Qlt + ig&fo: ^gr^^iaf: a young * See Pan. &c. f t^n^ ^^ <a little ' water. ^^3- f A past participle is < compounded with another with ' the negative particle prefixed to it... In may precede or follow is it. ^sor. Rag. and not done. /. 1. In the case of the set of words viz. the case of qr^ compounded as ^j^%: or q^i^:-. 49. IV. II. In the case of the two sets ) ( 222. 139 ). $(fffnt. ( 3 ) And to gjT or <$? when < foil wed by '. callfld ( 1 ). 43 ). e. ( m. '. partially done . ^omRT:* ( a ). 67. %^^ the one succeeding together. e. ' wittt ia dene ( d ). ^nTO and q^vft by 225. preferable. &c. as precedes the one preceding when compounded norac. 1. ) -enters into a Kami. . .Kau. q'ratsfr<far fi"t drunk ( and afterwards vomited out II. 1. quoted above I ) t rrT* ^f5^T%CTR5T PAn. II. the first former. rr^? .

2. I &c. with any tubanta nc t importing a particular kind. hence ' pride V. ( Mmird<^ ft^ f%?Rr? < these are nityain which l that are constantly uttered the words eat and drink ' f so that in which are uttered the words ' I alone. * t i^^TT I Pan. qw^T accident. 72. and even with a verbal deri* vative when it expresses a quality j as qr$np*y: a little brown'. . ' . 226. ( Bv. 1. 227. I alone hard competition. f Words ending in the terminations HOT. vaunting . TTR: (S^Rf ^T srfim ^ ft^^H. g. Also put to flight. 84 ' ) &c. ' . ^Tt??T great and gmall'. 7.140 SANSKRIT GBAKMAB. II. ifraqft' any hot eatable :. J are the more important of the '. II. 68. II. < ftc. ' little' is compounded with any other word except a verbal derivative. * fprfo: &o. srfhft V and and words having a similar meaning) ' may be compounded 0. but %*?: rr^T: The following by- of a similar white colour. 228. The word for * reddish. 3T5TT?qT SHJ^ROII Pan. ary a* 3Tf *$fy\* TOT* so BIlsl^Rqai ' great self-conceit or ( Bhatti. [ 225-228 ' bald-headed man 'psrr '* young bald-headed woman . . 27 ' ' ). a young woman looking old'. pounds given Pan. iM I Pan. as irregular under the cl ' : a cunning peacock so ^SiTvT^ni ' so < high and low'. &c. amOfl: young man whose ' hair is grey % &c.I. 1. as the latter word refers to a kind of food here.

A Dwigu compound is possible 223 ( ( a ) under the circum- stances mentioned in (1 ) a e.g 229-231 ] Dwior COMPOUNDS. J as ^q-yort $f *RT ^mifIT: T%S^H* q> the three worlds taken collectively ) as . though they " are popularly Madhyamapadalopi is Any compound ( requiring a similar explanation classed under this group which is an 3 DWIGU OR NUMERAL ^POSITIONAL COMPOUNDS. q^a^m^: &c. as ( b ) And when the compound denotes an aggregate. I . STTOISTO: tmw: Srre^mv*: a king who likes vegetables. tikeya the son of six mothers. II. . lUrprm^q. *' should be properly designated '< called Uttamapadalopi ".) i. in this case it is ( singular. 52. %q^t& 3n$nn: $*3TTfT<iT: & c. f When the first member ' of a '.TTHHTQT: IX or (2) when the comKu. Karmadharaya com pound is a numeral it is called Dwigu 231. Vdrt on II. 60. when a Taddhita <rmJTi affix is to be added to ' the compound so formed. first word which is itself a compound word ' is dropped*} y. 141 229. In some Karmadharaya compounds the last member oi the . ^ 1. 230.. )j (vide pound itself becomes the first member of another compound. t ^JT^fr f|j: I Pan. These compounds. 4. 1. Kir-.

X vide wind. &c. ( b ) J y * having accepted. Those Tatpurusha compounds whose member is a preposition are termed Pradi by Sanskrit grammarians*. afflRETOt JTT53T 3TfiTJTTcJ: 'excelling a garland' (in or beauty ). mz$<q. ^FfT.. 62. ^rfr^tS??^ having done the act. 3?^^^: cfelfi^l 3flnEft%5J: y * ' tired of studying. 233. 4. STT^r TfTT^TV M^MHMI l 1 I * I Vartikas. ^cfr. g# sr^r. 4. A ' ' go ae out of KauSambi. first 232. ^rT^. g. some of these prepositions combine with a following noun in the * Norn. Compounds of the following words with verbal inde- clinable! are called Gati. 2. PREPOSITIONAL COMPOUNDS.. 3TrTO^ &c.way' M/4&iinop<g teacher '. and srl. Vartikas. 18. so T^f^TTf^: compound with prepositions which govern cases ) is forbidden. 4. srftsFFcft TO *f$R art STfifW ' a chariot- &c. the cnckoo. I. ( a ) t The particles srfr.e. t *^Rfti4H^r t Pan. 61. as fl^T the word Vashat. I. W^T. with a noun in the Ace. qfff?n?r: ar^qmTR q^t-gqir: &c. STiRf: 31TCT& WMl4: ire: W&K* *NTC*: 'taken to a path. jrf?T> ' Onomatopoetic words not followed by ( but tqiigm ^>f^r fiteTi^o. ) II. and tiie word ^TR^T meaning an action. STTf :.142 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Bhatti II1 ' 45 - ) **&** * m: ** : ' atr D g or excessive ' fragrance ' so atftTHT? ' exceeding warrior who has no rival or equal ' ' attracted by measure. having uttered ' ' J?r|W. . [ 232-233 Pradi. ^T?.. 5 Gati. t 3T39** ^FRf?HT^ I Pan.

iRTfC? ( till disgust is produced 'going towards.' respectively. T?TfhaTT. ).f?*T Sid. Kau. )-. 73-76. g^%.233-234 ] PREPOSITIONAL COMPOUNDS. I. as 'having married'. Paru Paa. as ^T^fq^having gone Sid. 77-7.. Kau ^^Rr-wrr. and ^R^. ( Kaa. 63-71. Tatpurusha turned white what was not so before. I. a3 3leF*r Cavq^rRm^TVT: Sid. 4. 143 ?rg and T*TcI showing respect and disrespect the prepositions 3?<? in the sense of 'adorning. 'giving to the weak' strength ^j^Hi 4gSHNiq ffTO: Sid. STTV^^r 'having forced to yield.' grri^r |The particles ^irr%.' are also formed with nouns derived l for their second 5*^1^: members. atld fifr. ) H . ( except when there is the sense of juxtaposition or extreme contact ).form compounds with verbal indeclinables optionally. ( ing adorned'. e. ( vnprm* ^TTOOT^r I ). 3TWT. showing respect/ setting as prepositional ( see Chap. ^r^m mqr.' (d) fTLe words ^. TEe fk* formations Pin. g. but 3^ doing enough front 7 . XI. 'he drinks milk to his heart's gtfl^T. f zrV'- Kau. (e) . ( c ) *The words 3KT : > STv 3TT-* *5*l. but (/) These compounds from roots of the sun. 5^5?^ ' placing in s^sjfq3T^5feT 3rert?T ( JT1&. and the word tr^. ) are also classed as UigfefTT having compounds. 234. ^TT%^fq--?rT ( having accepted [ ].a. I. content'^ up to and spoken' ( sTftfj^ n?gT 3^1T ^ ). w&. 3T?3T%. 4. the words wrr%. 3TfHJrir: 'reception. ** : > 3*^ cfTr-rr 31^ the ). . 4. ^roft and srret.

235. ( form compounds with the verbal indeclinable changeable to g ). Oomp. it is called an Upapada Tat. also optionally in c*T 3FJ5?T. latter member of such compounds must nei<- ther be the conjugated form of a root nor a separate verbal derivative e. it is a Gen. is a rootnoun deiived from a root which takes a particular Krit affix by virtue of the nresence of the first member. UPAPADA COMPOUNDS. <fe^4V 'a female for ) 'bought tortoise/ noun prefixed to the last member. The 'desirous of meat'. as 3^.? Sq^^f g% ' he eata the condiment with a raddish.' or 73%. an as the is not can word be indeqjjlVH %T? Upapada Tat. pendently formed. &c. 5fRT^c?T. sometimes this compound is optional. first. such as is $nr. ft^. The . Sometimes the second member of an 7 my *M^bK Tat.'5W ( or ^: %&n ). Sid. .144 SANSKBIT GBAMMAR [ 235-237 . E^ff:.' &c. Pan. Kau.. irnnftfir . III. Tat. ferf- g^cfT^T. Some upapadas such as 3%:.. similarly grs^tffcft a horse'. formed independently of the last member. When the second member of a Tat. g. B. sft^:. 1 be a Namulanta or the verbal indeclinable in Upapada 3^. as having sweetened iood. 1. as ap*T CTTcfrfff ^WER: t a potter. .' so *mr ^rmT-* 'one who chants averse of the Saman Veda. called an upapada* N. T^mj^r? &c. For iurther particulars vide the Chapter on verbal derivatives. <fa S% e eats 3^T^ having dined 237.' &c. 'a cloud' or 'the female breast*' 236. 92.

245. spnCy or by the words q$. |j S%HIIW. t 315: w^srcnsqia^mg. and add ar under the circumstances mentioned: ( a ) t *tfaj when preceded by a numeral. 3R5^ and sfifr. H. The same happens when ^n% Dwandwa. )j tnut has passed a night. together with the following consonant there be any. The following words. vide &c. i 4. 4. V. V. 5. 239. an indeclinable. 238. 4. 88. ynrrrar: an auspicious night. rusha. 4. as ir^r: 3T$: ^TTq^mST* a great an excellent day. the dead of night. 0. as at the end of a Tatpurusha compound when preceded by a numeral or an indea piece of wood HJHIUIIHH fl*l*g ^T5 3?f^r va mf'| to 3T * % meaflnring two fingers/ Q<MHf'foy*ft S3 PUfdH X3 &c. (c) Exceptions 3*9^ wnen preceded by an indeclinable. 8. TT^. ^r a holy day. 87. ^n.238-239 ] TATPUBTTSHA COMPOUNDS. V. when final at the end of a Tatpu- drop the if vowel. *The word ita final i(- changes clinable. 145 GENERAL RULES APPLICABLE TO THE TATPUBUBHA COMPOUNDS. wfe: wi\ ^f ^MrmTTsr:. as % word &c Bildq an H?: aggregate of two nignts ( Dwi. the first part of the night. 91. 10. a -. tTWH^ ( ^ king. 86. expressive of a part of the whole. ). or a : | Pan. . such as q^. Pan. fo*lld' and 50^. as I is preceded by 373^ in a fT3T^.

Pan. V. e. 7 bad or unlucky throw of dice. exceeding a day (in duration) whole day. the qzfa: &cv tfWRT. The*3[ of the substitute is changed to qr when preceded by ^ belonging to the first member ending in 37. t ti^*tf I P*n. the change ' ^^ is optional. Ar J5. and sgp^ by s?f^ or 0. i \ irmTWt ^ KW ^i ^51 1 1451 1 ^^i 3^: ^r: I dMHMKMir% I Pan. MUfiKfldfc Pan. e. becomes ^ a* *fl'*IW*s forenoon. Vin. g. V. e. more than thirty. \ 4. ftmnft f|r$r<T: 240. is added and then dropped.' an independent than a dog'5 a^f^T ( worse carpenter'. 4. as 444]^:. compoundedone not very g. 'the thigh of 3TWT^l*l the upper part of the thigh'. 4. when preceded by an inanimate object with which ( d ) f cT$T^ ' : JJTH or it is *. V. [ 239-240 word denoting a with a Taddhita 3Tgf 5 affix or by a numeral part of the whole. a sword more than thirty fingers in length The following words have an gj added to them when ) : *^r at the end of a Tatpurnsha compound: (a) *fY except when a Tad.146 SAHSKBIT GKAMMAB. I afi. preceded by ^^rc. 3TTCT: ^F f* 3ff^TW: ' dog like *. 92. 4. arfite: [ ^n?: than a dog's life ) *far. ^if or inanimate an object with which it denoting ()t*fW wnen ^ is or by a word compounded. or by added to the whole compound. 98. . village carpenter ) skilful-. . bnt TOT* 3**: <m^: < as fin ends in 3ff ). 96-97.. thigh like a (/) A numeral when compounded ( in a Tat.F5ygfff^?ErfTO M>g54>^^^ 'a board'. 7. ^. ^ni^^Vj^ adeeV^r^r^.but 4|H*qr a monkey like : ( Ha^r- ^ ^T^ 1 cT^T ^ ^te^T: ' 'fleeter ] ' a dog'.

4. Pan V. but 241. I I t wu ^HIS^I^MIMI^ ^H5ifi^i*i^in\t^in. 93. 4. 100 I : Pan.s^rsr^-f^ two handfnls'. is dropped. before which 3?. preceded by f^ or ft in a ' D wigu. V. that name. optionally when the Tad. ia collection of two boats'. TOTT*-( a collection of five 147 : an excellent bull. an excellent horse/ de- and frf^ ( e ) f The words 3&%( 3TOT^. 4. 3FT^ note a class or form names. e. .' stone like the moon) ]. I t *Ml*Hm: ftifh ^T^Tf sHlQ^jlMl: I Pan. 3Tvrm Pan. except when the Tad. affix is dropped ). 105. ffai: exchanged or * ST^ meaning 'chief or eminent'. 94. but Tagrfvr: ^ft: ^hr: 'Hapft:. 4 104. Kau. 4. BO QniMH. is optionally dropped when preced- V 4. except the final f is dropped. 101. ( ). aff. 102. a lso when it is preceded by 3T$. f being dropped before it: (/) takes + 3T^%. 99. V. ae ^nr-* 3T^T anidHH the muter measure of corn the final is irregular ( <j\<$\^ Sid. ) ^"TTT ( & ) under similar circumstances takes the a? optionally. V. ^T9T7^[ i black nu^^Hf^H ) I a lake inl1 of f r g8 '. cows ) but ( * ) bartered for two cows. I Pin. &c. ' [ a kind ->f ar^rTF^R: in this case the final gr^ is dropped a kitchen '. ar^RT 3T when tney ' 'the chief of horses t. ftni^H. V. not dropped ). as ^pRTt sftvirmnra: ft'fWWrar: ( when the aff.' ( d $ at the end of a t Dwigu. OTTTO^ ( Tq^m 3R' UgHfr: stone iron'.240-241 ] TATPUBUBHA COMPOUNDS. ' ' a cart-load. ff The ^ of a^5j .

3. is changed to wfj when it forms the member of a Karmadharaya or a Bahuvrihi compound. the Exception: When it is followed by ^TB". but Jifff: 4fal H^*\ ( Gen. or when the termination fSffffta' follows^ as flgi^cf: the great god. g. ' >. 46. 71.- or arq^rr: absence of a (but 3|<ra: 53T). SfoTWS^K* TOT T^T^T Pan. V.. and the. compounds do not hold good in tfce case of *. * sn^TfcT: ^^Mlf^^qisHlrtiq^f: it. i IT. wrwsnr-*. Tat:. 3n?4 when so modified in a Tat. 3TCT3?7T3r-' prepared or offered in ' ' eight pans ( S*m*r: bullocks yoked to it'. ). try ed by $ and jrfg. : :. Vartikas on t 3TC?r: t ^TT% ^ftr? I I irit ^ 5% I I Vdrtikas. ). g. | 3^^ becomes WJT when followed by c^m^ ' And the compound so formed conveys the sense of ' an oblation ' and yoked to respectively. i42. * ^sir 3TCTHT one n <>t ( a) But in the case of the sr word <rf5fc[ the final ' 33 is op- tionally dropped and road '.The the compound implies the counwhen ^ is dropped necessarily Brahmana which the in dwells. 3 mnfr sft** P^. e. VI. 4. 72. 3<l%dfll a BrahmaDa. I Pan. 3. a great arm ( Tat. Tat. is neu.148 SANSDHT GBAMMAB.f 5T5TT-$r: dwelling in Surftshtra. qf3rq( added. 3?* and f^f^re change takes place necessarily. [ 241-24* a bad Brihmana. the Neg. 3Tmt ( 5T9?*) *a carriage with eight finals | 244. } All the rules given above for the change of the of the Tat. . first *The word sr^g. 4. ) or one having a great arm ( Bah. Uffft KgrlJl ^7 aimilarly and *fr 243.

Hunff:. . five optionally so in tnffitf a collection of cows-> M o-^i ml . 245. STm^TT^T ^ff. 4.tf^T^ a carpener : I Pin. lio that endiog in TO substituted for 280 . 3Tff masculine 7 except when ror preceded by a numeral and 3*5 by s<nr 'ffHTf-. f^T: VW- way. 4. bat mjfgrr:. (c) J 3^q^n: Dwigu as they is firTV5C. ^nsr:. and gf^T. and that ending in which coae it takes the termination f . II. optionally feminine .abador a wrong do not end in q^f.\ is generally feminine. . ( see 285 ) but that ending in 3TT is air A collective neu. ) preceded by a numeral or an indeclinable. 17. 149 GENDERS OF TATPUBUSBA COMPOUNDS. *As a general rale a Tatpurusha compound follows the gender of the final noun. I 26 : Vart 5% I P n- I Sid. Vartikas on ibid. tf^fi^i^. vide ^. KlHoftftfe: (b) ^:. . q^^-l. ( 4IUKHH .-245 ] TATPUBUBHA. IW^STlfel' aQd stf is 5^ : &c- A Tatpurusha ending in n^> is . as sjqroif <T?W ft<W*. y Vartikas.The ^ of final is dropped and the Dwigu ( fr. Kau. Exceptions f: f r t De* r ^ r3t member (a) Oompoandi with srTH" and 3TTTO and the Pradi compounds follow the gender of the words they qualify. is ).

4. 21. T^TT5JT-c^C > ^HT^TT 3T^ ( the 14th day of the dark half of a month. T5TT6*4d*q^l Pan. II. |r<{lM&*4 stop the drona a measure of corn ) first brought into use in the reign of King Nanda. ^?r. These ( rules hold )- good in the case of Tat. is neuter (e) A Tatpurusha ending in $\m many f when the objects casting the shade are (/) A Tatpurusha having for its ( first member a synonym of fTsra[ and not o*F* Its latter itself ) or the words and ^nrc for member is neuter. a^T ( Neg. I OTT *1$ I I Pan. ^jr^n ( Karm. work grammar ( ) first taught or composed by Panini. W*nn* R^lM^^q. I Amara. as assembly of x s but wfow in the sense of w A Tatpurusha ending in *RT. alone. ^qx^niT-^7 the shadow of a wall. ?jn5JT and women optionally neuter. 4. Pn. 4. Pan. II. { 245 (d) ter A Tatpurusha ending in ^qn ) 1 and 3TOW is to of the of neuis gender. II. OTIT. but tTSTSnTT. so ). ). according to the Sabarabhashya ). gUflm^rU-^**. Kau. Tat. Pin. so called because certain dogs observe a fast on this night. II. i Sid. 23. II. B. when the idea of sn^rpT ( 'being the is first' what known or commenced w introduced the meant ( be expressed. 24.as a king's council. 4. it means 'a multitude'. 4. . JV.150 * SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 5 alao that ending in ^nrr when 7 . . 22. ^r%?ft *HTT Bah. 25. ^STSTT-^ malt liquor beer. qqiq^^Mjff Vart.

high-souled. division to avoid confusion. wfc*i'*i"H^i^i I I ** Q . solved it must have the pronoun qu in any one of the oblique cases: as jr^ ^Tf HW *T H*l4lg: I TO-' ]. Note cf. simply means ipffc'BRl)' ^r^: t a deep sound/ and the sense is complete. is is in apposition to the substantive it qualifies. here one of the members viz. determined or modiis denoted by its first member. * nouns in BAHUVRIHI OB THE ATTBIBUTIVE COMPOUNDS. vm^rg* &:. aaaBah. narrow-minded &c. garment yellow. to something ' ' denoted by neither of the two. tpfrCTT?: as a Karm. 2. 247. BAHUVBIHI. 151 246. II. 24. The this: Karm. itself. Tb. We . <mT 3T**t *JW *T *TMH-K: [ %R: |. A Babnvrihi compound consists of two or more apposition to each' other the attributive member befirst ing placed and denotes or its refers to something else than what is expressed by which fied is members.. and Bab. in the latter it is not so. g. W\\\: is in apposition to TO: and therefore the comp. 6. good-natured. g. one whose arm ig trfTOffp ' ' is one whose When disqicTTOT: great. f Strictly speaking this is not a division of the 'Bah. here the sense is not complete unless it is known whose sound is meant. In English such compounds are by no means rare difference between a . N. B. while in the latter the whole compound is an adjective. It generally attributes that by what expressed by its second member. is a Karm. e. A Bahuvrihi compound partakes of thejiaiure of an adjective and assumes the gender of the substantive : it Qualifies. one of the member alone the comp. In the former the sense is complete in In the former. but -an have given it as a separate exception to the general rule. fW ' Bahuvrihi compounds are divided into two f classes.246-247] III. comp.it is some one whose equivalent to jpftr: TT^ sound is deep '.

II. compounds are also further divided into two kinds Htn^HMsfrf: and is also That in which the sense of the attributive member sent is called pre- is an TadguTldsamvijnana. or an upamanapada parison ) ( a } noun denoting a standard of com- is dropped. srrqf 1 . 35. In a Bah. 248. have the same case relation when dissolved. so this ought to be properly analysed as But later grammarians. 249 Oit. is not allowed in any case except in the Genitive and the Locative:* as ^^ J qrufY ^I'-sl^lPd: t 8O not allowed. The Bah. apposition to each other e. altogether as of no practical value. here such a'jft is meant as has the yellow silk garment actually on. in the Loc. . < tr^ t This is allowed by the Vart.152 a SANSKRIT GBUOCAB. f%sr$ vfnf 3n*T? is of the other. A Vyadhikarana Bah. comp. A Vy adhlkaraoa Bah. in which both the mem- bers are in apposition to each other t. . In a Bah. are in different cases whose members are not in when dissolved. have rejected this V&rt. fK^^ Pan. such as Vamana. TTcTT^sR instance of the first. That is [ 247-2*0 ( ) a Samanadhikarana Bah. Bhattoji &o. is that t. the noun first. 3frT word are placed Sid. g. the word following a noun in the Loc. aud an adjectival : I 2. . There are six kinds of this according as the q^ is in any one of the six oblique oases.Kau.

3*TfT*c-^&faf% Vart. 28. meant is 16* is hcrusman only and not his variegau or cows. J A compound or of an indeclinable or a numeral or of ^f^^ with a numeral is a Bahuvrihi. compounds with substantives verbal derivatives used to express their retained ST^rif : j the sense be optionally 31f<f3T.. a tree with its leaves dropped ruthless. The restriction not universal as there are instances in which there ^^^ no equal participation. dead &c. 5^1^% is is 82-83. *Tne negative particle 3T 3^ and may prepositions. VI. 133. f is an indeclinable meaning 'having* ). II. hence the Vrittikara remarks-' Sfffqvqfc g^q^TTTf ffff Dikshita also says | Pan.*%. **$[ I Pan. ftTO&ICT \ I Pan. 250. . The ia the Instrumental participation in particle may be compounded with a nonn case in a Bahuvrihi when there is equal ^ eome action . t II. g. .a oalf. in this case ^nT optionally be- comes tf i as S3TJT WS ^^f- or ^g-:. 252. 24. 2. In the i Vartikas on Pan. form Bah. e.249-252 here what ] BAHUVIUHI. or f^y a plough. ?R *%fa 3. 3*5rTf ^-*-^<l TFT ^T Tf^^T with the neck uplifted . 25. may. sometimes. ^jftttt. 2. II. even when a blessing is pro- nounced .i!rr?f* JJ^r* MfM ^?T ^^J^T . *T<TSTO &c. 2. qrfl. fr^ remains unchanged when the compound involes a (a) blessing but is necessarily changed to *r when followed by iff a cow. Also 3fl ( where 3ii7T 251.

gff gr ^ff 5TT fi[3T: 'two or three'. v. final () gfnr 3rfT n <l ^F*T *T 3T33rea[ ^T%tjfr 37WfT *TW q^T 'both meaning parts of the body'. (see art. Pan. as qpansg. or the final consonant with the preceding vowel of tne latter numeral and the sirar of fifafflr* are dropped and 3^ 3T 35TRT *TWT % *n% ^ 3q^TT 'abont eleven. 142. . . and not r^TOT^fr as these are not the names of the Eastern and Northern quarters. 33<nv?Tt ^gfT6!%^r^ i i ^^^ ). fifcra: a*T*5TT: 'nearly twenty'. nine or sflTO 3 j 1%: W^rTT 55T ft?5TT: . 2. Kau. ) I Sid. 4. I Pan. 284 t 3t? t?> f$3ft: both casea. ( for the form is the same in I Pan. 'ten repeated STrS^riifarT: twice . 113. . jNames of directions may form a Bahuvrihi comand pound signify the point of direction between them 253. I 77. e. 26. e.or T% does forty': ^qir^w:. ^ The following words drop their final vowel or the consonant with the preceding vowel and take 3? when at the end of a Bah. \%fi'?rm%m Pan. compound: 254. 754. ^ ^rfow 'one having long thighs'.151 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. not drop any letter but simply has an 37 added to it ST^f^^ir-* 'not far from thirty'. twenty so &c. ten 7 *'. no come point betpound is possible. fsrr added : . [ 252-254 formation of such compounds the final vowel except that oi and iror. 'spindlelegged'i * ipftfV 4. II. V. ^Rf^fong. under Varfc. f^Rf ^T^r^^^in^TT: 'more than but 3<nTUTT: -t ^gT preceded by ^q. V.^f^f^Trcnrrft (5^ ween the East and the North. words so compounded are not the names of quarters. VI. 3^3n$r: <one whose eyes are like lotuses'. 4.

and hence the feminine ends ( see N. 121. c5tH^ preceded by 3T?(TT &n ^ ^f?v &&<^ %^J used in apposition to the came of a constellation of atars^^i-ftTn' T^^ *T fl^rf: two-headed ^ srif^for:. Pan. I Sid. I P^n. : I 3^?T*%ViTT Vart. : i ^ ofm: I Pan. 4. V. bat^r^\fr.' BO gcq-^arr: &c.3T-fr^hT. V. 117. For fffim see also ) below. ^T^forf rff: ^^rmr N>^*fr ^T^TT is ^qTofNo^iTr is * TT=nr: . nights whose complement an auspicious fifth night. 114. Pan. 4i 116. Kau.' ^fr STRTofT q-^q- 3^ft sfhnTf<JT: 'one whose authority ( e) a woman. *nights of (d) J Feminine words ending in a termination showing e. is N. . formed when the compound is an attribute of but Mo-^l^-i^: (c) f ^fcT: the hand having five fingers. compounds ending in 3T$T by adding 3CT when it qualifies an inanimate object.' fTl^F^ optionally ?fe an ^ preceded by ar. (b) * 3^'fey. g. ( where in 3^'. 4 115. 37 is added by ( c ). < a bamboo 282 stick with big eyelike holes'. The fern. B. of Bah. ^r^raT^iTFt err: ^n^^ which the Mriga constellation is the leader' i. B. become %& and ^f^r when ^^r:-r: having no plough. V.e. ^j I or ^ .. f a complement of/ and the word MUmPf. V. 155 but ffifafiq 3T$^ a cart with long poles 7 *Tg?TOr ^nyqrJ: . 'whose position in the heavens marks their advance. 4. The words Jj^ preceded by fg or r%.254 ' BAHUVBIHI.

V. ^T or ^jr as ??ft^r: 5Tr: 3T*q. 132. c^^qiui vror n^jr ^r ^IU| \-Tffr . similarly f ftfTSTSXTT . . becomes . 44. the sutra. becomes \F^^ one whose ' as bow is strung '. (a) when preceded by a single member in a BahuvriM becomes f ( see t-nS^. 133. ) but <T^T: ^: vnf i^qmay also be correct if mutq be regarded as one word compounded in a Karmadharaya. Pan.5J7%ot^Hqr^ ^i%d|jrf ^IT: a stag wounded on the right side by a hunter. [ 254-255 : 'one who has no thighs/ $:fr?*T: fw 'one having deformed thighs'.. sffcf. . OT?pr:-f%*r:. ^[imwfT one whose food is the holy soma juice. 124. 4. are to be similarly explained.^srnrr one * (c) : having beautiful teeth. a wound. 126. . BO 51% is another reading for *rfl*l in (/) *ST3TT and $TOT under similar circumstances drop their *T3TT m and take are. Pan. e. &c. so snip^r ( ) one whose is This change bow is made of horn 7 t. preceded by ^wfr becomes when the wound is inflicted by a hunter . good t vnJ intellect. 125. er SHTT f *W srcft wnrr: having no H*f *T 3*^: having bad progeny. but qfdd'H<-*n''(d) The word fif n. MaU Mad. the god Vishnu. similarly Act. $oi >T^T ^W. * Similarly 5TWC a tooth '.?r W3( when preceded by ^. similarly 255. ^g^sy \ 3. I Intro. as 3tf$TORT progeny. 4. V. optional when the whole compound is a name. ^orm^ ^<IT q-^fS Wt 3orfwrr. See Bhatti VI.156 SANSKRIT GEAIOCAB.4. food/ &c.

134. .* bandylegged. final 3TT- 1. substitutes preceding ^T 4. VI. as fprf^ *li%& ( which receives its odour from the lotuses &c.. 45. ( f. V. but 7T ' ^ $Tt*HI TyviT smells. qHf4j &c. Kagesha. growing in it. S WMlMlnnHJ ^TTTRl^^ I Pan. is ' one whose wife 18 the c) t T*VT becomes ' Wn08e 8meW < when preceded by 3^ ia sp'ad above. ( At *5TT3 the end of a Bah. *8 compound a ) changed to ^ necessarily when preceded by JT and% optionally when preceded by 3^5 snnt *IT&ft *TOr r < one having the knees wide apart 'i. ( b > t sfnrr becomes g^nflr /t/. Vart. a difference of opinion among critics as to the of the Vai. But the view of such emi&c. referred to is inseparably connected with looks like a part and parcel of ) the object denoted by ( the other member. ' < one having well-turned or beautiful knees. 157 256. or having a repulsive smell. 3nnfftim ir I Pan. 136-137. and Mallinatha on Bag. younga king. There meaning must be the natural property of f t'f. V. IV.e. 4. Jayamangala on Bhatti. . . V. 66. P&n. ' one whose wife earth. II. or wnen the compound involves compaiieon. R for its The ^or ^ is is dropped before a consonant except *. at the end of a Bah. ' &c.. as given above. ^r. nent grammarians as Kaiyata. 4. is Bhattoji. cle of . i Pan. 130. 3qrff% I PH. ' * long-shanked. 4. 129. 3TW QT^VT also ' 3(rrqf5r^: a perfumer dealing in sweet ' TTf^r is changed to irf^T when it means ' a parti- 9 < a little of. possible only when the smell This change of fprf?^:. Some hold that the smell a thing to necessitate the final ^imf^<HMKVR: rr?\r: &c. 10.V. ) QirfTtraf^t.5 256 ] BAHUVBIHI.

%q| ^T*5J: 1 ^T%ar Vartikas.. 140. mw. &miW f5T qn^ ?TW.158 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Pan. 4. 138. ?r t. 118. *. but V. | 3. 257. or ^T. takes f in the $mii<ft? and others ( t. ' large-nosed. * fff* ' one having a prominent nose. V. e. ^TOTF: 'sharp-nosed. 4. 3HT. 28. ^ar KfRrOT HW *T i m 3^r*p ' nose.^P.-W. ^rr^ fair-footed. as ' ^T becomes or ^ ' ' ^JT*n. 4. to. &c. ) &c. ?m.189.-' JTim^T fORf: f *W . TT^T : and some others ( ). . but &c - ( 6 ) the case of the words qr? becomes q^ and the ccmp. q^rfq' that which has the smell of a lotus. &c. i T^rirri Pan I * Vlll. in . 4.. ) /<!772.) J <rr? it is The word when 3TT5J. flat. so ^firfSqr a scanty supply of ghee.' f5rTcTT optionally when having a noee like mfa*n ?T when preceded by k fgr becomes or ^q-j as ^IKi*T q^T one having a deformed nose. The following words lose their final vowel the end of a Bahuvnhi: ( when at preceded by a numeral or fj or when the compound involves comparison and it is not preceded by * word of the fwrrf^ group ( sf?flR(. [ 256-257 dinner in which there ' is ( d ) * 5TTm*?T becomes sition or -when the and it is ' when it is preceded by a prepocompound is used as a distinguishing name preceded by any word except f^j. preceded by a horsed hoof or f^q-: ^ ' but f^gififfry:. qnr^: one having a good ' OQ e whose nose is like a tree. *[^\ q- Pan. a biped. V.

Pan.' - V. ^3i^. 4>rf^1 ( both proper names. 102. V. I f^rq^ I 146. . t See Foot-note p.rf rTTg Kas. * () preceded by OT^" <tfa e palate' ( g. V. .?a:. or name-. a^cft.' 9. 159 ( ) indicating age. tt Sft^ ftenftawts Pan. having teeth like the points of buds. Pan. e. IT small as to have two teeth only. but ^m^fr having even rows of teeth ^rr^r (black) 3p?[T TTO W 5TT*^. %$*. 150. ) necessarily when 3^ and f% and optionally when preceded by <njf as . when it is preceded by a numeral or & when the whple compound forms a feminine and optionally when it is preceded by 3pcT necessarily word ending 'a child so in 3*q.' sremt J^T^ ^6T *T: ^sHIrt*^.267-258 * ] BAHUVRIHI. or ^T$. ) &e.-nT: &c. 4. as f%^^ ' peaks'. also when it is preceded by fir and the compound designates the mountain ( d) { I $>$<? oi that name. youthful ) fern but ( having beautiful toeth ) 5^:. when the compound denotes a particular stage of growth. who is very young*.^ ' a bull that has not * got his hump as yet' i. . 3^5. ^T. ?frR ff^T i an enemy ' but ^f fq" 4 one who has ^ ' ' got a good heart t. 149. ff ^q- is ? meaning ^T a friend a friend'. one who is able to appreciate merits'. 4. respectively. 147. HI. 258. 4. but fir***^: name of a mountain with three having three humps'. a man of wicked intentions. 4. e. am^^-^cT: having '* ( - black or thick-set teeth- ^Ra^Hj^-yfl-. 148. V. 51^ * ^^ when preceded by ^ or changed to or an *enemy . 143-145.

4. PAn. similarly bat if the grST%> ^fTTfTOT. g. &c.. Bhatti. 'having a round belly.. Avyayibbavas f.who has passed a happy day'. ^fem ^?&S* JTfr^ 3:5 srara ynsigrffc. * SANSKBIT GRAMMAB. V. to f- aleo change their final fitful . ) no compound Obs t ( a $$r<Hf& The following words 1 is possible. The compounds Guna substitute before the final ' % - f . II. similarly nj^n% &c. I The following Bahuvribis are sn<TTW ST^T ' down as irre- 5TT*TtT ^rr?l* ' 'one having an auspicious see 7 morning or a day having an aupicious dawn . In eucn compounds the final vowel of the first member is lengthened *nd that of when the sense is { the second is changed to the natnre of takes so formed are of The final 3* and are indeclinable. Kau.160 259.' gar: ( 'four-cornered. the fight thus began' and the idea of an exchange of action is to be implied. I ^ I Sid. VI. . mean' ing weapons or things need as weapons/ may he compounded in a Bah. %^ %$$ 1 W- a battle in which the warriors fight <%^ *rt ST*f %5TT%T% seizing each other's hair'. V. ^TtR *^r: having an auspicious morrow. be wrong. Pan. and meaning 'something that can be seized/ or in the Instrumental. '^T3?H?fc 55rgf. instruments used by both the parties be not the same. 137. f 259-26A Two nouns alike in from in the Loc. therefore. gular. will. laid 260.' 'one. quadrangular-' tr^qj of a female black deer > having the feet like those of a bull'. 49. 4. 3.

11 . it optionally takes the affix f?. V. 'a city having mUny ascetics'. or ^i &c. q^fffc:. 164. I Vartika. comp. ending in intakes this T ^ ^ necessarily.264 261. a* added to them. But the last word of a Bah. x ^^f^5|: 4. ox if it ends in q^. ease. fern.n\they form the latter member of a Bah. when the final word of a Bah. Sid. but ^ifr: exception. words 161 4j *Th a tl8ed ** the 8in grilar. compound be a fem^ noun ending in f or 37 not capable of being changed into f^or case termination.. V. t ^qri^TTTT H. Veil-developed) one fond of ghe* % &o. Pan. does not undergo any additions or alterations mentioned in the foregoing rules. f **: m*W I I Pan. ^qjbefore the vowel necessarily affixed. bvt 3lT^!5T> SJTW^. necessarily 262. 'an assembly having many eloquent speakers in it'. &c. 4. but 263 below ). ] BAHuvBhn. 4. V.261. 152. I And as a general rule. *nrnT51W-- JT5TWT: 264. G.. B. 3*lPt|: &o. 151. f*gr. (a) an! takes the final q and optionally in any other ^meaningless' ^^:. when 3^ and the words following are need in the dual and the plural they take ^ optionally. Bah. comp. iq$ * (expanded. or HI*: ( vide He[l^t 263. whe. iflr an y^?l: . Kau. f A. <of mighty if glory'. " it having one man only '. when preceded by but 3Tqr 3^?rfe: 'useless'.. as it is mat. &c. ^? ^ is is &c.

but ^fnft^: ^?fWT: lines'. B. the 77za. A Bah. . sr^r^ft SfRIT ^T ^: one whoe brother is a fool. Pin. (5) to the word ^far preceded but (e) to by a term 01 praise. . the affix air or < . as f%s%^. f*nft J ) does not shorten its final vowel. Rnrr. noun derived from the mas. noun f% o but Pan. ending in . H the first aember be a /em. No * is affixed (a) when the whole compound is used as a name or when it ends in |qr^. But 3rfS^qrt%: as a Tatpurusha. unbleached garment/ 251. In the formation of a qnHlffrfciUHgrifti'S. 252. VII. V. ' one having many excellent *. veined neok' . *$*: ^iqfcn q^q jgamm. and I 267. i53j as () to compounds formed according to rales ^j?:.3^*ifiU^n5ithi^8cSr ^iHinTRfe^ i^? VI. 159-60. iftiffcr ^pw%: ^rq: <the body having many arteries'} ' *tho many. q^q frq^r: 'whose deities are the Viswadevas'. 4 15. ( *. ^TRTpr-i ^CH<HJI?> *o. The f final err i* optionally shortened before q?*j as 266. is restored if followed *r by another /*. 34. with many ornamental qgd^fi*l ( many-stringed ) final of (d) to the the compound ) weaver's shuttle' qr^r q?: 'a new. 4. 155-57.102 SANSKRIT GB&KMAB [ 266-267 265. H^fjr the words ^n% and both referring to the body of in animal.

the Nom. in most cases. H^l^l. of a limb of the body of an animal ending Jy name of a a word having a penultimate g in a few cases. bnt 3i%grr end in a proper name ) *rnr? g^q- v as the first word does not &c IV. spFTT ( not undergo tuis change* &c. g t arfvfcft 'in Hori'j ^^fffift 'in a mountain/ &c. 109. final 3 of mat. 3Tgwnr. when it is followed by an ordinal ( fern. ' one to whom a virtuous woman is dear. &c. 163 Exception: ( a ) This change in the first member does not take place.. ) or any of the words. and Sid. the whole being treated sing. V.nouns in that of neuter nouns ending in SF^. and fen. optionally fThe 3^ is dropped. nouns. t 3fiTr I I Fan. . e. of new. tfr<Tnrfo dfan^ft arfWtaH. *rf%. consists of two members the an indeclinable ( a preposition is. and the second a noun. so formed is indeclinable. 4 108. fihu. 'first An ) of which or an adverb like the Avyaytbhava comp. ( a ) The final long vowel is shortened. an. ordinal number. ( b ) after *m <TKftffir *T *ft<rr: Vishnu. * bnt g name (6) If the first member be a proper name. *jfifWT. and the ending qr or | ^ is changed to f and aft to s. In fo ming the AvyajibhS. *H4 (lift. Kau. AVYATIBHA'VA OB THE ADVERBIAL COMPOUNDS. &&s near a cow. va compounds the following rales should be observed: 269.268-269 ] AvYAYteHA'vA. ^HTT.. it does or class. 268.. comp.

j ( 3 ) ^^f< or 9K^y '" a country wherein 1 Madras ) * are in prosperous condition. 107.4. (1 the meaning of case. 1. on t^ to <rff. 4. $ 270. forthwith. P4n. ^ ) The indeclinablea forming Avyaylbhiva compounds .V. 3re*TTnr * . the f of 3T% bein 8 dropped. as Kriehna. [ 269-270 is optionally substituted for the final of ( c ) *3| nd ftft. i \ trafhnfr ^rcaifftMr: Pan.164 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. $0*1.n. and 3*3. gr^SR^^ towards old age. t It of the ( * ) fijfsi also optionally added to i four letters of a class. 'prosperity' as Hfffnrt the so H^f%: a ^q^q &c. . &c/. ^Tf 5t-f$V 5nrilwI*iitijrSr tojhe full-moon day of Margas'lrsha'. ^ changed TO^r^ out of sight. towards the Vip&Sa-.' 4 f flies or nf$f|OTrnnrr* M*Sl^"H where are P4n.' f^^itH\i% S^l^R between two of the compass. 3T$UT and ^^Tfrf^afterwards. 6. 110. tfPTMPan.J. V. as condition. V. ^R and to 317% when preceded by srj. ITSr^r^ before one's eyes.' as condition. 111. . (2) ^fjfrar or vicinity. 4. g. have various senses * . ( 4 ) (ft+^tfifc: * or 'bad q^TRT ' 55% ( when the Yavanas are in a bad absence. &c. all nouns ending in any 3T is attached to the final of tie following nouns when compounded in^an Avyaya.112. as in the protector of the cowherd-' so &c.

are the senses of rs^nf^ ?nmfr: t i Sid. as 5Ti%iTTfftawr q-^T^Tf% ' not going ' ' f e. fulness ". is TfirTi^nT^ Pan. J ^W^WvnTBr I Pan. ' or < uafitness of time . ' or ' powerful. &c. beyond according to ooe's power so 5rmf%Rrt &o ( 13 ) ' or similarity '. as ^. e. ' * ^irtgif^ ( in a manner not leaving out even grass < ' 18 ) z&a or end '. as 3>3f*I ^l^4^3ct * ' according to seniority '. or ' ' 3Yf*rq-: atf^fi*rat after tne * so 3?fifaf|^H( . showing a definite measure may be com- * 10-13. w&$ R or 'succession in order. as' $ along with the wheel * '. &c. ( 12 ) awfaflrT or the ' non-violation of '.: *S ' like Hari. II. aa gronrfq- influence aa with the SR^fT^^T and . ^r^rnrf ^^1%: fT^Tan^ ' ' ' or very influential Kshatriyas in a satisfactory condition. ''&c. II. or quiet'. ' ' ' perfect loneliness '. a ) J 3TC3. so 3tpriTC according to the proper order. not compounded" when it indicates similarity. 1. priority '.' as f^yr ^snfft T flWlTl ffa arift- 8 ) past sleeping time 5' as armfrsra. ( 17 ) BT^q* or < entirety. ( 16 ) ' ^rirr% or . ( 10 ) qtrq-^T* or . ( fire ( which is studied last of all ) } . ( 7 ) wintry season. in a corresponding mannerj so agreeably or comfortably to. ( 9 ) qpOT^ or ' ' < after 7 as as fitness f^'TOTt: q5T^ 3T3^T. as including the work on BO ^TUJ^. every day / so srfcnrfff^. &c. ( 6 ) 3T?iPT . 1. 7. &c. Kau. &c. 3TTOtransgressing the proper limits '. favourably. (11 ) ' repetition' as sr^ar^ STKT STrq^'in every case / or ' JTf^r^rf. .270-271 ] AVYAYIBHAV'A. 271.' power. 8. ( 15 ) ^taTO or ' eimultaneouaness '. ttW 5^. 3rTOl?r ( or * manifestation ' as giros?*? which fm^fr the name Hari is manifested ( loudly uttered ). ( 14 ) . so the close or the transgression of ' as 165 utterly absent t.

II. 1. g. I t ftmT *TrfT*f*TW M^HJI I P4B. Pan. X * ) S *U showing limit. 9. is optionally compounded with a noun in the Ablative. II. ff^n%: or . ia placed last. e. 7 . and ^ToH^T And a numeral. 11-12. aqwrigr or 3H^ltowards the- grfg. compounded with words 3^. * jrfic meaning very little ' is compounded with a STTOriir ' noon and vegetable '. 10. * throw an or of dice throw unlucky unlucky ^TcJT^PrR: movement of one of the pieces at a game played with Sal&kas rr f ' ' - qf^rft ' loss of one throw of dice'.HURT* to Achyuta as bowing down so many times as there are Slokas . (a ) J The prepositions spr. IL I 1. : | Pan. .l. 13-16. I. f 271-274 pounded with any word.166 SANSKRIT GBAIOCAB. Sid.' to the east of the &o. ' or : YT3%: < until final liberation > tf*nT'> 3TT^R3: or 3=rf?|TTrH np to the child. ^rw*f : i Kau. STfU^.' 272. ' < away from Vishnu fTKf^ or TT?Rafr:i - 3^ ( srr^. fflrf^ . and srfff all meaning towards ' with a noun in the Accusative.srfSi 3^g^T^ or Pan. 5TTO** ?*$T: very little But f The f$r jrft ft$T?l& fif^ where snt meana towards 273. s^ ?flwr^ .. are optionally or aurfooft: ' compounded with a noun in the Ablative. ^ and . 274. JJ. inclusive and exclusive. forest sn^l^ or MH^HId. ). ^f|: and words . 3{rjf. or ^fl^fng. and so are 3*3. &c. iTTTOr: ' *$W. areloss in a <rft and placed first to express ' a loser so be as to by an game '5 ar^mr firqrffff l^r ai$rrfi. derived from the root &e.

17. 1. 3rf*RT:. the Gen. 20 acrr^r$ ^ ^nrr^ Pan. S. V. Katy4yana and Patanjali. this comp. fi^^H^. 277. also shows an aggregate. 1.' so &ti$&ifiwi. 18.. >irHTT4<l^. . cgT*<unq *> 98ans.. |f qftfqft f%gr3. l. II. also *|frim<|^. learning. showing relation by blood or by some kind of. If Any noun may be compounded with the name of a river. Grammar of which the T%iT^r ^H*^ui4 three sages. 1. and are placed first. II. . the final 3? being changed to q. Tat. U. II. 21. If the final noun has the sense of the Loc. to form an Avya. compounds with any nominal base. comp.! 274-279 ( c) 167 3rf meaning 'towa^*' similarly ' or 'alongside of/ 'lengthwise/ ( is also compounded. termination is irregularly retained. The indeclinables fWTT. *The words qrr and ncv optionally form Avya. g. Panini. & place where the Ganges 278. . ^rjrqrT 5TTlt> do not combine with any noun 279. 1. ) 275. from the middle of the Gangetic stream . The following Avya. *T7*IWTg> 1 this case the Ab. &c. ' (b) I and with names of rivers. 4. TOPfoir. *nr*n. i T faqMdiK ^ I Pan. the final vowel may be changed to 3ft^. 19 J tt ^fffHV Pan. t * Sid. into an Avya. is very boisterous. 276.when thus compounded . 3TRT3. are the author* ) a f A numeral in succession. may optionally be compounded ( with a noun. compounds I are anomalous f : Pan. comp. XL. as Bhatti. I Vart II. JTfUTT 3*3 Varanasi alongside the Ganges ( ^ i*i. Kau. to form a name. is ^<HH TTOr ' *T*frr *tbe thunderbolt passed ) towards the forest'. optionally of course. e.

^m^T 'when the ground chariots move forth/ 9^*1^ 'when and 3psnff . 280. * The words =g^ 5^. also IV. 76 . ^fsitw N. t Substituted for S <n%* J gfotf ^^^^s^iif ^?l^^ Sid. 24. t. B. 3T>H:-4t 'half a Rik ' i%^5< } 'the town of Vishnu / f%H5yj^ *r*: 'a lake with pure water . 'the S&ma Veda ^g^ ttH 'a hymn consisting of many riks/ Pan. . &c. V. sr^R. 4. g^g. VII. at the end of the yearin an evil year. and qt^. IV. is reaped/ c3HlH<HU. HU4UHI<> SHff^.. even ^Rq^TRl 'when the foot-soldiers are in right lines. sr^WT^. 25. [ 279-280 fi*5f T& ?ET fifa JUWW the time 'the time when cows <fcne time stand for being milked*' see Bhatti. ' the time when the *g cows come home'. Kau. ' ' when the barley is on the is similarly ^%53TT-. 'a country with pleasant roads'. when is does not t yoke of a yoke of a kingdom'. it' 0. According to all followers of Pan. thrashing ground ' ^PT^. Bag. *i<m^. cj. '^nen the 3?TTC7X 'when barley &c. . I ^ $&n^ .' ^i^a^il 'the the carriage'. mmfUf' *TT*n ' the evening time. si^xr: one who does not study the Big Veda/ ^g^r: 'one 3^ . a ) But in the case of the 3| is ( preceded by 3^ or added only when the compound denotes a student of the Rig Veda . fat the end of any compound take the soffix 9. Sid.' Vada but sp^ ^TR.. 14. the deer comes/ f^^if^.. So when cows conceive or balls bear the plough. ^f. I.168 SANSKRIT GBAJOCAB. Kau.' ^ that has studied the Rig that contains no riks. 4 GENERAL RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL COMPOUNDS. 14. &c. *r<rofr %^T. compounds of this group are precluded from being 'urti or compounded though poets do not seem to respect the prohibition except in so far as to place such words at the end of these comps. 'the heavy responsibilities of governing &c.

3T?crf?fT 3?lfr 3fr to the force of ) aiqrr: t ( 3*gRtt: stroll name passage for water/ 282. 76. I Vartika. is dropped. inversely'. ' a pond or a tank. directly/ hymn.. word 3T is changed to f when or a preceded by f$. fe awffita i ' - 3. srifr- am frnr arsrar^ or a numeral. (a) m*&i and ^ftrsy *rtf. 4. 4. *rnr 3=nT3T: when preceded by a^^rm: friendly. successively. and to 5T when preceded tne and by 313 compoand is the name of a country . 75. aflf*^?. q|0^ similarly ^fnfr ^f&: *TW ] 'having two floors ' (e) The words sr^ and irtqufl preceded by a numeral. 3*3 or 3^. t TRJT^C sf^i^iim'H .' 'in oppsition ' peninsula. with the following consonant. natural order. ^ : a bad Jjfff^rsnr 'in inverse order..280-282 ] COMPOUNDS. . rt ^r i Vartikas. if any. 85. Pan. it refers 169 ' (b) : 3^ w hen to 3T$T ' a car does not take this 3Ti the yoke of a carriage. . v 4.' change of 3T to f is optional if the preposition end in 3T. ff The following words take the suffix 3? before which the final vowel. :. V. and not meaning 97-98. V. irffr. The ti waters*/ of a place or country . *The 3f of the 3TT<ft *foT53[ *fa ' T<H* 'an Wflqq . preposition. I tt 3T^ ii*^i'44irftiiiy'' Pan. ^^[. 31^1 HH 'ia preceded by ^sor. HtMJk-MtiH^ snftirac island. * t ra?rereifafrOT p n VI. when used in a metaphorical sense. sf^rirfr^f: j Pan. as 281.

(e) a vehicle measuring as much as a bull in lengt 3(3*17 I Sid. 81-83.prtaifffi * carriage that has reached a road. inggt ( distant ) ^^rr journey I (/) 288. [ 282-283 the eye'.' ift preceded by 313. * also STTpT i compounds like f 3T is added to the finals of the following ' or sfcTOj the define sHrec preceded by 5T5R A of or the of Bratnhan 'pre-eminence glory Biahmana'. 3T?m<t ff 3WC5^ a litfcl e secret. .- g. 79. ^T^ and sr^r.j this is obtained by separating the portion 37^ from the Sutra '3^ sr^p^ro/ But this is no sanction for forming new compounds ending in fTO It is only a device used by grammarians to explain such words t i Pan. V.' WW: #'. preceded by 3T*.' in the Loc. Majesty or sanctity arising from sacred knowledge'.' . . resembliog the *ye of a bull () *ns*3* when Preceded by a preposition.' or 'desolate*- a hot secluded place. 3^ cTR: 3R^cnmw preceded by 3flg. 4. and preceded by srr% ^% li against the breast. : great or continuous* pitchy darkness. when length i? implie. 78. slight darkness .170 SANSKRIT GBAUHAB. gR^4*JH 'the () STWVW^ 8plmdour or magnificence of an elephant '. Kau. as qqmgfi* * a round window. solitary'. ^m ?W: ^cmfrw ' darkness .' < * 3T^ or ' 'secret.

4. T and ^Tf?T. ^y^: *nfi<ra( T^^ST^ ' 'fft' ^T *ftw> a d 8 * n a cowpen that * figuratively a person who idly stays a young bull'. bull. barks at others hence at home and slanders Tat.284-286 * ] COMPOUNDS. 52. This prohibition does not apply to Bah. eleven then compounds for which . f*T%?T ( fprsr: 3^3?: destitute of four. Dw.see 192 compounds 196 and the last b two. Dw. sure. 286. ( ) a Bah.s^TK^^r *KliJ<4 Avya. ' t *Ji3t4 M<5iNr<4iia*iiHQn^ Pan. 4. never failing sfrff ) . r%w: V. 77. fiNw: in other king '. 70. ^tsfq. ' Tat. wmwrofcr v* r t. i t JT ??Rra: i Pan. and to. (e). 56 .. 4. both ' the period of two lives-' simi- 5rq^jTO a grown bull'. *wnrm: ^n^TO both Dwigu* ' the P eriod of numan life '. 3. which are: <flft*JUHTM HfrjiR 3flf*I ft^yr: nd #^&i: all three Bah. as m: WfT^. f 285. J The word q-f^ is changed to <r^ when followed by m9.' 35W gprrg: 55*TT5* . . v. so ' bliss . Pan. all Karms. but f%TT3f :. and fm. irT^fdcKT^: 3H^R:. 69. *ifRTg*r: larly. fT%?fr TT3TT fitlW ' a bad * a bad Iriena '. v.' '. *UI*iIH. ^5 necessarily when followed by if R. Sffim up ' f^f^: 'an old near the dog % Avya. ^n5^. and optionally when followed by : i Pan. 171 284. The stfft finals of compounds -having for ' their first member of * ' 3 or in the sense of ' praise ' and r% in the sense ' censure'. VI 3. f^5fWT cases. VI. nffa: others '. remain unchanged ' &<MI a good king an excellent bull' a pre-eminent king ': 3iT%ifr but qTJRHT:. compounds OTHEB CHANGES IN CONNECTION WITH COMPOUNDS. 3T is always added in the case of the following tweatyfive compounds . 54..

f3[qfm 288.. and ft. a foot-soldier '. flT. but ^^^^Tsft ( as . affixes q- q^ ) and '. 3. T^Rn. I Pan. uniwHftft J|-odcftfd 7^<T: all trian. 'hiccough'. and optionally when followed by a word beginning with (6) a simple consonant and denoting ' a vessel to be filled up with * water'. ^^:. q^r ' ffaf. ^TC. ( qr?R*3: or trnrfro. ^tM t u iti I ^T 'X43iii I 51. .beaten down by the feet . <y*<m5: &c -. a pedes7 ' &c. $s5Tfn to the heart '.MfeJUl'' foot.^n^:or5trafftj: the pang of the disquietude. 57-60. coldness of the feet . ^^ holding water ^ry: ^3^ or ftrSid. 3Trflr f^f f^ <agraeable < 5r?. a footman ' . g^WT^r: standing in water . or ^^T: '^ ^f ). ^?n%: ^f neoessarily (1) when it forms when it is final or (2) when followed by ' orm. and g^g. ^ftr?: tha sea of milk.172 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. fts$ *T3r. VI. ^{ ( STO^). n&f. 50. and optionally when followed by ^ffc and ( ^HT and ache the^ ( Tad. 3. q'frq'fcT. ' a vessel for f^Tftr. of a Niehka ' quarter ( ( 287.M'^frf* a beaten- q^fft: or frr^T:.'. a road legs. ^r^T. . VI. proper name. ). away. a? <rr5T*qT!T3Tcftfi* [ 286-288 . qfSire: trs^*^: or qT5$r5: <TfkS: or a gold coin ).and the Tad. qr^ sftj ^frsmw <T?OTJT 'one '. Kau. also the words qif with water . > heart.'j vj^H?VT: or rice boiled with water. ^fir ? *n* )j ^[4- TWcftl^ f&?: * ' beart' g g^S^- Sid. begins with a conjunct consonant i barley-water . meaning one walking on accustomed to tax his track. (a) ^f^f . aqftq: a particular clond filled becomes . gr^f^. Pan. ^^T. and by JT?^. ft^T a ' yoke with a pan at each end for carrying loads ( ef>r< Mar&thi ) and ^^ or *^:. XJ^H: a^qsfa.. 3^13^:. Kau. * i^r becomes 5^ necessarily when followed formed with the affix 3^ ).

q$$Rnnn yfr4j|^K ^ n point of a reed/ ** RTSJWft having or wearing garlanda. ?^NT and HT^T shorten their when followed by i%r. ( a ) When the first member of a compound ends in not or 37 capable of changing into f ^ or s^and not belonging f to a/ow. But the word ^followed by Kau. by fj The 3TT or f is optionally shortened when followed 291. <JcJ and ^rt?^ respectively. Pan. final } The words ^2^T. 64. ing to some. Pan. termination or an indeclinable. 3. ^sffa^: or 3?qtftar:. 63. I t ^?TWt: *i3m5?TOV*cro ^ ^r I I Pan. 173 water-meal. VI.. : as ^r^f: 290. Kau. . Bid. $5jf??: the knit eyebrow. I IrF^^ Vartihas. VI.$ 288-291 ] COMPOUNDS. 65. note ). ( b ) ^IW> SJifnTnn &c. (/. &c. 2JTUoft3*r : or mufft^: the son of a leader of a village. ) ^r and ^% is an exception* '. but ^rqf^.2.' ' * or 3H4**liy ' plunging or bathing in water &o.MAX Mad.fc^|%- of bricks. 3.)&c. f Tlie Oba.. first fem forming the member is when the whole * 3TT or f at the end of a word compound is shortened in moat a name or in the Veda > affi of a &c. VI. cases an actor. accordbecomes 5f when followed by gfc or ^ optionally and W^I9T: ( see ft. &c. IX. Obs. * 289. the f or 37 is optionally shortened. 3. but jft^RUTv sft^Tf :. 61. 'a yoke for carrying water. ffff 5^I?5iTr5cT^ I Sid.

3. . or *n%cRr:. and Mallinatha on ' it. XIII. the world. 3m? ' :. 70. td^m^ i Pan. c ). aifff t tnt*i i ir^Tr*tn7vr^> ^ i fihffif VL 3. &c. making true.174 292. aRTKTTO y ?*n *T and grf^T by f^T. 293. to be shunned Sid. SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. is changed to ( F g. ' TOtton ^nft a khari with a drona in addition to ' it. wi^ft^:. Ing words: -*r?q-. t Vide Rag. Obs. ) *qrf?rorcfnT he studies the ecience of astronomy. A nasal is inserted in the case of the followfc and 3T*3 followed by gjtT. heating. ^5 by irw. ). cf. ' mr&<%^m5J: t a very large fish that swallows even a Timingila. ' ' a phy c ian. XI. ( who fire. ^m^iyn? when it means 'including a certain literary work/ or 'in (b ) * . and ^Of and TS& by ?Rnr. 'one e monstrous fish that swallows who kindles down Timi ' ( * a large fish said to be 100 Yojanas in length ). naqum conferring prosperity. ' * a demon. |w gf^Sar f^rf: ' Kau. 0. J ^rf 294. grefrvnr 3-* 5*1* I i Vartika. a) but when the whole compound is a name. forming the first member of a compound. 50. ' ^|Qnd: or &C. B.' nfirsfift ' admittance J ' ( anpgqirir: * Tat. B. ' a night-rover. * [ 292-294 . : sf *T^TT earnest money. raSr by ftr ' or fttefjfa. ' Kir. ' Pan.addition to-/ as ^rg^S ( Avya. as nzrfKi. fn 33ii<4i<< 10. q^mi a comrade in battle ( Upapada eomp. comp. aHVgrgrf&fO:: ' pervading or filling ). one fries or roasts in a ' fffmf^wt frying-pan/ ^ftlTH^*. VI. ^fr^^nr: not to be approached. 'efficacious. including that of finding out the auspicious times. ( V& Tat. : * ^rBr followed by a krit affix inserts a nasal optionally. from afar. 78-80. ). fa? by foT.

g^r ^r ^r^ like . as ^THRrFm ST*fr ^fdVd}: preceptor. sprung from the same ancestor. when followed by the word ffgreTTTC t <a student of the ( b ) Veda who lelongs to the same 'aAa or branch as another/ (e)when followed by ffh? with the Tad. ^Rlf*f: 'connected by the same navel.' &c. 85-89. a kind of mourning which i lasts from the rising its of the sun or a particular collection of stars to setting. a ) jrrfir.added to ' ' a disciple of the same it. ) f3r$rr * night in which presence of demoness is to be inferred' 295. 176 and when the object denoted by the latter member is ( e ) not visibly seen. affix q. ( OTR becomes tf when followed by the words .' ( a brother by whole blood/ f ollowed d ) when I by (e) and in ^ . 84. Bod. belonging to the same country. VI. ^ *^i H?4 ^^5^*5 I Pto. ^rrrBr:. born of the same womb. but is to be inferred: as wi*H*Tl4>l ( Bah' comp. iRi sqlinfir srrfii^' I ^^ wr )j ^r 'BvyMJ i<t Kf<**m : Tat. *mro^> $rftrcT: < fft^^: or ^qi^q: nd .VI. 3. and optionally when followed by 33^ under the same circumstances. The proper this sutra is that the word fHRTR is changed to *r of meaning in the Yeda when followed by any other word than t ^WMW W .5 294-295 ] COMPOUNDS. the case of compounds mWn m*\ f Pan. 3.

Pan. is 297. changed to 3iwr^. f 3T7^ in any other case than the Inst. bnt cannot be properly explained by compounds of the sutras any following this. 31T5TT. 83. if9 f%TTIT 1 99. when followed by arrf^. [ $ 296. 100. grammarians like Vamana think that the portion ^rrr^^r ought to be separated from this sutra and considered as a separate sutra by itself. VIII. Bhattoji Dikshita conform to this opinion of Vamana. 3TTgf ff: a sacris*ftf?r^ performed for obtaining long life. but following as like frq-^r &c. 3HWT Sid. Kau. blessing'.176 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB.. * 3TrU<^lf?^fcT- resorting to 3q^j^^. 98. and the Gen. t i 3. ) d and in the case of the words fFTTRT *nd others. 80-81. ^ IB changed to r when the following words are compounded*.297 296. VI. eager for another^. sqtnriflT:. ' ' devotion or attachment to another another'. and c. ( ) and 3nrfr >a *far ( I ) ( e ) fice ( and or sirg^ and ^IT. y Haradatta suggests that the ^r in alao be taken to be a substitute for ^ compounds like tm$r may meaning like or similar to/ the compounds being considered as Baimvrihis. . Pan. 3. * a^rf 3Tr?n ^^T^t^T 'another desire'.

f* : t (either ). 577^ T j. 116: il8-l*fr.129. number of compounds and other words of of gqft^Tirregular formation are classed under the head Any word whose formation cannot bo properly explained is inclnded into this group. of ascetics or holy irq% amr. sir'. as^^xrrf^^or^r^nrrfnT^ becomes -(4) O5*. to' kill 7 144 *j | & ^ ^ or ). from 11^1^1 the soul that is concealed from the external senses. 109. bodies ) ^?t 3TW ^ff^TR 7 ^VJi<4 W^. ). not ^rffcf ^rwm ^arr^f: ^difficult to be TV?T^ <p?*r: injnred ^:^T or impelled: ^:^r tTn^fttf^ f 53T: &t:. The principal of these are: -^q^: ^r^ 7%^T^ 'wind. . H. 299. The vowel o| the first member is following casesf: lengthened in the Pa . different * A certain meaning &c. Kan. 122.( dead clones ' ingR^T ^fT: ( bag ) gftwif. 125. or ^^n^J: a 208. . S. Vartika. ^*q*q <M< an<* optionally when followed by ^&. qr^OTT 3\W> ^cTT^^r: * a cloud'. IT?!! faJft WT> becomes ^TT optionally when compounded with tho ) T <TTT ( names of directions.0. II Sid.* or ^r^Rf 5TU5T ( Kas. 12. 177 wnen followed by which cases the restriction is qsTTO? and the Tad. 123.~ ^ in the following ^^ ^HT: 'diftlcali to easy to be destroyed:' 7 ' bo given or hurt'. 8. affix q- in removed. 55TffTnT ^c&i<tc4H> <a wooden mortar . **$ ^ i H I Pan. 3. VI. f^?fhff f^: 3TTrWT 'the seat 7 sages discussing pbi iosophical subjects ' 7 jr^: a peacock. t f^^WTrfrTW ^t ^i9iii^iHW^rritsnts^iq 5TTT^T^r ^T I Vartika. ^rTJT.130. These are to be taken as found in the language. VI.297-299 ] COMPOUNDS.

so ^TTRa. K7fpT^overpowerrng an assailant not followed by Kuip m (b) <ulrtd.-q'fnT^:) but one of a mountain- tribe. but 3Tl3fCrcfr. follows When CET*T a preposition ending in f .-75T. and cR[ with the aff. Savitri. tf* by 1T3 ( and ^tt.178 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. **^is inserted in the case of the following compounds: f^T: VI. sreR^ the I ft^R^t: an epithet of gold. does not faq|<^: human being. Similarly (0) qfSf-?fr-^i STf^-cfr-^TT: &c.^r^ and the whole is a name. aff. *. containing more than two vowels when -followed except in the case of arf^rf . fhCT9T : > ^T?r:5 but snjTSr: (/) When apiderj but (g) 3f^ is the first. or nouns which they govern. tfi-ftlflfti ^<ga^aV which is not a c ) Words W} name. Bat qf<$UH3C as jf] is is When ^MJqgfl: ( followed by the a husbandman. ^g^ 3^ o ^5-. spffo^. sqt. srw^r f%t%l%T|*fr: I Vart. ir^y. jpflrff^ piercing the vitals. qT^TCT. Gati termed ^. %<( ) follow prepositions . [ 299-500 (a) When the nouns derived from the roots sig. a hnnter (cf. snathe rainy season. when the comp. and rc the second member of a a compound.a preposition. in most cases. t Vart. and the whole a name. ^s is a name. sJMMg ?frl<S an in- habited country.- rfi^. lft. but ft^ffnft *m^: 800. Bhatti II. 3T?T<r^: When ure ^ 3 latter member and whole is the name of a rishi. Also in the case of $rc. 37 ( ^sr^ ) follows . 157. 147. a realm. 156. 154. &i%* 9 $$&*. . f^lBl^:. 1. 3ffrcT3Tcfr and which are names. 144. ^f^/ 3?^ S^ and signify a (<2) When a verbal derivative with the aff. and the whole grff5=r:. 148-152. 7).

<&m:. &c. Ols} The * sr. *When the words s^r. w^i?^ ' * an ascetic' but JTsrf^t * the sea '. when they are names. 4. 4.. 5-6. 3IT^R: when means r: & of a carriage'. ). 179 followed by q^ when continuity of an action is implied. 4. and ^ and gr being dropped before g. when preceded by names of herbs of ?R is changed to or necessarily and optionally when comrtounded with or plants containing two or tljree vowels but - Pan. Kau. otherwise a^grr. ftfar.3 300-302 ] COMPOUNDS. f%a^ ? m^ and are followed by ^r in a compound they lengthen their ending vowel. a disobedient servant ^n^C ( ' P rt i^: a bamboo '. but jrfffiw: ^gi srfirr: ( ST5TO: H^lltfl WT ' 'one who boldly faces the whip. 301. and the ?r of q^f is changed to ur ( also after but 802. S?TT^^T: of tree/ otherwise cfcK<M i when means a particular kind (c) a? in the case of the words of the qr<WIK rou P. but R^^: 'a shark it '. and sr^ are follow d by g^ and when the words (d) and <rfo and the meaning is 'a thief '. f^fTT^:. ^ 7 . VIII. <fl<Tf*W ^TTOT T^grf^T STTrmfixd^ *Hanmqsr:} but (a) 3T<IT I and in the case of 3^+^ when wonder is meant j 3TFOT But : when ) it means ro* ( ff?5T it I Bid. su ^ ft^:> f%T%?^T. f^j^. qi<tc|><:. and 'a deity respectiveAlso ly. . Kau. : &c. vm. Sid. ( or ftfiFr: ) '& bird 7 . i I Pan.

)> i ( 306. . *TM<HUnTr: Pan. bat 304. : T^i^TO. T*lfT- IJ i^-H^r. &c. ( as the 1 word contains more than three vowels ). t The r of qr*T is changed to or necessarily when the compound implies a country and optionally when it signifies merely the act of drinking .180 fifANSKBTT GBAMMAB. . Before the affix (a) noons ending in consonants assume that form which they take before the termination of Inst.Kan. ^m.. [ 302-306 ex ^T^T*^. sing. 4H J^> r *The of ^r^T is changed to or when preceded by a word denoting an object that can be borne. 305. as gTrnqFT: ( m^TT )} ( a) . .r is also optionally changed to or in the case ftft-nnft3 of the following compounds: ^. VIII. ceptions:*-^ R* 303. VJII. Feminine bases are derived from the masculine affixes air ( by the addition of the 37^. FORMATION OF FEMININE BASES. *irtl Sid. 9-10 P . 4. I 4. ^L. ). ^^ I Pan. There are some exceptions. 8. &c Chapter VIH.

^r^. o'). dual 236. J 3^*137: Pan VI. ( c ) if a Pratipadika* end in ' *T is dropped in^ + q- =*TT*ff. included in the Ajadi group are. 'kinds of creeper' 23^1 ' a woman of the ^jjf class. 149. VII. 4. 52. srRrf 2HH and tr^. gy* 'a heron. ^-qT^-S ijTc5T. 3. 4. srr ia also added to q^ when compounded with CTfj *T*3T. as j . 44. V&rtikas. qrn^i f^HToriqtrtvq. For the meaning of the term I Pratipadika vide < The words a ram '. f%5ym. as &c. 181 ( b ) the preceding 3f or tff.' ^f2tn^ 4. &c. to ^g.' jr^-. &c ^ all ( a ) ^[ But if the Pratipadika end in gr I ( the member of the Pan VI.. flT.' class ia implied. a. 150. of the neu. ^UMH t <7r^<ft%7 I Vartikas. and to preceded by 3?. . (TOT words ending in and fqo^*. .f future ( . 4. . ^ft^ i '* deity/ and *rr^3. vide 311. that the daughter of Garga. ^r^ a sparrow'. ( of these the first five form an exception to 313. part of a Taddhita^aflix. ia frf^r the constellation of stars called 3*1. 1.not preceded by JT?g[ . f^rfldT? all meaning 'a young girl'. 4 'kinds of creeper'.j is inserted. b. see 307. as in the Norn. in the A Ajadi group PratipadHa ending in 37 and the words included form their feminine in 3JT . . qr^ * a young child. as ^rft WcHT. when r^[ ^ . ^cfT. in the case of the participles of the present and the and ir^q. q-. to 5^7 when compounded with to <&irg. 1 -" qfT^ JT^HT: I Pan. BTT^nT. and the second to 308. 3nr^q- dropped. 3fs^. f is dropped.306-307 ] FEMININE BASKS. (d) ( 9 ) the final of the words ^$. ). Pan IV. ^^. for instances.' &c.

?TTf^nra^ fon*\ Vdrtika. VII. 45. [ 307 termination <fcc. t The following words are included in the ? an archer. ^gfT. g^-?TffT ^T^TTT XTT^r^ ' 3?H^T ^ind ol Shraddhs/ 31%^T ( in other 2 ) ^(?n>T-^rT^r. t crr^^r ^frfm^ %f?r 3. a woman recently delivered. . & is changed to f 5 ) the preceding the words m*re>> 5TT3T. ( in other cases ). a garment. ^<T?^JiT the land at the foot of a mountain*/ ( 5 ) 4 a* is ' optionally changed to ^ in the following cases. ^rfr^t cases ( ). and those ending in the Tad with suffixed to it. to 5. Pan. or when there it ^ a word included in the Kshipaka group ' j ' ( %T^*rar ). ^^T^n and * m& hail. 3. aypardlsMy a tableland ? . a kind of plant/ ^5^. and is a goddess. 3T?^FT. I Pin. ^f^ t ^r^j 'a spy. VTI 46.' 'a kind of bird. rew f^JT: I Vartikas. Tad. sa q^r ? 5ETOT. as &c.-when the is Exceptions: *The gr is not changed or it is a and when of the the added to part pronouns ir^ ?j^.. I ^RSSIR VartiKa. . ' rTTf?cFT able to protect ^ul*T ' a cloak. termination 3TT short- ened to preceded by or ^.' ' 1 . or when there is a compound. gQcfcl or 5?r^r ? ^-SK*1 or ( ^^n%r. & affix ^ ^P ^priff woman calls out to of this place. ( 1 ) rHTejrr 7 a star 7 . i *nf*FT ?TRH% . g-for^rr 5 srfifosT. 3 ) when the 3j 3F follows upon the q- fern. changed their 3T to 5 similarly.182 SANSKRIT QBAMMAB. affix ?q^T.

&c. (a) A* pratipadika ending in gj^ except ST ^T. & ^ follows 308. a^Wlr. qsr^- Pan. &c . 15. but in the' Tad. fTIF^fr. of a root SRT^fTT. i t *t^H3ricfe^^^ u ^^r. measuring or reaching as far as the knee. rr^^fT &c. 1. ^T. . ?W^Cr. ^pHEfT:. &c. f Vide the Kashika on Pan. nominal and verbal derivatives formed by the affix 3f Vriddbi or Guoa. tswfr. IV.. t%^Tm. 183 (e) the q- to f is necessary when the This change of or q. 21. &c. ^m snr^r i Pan. 16. <psr. also words ending / in the krit. ^rfl. &c. evanescent. ^^T^Tfr. %q-. ' - 'T: ( Pan. 51^0.307-308 ] FEMININE BASES.. g. ^r. STSTrT: 3T^ and ^f.. &c. Trr?". &c. TTTcausing and words ending in the Tad. ^nrft?ft. ^qri%-^T. f%^traV ( both meaning a a young woman ) but ^57. III. 3^?^:. affix sra causing a nasal to be inserted before it- JAbo words ending (e) tako the Words fern. ^TO-CUH $ft *n^*\ Virt. an unchaste woman &c. gj^qr is an exception. affixes 5Tf:.. affixes and words the Vriddhi <TSOT and cT^?r ) ( causing mara for ^UTbl^V. &c. ^1-. ^>J?T. 2.. jrfr. ITT^ r r^j form their fsminina in | when they are not used adjectively. ^qf7f r & c as these imply old age. TT. ITS^fr. $ smV.ng^r^^iR3g[ Vdrt. &c. and with some exceptions ) and in the krit ^qj ( 5*1^. and ^R. . WTaFfr conducing to pleasures. OTT^fr.5 3TWCr. ^TTT an(i words expressive of place. fT^jfT. affix f country. snch as ^q-Tf:. . and rf^. ^nS^T'S fTTf ^T'j &c. &c . e. ' indicative of the stages of life except the last .. a woman of the Kuru firrft. IV. cT^fr. IV.. in qir. ??^fr. *&?. &c. 1. preceded by $?:. . nominal bases ending and 1 5f|-?FT. the words jr^ ^fT.preceded by ^far. &c. qfrft. i 20. ^iT^rft.

HRT*r. \rrfr. 1. 30. I. 43. 3TOT. ftjtaf$!W ps>Ik IV - l- : I Pan. vfror ro& 'natural ( site 7 . TW> and TW. T I V4rt ^fTOTcaT^T^ Pan. .} ^rfr. I 1. Pan. 55lf^T. and qT5J & particular colour. The following eleven pratipadikas ferm their feminine in f under the circumstances mentioned g ^HIHM^ when it qualifies ^f% or 'maintenance'. affix qr insert f irrTqfanfr ( tlw grand-daughter of *tfr). 42. &c. SR^TcJ *ad ^nnr form their fern. mire. t?^ has t?TT nd g?f(t. & when they are not names. fftoft. V. [ 308-310 words %^y. IV. ITTflrCT. and -r ( added to certain roote ) and the words included in the tfnrr^GT t form their fern. &c. wfa* TO. gdlcfei robbing 5Tf?r. qm. TSrcft &c. Oh*The () The words Sfrfe. VI. IV. |^r when it means 'something * Vide Pan. class'. or cats. t 1. in when they Veda u*ed as names ( or in the ) %3cJT. in 5.. (d) are airfer.' 18. MHT 'boiled/ huge elephant'. wfe<fr &c 5 but%^yr <n&RT. ftaro^r &c. ^f r^T ono who divides or stealing. * ore Some pratipadikas ending in the Tad. g 309. rar5T.184 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.The following are the more important of the words included in the ifrflY^ groupj ifo. not refer to a garment ( or rather refers to an when it does Ri^r animal ) or means 'indigo*. 5^f^. those derived by adding the Krit affixes 3U3F. when it means <a vessel' or -a ^cr^ man of ft mixed ^rir 'a 'a full sack'. 310. I 41 . fls^r.

^W. . ^311. * The feminine of nouna when denoting ' by adding ifWt. as ifnr%^f * the wife (a) of a cowherd ' ( but ifr<rr& has irtqrar )i ^^qTfJ^r ' the wife of a horse-groom '.' ^r^fr ^l>^l^ ^TT k * or sfter (when a name ). c. f ^ has $. both implying ( ^Hf. ^Xiflr ( the wife of that male sometimes sysrnTr also ) but not of nouns ending in qi^F. (5) male' in formed meant ifftpr ^fr wife of a Sudra '. ( l one that burns ^n^TO ) '. who was 312.qf ' the divine wile of Surya a mortal. . tttfgS STT^f before this f e. a wooden peg '.. ^or. ?Tf5TRt fenPT* the wife of a Yavana or Yavana woman / pot | HT ' ) til0 w ^e .r when the yOTtin/w denotes the alphabet of and 3TP9T7 form their Jem in f but insert ' the wife of Indra / ^^uUtft ' the ' ' a vast sheet of ice/ at^fRrfrft an immense expanse hot q^fr t ( alia of forests/ ^V ^jf ^^pfT. snm arrofr '. 1. . ^f|ur ^sft wirfir^rf yap^ but ^n has STTtifT-oir. CTgCT ' desirous of enjoyment/ ^rg<$r one anxious to meet her *a braid of hair/ bat ^RJ variegated. ^.' . t TV. ^?. 185 made of iron. 'a is . meaning * and aRi^cnr vastneSS ?rq Lad or spoiled barley '.me. an empty sack wsfr ^^T5I ( ^. . 49. the Yavanas. The words f ?gr.j i$^f4r q^. ^tr# 3fW* vessel] 3?<riT?7T. ^ an Acbarya or a holy 48. nhTHmj$m$r5 ^^Tfl% ^Hlfe^l^l I I I VArtikae. as q>m ' desirous of enjoyment/ and 3ft? * ' a knot f of hair. &c. ^^|ufl wife of Varuna '. WOT 3F*n %q^ [ ^ a ground artificially prepared *ngfr SHOTT rice-gruel 'if it be a proper m. >HMM$T .' uut gjr .310-312 FEMININE BASES. V&rtika. H^. woman 7 lover. and 3TT^I^. ajrgr mnqff [^f^L .

in ^llciMuff. and w?^fr (vide * as a of name it is one of the woman that gr^T '. ( also the wife of a ^rgr. 3TTT is when no wife is meant* aprf optionally inserted before the f. ^^rlT but words . qrgr. 5 1. 65. fftofr.. ally. 306. this grr^ options<m**rn?r5 'the wife of a ' a female preceptor % l a preceptor/ but 3"<nt3rnfr or 3"<Tr#7FTT of an gTrrWT '} in the the work woman who herself performs case of snJ and sTrita". (b) Also words ending in and denoting mankind ' ^r$ft a woman of the cfr% family. IV. g. <rre?. but f?ri%TT. ^iff. above ). and foot-note ) a woman (a) of the Sudra class in see 307 above <rcf. l a mistress or a woman snriofr. maarsfr. ' of the Vaisya or trader class the Kshatriya or warrior class ' '. l^g^f and JT?^ ^$\ A Sudra female > of Brahmapas/ ^ff < a woman of the ^3. take 311. ^K^^'T^ <?l*Tl4i). srrgofr. 5?n . . ). preceptress 'a woman who * (a) The words m^and xjqi^pT insert swjiuRr. 1.' sft^frft 'JT (7|^RVra?4). &&I. ' n^q" a wild ox. &c. GRAMMAR teaches .class of Br&hmapas % ) . the wife of a Vaishya ^ri?nft the wife of a Kshatriya. gfr^Hm^V. *T3'*nTT?T: I Pan.. f 312-31? a spititual teacher'. ^y and form their ^ff .186 SANSKRIT but 3fr^T*JT '. . jr^fr. included in the < A jadi group ( . grfiroT. 64.*. Vartika. d. see a woman cf the STrTir^ class &c. ( see 307.' Words ending fern. Nouns ending f ' in 3^ and not having * ^ for their penultimate except %p whon class ' is implied e. grqff ' 8?fil?nafir a woman of '. 3frqiRf jr^g[?T. ^A^cfr an(l uikQ^ all names implied f when kind of particular herbs. IV. similarly srrgrnfr.' f 313. ^ur. E^R'fr. '. is ^T . 63. *T3<?T.

. . or ^qfS or f^q-^ff} or fq^qf^T &c. is sg-^T-^^ fq^-irnj f The Jemtmne of q^ &c. FEMININE BASES. 39. . air. J This group consists of the following words and some otnerg not very important. 33. . IV. frcTflT. %IT ( as the <T hero is Udatta ). 34. but 3tt%tTT.314-317] 314. this change does not take I 1. 1t ft-TT^r T^^T f^rif ^q??nf I Pin. Pratipadita has no ff for its penultimate.?^T meaning the sharer performed by him. The a<? ^Feminine of ^ asd fr ( ia ^rff and that of^words ) included in the SharTlgaravadi ^TT^T^ TT^noT group j is formed by adding 316. . . *$. having <r for their penultimate and ending in an Anudatta vowel. Kau. it *fi<r5r simply takes f g^rfr variegated. but if it end a compound it may optionally remain unchanged except w>^n preceded by TOTR. 1. before which this cnange is necessary. T?^'a: i Sid. 3RT5n%^T. 35. qTtt or rr<?r 'variegated' from rjr^. STRlpf. IV. 315. Pan. If^T. Trawl. with her husband in the fruit of the sacrifices or ff ^Hf^Tl the mistress of the house . 3^T. irregular 317. 1. ft I* there be no compound Pan. 1ST Pralipadikas expressive of colour. 1. WTiT. frr?rTT flffrfn IM^IifrrrST^r. IV. &c - The femininB of . I t 3inmT ^R Pan. but ^sorr ( as the last vowels are not Anudatta ). B. but mTR: MfdJwi: ^TT F^?^T a co-wife. * i (a) f But if the . except 3TT%rf black ami q-fstfr grey. ^ *T5\ and 5=^ &c. 3TTf3wfr. ^TTWW. and the word ftsrjf form their feminine in or arr-. IV. words expressive of relationship . ' is q. 40. lira*ff'T I Vartikas.

> consonant. an^ : as it is a noun. 67.not preceded by q* and denoting mankind forms its feminine in 37: e.not preceded by a conjunct take f optionally. e.71. 32 I ^UN^HI^ : P4n. IV. village . and the word q^ij. IV. TH. ). 321. 68. 7 [ 317-321 of a place. IV. ^^: a woman of the Kttru country'. I P&n. qfrar Pa- IV. ^. I 3lmiui>jnci>wK>j> sii^i*iisHti^?TTTH P4n. but ar^nf: *the wife of an Adhvaryu'. y. 1.: also form their feminine in 37. . and not 318. 44. 1. irnrer <rni: 'the mistress similarlv ir^f qf^: &c. as 'a woman of that name' but^rTO: a woman ?T^3Tg: Obs. V ajtika. i $ ^5^cn?^nrwci I^n.188 SANSKEIT GRAMMAR. Sid. ' A also when it does not denote animal-kind . except but ^^: 'a girl who chooses her husband' ( trfW^TT ^t. * The words 3j?fl^ and qr^ra^ form their feminine ^ prefixed to the f . nave no other form for the feminine. Adjectives ending short or long. 9^:-^V. Kau. 1. as except in the cass of (a) ^?^ and 5 $ A prdtipadika ending in zn^ and used as a proper name. Kau. and not as t*16 3" w preceded by cfcS4|| Sid. IV. t Adjectives ending in g. 3T??Rr^t a woman big with * a child the word MkHrrfr qffl- ' a woman whoso husband 'a lord is living'. W. * having well-rounded arms' . J prdtipadika ending in 3. in f but have a 7 .*(<n*ftMMl5rf Vartika. as. as 320. Oo. * f 3!dJcMfd^dl^ tnTr I Pan. 1. as tbe earth having a king in 319. 1. 1. IV. 1 qro'f: <n<*|T a conjunct consonant . g. added. ^-^:-3TT. is 'But if means ( or master of f only ). A an.

o^H I Vartika. m^J. an&. ^TOT. and for *If a compound has for its last member words signifying a standard of comparison. ^ftref before which the final vowel of these changed to $. IV. by the addition of *i$-jntf ^ ^ or ^ forms its M R (3 i ^- '. I 7 is changed to or 1 q . Vishnu or Shiva. ^?. [ ft?R 3Tf? IWTS ^IT ] fr^ *rfg<iY ' ^^1^.or 'one having excellent thighs. 5. W^ IV. and <fcHU^: ' : . Pan. t %fir ttH. being 1. H^!^. feminine in 37. I The/era. I 1. g 322. having thighs ( beautifully tapering ) like the fore-arm or the trunk of an elephant. 'j [ fi^ f& H^V owr* HT 5^1^?. ^^: a of that name/ <feHU3<%:: but $UUf4 ^y: in other cases. Words like f^. 1 A pratipodika ending in . $ff^. IV. The feminine the final of JTJ is optionally formed by adding aft f before which H1l<Tl Or IT^. ^T Sid. -Kau. RJTpfr 325. 69.* a woman whose 823. 1. themselves fa mi nitu do not take this termination.f- short ( feminine r. its first. . P4n.AT. 1. ^m^Mufr.321-325 ] FEMININE BASES. 38 Pan. or one of 5T<ff. Himfir. IV. frffc^f^: having well-turned thighs. 3^ the words BT?<T. ^f%?fpfr or fftr^nfr. of usurer 7 is rcnc 'a is formed in TT$fr. 37. it forms its 3rf5 iTWn plantain-thighed. if 189 (b) f?r woman used as proper Dames take f . i^fE. or thighs are capable of enduring great fatigue or 1 pain'. ^^rr^r. &e. I 324. 5WT. ***TtF: Tfr f* m?<T and q%.

but if the word ending in aj^ be such as dropa its 3? before the 3ft of the Inst. dropped. 3<3H^+ 3Tr-3reT3TT a ^T^njfr ) or a female thief. 1. t Vartika. e. IV. IV. &.190 SANSKRIT GBAMMAR. I) 37^ ifc takes the for 8trffix ? in the before which ^r^qr: 1. Tf + Tr^-^rT. it takes J also optionally. i. g. f If pratipadt ka ead in ^it changes its j to ^ before f . on Pan. as ^+q-|^=^qr^^. 84 . also preceded bv a immoral or an indefinable- t 1%: I W*IW t P&n. } Bat if a base end in a in a or if soft consonant-. ( a) as x If a Bah. 7 T Pan V. ^nN-sHrfr the night. sing. If a Bah. 4. ^ Wnff having a large udder: when it is I ^ is substituted the final 3T^ . Tf>Jr^-r^*OTT or ^g\aft^yT a town in wbinh there are many 328. 28. 3T* ^^Tofrftfr6-nff^nfl[ P^n. ( dropped. 1. qt^f %U^ifcTr ( 8e Rag. before ^ which the preceding 3^ is Brahmana woman 327.g. . i IV 12. 77. <ffa^. Vart. * I l Pan.). its fern. VI. f5T f 1ST ^^oquc Vartika. e. applied to roots endException. sra^t-STiFfr t&e strong one. A Bahuvrihi ending in 3TI forms in 3R\ optionally. ends in R[ . 7. ing compound has such a base for its latter member. is formed by adding atf only.<ftaO. the ^ is optionally changed to ^. [ 325-328 ( )*5^ forms 3j is its feminine by the addition of ft before which the final 326. 131. the /m. end in fishermen.^.

formed in 3tf neceaaarily. ending in ^m^.328-330] :as FEMININE BASES. denoting the limb. compounds having for their last member Pan. and gmf denoting and age. but ^n^^\ C 3Tf '. 54. q^. having large ( I) . 5tt5T (a) . &c. ankles. * conjunct consonant preceding its final vowel. q^T'ERT. or after fir ? and ^rj only - when it *uft ^ but When a compound haa for its second member a word denoting a limb of the body of an animal and having no 329. ^*. t t IV 1. *&. ^RT. a women having abun' dant hair. ** &c syllables. 330. arfS^TT-^fT. be one the worda or have 5^. the fern. or ^Sgw^T. the y"d/. ^ws^ra. but & building built two years since. having beautiful ' ^flfr ^^RT ^T sn^T ^T} . ^E^TT ^TT^T an edi- with a beautiful front a) | If ( the word. s^rre cF^^Rrorm ^vift f**?n Y4rtikas. . . ff Of Bah. IV. B. I 1. Similarly a Bah. bavin'g a numeral for its first member takes f in the ' f^TSf. T%5TTcfr. S^T. Kau. is formed in 3ft alone-. tt SfTRr^CtS^^F^T^of^r^ Pan. ^MRTgr- RT^T Sid. I Also when the is first member is one of *f. fice ' ^STT-^ft. Pan. ). N. 1. or the fern. IV. 66. the takes ?f of gftpr is changed to . is formed by the addition of 3TT or j . ftsrotfr a girl two years old. TO ( more than two ^ of - T^T. I 57. an udder exceedingly but 191 ?1jtfh airglfr having large-. * *n?Hi^g^: WfgrfaHM\l*fc I i i Pan. 1. nowever. \ 55. IV. r%^T.

5553' the/aw. in having a ruddy 332. IV. ^far and '. &c. ending in grjj ^ and *pf and used as proper bnt riUfuItT! names forms fern. involving comparison. IV. in { denoting 333 ally A Bah. i. of the words qj^ be preceded by one g^T. the fern. is fomed either in aw or ft fT5Tt*TT-fr a woman having bimba ' slender waist. B. 1. &c.192 one of the words SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. ' ^TfcJT a hall having ' its sides like the wings of an owl yg^^Jr ^rr an army with its rear arrayed in the shape of the tail of an owl'. 6 - Pan. 58. f^ 3r|* ' iTfqr: ' *TT ?fhi- one having long leg. * A Bah. > Pan. form their fern. q^^r &c. 8. and in 3TF when frr^ means ' a foot of a Vedic verse if '5 igrr^r 1t?>. a ) bat 5^ be preceded by ^f. or if and q^f be used in a Bah. * one having a variegated plumage i. ' changhjg into <r^ as before. T . g?*TS^ffT. in f before which it is changed. ^uu<4l'. 5TIT5^T} a girl f Names of the limbs of the body. is neceidarily formed in f. hence SHT ( *m: m ) fair-bodied. face. t*T. ' ' with a lip as red as the fruit. ^>MMJl a woman whose feet But *! ^T are as big as a pitcher. to <Ff. 331. ' pea-hen Ztg&f&f '. J ending in <rr^ ( substituted for <rr^ ) optionits forms fen. (a) <rr^ ^nr. if a she-camel} g^^jl-^sff. the fern. . is 9 formed in f only. fl^r. [ 330-333 and .l. preceded by words a cardinal point in a compound. 9. .

335. ^ being inserted before ^ as in the Konu ( or Ace. 3rn%cT . see 116 ) and so do adjectives ending i gf^Himftwifiifl^m^ytflr Pan. but fitCTU^t f^: 'a rope. in a* A ( Dwigu ending forms its fern. eee foot-note ou p. g^f TOTtf MWf: f?5^affix is 3^ expressive ^ n^TT * a ditch two purushas ( 13 feet ) in depth ' 336. ' and ^^TF ( a weight equal to 3^. and Fut. the word t When (*) a Dwigu and the Taddhita its/rtn. ) of Parasm. IV. IV. tolas ). (a) A Dwign ending in CTTC t (a particular * measure ) and qualifying a word denoting a field ' has itafem. 108 ) ( OB fern m is formed in aw* &c. 1. dual of the New. it formed by adding *r. also when the ending word is one that does not < tnd denote a measure.. of a Taddhita affix has but when formed by the addition 3ft. i ST iiftprsft. in . t ^CTTOnTTrsft t I 1. 334. 21.338-336 b ] FEMININE BASKS. &c. . in a consonant . ' load of a cart. f in tbe/e^. 13 Pan. of pr&tipa dika* ending in qr$ *fi*l<n?T. formed both in an and J. 24. 193 ( ) In other oases the fern. 30 hands in ' length . s^framt^^nf^ira: H. 23. as f%9ftin but if the ending word be one of those included in the Ajadi group f^tffgr. 1. G. and then as it to been first added dropped 5 gjnrir umu'i q^qr: TOT fi[^TU^-f-JnarT=fi[^ni^T $rwr%: 'a piece of land 30 hands in extent'.i Pan. roots take Participles (those of the Pres. except the words f%$r a tola '. stmiCT consisting of three battalions ) %-JJT. is 'CT-'fV of measurement ends added and dropped as before. 22. 8. * nrn^T.

n. (3) sft and 3\j obey the ordinary rules of sand hi . 3n*^nT 'belonging to Aavapati. *r. BO 3137 fr. f . SECONTABY NOMINAL BASES DERIVED BY THE ADDITION OF THE TADDHITA S37. . f^. They occasion various changes in the words to which they are added. ift+?r = iic7 < belonging &c. to substantives. The following general observations should be paid attention to. .104 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB [ 337-339 Chapter IX. } r &c. reserving for a future chapter the formation of the primary nominal bases derived by means of the Krit affixes 338. The Tad!hita affixes are added in various sense*. .ff Manu 7 . to The terminations used form derivative oases.' &c. and the Nominal their means are called PKIMABY NOMINAL affixes are those that are added roots. As a general rule the first vowel of a word takes its (a) Vriddhi substitute before the terminations 37. OB SECONDARY AFFIXES. m. f*r qir. from - 339. ig4- descendant of to a cow'. are added to verbs. Krit are those affixes that BASES Bases formed by while TADDHITA . primary or derived from formed with ( vide them are called SECONDARY and the bases NOMINAL BASES 179 ). in Sanskrit are distinguished into two classes. (1) 'Krit ( Primary Affixes and (2) Taddhita ( af%ff ) or Secondary ^) or affixes. (6) as final ST. Before terminations beginning with a vowel or q* (1) the and J are rejected (2) 7 and 37 take their Gupa airr. Bobstitnta. In this chapter we will treat of the more general secondary nominal bases formed by means of the Taddhita affixes.

&c. so 3W3f ^& TlWt 'the daughter of the mountain/ . is T 55^.g. When these terminations are added to a Dwa. comp. There are various e. gqp^- &c. N. the final ^ with the preceding vowel sometimes dropped tr> before vowel terminations and before such as begin with ajf. a final is ^ is generally re- jected. 3TrflT^-3TTfT-3TTrlfitr. 195 (e) In the case of derivatives form compound times the initial vowel of the second word takes substitute. fM^ &c. exceptions to this latter part of the rule. added in the bense of: ( 1 ( ) the son of. affixes.5 339-340 ] T^DDHITA AFFIXES. B. SECTION is I. ^fr*u *T from $vr*T. s The following is a list of such of the Taddbita affix- as are commonly to be met with. (d) If the initial vowel of a word be preceded by the of a preposition the changed ^is Vriddhi substitute can take place. Vriddhi is substituted for the initial vowel of both. a sacrifice offered to Agni and the Marat s?ffiJHI*>(t 3PK * deities/ &c. similarly double. words someits Vriddhi and sometimes the Vriddhi last longing to the year'. MISCELLANEOUS AFFJXE'S.as 3TTOro + 3T=fqraTOTO+Br 7 or first to f$r or ^ and ^ 3^ before **''*+3T=ST*+3T=aTW. both the words of which are the names of deities. similarly qtoiM$ from *r(0) Before consonantal Tad. 4^qif$<*> 'bejjMMI<rW &c. as fcnre: 'the son of CTpagu'. 340. ^Tlglj fr. TM^ fr. Other changes the student will easily note from the instances given.

gsirarrai 'the king of the Panchalas'. sq-f^fin ( 8 ) ^fr mfw^ 3Tfr^ *t% &c Wf jqicMUi: 'one (9) who studies grammar. 3?V^^: produced from or relating to a camel/ TOT: il*!T3: 3% ^ 'produced in the hot season/ ' ( 2 ) ^WT^^ made ty a potter/ ST^ron fff by Brahman-/ ( 3 ) SfwnnF: 'a forester/ a wild ' the declension of such words vide 74.. with-/ SHOT ?rfc 4 vide dyed with turmeric'. (7) a collection of. ftsnini fr?ft ^r^c. 12 ). width/ &c. the descendant of'5 as [ 840 &c. ( 3) a garment dyed 311.' fri*r3T: *yearly' when added ' to ^trer the final ?f is dropped. XVII.' (vide Sis. t b. ( <a < female descendant of Utsa'. 5%: ihr5f ' 'youth-/ 5ff-?^hfnf ffiendship'. 65. 'nocturnal. forms derivatives with various significations: >(!) W. VI. (4) 'made of the ' lift* *** ' ).196 * SANSKRIT ORAMMAB. ct. *rwfHt < knowing or studying'. ' and to form abstract nouns. Kir.' (5) 'belonging to. greatness. . &c.' CTTfcT f rom ^q^r a pi- geon'. (2) * : a descendant of Utsa'. 'autumnal. >rr^: **sf 'silence'. of cranes' similar^' * W^^ 'a fiock peacock. qr^^r^J* 'the ( king of the Ikshvaku f rom ' race'. grammarian'. ffire: r- ^he lord of the earth'.' &c %*: belonging to a god-/ ^rfenTT f$. 313 made of/ fir tree. means agreeable in the autumnal season/ (6) lord of. ?TT%t 3>"frlT f^ aftor ^T t& woolen garment/ &R: $&: ^belonging to the iultry season'} &c.

of 'a THf^gr. { a collection kings % ^T*r?q< an assemblage of kshatriyas grr^ET^ 'a number of calves'. and to the words g^Rf. 3fm: sfhraTW >. '. and < one who has studied them m*rm &c. t Vide ome supra. IV. ' JT5q. (10) when added to words < ending in the Tad.j (11) it is also in the sense of ( FR^: a student who goes through a regular course of study. TTH^. collection of. 1^5: r^lT ' : the 1 ffam*: 'a paternal grandfather . a.340 ] TaDDHiTA AJIIXBS. as ' %mmq these are generally ftm. similarly ^rff^TftCT. I Pan. <T> TT" f a ram'. mg^T^. Jtff * TOTO* ( . %^T. live in (4) ^qTT '. 30. (7) <r?qr* ai^cfift Krfav a traveller '$ '. Th^e and the enmit> between the godi and < ihe demons &c. . 3T^F '. a maternal grandfather of < (1) 3*7 is added to ". added to denote enmity ' ^T^l ' the antipathy between the crow and the owl'. in the forenoon <J5n1s*: 'happening ' a)<RTf|^: Happening in the afternoon'. or one who lias studied the krama arrangement of a sacred text \ <fVRTH9 is ' a student of the mtmamsa philosophy % &e. * fi^T'U $*3lrcrwrrH 306. man '. ^. inhabiting Yugandhara (6) <rRr sn^r ifiiRW*) ^?TO grown < <8)^f^ W similarly (9) is on away'. . of '. affixes signifying the child or the descendant'. ^r^r. sense ft^Fq-.' a place fit fit m^^T^ 3*T?vr^ a conntry for ) men (also < for kings to ' to live in $*$ 3TT?f: ^h^p: also spfc*:* 'an inhabitant of Kara'. it haa-the awgtf of <a < number ' of the cattle descendants a herd of w& Upagu'. in the sense the brother of 2. exceptions.and anr. l added to the words ft^ and RT^[ in the sense of father of '. added to IRK. &c.

the final ^ is changed to f . aVlTO*: or a son or a descendant of ' ' '.' &c. 3^? 'name of a low caste/ ft^. are added to patronymics formed by means of Tad. has the meaning of ' in the sense of 'produced in' to jfrt[. &c. ( 2 ) happening or 7 given once a month. ? * In this sense added to a few words only. affixes in the sense of the child of/ ^T^TPTW-for* ' the son of D&kshi '5 . ( 4 ) &o. the brother and the son of ' %: < *THT fq<J*T paternal uncle '. (2) and sq. and optionally son of Drona. VI. ^15: ssp Vf$ar: snire a nephew. ' ^0 eon * *U**T> a descendant of Garga ' 3rraf ' is also added to the word name of a town : . monthly. T. ^U^M before this and OT.is added to ^ ' and respec- in the sense of tively . one who strikes with a sword ? ' . irrnnw-fnT: . 61 '-. lasting for a month . 7 and Sfraft. ^i. ' a swordsman ' vns^-' it is an archer ( 6) mixed with. ' ( 3 ) gathering together \ * ^^TrT ^aTcftm fft'RmNp: one who asks another whether he had an auspicious ablution '. X. ' ^ta$f*iq>: &c ' ' . In the case of the words ar^r. so g^' asking .198 ' SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ?rqifrr%: ^e son of Vyasa. . ^Tr^r: the ( son of Daksha '. ) b * : various senses :--(l) * ^I ' the son of Revati.). a maternal uncle * [ 340 '. ' one who asks another ' whether he had comfortable sleep 14. similarly iftei:. ( see Rag. ( 5 ) using an instrument 3TT%: 5TgCm^ W%^: .

in ( 14 ) it is added to OT$TT. 3rrf^f%^ relating to or Supreme coming from the governing deity '. i?fh% ' black pepper '. religious '. the to relating 4 ' spirit '. C* cJr%* dyed with ' ^W ^ m$W ' lac '.-(17) to 3TWT?R^. : : ' ( who studies Nyaya or logic'. in the sense of relating to &c.in the sense of ' a herd of cows '. (12) 'carrying upon'j fr^rm aJVf^iw: ( 13 ) arfffr^ y%: 3f a believer in God and sacred writings '. 9( * one ' an 7 atheist. ^rRcT^' &c. fr^f^^F:* Srreri^s: chequered or spotted % 1 OT- ) %^. ^fftm %?ff^5 so one who lives upon upon wages living ' 'j |$te:. qTTc?1r%^' &c. T^q"..-(18) to 5fj*r. similarly annffre?:. a collection of 7 f and ^g-g. UR ^ftft *rfJra?. (8) SgqR CTiftft a boatman '. fT%. plow. RHT. mflfti (7) fr. B?h^T%g:: &c. Vriddhi substi' an^: one who .. . e ' 3rra%?r.frira: &c. but ^T5r^r:-. fJr^:. ?F^rr sftafhir 7 lives upon selling things. ^MH>01^ one who studies a commentary &c. < 199 mixed with curds '. %?R ' qius^ftcfc:. a trader .. ^fsTrft^ ' temporal '. 5frqri5fnT. and ?& in the sense of * living upon ( in these cases no tute takes place ). student of the materialistic philosophy V J"5. ^r^nTR and words ending * in 3=r except tfe^^ai &c. aiwrvfim^: ( proceeding from the elements '.-( 15 ? . in the sense of one who 7 < studies them ^^TTO^ $ft^ a student of the Veda . ( 16) to 51%^. 7 . spiritual '.340 ] TADDHITA AFFIXES. ( 9 ) *"%- : one : 'one who rides an elephant'. a . v^^ ' a collection of a collection fields/ qrof%& %^TT?rp f mcT9 < of armours . fr^TT. 3TI^8]rT 7 &c. & herd of elephants '. 5T^ an(i * sense of < dyed with '. who drives in a carriage ' (10) (11) < 'one who eats with curda ' '.

3TO?or ^^ 3Tr^Pfe * magnetic. <TOT ^?i% gf^^: a traveller'. tr$ rf *: or 20 jugftqj:. in the sense of a collection of : ' with >OT.. ' ten rupees in '. this is also added to ' words denoting inanimate things. wood carried on by the force of water'.. '. 3T"f^. such as * &c. to grnj it has f^ ( 1 ) Added to $ or words ending in 3^ and one the sense of <done and eaten by' respectively. mrR*-. similarly ) %oifro:. & mnltitndo of ( thrashing floors or wicked men f^THRl trr*. &. so %for^: Vina. { 21 ) to ' words* included in the nmf% ' f group in the sense of :. Kan. order to get back eleven a usurer and ( 23 ) to STwJ. [ 340 one who lives upon wages'. attractive'. 5% 'm^r ( who has eaten at a Jraddha 2 it is ) added to a few words.-( qffe: t and the remaining words* of that group in the . f added to it.-( 19 ' ) to words denoting 7 musical instruments in the sense of 'playing upon . &c. number These are ar*. ' ] &c. 0. *K*RT TOff flf^ '. ^QT. and t . to play on a tabor '.200 ' SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. hears or carries by means of and to the word 22) the sense of ' : to ^t^ ' ' *** *a usurer. ^d^qf ^. m?fte: is one whose profession fr. gncy.' sense of ' walking with the assistance of **refor : <r$: Sid. term. JrRr. * lending on interest ^ftr^F: one who lends another t.

1 ) means ' born of ^ $& and words ending in : ^y it STTrf or $cJ1R: ' ^hf ' : of a good family.' 3fT3!r$cfR ^OTT: sprung from a noble and rich family '. comp.. arfS^: ' foremost. ' 201 & host of female goblins or imps/ ( f *TT^ ) forms abstract nouns when added to the words ^ 5^ the ' l **^ and worda this term.' &c. ^rfini:. *TC&: one who added to '. sfeferjr: *fir: r ( 4 ) 3TIT. &c.840 ] TADDHITA AFFIXES. ). &c.46 srarfrlf: ( 'coming over to this side (of a river. 5T?p*iT STfTrfn'R 5ffifc:. of families'. ohildhhood' ^iy ( \f ) this is added to ( 1 ) %& in the sense of born of the * race of. : a spearman ( also ). these undergo expressive of colour. ( to '. it is added to( 2 ) the words qtf "d 3CT? separately or taken together in any order in the sense of 'going'. thinness ' 'dexterity/ sharpness. 9T^T softness ' ' ffRRT. strikes with a stick'. versed or adept in. as <nt tmftft ^iftor: 'going over to the other bank'. * an oblation of offered sense 3 ) njrg in the TJfCT:.-( 2 ) Tf^ in the sense of relating to'. before the same changes as before ' the comparative and are always mas.' qrTTTTfta: one who . it means. ( when used at the end of a ).. <??%*> snfofir. vide Bhatti 11. ' ' f ( t^ )~* is added to 3r% i and qfe in the sense of * striking ' with'.as f^n^ of greatness'.

( it is added to 2 ) f^ftj and iQ<^^^ and TJT^ in the senses of 'the son respectivelyj^^rTq-: 'a sister's of and delating to/ <Nj*TOnT.Bhatti.. -( 3 ) 3^ in the sense of ' relating to or a ting to horses. V. fq-^ iffifroT: to &c ( 5 ) *(r changed .-(6) *T^R[ in the sense of < joultaeying' a traveller V( 7 ) Suffer and tT^ aiwsftsr: * in the senses of 'eating and fas tended on' respectively. TT'^fT fit and words ending in *n*r in the sense of 'beneficial to-/ 3Trf*r% I%?r: STTcRjfR. ' Amara. . '. fresh butter or ghee ) (vide Bag. the words number of ' ^T^PT (alsoarrc ) re ^ a ~ a number of horses '.202 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.-( 3 the word m* in the ' sense of -'rustic' as qrsftoT:j-(4)the w ords 3Tf?IT^. tfl<pflifjor: to be enjoyed by a mother'. trerefFP ( ' eating every kind of food'. witoT? &c. *3Tjq^ ^3T ^ 3*3<T3T*r ) 3^rra<j) 'a shoe or boot of the length of ' 7 . and Sid. goes to both sides or one <rrftT: * [ 340 who crosses the sea ) '-. substituted for ' 'Enrft: ^ ^^iwjrf f formed by walking together seven stepa or speaking seven ' words 7 frfift^fetir 1. retasRW.-(!) when added to r * . 23.I2). V.. and to ^H44 and 5j:-Mft^. 2. ( son' r^r ' fraternar . ' f^ ( ^"-^T (1) is added in the sense of of or belonging to 'belonging to the school of Panini'.-( 8 l f^y and JTT* In the sense of a field of as a sesamum field'. 5 -. the foot. crossing a river/ &c.3T^ T n and % is * Pin. TW^FT lUTCfH t 46. Kau.. as ^CR:.

and i^fj^^.-idded to ^ ' ' ' qf . i. and words included in &c. ^TTOT: * son of Subhra ( Name of ). f * TOT V? srr ^1>^ ri verborn * rock-salt : .. 13T3n*T. f r. Garuda 7 . ( 3 ) and to VTT3*73. ' ' TMdTm of the people ' . 5TOT: fr. produced from. the 6nal ^" being dropped before :. it has various senses. ' . a sage w^r: &c. ifnT. 3n3?*T. ' having to-( 5 ) Agni for the presiding deity &c. * nfrr^ir: ' the when sou oi a sister f^^T meaning a poor is inserted woman '. 'son of Agni relating to '. one's own. to JTT^ and words included in : the ^irrRf group*.i female having some kind of defect * woman. it. ? produced in or relating to the rainy season. ' . ft'f- (4) added to ^r?fr 7 and ^Ry t . JTTcJ'N^-. e. affix in the sense of the child or offspring of 'j * ' %jra*T: the son . by the * ^I^RI:-T: 9on ot a one-eyed son ol a female slave '. l^ffa. 7 )^'.340 ] TADDHITA AFFIXES. of Vinatfc .- & ) 3TTf and ^fTl% ^. it is affixed ' and other words in the sense of '. ^rar . fire 7 . ) in fern. optionally-. ( n *ho sense of ' a ir^'T.. ( 2 ) to cproi^:-^: ' words of two syllables ending in 5 but not formed affix f ( f 5r^ ). or ^f5J' it is optionally changed the son of an adulteress to cr^ when added ' to words denoting '. g-%.. ITro^'*T son of Manduka '. is ' *^: optionally substituted for qij. 3?r=rqr: * snT1 c ^ Atri '. !<3^ahT> * of a bamboo. is chiefly added ( I ) to words ending . . ^r^pT ' 203 * inserted. R^r produced from the earth \ i mwmvm: field of 7 &c. ?Jr?fd<4-' or ^r^J a harlot or an adulteress means when fS^rir.

[ 340 the gssnf^ group*. IT?^:. wealth. 3{fq<g: ' 3^''.204 SAHSKBXT GBAMMAB. q>?i^: dyed yellow '. '. fwt * ^Rft ^^?^:. village-born. e. 8. ?T^ 3fm: *ftro:> ' -n*TTW:> &c. ^T5W?' ' a young boy &c ( d^ ) is affixed < (1) to words denoting names of beasts. ( 6. derived from or incidental to man. and ( 10 ) toqfSr^. ^^T^: unhappy Devadatta '. TOR* and f^qfar in the sense of useful in. 'slow in action/ * a dilatory or lazy < man ' 3mr3r. ' an active man ? . ' composed or propounded by man '. on is useful what for '5 q^^ fTT^ <rrafrf .' ( 9 ) and some>. ( ) in the sense of ' * acting ^fhr^: *one who is cold' i. ' anlrra. the way '. 7. qliqri' a silken garment '. ffrrc: a neck to a noble family ^ . with different significations and ' a dog '. aTmRr provisions attentive to guests. . XIV. in '. hospitable Tfff for a journey ' hospitable ' ': iff nft-'-. (4 ) bought for < 5 ^R?: bought for five rupees '. 8. (8)^r iTTOT^:. ) Sarqp: to express pity or diminution. times with no signification. ?^?^:. &c. gfr^TO: 3HT: ornament >. pertaining added to it. a^TO: a bad < horse. a small or stunted tree '. (3) in < of belonging to '. a hack. tfr^q-: " human work % man-slaughter '.- ( * 9 ) 5^ in different senses. the sense of a collection of 3nrc ' a flock of sheep ' . rustic ' in the sense of made of '. or depreciation- poor son '. * *. $f?fc7TT: WT '-. WT^t ( ( ^ ) sense of ' * words expressive of countries in the * born or proborn or produced in '. g^TO: with a * ' a sword '. good ' 0. H73T: ? duced in the Madra country '} (2) to ^T?r in the sense 4 the sense of dyed with . property is affixed ( 1 ) to TO f^Rt: vide Kir. ^5^: a wicked Sudra. a jewel '.

markable r for '. w '. close to ' ^?q^ 9 large. &c.. these are also added to verbs. ftcc.. to the ^r W. crowded ' &c. '. *CT.. a young calf '. fierce. powerful &c. . . r.' aTJHTT. q> and g^ *r$fc < narrow. <rnfl the year ( ?RJ >-f orms 5fr?rr. ' large'. 32. f%. &c. ^^w )-" addea to adverbs of time in the senses of relat' ing or belonging to. * ^Sjm. in vigour '.5 'manifest * ft^RT ' 'huge. *5?^<T:-3W nearly equal to nearly dead ' ^ni: Kumara 'almost learned'. . word 3? Vfld5T:. manifold '. added to ' irm. little inferiority to'. 5T and and abstract nouns 5i?5. &c. impassable. 205 ( f3fr 2 ) and in various senses to the prepositions ^f. STftoT. is similarly iffofrrUT a small sack. d*l'> tfl4f!1v SWRRv to f%TH5T' : old-.340 ] TADDHTTA AFFIXES.: . * ( ?^T ^-expresses diminution. as f%?nrr li%Tr:-f%?n^or: *" u ( ^OIPT ) ! markable or known for one's knowledge -' I for unowned fr ' nnd is skill in the use his |_ of weapons ( vide Bhatti II. ) ( 3*2. ' ' added to |%?. &c. changed to 5j. a number of chariots are added to express equality with. * last year '. 9fTVi and ir^r it has the sense of a collection of. 3^ *mm. near. tr^ before the last '. excessive. &c. &c. cooks tolerably well f I are added in the sense of ( reputed or re re re' '..

<T%aT<i. ^ forms abstract nouns. of as %5PTT$T: ( 3RT ) and added to %^r in the same sense in^) and S is added hi the sense of ( 1 ) - made ) of earth. . i t nft&mHii H^HoiY^y^nac pan - VI.206 SANSKRIT GRAMMAE. ir^f ^rgnft msrT/. '? <ftrfW. . 37. and indeclinablea ending in <r^. belonging to. table-land. $j ^ '. ^n%niFrer: & southerner. to the words ^T%UTT. Sf .. an inhabitant of the east. ( n ) womenhopd for a man. W^.) are added to ^ft and different senses: ^UT < womanly. also to the preposition : : eternal '. &c. ^st. ' ie affixed to ift only. r^. added in the sense of [ 310 ' ?tr-( ?qr^ ) i9 living in. water reaching as far as the knee &c.. 2.. measuring as much as * ) " added in the sense '. feminine. ^. added to %$r has the sense of 5^cT are also ( a collection. . 3WT. and 5f |( . a quack *- a bad it V ^mcMU'Mi^r. made of : ( 2 in that of profusion or excess . '. 5**.' : I Pao. arf^T^r 5T a. : i.?<* and 3Tf".T^. 87. ( ) manhood. qr%gTf^:. ' <Mgmi ' \ q$: f%^rf made of wood ' &o. ifM** Qd of ' JTT5T* ( ??r% I^^[. J^J KTST &c. Pan. 3. ' &c. nr^F^T^Tt doctor. V. fit virility is added as a depreciatory termination. a minister. ( WT^ ) is added to . 143. a herd of kine '. < manly. ' >d!MfM<t>i land at the foot ' of a mountain. IV. one who accompanies a king. &c. heroic. suited to ' 5^ respectively in women. 3T.

g^g: sacred to the Dawn/-(9) to ^n^ and words included under the group in the sense of 'deserving -: or meriting'.'-( 6 ) in -. offered to the manes'. ^TWIft^T * & brother of TT?*T. a sacrifice consisting for 207 the most part of clarified butter/ si^mr: to &c. ( frcftetf : ' : disciples of the same preceptor/ ^l^fr:.. ^q 'theft fr. whole blood ^iRlrft^* ' (4) : forms abstract nouns it is %HRRf ( ^rreq- 3fffff5pT. 3 ) ( 2 ) *ng: aw courtier'. missile having 1 *^n 3TW *m*$ a^T a %d**T 'sacred fxrsq-. worship/ &c. &c. ' ' V&yu for its ( presiding deity/ worshipping the Seasons as divinities )/ to the manes. 5TOT.f of ^e sense of 'the son of/ 'Vfl^:. q5T . (7) t noble descent/ ( 8 ) to ^T.) is added to noons with different mean- ings: ( 1 ) irtf mjfr *ran/ * a herd of cattle/ *TcTRT ' a dense mass of smoke/ a ' <nrr. from 'boxn of the breast ' ( also eiK^: . SR^.. added < 5 ) to the words race of. and in the sense of 'having any of these for one's presiding or tutelary deity/ &c.340 ] TADPHITA AFFIXES. 375. fqf . *T< . uq. IT ( *Tf> .' <M< ' : and & ^ in the sense of born of the Tr?RT ( man of the Kshatriya class/ ERf- in this case ^ is inserted ) 'a man . &c. In the derivatives as ' given hereafter q should be considered added in the sense attached to each word. to Reserving punishment/ ^(f ^deserving 'fit be killed. It is not added words denoting ' an article of food or a covering'.

fi^TT^ 'extensive/ 'spacious/ &c. as a diminutive term v w. ' &c. ' in connection with. 'wholesome tense it is [340-341 to the teeth' (lathi* body . ?mr guTK* IWT f^-^C tree'. hence * equal. a horse. sistent vrf ( * TO'rvtfcT cJ^HT ^T ) with dharma \ or obtained justly '. leading ' crossed in over a to be boat'. *m*Q ( ^cf )just . g*$r. a friend '. 3^-gptf 'fit fr. 7 ' for being the central part of rf*q.flt for the from Jm%3fT. ) . ( ^rsqr ?rr*T fT? )' fit 5?T: ) 'glorious. qq) (<n*f *ng) ' 'agreeable to wholesome.rrf*r the nave of a wheel. ' a small hut/ ^nf T T: a smal 'the S'ami trunk of a young elephant'. obedi' wooden or of a tree . 5TO? and ^rTO-are affixed to TV in the sense of 'largeness/ fisfcz *great. . and ^r^-. 1% f ( 1) is added to $f. &c to glory'.208 SANSKBIT GRAMMAB. got from a oow'j &c. ) ' price '.eini nonce. and 3ij%fTCQYT ox 'to express the meaning . &c.what is weighed in a balance and found equal '. . fictf ( ' ) proper or fit for a cow.'. sptf 'talk ent of the people/ ef^r 'capable of beiog controlled. a ball ? . large'.< good for the neck. gnj harnessed to the yoke. 49.' the heart . sir^r * of equal age.( {frfferr: ) Pan. ffsq. 4. '. %$ ( ijyq-: ( ' obtaining wealth. IV. f WT ' drawing a chariot. . The flr*$ffr affixes or amxes expressive of possession ' have the following additional senses: ^TT^ or greatness. ai^fri?*r or ' excess over.' f r. ^f : ( t q^frfar a horse Tgcf or bullock yoked to the pole of a carriage'. 341. added to words denoting the limbs of the as ^ogq.nvtf fit ' a wheel' nose' ' fr. ^q. ' constant connection. n. for a dog' vpj..' |%?^T or ' ' depreciation/ ST^T or ' praise.

t fT^reT ^SfTrt of ?r . 3^ ) is affixed to : words included in the ( arsfrftr a^r : ' m% 37^ '} ' ) suffering from piles-/ 3*WT*rfffif 3* 'having matted hair'. ' a garrulous or talkative person. ). G. 9. *"d ^TT<7 a*e attached to in the sense of < speaking mocli or speaking badly ^rgiS': or <<MI^. s. mr^Tf^vg ZX^ the words of the SI^TT. 36. ' is atTixed to rTRCT and other words J in tbe sense of that : ii ( Sid. s^r: 'having a prominent breast.' heart ' *.34*1 of ' TADDHJTA AFFIXES. 3fT^[ < g^' ^3^' 'f^' ^^> ^T. K. 3^ ) . t 3T^TR[. n. similarly giairrw:. V. f|pr. The follow- & are som m^ff^ group: R^TR. ^fnf * ?fT5% ^irffT^: ' unable to endure cold '. ( AFFIXES SHOWING POSSESSION. 2. . Kau. gwt^: ( ?T ' 5ff^T5T: f ^ ^^ I ^ ^Wt $:ff ?m m^: S. on an of * . possesses a this is added to ^n?T) ^rwr and who ' 'a kind-hearted q- in the sense not capable of enduring . JTr^ow ). 14. and words expressive of the deformed limbs of the body sad of colour. >* 209 Poes$Son The instances in order SECTION gf ( II. a prattler. . I Pan.

^nrfr. irniN mm ^ is prefixed to .' is affixed to <f&. when added to ^TrT and ^r^fHTT* it. . mWt & c i fc *8 added to ci and words ending in 3TOH arffc* one haying some object in view. Tne words belonging to group are: sfh%.i. 2. staff. 3l*fr <frr%<T: 3$r. ^^ri. and f^> ( the sky studded with stars '. * this . and to the words of the ' ?rgm% group*. ^TTOT T5T^F. rheumatic ' . ^^rt and the other words when the place place where lotuses grow ' is meant * trc^Rtrfr . 'suffering from gout. '. g:^ are added to words ending in ' 3f. HTOT* ?m*JT. vrr^qrf^^ &c. and to grri-qftrq. ' an ascetic. FFT.. ^r. . nnr. *one suffering from diarrhcra it is added to . it?. fqr^^. ^r^rr. hence -: a tank or a lake alio similarly ffgf^ft. ^^ gri? and 3^n optioiaalJy and w BTfTfHTRt Pan..210 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ^rfiar: a peacock Hf^R 1 ' dusky ? added to 3?^. similarly ) ^f^. or ^fu^^ one who has a &c. V. 21. JTHTT. ' ?% and -/ * JT5T. fraitfuP. . . %^f. *fn%^. ^r. obtaineu or possessed by ' I 34-1 is 'j W. ^R^ ^fnr ^j5^ ^r. qrf&sf: bearing fruit. and words ending in I . 3^frf ^fn^T ' . sftffc mil^.

vill. short or long. in the 'a place nadn added in the sense of thu general term. ?\r$S one that cannot bear the wind r has also the sense of '. and ^ c spff. expressing possession . enduring '. ^TTTrcr*! an orator/ " is added to * l abounding in grass ) i rf 9"<> lotuses '. ' having projecting teefb. as i^ added in a had sense. Tr^r^qTRJT?^T ^cfrf?f TmT^ ' possessing cows'. %R5J. It is specially added to tlio words and | 342.g. "> ' added to r^ and ( ^TrT in to. 211 to f^r. '. snfcn TO. ^ and ' **^'> 95^ f VrT^TcT R?^ abounding abounding in canes '. slippery 4 ^f%^ ' * having '. and <TJF necessarily ' optionally. a collection a hurricane is This r 3TIc7 added to the word 3*ra in a good sense. 2. f^fi^y '. or har TJ f - in^ oither for their penultimate f%^^ from i Paii. y. 3T '.is changed to or sj.) The R of thu 'in when affixed to words ending termination w^. corpulent the s-^fr^ rNrnhaTc3 * : have same ' sense). 94. &c. . f= (a. v. as 5r^y: ' not able face the army of the enemy one who cannot withstand ^Tft it 1 the strength of another . the sense oi * not. gff?* having a ( protuberant belly. 3T^ . intelligent .$ 34 1 -342 ] TADDHITA AFFIXES. srf^rgr '. slimy. 2. a broad chest muddy fifcRfe sandy $|i7rf.* it is ' it has that or that is in it \ e. : i Pan. to f%?F?TT. &c. hence also rugged is &c. * When added to '.

10. f^tr? ^fir. is possessing snow. Q^H. t. 22)= n^TWR %*r.in the sense of 'a stamped < Coin of or beautiful'.g. *a cloud % &c. happy '. > ^ ( qq- ) is added to ^q. fortunate'. <M^MH|t( I Sid. snowy'. ^w. 3^93 sr as ^g^R[ ( TO* Jar) a jar ' ) containing water. iriSH* wf^r> and $r\ as to 0) any becomes ^^ when added t T^ a ^ 3 of the first four letters of a class. f^wr ' possessing merits '.is q^[.212 SAKBKBIT GBAMMAK [ 342-343 ^r: ' a country having as ft good or c just king'. 3it . 343. added * <M4HHfrfTSfr I p& n TIII - ^. Pan. a d & gj*i%: woolen * '. .Pess possessed of the white colour garment. so $cor: &c. ( ef. When added id words dropped . 3^5: proud 7 .of f^q^&p. a V it is not at the end of a ( and when the whole expresses a tf^r name ). 3R it not changed to in the case of the words srffr? ^sf*r. possessing bliss. The g.J e. ^)r CTr^mfftfir ^f: ^: ) denoting qualities a white Ifcf is (je. tht a countiy governed by a sea'. 11. words ending in 'possessing lightning' is not changed to ^ as (e) m%?*T to. added < ' to 3^? 5^. : Exceptions ". VI. "Ray. VIIL 2. Vart. e.!4. .

< -: ^4idt having a ( '. ^ftw: tawny . . ^..^ These affixes are prohibited after Karmadharaya compounds. TFiff possessing paleness. . 'strong'. ( 5^( ) 3T*ra" : * having muscular shoulders' * i. MrHfl to compassionate.' friHgi foamy crest '5 it is also added words ending in an and denoting a limb of the body of an animal . . . ' : one of the nine treasures of Kubera'. T%^T^f: < a husbandman. having beautiful and luxuriant hair/ also ' feonv in this sen? e ). spirit"'. ' ' hairy/ a monkey '. also to 'diseased'.' STf^fhrSf: cial priest ' 'a peacock'. .' pale ' ir^T sweet. fff*I3 : * ).' &c. 2. . ' a sacrifi' a distiller of powerful '. r 'an elephant'. ftsj 1 'a magician. e. < $*& '. 3t*T. and fljtqa: is ' added to iTPTf.' ^rrra^ ' talented. &c. ?rf8rT: a kind of ierpent'. arnnr the final 5T being lengthened *tR$r:.' possessing a garland/ ar ff^R^< lustrous/ . 3<mlf<i< ' ^t^r: N. qfiqgd: a king '. V.843 ] TADDHITA AFFIXES 813 < ( *. and <S?c. words ending in < ^.

[ 342 SECTION IH. is added to nouns indicating i a direction ' ' in the sense of not far from '. V. : I war a*^ I i a^rf* I Pan. 1. as 1 the gods declared themselves on the side of Arjiina } \ ( m%w )-iri%: '. *ofa & c -. 50. 115-117 1%: Varf Pan. -(3) little is by Uttle 'j ^^f: &c. ). z*iva: '. / without ^fRT in various ways &c. added to nouns or indeclinables to express that a person or thing. and not :. V. or (2) < as in the case of that . becomes or is made like it. affixed in the sense of 'equally with' or 'like to' whea the equality or likeness refers to an action . ^for qm to the east of the village not far ( from it 3i<r>ur UTIT> &c - TO( <n% ) has the sense 7 of the Ablative : ' . sometimes this added in the sense of the Gen. < on both sides '. ROTf:. '. ' on all eides ' '. ( 3?^[ ) i* inserted before the final vowel of indeclinables- without any change of meaning . not being like what is denoted by the base to which it is added.14 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 3nf%rT: from the is beginning. similarly $rfirq^g(.. **W. 4. AFFIXES FORMING ADVEBBS. .

qgqgf^Offf. 32. i 3jf|p when the change meant qnjim ) I Pan. ^^ . by fffr containing * the utters being reduplicated. changed to fr . h similarly TiRQrT^ changed into the night become like the day '. '. * srgrr 7 .~. ) ffsoitenra. : is affixed 4 f%^ to ( 1 ) 5:^ when toe meaning is troubling one who ought not to be troubled \ and f^q. ( ^?^ 5^ 4. ^ lengthened and and the ending consonant of . ( ). ' not 5 followed and words to price ) onomatopoeic ( words one the than more and vowel. f or g3t i? is 215 changed to f . Pan. ^srsrr a^grr srgrr ' the d*y is ^f?I^?TRf * the night has f^^r^rTT TTT%. i and 3^ are added to the base regarded as a preposition. 26.343 } TADDHHA AFFIXES. &c . ^j^l^frfff m*H* *. ( 3 3^. Kau . After this the termination is dropped and the verbal or other forms of fr. 4 51. 4. %<f*r f f . * ' roasts it settles its ^fu?^ t. VII. final . q^. Before this the ending 37 or an but not that of indeclinable?-. Kau. *R^ ^g^[ . V.in the sense of 5:*n^nffl ^mR^r^i ( 2 ) like ^ pleasing one who ought ) to be pleased '. aTOfl. . VII anrfor Virt. ^^ ^r^ i ^ I Sid. e. . ) 4 ^rwy: qarrsftrcr ^iui words is optionally affixed like is f%sr but complete*. QOTSid. i Pan. are dropped ^ and and then the preceding rules are applied to the penultimate vowel.

[343-344 ^jTumfa >. 52. ^^W-^-^: both the days'*. yesterdaj ^^Rn^fffi an^y: ' the 4 other or following day ?<iq>f^. Gender. V 4. <RTft this year ' the year before the last qf^rft * 3rfw?OT?fr> wTutftf* the other day ' \ 4 4 to^ay ^ff^raiA 1%: '. completely changed to ( fire '. Chapter X. ' last year '. . N. * ' the same day '. also conveys the sense of ' ' making over or delivering something to another &c.* The derivatives formed by means of the affix frr^ do not share the properties of prepositions. therefore. ( also )$ completely reduces to ashes in the case of this affix the forms of q with ^ rr are also added. OF TIME IRREGULARLY FORMED FROM NOUNS: 3T5W * ^?T. fnr- and added are similarly when scmethiog ia to be given to another. can best be studied Pan. ^iRn^^ft q^^ '. B.. No definite rules can be laid down It for the determina- tion of the gender of words in Sanskrit. the verbal indecl. 344.. from ^fjj^ld^flTff is 3Tl?T^n^^r and not n<q.216 -SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

5^5 ' lac/ tin or lead'. ifr**: range. and . the hairy skin of a black antelope 7 . mental pain or anguish. The following hints. scope. 1 MASCULINE WORDS. and ircg ' ar^. : Exceptions: 346.^.344-346 ] GENDER. *&* ft^ t3^ kind of creeper/ which ' are 5T3 all /. affixes 9? 345. &c. which are all neuter. gffp* snow'. Tf any beverage or drinfc. e. 5cSf. (c) ? and or f%Tl. frfir: a treasure. ^?t*i: a swelling. ^n^. sm%^:^.f. 1*3$ case it is except when ends a compound. m^: t n*n. ' a bunch of flowers &c. relish'. the chin'. 217 from the dictionary or from usage. f|p. and in 3- *rcr. qr^ror:. . for their penultimate. ^>^)^ * : ^. f^. ^r^. and /em. and wr all Words ending or and those having $ .. may be useful to the student in the majority of oases. sng. roads meet- WRr ' place where four ( d) f and ^ ?PT^.' ft ^T$ name ' of a river/ 33. poison. Exceptions: Words ending ( in it (a) 7-q|. ^ry:. IT^ honey/ ^rr^ sour cream '. g^r ' a hymn of the Samaveda/ a kind of sacrifice/ ^nr. in which ) both mas. 5^-g ' ' the last day of a lunar month on which the moon is invisible. however. : and f addfld to the roots g. > *rnar/d.. ^rg. ^^ 4 wealth/ ' 3^55. 3i^^ * a garment/ a fire brand/ g^2T. W. Verbal derivatives formed by the ^r and vrr. ffF*J property ' left at ' death. as ' sjij:.

' ' *^f dry ginger '.. guilt/ q^Rq*: chaff ' 'sin. and T f^q f i??*?. ^5^ ' ' a cave'. &c. 'a battle 9 . spot .). [ 346-348 a of flight steps'. ^f. ^pR gold. ^^f^j^ a fiuger-armour. q?r. JT^R (generally ' 3fqirR knowledge of the (/) *r soul. ^TT.. ^T^T. 3Tf$IT * ^RTT. 'a leprous 7 ^pR 'saffron'. IT TTT ' sin ' ^7. ( ) <f.j TTT^r T?. 'a Exceptions ^f/<jj. times 3(t^. 'sin. ^TTf^r which 5. ew .. also). ^rwr ' tender grass '. %f?R^ ). ^r?ir. jff. 347.218 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. f^ar/ei. ( some- fifa. r. ^rrfPT .. %?y a family. The words > ^. T%c*T> 5^r. ^R f SR. %^T> 3^T> 3T3"f . *T. ^fr^r. firre?<T "0u} f^-^ MSM. lf%=r. * ^m /<. 3*^fr<T 'an island'. {j5T. ^?^^. TR'T/ ^^j*!. courtyard/ %^. q^r. n3T ( TCft> ^T^3 q^T> 3!TfRT^ also HM. ^r^r. <T^T a loom. . $J^T> (m.^. such as ^g^. ffT^R mas. of weight. ' kind The words ^r: * < a wife'. and their synonyms.' which are always used in the plural. 1 an upper garment ' '. ^JTT a hut name of a country/ 3f*3T. ). the ritoal &c. qr^ *f 5r?K' (^) tf and ^3?n? 'a frying pan/ artsmrc ' a frying pan/ stain/ ( RT^. RTfTOT/m. ^^JTT 'a crab'. *. ajg^ 348.. %rq R^?. iron. firf^TT. '. and words expressive of the measures of corn &c. f^=r. 3T^TcTT: uninjured rice/ )' F: * fried rice/ 3*5^1 life ( the vital airs in the body and r: a house. a cage . ) are all neuter. and ST^ neu.

n%. cRTT and sfofr and these Exceptions: 352. ir^ar. all mas. uometimea a ' & multitude. ). TO^T. **<*. q-^r. snS" and ^for. T^T 'name of a demon/ qi^ui* a heretic. The words ?TT. a tubular vessel of the body. 5M. >OT5T. m9:. ^ FEMININE WORDS. and ?ir^^ n. g?^. qjqr. in ' f%9f f ^f? ^T^. and 9f^f%II. a hollow .' to be made fcT. ^pff a spear' ars^. ^:. the betel-nut tree/ 1 q^. Verbal derivatives formed by the terminations f^T. ara tree 7 f<T. ). Mcf^r. 350. ITTOT. corner of the eye. a <a 3^1^ theJift. Exceptions: 351. ^!% qrf^. qflrtd ^f^R[ churning handle/ ^^f^RT name of Indra. TfJlft:. words themselves. as 3^1%:. ^qr. *gm &c. fS. ?FST5 'la'ge frying 3^ the pan &c. in (a) ^%. fJ5T a kind of grass ( of which the girdle of a * Brahmana ought 'a collection. ^^r. T^. ' 219 kind of nicer'. ^R^. a kind of flower > also neu. sCTirjn" a ^* n(^ f ' * sacrificial offering/ ( ^?) ^7 name Vishnu. f and 37. j*cT. %^ ' a drop/ 5flf%. mango ^?T ggJr. both meaning a ladle/ 4 river'.349-352 ] GENDER. a^T. &c. s*f . ^f^r. <JT this sense. ir^[ wing/^fav^. *T?iq^. T3T. i and such m. 5ftfffl( . ' ST^T. *r%> lftf& tff 9>R. ^1T bntt-end of an arrow to which the feathers are attached. ft^TfJf} ft. 349. 'cJ^T:. The words ^reraur sinus. ^ ' 'a sacrificial 'aVodic metre/ . >|y&:. monosyllabic words as are formed by the aflix ?ErRg[. *the a peacock's ^T?> tail. .*. All the numerals from 20-91). TO. . (6) The synonyms of i^Rf. 5>T&. f^T^tr? a lock of hair. ^TJ^- 'a ounnch/ . W*T. QjT..

ST^-fT. Words ending in f^ and^f.. consciousness'. Words ending affixes ( r. gsr. 3TTT^T^[. 354. ^gj. vifrsfa: ) ' monkey species' srrf^Trtf. %ffc. *Prfo ' the lotus stalk/ ffeffe ' a cottage/ *RT. a kind of cake/ nf*Ti ^ft j^fj. orifice of the ear. sfe 'a moment/ *%. 3^. ^T^f. g^. ^. years-/ W ^TSTW &c. ( ft^ SS?t. W5J. 3^. Kau. ^N an armour/ *T$r^. ^y. 3jr . Sfft^ff. gnsr 'pupil'. and 3^. ir?3r . 9 for their ' ^f^ * liquid ghee/ stfrffct. Exceptions: (a) qrffafem. )' ^nft-sfr 'a kind of cucumber/ 'the edge of a * a sword/ 'knowledge. vrg^. and f^. in ^ and such as have penultimate. qrf%. JT^. sf*. 4t^ 3$** ^T^: Itfnrt a period of two ^m$3& 355. *ri*-ift mine ( of jewels &c. name K/. fsr 'a boundary/ (*) $*> arfft* (> ffer^ ). the >mr^. in 9TI. *eft* ). however Sid.. mw. ( af^. ^TT^: ). **#*> ggp. 'the roof of a carriage or house' and $&&/*. .-220 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. S?R^ when it flower/ d gyc^f^ which are always used in the plural. ^rfR>j. &c. frft. &o. 'water gruel/ f. in the Krit affixes SR and ft and the Taddhita ?. and having two vowels in them.* NEUTER WORDS. ^ ^r^ buttocks/ and ^137 'a limit or boundary/ means 'a 353. ' f 352-355 < a kind of bird.

which is also numerals from 313 up/dm. f*? g$.355-359 ] GENDEB. bow 7 . a place. ITfor. S59. Words denoting fruits. firmTT. and their synonyms.- qrsrr. guq-. f5J. %T^r. all mag. ftw. and if^r an IV. organ of sense -\ ^^. and war and 3T?cnr a forest both fern. ' 358. f^uq*. & ' all mat. and <g$r wards. 3Hl^. ). ' f ^r. \*& ' a Brahmana who 356. WRT. &c. '. ^^r ' fish hook. f^r^T art. and ' ?r^y the middle attends ^ g^y. 0? an offering offered to the gods ' ( opposed to the following ). strings '.. 3W 'wealth'. the liver . ^rr. a drop of water ' ( generally used . ink. and 3TO. f%q^.. $53 of a gem a granary or store house for necklace '. W^fT. ' ' . WT ' & smith's bellows <f5T. except $r|p mas. $TT ' ' * saffron. '. <rTO. HOT. ^cq. TOST. ^T. Exception: 'ice ' a plough '. t * ' . T??T. *^T. ^rr?RT^. ?rar. and 357. r%^.a loop cr sling made of < a wall a '. ^otr * an oblation offered sin '. a stamped coin. ' ' to deceased ancestors ( ( opposed to the preceding ) ( CTetr. on an idol '. rffcq. *&. ^nf. g^^g[ ' batter-milk '.. TOfo Hl% * IK.. ^fqmechanical 3mrif w^r. ^T^. 55. fq^. 3U^T 'cooked a battle '. for. ^nr. jrwr 5:^. a leather strap ' (e) corn '. m%. 3T^?r. a trumpet sounder. water '. WORDS MASCULINE AND FEMININE. which are all all mas. 3>*TO.' a baser metal. TSW 'silver'. tfft. The words g^f. zr^g. ' the pelvis. ftw. ^^ ' in the plural ' 31^. ' a kind of black powder. ' ' '. . ' ^T * silver. vn?T. W5 ' 35T. 5%. ' 3^15^ a battle ' OTHT '. the grey ness of hair brought on by old age. 5^ ' copper '. 221 of a demon ' and '.

ffS 'a leather strap/ com P- and 3TT&.* the eighth . qt^. < play. ^TO^. 5 t - a descent into water. ' a kind of anJ ther. f%KCT. cT^T^. 300. 3n^f5T. *nf*r. * gold 3^*f3f. ' T^. jfr^:. joke. Hl^cE. 3^J. 1?^ name ' of an aquatic bird ' ^.. <r^T. 7 ^or. &c. ) a respectable - person ( generally used as an affix. eye disease % t 'the scum of ^^^T. ^fl<r. ffe^T. if^r. a peacock's feather/ ^. cf?. nose or nostrils of a horec i&j. q. sr^. ' [ 350-360 a measure of one hand in length/ when . canopy. ' ' a wooden or earthen dolP. ^fll'5 ^rf> the flour of barley first fried und 7 then ground ( used in the pi. wr^r. ^n^T 'a drinklustre.W. cfl ^ ( w ) stairs of a landing place. as iVTTcfRlf^y & c ).222 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. af^. I^f^. R^. *? ' a kind of plant '. the ^TR. c ' 3?tfhF.a friend n. a winnowing basket. ^nw^ ' the root of the water lily '. ' i ^ . ^ ^^ ' boiled rice. &c.jrt* ' ^TT'Sr. ( Rt^E: spirituous liquor. ^fr^. tremor. ^ff. ' a rage. . ^^. >i?T. ) flfo. ?^ the namo ' of Gokala. ?p^^. ^TT^T.^. a peacock's fea^^r. g^T ' ' a kind of grass ( also g^r )>. ^^TT^T. ^r?^. ^TcT. WORDS MASCULINE AND NEUTER. T*T> aTT^vr. 3TC. ^^^. WT? aftw. 5T^^ 55r4^ vigour' . 5^?F. %^. ' WT t the SfRyfT. V. 3T?fT. also 'the act of drinking liquor vide. P<Tr.. ' ' ^(T^-. ' *fT. %^.sr. the a particular coin.chain same of an elephant/ ?TRT^T ^. ( m. a holy place ' <T. 3m%. ). 3TfH^?T. the bow of Siva. at tne end of a Hffbr. ^?T<3T. the beard. l roasted meat. f^fTF^ a 5j5r. SicR. OT^> ^frg HT5. a bow. ' 80 ). f$V9^ 'incense fe ' a lump of boiled rice*. S^?> 3pJ^. aftr^fT blood grsT ' 5^ '. 3TTf?T^ . a letter having organ of utterance. Wr^. XV. ' the tie-post or the tie. &c. trj re<r. Sis. ing cup'.

? ' the sarasa bird. . fouaq. a demon '. ^nf^T . 3T5<T. ( a vessel for holding *an iron club. dr7 cowdung/ '.' fi^. n. ^3". q? the blade of a sword. ). f%?r<T. srem. m. 5T?T. ^y. c ^TTET sacrificial vessel of a particular shape r%qf^T exudation of trees. tree. $?m. RW. <ri%^. T^ 3?qfJ a kind of plant. a largo serpent. name of Brahma. TO. STOW. the pomegranate ( its fruit. fBrRlT. X mflTT * * darkness. grm. jr^yq-. cj^pa" ^JIJT M. a wooden ' vessel or cup. 3T<T a small boat or the moon. 'a musical instrument 7 . ^fnT?y the eye-ball. corpse/ %fo. =g^i. 362. ^lf%TT Tff. . a bed. grn R^TT. SCfR taste. 223 mahurta of the day.5 360-362 J INDECLINAHLES. ' m. arrg^ ^ft^ srfor.astringent flavou* or 3T?qTr. 'a ( mostly mas. ^3*1. ^ T. a javelin/ liquor. ^fk 'a kind of fragrant grass' Mar. light. ' ^ar-OTT the post or pillar of a house '. alao ). ^5^r. blindness iron-ruat-. ) <Varuna/ TfrRq\ ^^q. cat. . and &% 361 m. Wf^. ^. qjoB'T ). ' the bow * of Arjuna. 5PH a drinking cup/ ?FT^'. srqjir. w^fR vessel' Afar. 3?f%^. a horse's neck. a mushroom. qnr. q7RT. cotton 1 . ^> *TK> TO <rfT. ' forage \%%\& a T . i&q> KHm. 'anything made of ijfa-. That in an dnyaya whose form remaining the same in . thousand ( according to some n. ^fw. hundred cce and ^t-$TT Chapter XL AVYAYAS OK INDECLINABLES. a parasol. &**? 'yawning. flesh '. t WOHUS FEMININE AND NEUTER. %ST a piece of waste or uncultivated land. VI. $anr. r ^orr?y. a knife. ar^q-. *. ?fR. $frr. an umbrella. a kind of ( mRC ). a mass of water.

bright fortnight. TO^ a bow. 1. 3TO< ^^ tha earth.* The Aiyayas may be divided into simple and compound ones. *j^ Sn% ^e *w the sky. sfn^ the well-known sacred syllable om t faction. Cf. and V ) Inter. ^rt^ coaxing. III IV ) Conjunctions. ( comprise ( I ) Prepositions ( ( II ) Adyerbs. Some think that prepositions have no meaning of their own. ). 1. also Sid. Sis. A preposition. I. jections. The ( indeclinables ) Particles. food. grf? the dark fortnight. PREPOSITIONS. intensify and sometimes totally alter the senses of rootsf: u i Pin. ^ ^1% happiness &c. ?m?rT non-existence 155 only which are treated as indeclinable another ( reason ).224 all the SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. ar^i* setting. . 364. SjY? or to gods. having an independent meaning and prefixed to verbs and also to their derivatives. 37. ^r^ happiness. *faq^ a y ear > ^^TfT food offered food offered to the manes. 365. cases. X. undergoes no change. numbers and [ 362-365 genders. ( of. 15 ). e. The latter are treated of in the chapter on compounds ( Avyayibhivas and a few Bahuvrfbis and Tatpurusha S 363. These prepositions modify. A'au. rf^ g. Besides these there are in Sanskrit a few nouns- haying one ( inflection nipatat ). styled *Upasarga or Gati/ in Sanskrit is an indeclinable word. satisthat exists. but they simply bring to light when prefixed to rocts their hidden senses. heaven.

225 a 9* STf 1 to strike/' 3ffif ' ' to eat. wrong' &c. . < towards. ' ' 9|ir awav from.: ' 3HT ( sometimes airq' see 3jft ' and ft. 15. rfiMff < ' a gift. . arraSF*: 'overstepping ' or going beyond. ' &c . above. &c. 366. or OTTf to plunge into/ a^RlR: descent/ reproached/ 3TCYTC to disrespect.' jfc to contract/ f3|T to S P OI V Wg" ' to avoid. &c/ 'goiug up. acquisitio T over. over'. O. 3T^chHUJ ' following/ imitation/ 3?5i^: favour/ &c. &c/ Sometimes they are prefixed witnout any alteration in the sense. 8. to be resolved into or reduced to. to perform as sacrifice. * Cf. The following are the prepositions ( upasarg** } com- monly ' prefixed to roots: beyond.' &c. away/ 4 ^^^R ' the act of taking < away/ to plunder. &c.Kau. 3rft ( sometimes ft * 'near to/ ' takiDg to/ &c. * ' 313 * ter > ' 7 behind. 3^*1^: over/ ' harm.' au^HT: high office or power/ 3tf^q: censure/ &c. is more commonly uaed as an independent advexb a having cumulative force in classical Sanskrit. along. Sharira Bhishya. near to/ 1 &c 3|f&ir^ . This prep.365-866 ' ] INDECLINABLES. note ) 'away. According to the grammarian Bhaguri the prepositions atfr and 9^optionally lose their 3T-*t may Hiyii<e5lqH^lcqj^^nf^t'l (Sid. . ' ^cq-jj: < destruction/ &c. seize ) &c . 4 down/ &c. * srfiqT'f or ' a coverine. ^RQt*T arfq-ir^j^^ntfr. q. ' to go towards/ self-respect/ 3) noble descent or family/ siftm*: to defeat/ &o.) H.

a general rule/ &o. .' mT^rr 'to TOTO 'gone away/ TO5^[ 'turn back. * 'death/ 'comparison/ &c.'form or shape ( within due bounds ). on or wear/ gf?PT : qf^TT *to place all round t. >/ &c. *near to. in return. opposed to/ &c.. e. an ansan act in opposition to *. e. to ' . saft 4 hence a gift. to put * wall &c. a little/ &c. CT7T ' to go near to/ sqffflr/.'what ( opposed to victory. back. ^f^Ti'* * bad conduct/ be borne/ &c. in opposition ( to. hard to be done/ &c. < towards. ' that which ahines all round' t.' T<rirrffT/. t. 0.' &. ^ f^fo fo:% 'to issue out/ out of i. fts to insult/ f3%ir <a house/ i%^r 4 ft a heap. all round. a.' &c. wer/ Trfft-tft-CT?: a remedy' &c. : . towards. a great collection/ fttfff *drunk *&/ f^$T of. free from ' without doubt. worship. without/ < fiiJH: a passage out/ fa: blame/ ... Into. 'an obligation/ 'praise. ' away from.. by the side of/ &c. all round.226 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ^ft/. back.' mi^q. about/ &. ' the ether '. hard to be done/ 5:9$ opposed ' 'difficult to < .. au^ai^ to coyer round/ srrenr. command/ &c. a complete enumeration/ &c. go towards/ MiflMmm 'a speech in return. &c. maturity/ MRnuiHT ' counting all round.j act bravely/ is qn^ ' to reject. great. defeat/ &c. ^ ?. ' to shake a little/ &o. pouring out. < [ 366 3^ Up to. ^ 3Tf 'to go up/ 3^: 'industry/ ^-<upon/&c. that surrounds/ qRoffir: 'ripening. to denpise. . all ' towards..-< bad.

69 . acceptance promise/ in the sense of 'dishonouring or honouring/ and ^^^ denoting 'fastening/ &c.' towards/ 3T^r% ' giving itrength to the weak/ 3?^ in the ' assent. 5 in this sense it is opposed to ' ^ ). may be omitted after the prepositions 3T3. tfip*. 3W. ( C well thoroughly/ &e. qjft and c.' foft opp. When used in a compound the vetb srfir. 'very great/ 367. 227 apart. excellent. ^3. Sanskrit grammarians. * may also be combined and prefixed. sell/ buy' . resolution/ qgmniji 'to come in arfSrf^fo^ close contact with/ &c.366-369 * ] IKDECUNABLES. 232. refinement / ^fR: destruction. 'together with. . also styled Gati by 369. are prefixed to sense of ^ ^ . ft^R^ ' to move separate from. the sense of ^^ very. g^r. ' &o. give the more important of them below. Vide There are several other words. full/ &c. ' apart/ f^ggj 'to be separated. arfsf.going near/ 3F5^$R$ 'having spoken 1 ) ( b ) ( to. well It is also used in governed/ &c. excessively. ' ' to be united/ ^F^TC: 1 ' perfection / ^^fjr &c. * enter into 368. used prepositionally. We ' * ( a ) g?x^* ' towards is prefixed to tr^ and to roots implying ^flying motion. contraction. reverse to. ^3><T 'done well/ 3$TT%<T 'thoroughly trained. &c. anfir. g. 4. . These are prefixed to certain roots only. 3tx$4inj-*r?q. of ?RT to 'to has this an sometimes intensive force. Two or more of these prepositions e. decorating/ 3rft> ^fflr> 37T^ all implying an ^ similar imitative or sounds. 3TO.

' 'disappearance/ &c. III. may beand 373 to form what are prefixed to the roots ^P> called in Sanskrt ' chvi-derivatives' ( vide chap.SIWB( *8 prefixed to roots implying motion. to to ^ and sn: are prefixed to ^. srerftrtr ' meaning 'to go/ qj.. aTTJJ^Kfr consign to flames/ ^YT^TTr^cT. roots * ) 3*tn. ' and dis- similar having disappeared/ sTOvrfr appearance/ 3^a^?T. See. Such nouns are 371. J Like prepositions may be further used the words which the Taddhita affix ^T^ is affixed. ) Adverbs. also termed 'Gii. ( vide p 4 216. adverbs also be further used the 872. is prefixed to roots. substantive and adjective. headed by/sffrra 'gone in the front/ &o. ^ . II. ^ . T%. 7 &c. IX. 5 is prefixed to 5?. (<f J. srttfalr Vto set. 3^^ and ^. ig. ftwr. [ 369-372: 2 ) TO:. . 'manifestation/ manifested/ &c. . &c. mfpg?T Banishing out of sight. As may . Adverbs are either primitive or derived from nouni r pronouns or immerals. 370.'reduced to ashes/ 4Hl^dl to ( to 'made over to the king. Several nouns. suffer 'placed before. sn'. cause to 3^nq: lead letting/ affffim "set/ to destruction f ( e ) <3TT^.. &c. and and optionally to vjr and similar roots. *rr$TT^and some other words ( or remain separate? be optionally prefixed to 'to bring under or 5$ or subjection/ *rT$rr^ may ^ ^ ^ make manifest/ ( &c.228 SANSKRIT GEAMMAE. *$.

In.' ' ' yg ^q-:. Ever. ' f^fo[. In front of. all at once. 'happily. 3^. before. : 3TaT Here Then. . Not long since. indeed. . this day. spTW. f^HT. are alphabetically arranged almost in Sanskrit. ^fq^. properly. Now . 3W^Hi.' &: ' ' < ' near. STf^. . down. constantly. f 3I^T. ' virtuously. From this > Again. A 5 r 373. ' qvft &c. now-a-days. f^. recently. Stftor. moreover. ^or along time/ 5^. aTfM^H ' < strongly. &c. properly. certainly. In tho following all the list words used adverbially Suddenly. ^^q ^ ' 1 for the sake of. front of. at first. f%TTTWTq' ' for a long time.. Belnw. ^JT^ forcibly. juitly. Through ignorance. ^FRT^&c. Rightly. neu. < quickly. f%Tia. . 'painfully. Ace. Adverbs formed from pronouns and numerals are given in their proper places while those formed from nouns are given in Chapter IX. a^r. correctly. ' ^fi^R. ^f^I^. before. ahead. 320 and sometimes the sing. 3TO To-day. with the Ace.-jfr. Yes. Exceedingly j 3T?f??rT5 : rising > superior to. of nouns and adjectives of other cases also . < again ' &c. into. 'n^*f^Tra M. afterwards. B.372-373 ] INDECLINABLKS. quickly. ^TfT^ < at once. 3T^r Truly. . *ran* ' ' truthfully / ^f ' ' softly. ^. ting. T%*OT after a long ' time. : on this account f On : the followingday at this time. Now. &c.

close by. another other day. on the outside. Quickly. diffe- so. speedily. f^ Slightly. one affcer another. arf^T^ Incessantly. here and there. Repeatedly. 3TTf%^ Openly.. sufficient Enough. in the next world. in the of. ) Hither and thither. On ^Improperly. indeed. 4n place. There. Hence. [ Pan. at this mo- Together with. 3T^>OT V v } amidst. moreover. above. and fro. st so. often and often. conformity to tradition. araiTT . the Near. before the eyes. Truthfully- Uninterruptedly. 3^ Loudly. unfitly. in the vicinity at a distance. Before. It is a prefix also.230 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. i Truly. at dawn. to another Elsewhere. I. inside. On the day following. Again. Except. day. ) ) Early in the morning. edly. without. ceaselessly. Thus. in private. From both sides. in a rent manner. Instantly. &c.. now. J Between. for. Here. without. Otherwise. quite in. in pany with. : Again. little. . Quickly. 1. besides. in this manner. repeat- Thus. 3MJ5J Secretly. In this manner. [373 of. little. / *> 3TT4gg^ Forcibly 47]. ) both days. ? ^ Truly. *) Near. proximity Frequently. com- ment.

Thus. quite. once. One time. singly. how much Just. assuredly. no more of. Whence. . at what time? time. except. Now. then. once upon a Never. it. again. n a good manner. To a certain degree. where ^r When. sometimes. n the best manner. Certainly. Perhaps. how. &c. Verily.5 73] without. long. indeed. ? Whither. which?. yet. whether. J With great effort. simply. 3>m*U*4 bly. &c. How indeed. further. in what way. crqp at present. s^ro. I trust. i?I%cr Nowhere. Silently. &c. But. indeed. surely. used as an ft^ A long time. INDECLINABLES. o be so. word may be used ny What a pity. 1 With great difficulty. anywhere. hope. f%^ Moreover. in which place ? mewhere. however. . nevertheless. at the one way. how possiat merely. ft**. same time. Whether. 231 who. what. of adverbially in the sense aa 'long/ 'for a long time/ . in one place. what time. T For a period of many nights. from where? Where. What indeed. ra?r flFSH* > . together. enclitic. all at once. once How much more? What how ? upon a time. What more. 80me pl&ce. How. ^H^ Enough. The singular of any of the oblique cases of this When. ) ) little. suddenly. somewhat. time.

to one's satisfaction. Tb other day. willingly. q^ Then. ) speaking or noise. luokily. &c. : at Jimmediatoly. TO Then. after to-morrow. behold ! see ! ) Quickly. certain- As more for instance. forthwith. distance. backwards. that. most probably. consequently. last. Again. to be plain. case. ^Crookedly. close by . out of. in that Then. in that case. exceecungJy. all By day. Then. therefore. Then. So. oyer. Around. . on that account. Therefore. Therefore. At night. &c. badly. Well. across.SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. to-morrow. agreeably to desire. at that time. not at all. n the first place. distinctly. indeed. Day : By that. By name. From Very much. assuredly. at that time. perhaps. atter wards. at once. ronnd. Not so. in that manner. Silently. Near. on f^TT Fortunately. separately. ) F5373 Not 10. in1 directly. one's satisfaction. ) without %Not. in various ways. probably. as surely us. Quickly. To deeply. sufficiently. ly. Certainly. iHF^ By night. all 'sides. at that time. To a highly. g** Certainly. Soon. Behind. &c.

wherefore. i Before. at will. powerfully. with pleasure. Exceedingly. excessively. again and again. in front of &c. q-^ Since. no purpose. again and the former day. Quickly. . immediately. In the morning. In the noon. To each other. in Before. in vain. imme- Every day. manner favourably. the contrary. exceedingly. Exceedingly. repeatedly. Forcibly. mfe ' Without diately. east. Quickly. Crookedly. delay. Severally. at the 8ame time Forcibly. first. Mostly. in vain. in site oppo3rsr Since. before. Often. violently. in vain. beside. on the other hand. m or to the On day. SIJT A little. lyingly. peatedly. for which reason. except. Being exhausted. rather. ar?q- 233 5^: Again and again. in which place. to On Wrongly. wrongly.I 373 INDEOLINABLES. ex- To no purpose. slowly. again. yester- reGreatly. at first. or to Falsely. Out. unprofitably. of yore. apart trom. slightly. tardily. &c. Where. TOT^ Extensively. irjr In former times. ceedingly. much. incorrectly. q<T: ait In the morning. at the east. ) > : After death. gTjT On high. in front. secretly.

in Well. Perpetnally. Always. in a sidelong manner. Together with. At * once. perfectly. in a good manner. in crookedly. As much Badly. Together with. face. simultaneously. suddenly. to be sure. Near. Always. r: Except. . At once. as loDg as. Along with. Like. I. Quickly. in bodily form.. proprely. Exceedingly. Every wnere. Badly. Stealthily. lolly. When ^T and it qr^ are prefixed to a personal form of the Present Tense. quickly. the yery moment. along with. person.234 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. W SP^ Always. In the presence of. Equally. always. just as required. Only. at once. under cover. 5&: Gently. gladly. High up In vain. Ail round. In the manner mentioned. On all sides. In cine order. t Verily. Hurriedly. Face to in the sky. Now. : When. has the sense of the Future Tense. Somehow. Always. as. [375 As. namely. along with* All at once.

as 3t3Tran 'one not a Brahmana. * qr is generally changed to acr or s*^ when prefixed to words be- ginning with a consonant or a vowel respectively. The particles are either used f%5T. ff Because. PARTICLES. or negation' 317373* ' sr^itf the absence of knowledge'-. fitly. The following ' particles are used with certain words: > 3^ ^T 3T^cT a wonder '.' gjr^r^ 'a little water 7 . some of these are 375. ' ) i. 235 .' gjfajj l Uuke-warm. *. but * resembling a Brahmana ' ( wearing the sacred thread. at present. &c. a bad deed >. If. e. In vain. ^. Oneself spontaneously. Without.373-375 ] INDECUNABLES. gfTfl ' Very much. except. 9 . In the evening. I On account of. OTSW 'a bad man. a Kshatriya or a Vaisya* (2) ^HT^T ^absence . &c. 374. jpfr Yesterday. to no purpose. properly. *^. This particle has six different senses* ( 1 ) ^T^q" 'likeness* or ' resemblance' . -|-^ ) Well. '& jar' or so (4) ^^mi 'little- * These are given in the following couplet: . as expletives or inten3. III. ( 3 ) difference from'.5. in a good manner. indeed.as sro 3TO?: 'this is something different from a cloth' i. because of. surely. sives.

3l?tR^> &c. 3^f*T and Improper time. A t ) ) COD junctions of time qrc^-tTWI? ^T. 3TT^> 3T^[T &c. a to e. an something unfit to be done'. 1^5. ^t%^.. is added to i% and other indeclinables and aska a question or implies a doubt . TT. &c.r and 5 RT are used to mark the beginning and the close of a work respectively.236 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. ^j f%^. 5. . ). [ 375-376 ness' or 'smallness'j as ar^^TT sp^qr ' a gi'l baying a slender waist' . ^T.&c. (d) Conditional^. f%.. ?T^T &c. CONJUNCTION 8. TfT is need with sense of 5 and its IV. When used with *'.. &m W it has an intensive force as ITT fIT 3TT% &o. Interrogative '^njt a^rf?^. fifefaat. are the principal 376. lity'j immorality 3157: 'opposed god't. 3TOT& i ' * OT is generally used as an expletive. fifor. q^rffi. *ff. Used with a form of the present tense of a verb.&c. The following 3?^r. (5) ( Disjunctive WT> &c. ( 5 ) 3isrT3n?*r 'badness. ^mft. Affirmatives and negatives ajf .' ' lastly ( 6 ) fifte or opposition '. 3R*Tfir: non-mora'a demon'. e) Adversative aro^T. acceptance'. %? ( used in () (/) Causal f|. not a favourable opportunity. sacrificial q-f^. ceremonies &c. it gives in the sense of the past tense . **fan*: 9ft$?ra(. t( 3W fti^ . unfitness' .^T. &c. ^g. conjunctions in Sanskrt: ( a ) Copulative wt.fR. . the particle wr: f^fg. derivatives like a preposition in the &<>. as H*ift CT 3^3"^.. ( 3.?Tg:.

( 2 ) and others. &c. 377. &o. ( 1 ) are some interjections used to call attention. ( 3 ) The exclamations sfi^. ^T. ftr^s f. 5Tyr ( expressive of wonder. Sain. &o. aft. expressive of contempt. is " The interjection not properly a part of speech. <r. $. * ) f%^. It is as it does not enter into the construction of sentences.377 ] IMDEOLINABLES. disrespect or contempt. TNTERJTCOTTONS. ( e ) 3tT. 237 V. 4 ) Hlgl &d ^qrj when ( manes respectively. qfi^ and and ^^ are need when offering oblations to gods or manes. &c. grief or regret. There are various utterances suited to the different emo- tions of the ( a ) mind ": Prof. expressing sorrow. gr. ff . expressive f^ ff** (/) ?^. &c expressing joy. 31* . 5f^T> ^ ) ?T> ^^ showing . 3Tf. dejection. offering oblations to gods and . - &c of anger. ffrief. some show ^t: respect. r 3^- &c. as aqp. - (y) There Of these. &c. &c. ( c ) ( f T. such as ar|p. sadden exclamation prompted by some strong feeling or emotion. ?> fT. contempt. ^T. aft. These are &c. 3Tft.

it will be seen. ' ' Veda and is Note: The ten tenses and moods are technically called the ten Lakaras in Sanskrit grammars. ( Six Tenses ^Ryr: ) and four Moods 3j*fr ) which are as follow: TENSES TECHNICAL or Present or Aorist NAME MOODS 3TT*n flrfir TECHNICAL NAME. the Passive Voice (^pffofnro and the Impersonal Construction the Active Voice ( grcffaro ) as as 5T?CfT ).238 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ( e) Three Voices IT. . [ 878 Chapter XII. Ouidt . as follow. &^ r: or Imperfect or Perfect : g^ 5^ fJ^ or Imperative or Potential f*Rr^ &Q grrrfn or Benedictive STT^Trm^ 0%cf or Conditional or 1 st Future or 2 nd Future t g <g. This terminology of Panini. is artificial. 378. Primitive ( (a) Two kinds ( 5 ) and Derivative. ( snfrTT: ). Other grammarians use different names. CONJUGATION OF VERBS. The ten Lakaras of Panini are according to their nomenclature. These technical names are given in the following Karika. the Subjunctive is used only in the therefore termed The Vedie Subjunctive. There are in Sanskrit of verbs. and 3TT^FfJ '.

the and the Potential. the affixes added **Tr *TT> to form the causal base and a few denominatives. 382. the various f$TC ) conjugational signs of the 9 classes ( ex. and * Strictly the term Sarvadbatuka ( belonging to tile form of the verbal base ) is given by Panini to the terminations of all the tenses and moods. the verds the the Imperative Imperfect. may ) in Sanskrit.' the other Atmanepada. the remaining Non-Oonju- . the infinitive and are called the verbal indeclinables. whether primitive or derivabe conjugated in the ten tenses and moods given above. cept that of the eighth ). maipada. viz. a root or a noun. singular. e. ). though Paras- maipadi. while there are ( ) ' d Two eets of personal terminations. with three persons in each. one called ' 239 Paras. Present. ( be derived from a parent stock 380. 381. certain prepositions or in particular senses. except those of the Perfect and the ( Benedictive. and the terminations of the Present Participle Pars. ones. become Atmanepadi and rice versa. and plural. and to the affixes distinguished by an indicatory s . and those forming the Past Participle ( Act. Several roots again. the Desiderative and the Aor. and Pass. when preceded by These will be con- Primitive verbs or roots are those which originally 379.87b-382 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. and some others Ardbadhatuka. the 7 others which take either. moods given above. dnal intransitive verbs in the active and the In each tense and mood there are three numbers. All other verbal affixes t. a Transitive verbs are conjugated in the Active and Passive voices and Impersonal form. sidered in a separate chapter. In four of the tenses and undergo peculiar modifications ( dnE^ur ) and these are therfore called Oonjngational (firS^f^)* or special tenses and moods. and the Passive and the Frequentative respectively. exist in the language. and* Atm. Every verb. the conjugational signs of the 8th and 10th classes. the affixes ^and q. while derivative verbs are those which may tive. Some roots take exclusively the Par.added to the bases of the two futures.. terminations and some the Atm.

and ^. [ 382-385 gational ( STTOTTg^r ) or generel. ACTIVE VOICE. and the Atmanepada ( lit. qsg[. SECTION I. . and the roots s<rx f%*^. Deno. 3*Tft. (i) Tcrrf* (2) 3?srf?. |minative9. Thus ^^w: q*rfff will meau smaipada 1 Devadatta sacrifices will for ' another ( his Yajamana ).' 9 while mean Devadatta sacrifices for himself. ^. are comprised under the head of Derivative roots. Frequentatives.240 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. while almost all roots of the . 383. With reference to the various moods the verbs are divided into ten conjugational classes by Sanskrit grammarians. ^. the m Causals.. I. IMPERFECT. word for self )> when it refers to the agent. (5) *rrfo (6). < 3> Sff^rfc ( (4) f^nV. GONJUGATIONAL or SPECIAL TENSES AND MOODS. The roots contained of the tenth are primitive roots. ( a ) The base ( of aijp ) a root is that form wuich it assumes before tne personal terminations. each class being denominated after the root which begins it viz. the Para- word for another) should be used when the fruit or result o the action of the verb accrues to any other person or thing than tne agent. In th* former the characteristic marks and terminations of each are mostly added to a special base formed from the roots in various ways. Desideratives. When (lit. 384. IMPERATIVE and POTENTIAL. a root is capable of taking eitner pada. PRESENT. while in the latter they are combined with the roots itself.tenth class. (7) Wrfifc (*) cfTrit 9 ) ZFITfS and (10) gnft- the first nine classes and a few g 385. q^.

P. ROOTS ( WITH. and the second the remaining. Atm P. S. 16. . S. s. while in the ends t second ic does uot end in 3? and is changeable. UNCHANGEABLE BASES 6th and 10th classes ). Terminations: Present Par S.380-387 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 4th. fs *rj ? % ^ Imperfect. H. 6th and 10th In the first the base classes. 1st. a. D. P. 2. S. when optionally added in the 2nd and 3rd person singulars the Imperative has a Benedict! ve sense. the first comprising the 1st. 387. into Thwe may again be conveniently divided two groups. -* 3* * rTTr^is an 3. ten classes 241 386. P. D. K I. and remains unchanged throughout-. D. S. D. S. 2. D. P. & ^ 3 ft *t "1*^ 3TII a aTJ ^iT^ *^ Imperative. D. P. 4th. GROUP 1.

3T is . Atm. 1. Ill.242 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. P. con- Formation of the base of the roots of the 388. t Vide 24. q. I ^r . 68. the radical vowel e.( ^77 } is added on to the final of . [ 387-390 Potential. . ^-f T%=^+^+f?T=^T^. Of about 2200 roots occurring in the Sanskrt language nearly ) half ( about 1076 belong to the first class. g. 69. $nf| $w 1^ JVbte- & 8. g. added on to the roots of the sixth or ^rf^. 389. and the final f 9 7. D. fa D. vowel of a root take their Guna e. Pan. faf| P. those beginning with consonants. S. first group: First or 3T($FTji& added on to the final roots of the 9TT^ class* before the terminations. Terminations beginning with vowels may be called Vowel terminations.class before which the penultimate vowel remains unchanged. short or long. f* S. T7. ^ *nd =^ are : changed to $q^. Before this 97 the penulti- mate short and the substitute . 1. a root of the Fourth or f^rf% class before the terminations remains unchanged 390. sonantal terminations. Par.

almost all the roots belonging to it being derivative. HUlffl &c. tional (a)f The preceding 3V is lengthened before a conjugatermination beginning with a semivowel. take . .890-392 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. Pan 1. 1st class. all CausaJs and some Nominal verbs may be regarded as belonging to this class. vn. ( g. A. S^or w. Atm. sft P. 37 not pros odi ally long. &c. * to carry.0. t srtr *if *& i P&n. short vowel final ( Before the penultimate except at ) takes the Guna substitute. The final 37 is dropped before terminations beginning with . but rfir. a. a nasal or 9. g. *This class contains a few primitive verbs. and the vowel and the penultimate their Vriddhi substitute. ' Present. 101. and f^ respectively. 391.nT+3ifrff=5nrf(T. &c. besides. 0. b ) i. 2. y. 392. Roots of the tenth or ^fc grq- class* ( 1 ) add nr before the personal terminations.

replaced by 3U in the case of roots beginning with a sir this forms Vriddhi with an Initial vowel. J 393. The augment 3? is prefixed to roots in this tenee. ' H.. 1. 5TTf 3TT comes between the prep. similarly (a) When a preposition ( 3TO*T ) is prefixed to a root. 2. g. o. 102.' A. to know. g. . Imperative. '. 2. and the roo s . [ 393 Imperfect. 3. 4. the augment or or f with sr. 3fJist *. S.P. m ' P. ' ' to see.' ' to get. to be. e. 55^ A. . Pan. VI.244 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. This 3T is .

' '.' g^ A ' to rejoice/ 2. ' g^ A ' to fight' Present. 3. a j* * Hereafter the optional form in r^ will not be given ag it the student can easily form them by adding H-^ to the base be has to express the sense of the Eenedictive. 1. f\ *g P. 245 Potential. ' to remember. 1. 2. to be pleased. . 1. S. 2. 4th Clasa. 3. 3. 1.393 "I CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 2.

. 'to throw. Pf*0n*. 6th Class. 3. A. . P. [393 Potential.' A. Imperfect S. 2.246 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ftq Potential. ftftr I^R ftta ftfcr ftWJ * For the change of ^ to o^see 41. 2.

Imperfect. The forms of other roots should be similarly made "p. 2. ' ' to steal. 2. 10th Class. Par. P. A. 1. 3. Aug. 3. Present. 3. A. 2. 3. 1. 247 ^ P.893] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. . 3. 2. 2.

7^ gr^is lengthened ^ all A.' ( gr^: X qO 'to praise ' <mwr?n but TOfr *to heat/ o wh n it means barter or go/ I transact business to bet. 1st class protect. and meaning to play. . lengthen thoir penultimate vowel.' * 3vT?5r?fr: 2. to measure. 3? 4. VII. to shine. 100. Pan. I. P. These roots insert subsiituio Gupa before . 395. f g 394-395 The ^ ( long or ) of a root. to forget. . III. * it SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. t ' f leJ ^ l^f^TRT^ ^T^?qwnn f^r fi^: I ^t^ ^i& I Sid. <to lecom<* old.' 5fnn?r. followed a consonant when follows f e. t 5i^MHfi^q(opTfir 3TPT: before ST. | ^all meaning and belonging to the 1st 3fro^t?T> to kill. y. .248 394. ^.. fTc^ 10. thunder. . ^. |^ to act dishonestly. is T %tf?T. gq? to faint. &-> Parasin. A. Kan. similarly y^. \ ^ to crooked. 3$%.. & 6. s class. a^ tr ^> 5'<. 5^. e. here % does P. 77. 4TH. ife4. ' I ^T?^: I Pan. VII. by 1. AND 10TH CLASSES WHICH FORM THEIE BASES IBREGULARLY. 3T!%^. &c . 28. 6TH. ^r or The penultimate ^. to play. g-. penulima*e or is final. ehanged to %% and to if a labial or ? precedes and the ^ or 3* is length* ned when ^r or g^* is followed by a consonant. P. I. when g^r does not take Guna Vrddhi. to be . * ^^ to spread. 51. $r^ ^. &c. g. The vowel of 5^ takes this 3TR. snftfci. Pan. A. not become long as f%^ followed by 3T. 1. P. similarly &0 - ROOTS OF THE 1ST. or t? of a root.

395 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. VI. Ill 1 87. then add the augment ^ is dropped These are then conjugated like roots 01 the 5th class. * to ' P. of 3f is ntf: lengthened in the Special Tenses and before a strong teimination beginning with la vowel I 1 feafefi^l ftfi I Pan. to restrain H $ P. * to give/ to see/ ' . 89. VII. ^to pervade. i ' to ' f P. These roots take the 7 of the 4in class optionally in the Special Tenses. to shine/ P. ' to think/ P. 77. 78. ' to smell. < to go Pan. Tne roots their ft^and ^u^ substitute 3T for before which the ^and ). to keep II i'. VII. 'to drink. 3. fafrfTJc% 3. 4. to spit/ ' to reproach^ to pity> ' with 3TT to sip/ < t Bnfi *<*T*T A. i: [ Pan. 3 75. The penultimate a. 1.ss &^ 3. \ see 44. 'to kill P. A to stand/ P. VII. anfe =^T fi?T ^ESIT^ Vart. Pan. II 3?^ and ?w when optionally. < * ' jry P. Pan. 't P. belong to the 5th C.( ^ | atft g|q: .' ' 3* P. ' ' VlTf P. ' 249 U.". 70. to desire. to go/ *T q^ P. -t it means to make thin. 4 48. I. to blow/ *>H P.' ^ ecret/ A. . to conceal. VJ. ' to roam H^ ^[ P. These roota lengthen tueir vowel in the Special Tenses.

to embrace.' to perish. ^RrfrT. I These roots drop these t 5TTi?^f ^|* wft under \ Pan. A. !&. to hum less iff 5^.250 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.?5fnffit P.(*A. to be ready * 396. to think. ritafa^-. Rg^to > roll into a ball fitrgrt. 397 There are a few roots which add a penultimate nasal in tno Special Tenses and Moods necessarily. P. The following seven senses roots form their bases like the These are: Desiderative in the indicated. 0. to go * 9' ja^ &c. ' to go ' ff^vqfif. I. in the Special Tenses. to administer medioine. *\J to abhor. A. to desire * 5T^: 1%rT: I 60. to desire %r|ftli to dwell. to adhere. farf*$i%. 4. to treat as a patient f%fi^frfif-?T 3^to ^mfr. 5f r P. 4th Glass ( I K^ srat P. f^T^T ). cpt A. purify. ^3T%. ' znrfx. Of VR is given . their nasal in the Special Tenses.&c. 3. f5f?f-*zfyi?l $ S^ to be firm w^r or i^-d to go A. &c. J^ P. 25-26. to roar infra 1 . to run. f^^[ to bear. hrar P. to be adequate.' P. ^jsn ' ^rf^ P. oJf^ A. %rf*TfflJ 5fT^[ to. to be clean. cut f*F^!%.'to ' be pacific' ' A. SJT^ to make straight. to blush. to forgive. and a few more which do so optionally. ^T^tfrfS^j ft- reason. 94. < [ 895-397 P. g. VII. *ff^ to sharpen. SUIT t o go at^W. 3. JTMrCT^. A. VI.) ' to perish. to be born Pan. t ^SRTsreratf 5TIT TT P. ^(tP. to dye. f^g. to yawn. ^ is Atm. ^ff^rhnR But cut sp^nf^-^f. 4^fd RBd others important. to act loathsomely. censure.

mj^qfa only. to suffer pain P. Wfi^ P. to be anointed. U. ). A. all A. to be afflicted. classes: ^ P. 'to ' alone. 'to cut' P. ' to be weary ' ^fFqrft. to cut . know. P. 'to cut' trfir. v^jfsr ( ^ra . with s<r or P. P. ^33^ to be dyed. ^ to ^V to spit. -^j 37 all meaning to fly. to go P. andf?^4. 71. P. but when followed by a preposition except the 4th belongs to 398. 4 ) ) to succeed. all Par. A. . 4 P. to bear. 251 P.. turn out auspiciously. A.3W7-398 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS.. 'to endure' $ntqfet. 'to sharpen' ^t P. ^^ 1. to perspire. 4. ^ft* P. ' it to be unctuous ' class 'to strike.C 1 ) to 1. 'to be wearied' vnmfa. to ^ to full. to deceive P. g^. to endeavour ' 'to fall' TfrfrT. to release to anoint T: ^f%iP&n. gtr P. 3^ ^^ . to swaUow to ask P. ^qg. A. to embrace. Theee four roots drop their before q\ . 4. to the 1st and the 4th shine. ^ to fear. 'to colour' P. to cut tfH or JrfifR^f. P. A. to bewail. 1 a^. 6th Class P. %r--^( A. 3T^ to curse. 8. 'to rut' &5nff. ^^ ( to be angry or vexed rfPJ. P. P. ( to put an end to' ^P. to pierce' The following roots belong WTST . to go P. 'to pacify' ^ii-qfff. to bathe P. to P.^! ( A. P. f^ to be pleased. 4. 1 . P. be intoxicated' P.

te take. to draw. ( I ) g^ 1. rplex. P to create. 6. to roll. 4. to r ceive. 6. let be 6 A. to whirl. pcrplexe forth. U. P.^g. fc? p. P. P. divide. to pi ugb. to bresk or cnt g*qft-?T U. f The ' following stanza fiom the Kavirahasya ' gives the various classes to which this root belongs: i^ n The^e opiional forms are according to $H*PH an ^ others . to throw. A. 4th as well as to the 6th das*: ujr? 4 P. to loose. ^ 1. to sit down. P. to take away. to obtain ftr-^t 399. A. 1. to sprinkle. U. to ' shake ' \j^?rf>r sft P-. 1. 50^!. to nvelope. 6.ke against. whirl round. to leave &c. . 6th. to stir. A. to cheat. U. 6. Glasses:- ^^ 1. to send 6. to |g^ to kill P. to to confound. 10th Class (!*T<prO ttf P. to chnrn. 4th. 5^!.252 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. and 7 h closes. to Str. to p ^^4 A. ^yj 5^ 4. 1. 6 U. 'to pi ase > different senses. A. *Thia root belongs to the 2nd. to release. P. ( I ffl^ to sprinkle ftaaf?!to | flP. 6. P. 6 to cover. move t ^wP. to adhere. with All these are given in the following couplet. U. to return. roots belong to the 6. form a ) The following roots belong optionally to the 1st and 6& A. to rtel. to and fro. fw^P. 6 ^ open the ey<s. 1. P. The following C. P. to covet. 4. [ 398-399 U.

to expound. ( but <rr?ft when it means to tear &c. ^r to choose or honour. us A. ^F^to cheat. <r^A. accumulate. ifftj and ). g ) some to to cut. to deceive. to tell. to take ( to converse with. to pass. ^0^ 5^ 3"f to fill. deceive. take the others less Some t. *<^ common. ^ to taste. support a family. to count. to be eminent. f^ to sound. abstain ^ . *r?!^ ( $$r to take. ijp^ to have of the deceive. to &H o shine. even when the fruit of the action expressed by to the agent. $|T to send. j^toaeparao. ^^ to guess. deceive. qr^to go. HJ^" to 5^ make happy. spend. ^55 to pity. *jw to fenr ? ^r<^to praise. to drop see. to go. measure. to hurt. to sound. aho irrgtrift when cau. to inspect. to bore. <r? to ?^ to forsake qt^to speak ill of. 3f5T^to to bite. irjr to strike. ^*r. 33 19 ^ to o >mpose. ) according to some to to see. ^ ^ ^7^ ^ or f^|^ to be conscious of. ^^to bear. to astonish. fw power generation. These are: a^tr to request. to <r^ to reproach. ijvx to worship. *ft^ ij^r to thunder. p eserye their ITOI. to string together. to get. 401. gtrr ^j to seek. . roots of the tOth olaas sin. f%c^r to kill to f^^ to according to some contract. *fa to desire. tfa-xi to giving. to be afojr to divide. to throw. ^F5T to search^ to hunt. VTJ to souud. q^g to dwell. if$ U. jf^ and to reprove. to be weak. n^ or weak or 5*13 to give. to become manifest. ( according ifcT down. g together. bite . to ( them does not accrue desire. to tninfc. to seek. 253 The following vowel unchapgf d r^ to 400. qjw to cou t*t. <fff^ to desire. to filter. to ^f to astonish.400-401 CONJUGATION or VERBS. ? to scream. ^r^to from to muddle to cut. ^HT to look at. seek. ). ^q. and to bind or etri ofr^) ig^A. A. to injure. &Z to conceal. weave. roots of the 10th class exclusively /\ Atmant'pacU e. ^or fi^to to counsel secretly. lax.

5th. ^ to r^ to burt > to ^uie f^g- 10 A. P. in^[ to honour. ROOTS WITH CHANGEABLE ( 2nd. the 1st 402. ^ to know. Terminations: Parasmaipada. 3l $n^ ^rf ^7^ to endure. to sft cleanse. ^ fjr^ to kindle. jplease. to confide. 7th. to throw. to kill. 3rd. ^q. to jrwr^ to string together. and ^r^ to smile improperly. ff^ kill. ^r to clean. to guess. [ 401-403 ^ to gratify. ^ to coyer.254 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ( trtffr q^ also to speak. GROUP 11. ^q. cmd 9th Classes. to restrain. to 5^ to aver. to join. 3^ to worship. -torment. to kill. 8th. old. 3 to censure. worship. ) 408. fixf to separate. tf to censure. gqr^ ^to be pleased or satisfied. 79. the termi- . to beg. II. 5ft to melt 3^ to abandon. q% to infonn. belong fq^ to know. arrai/ge. 37? to cover. The following roots and the 10th classes: 3P^ $^[ to unite. ^^ to satisfy. f^r to grow . gro. 3j| to kill. to stretch. to worship. to assail. f j. to compose. f^rq^ to leave a residue.. to overcome. to hurt. with sff to go. the Imperfect and the Imperative an the same as these c the first group. jfr to fear. ^ r to endure. brave. yrr^ to seek. ^r. to release. to obtain according to some ). to to 9F^. A. and some others. gro to to purify. to be conto scious of. <fr to burn. 1. The terminations of the Present. kindle. SH . 3ir^ to obtain. B^Q^ to grieve. to avoid. ^ confide. qq^ to go. to remember with regret. to stop. fl< f^j to bewail.

255 nation of the 2nd per. the other weak. singulars of all persons of the Present and the the third person singular of of and all Impernumbers of the first person the Imperative . ( b ) The rest are weak. Present Imperfect 35 5 ^ft Imperative 1. 404. a ) The strong terminations are: The fect. in the Parasmaipada. O ^ L-11T ^^ fir 86 group.' ' The base taking the base. is ft. ^ flV ITcWL Atmanepada. . and all of the numbers the first person Imperative in the Atmanepada.' strong terminations may be ' calld The strong and that taking the ( weak ones The weak base'. sing. to which ' the terminations are divided < one set called strong'. 3. of the Imperative The ter- minations of the Potential are as follow: 2.408-404 ] CONJUGATION OP VKBBS. The base of the roots of the 2nd group of Oon- jugationl classes undergoes many < modifications into with regard sets. tfc Potential 3?[fl1> 3TT^ B?T*nJ^ - The same f r the as those given 2.

in other The of the input a ive 2nd per. is dropped after 3 not preceded by a conjunct consonant. : i ffHiftfor.256 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 1. Present. 1 precede ffr bj a conjunct consonant aud 1 to 3. * 3 and 7 Eighth and Ninth classes are added on to the roots of the 5th and 8th classes respectively before the terminations. irs^far:. 79. ( b ) tive second I\ the case of roots ending in a consonant. 408. the imperaperson singular termination is 3jrf instead of 1 T$j as g^TT ! fr m 9^ . A. 81. put together. (a) The penultimate nasal of a root is dropped as frenft. the final vowel of the base take their Guna substitute. from jr?xy to &c. Fifth. ' g P. 407 It is The final it before gr^and j^if changed to if 3^ 1 of the base is optionally dropped be not preceded by a conjunct consonant. 3. sing. to press out juice/ &c. j$m P4n. III. and ft before the weak terminations beginning with a consonant. 73. 5th Class. III. ar: i Pan.' to steal '. Paradigms. f In the ninth class . P. . JT^R: &c. 2. A. before a weak termination beginning with a 3- vowel. 1.TT is inserted between the root and the terminations *fr becomes ^ before the weak terminations beginning with a vovel. [ 405-409 Before strong terminations the penultimate short and 405. before*! 409. 406. cases.

'to accomplish. 8. 2. 2.' Present._ ^TT^P. Imperative 2 33 Potential. 3. 2. A. 2. ' to pervade/ 1. 3. 2. . 3. 3. G. 257 Imperfect. P. Imperative 1. Imperfect. 17 . H. 3?^ A.409 ] CONJUGATION or VERBS.

^35: . ST^TH. 'to stretch. *n*39ra 31*3*11* 2.258 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 409 Potential. JP. 3. 3.' Present. 8th Class. 3. cR(P. l. A. 2. 1. Potential.

410. Irregular base: ff.8 Imperfect 2. of the base is dropped before * and n. . and ^r before the weak terminations. i. A. *&' 3%' 3^ S. 'to do' is changed to The before the strong. 2. 3. ' ^t. A. P.410 ] CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. A. ^ P. 3*ifa A. Present. ' P re^n*. to buy. P. 1. 3. Imperative 3. iNH ffe f^ 9th Class. Potential. 3. P.

IBBEOTJLAB SPECIAL BASES OF THE NINTH CLASS. 3. 3. 3. 2. 411. 'to obstruct/ or 'to stop/ Imperfect. The roots 37 ' to know ' and TUT to become old ' . Present. Potential I . 1.260 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. Potential. . 2. Imperative. *tf*tl Kt Imperative. ^IW^P. 3. In the case of the root gp^ the ^ of ^r ' is not changed m 412. [ 410-142 Inperjeet. 3. 2.

of a root is changed to f^ or 7^ ( before a vowel weak termination. as ^pfrfif . except a nasal or a semivowel. S ) The ending ^ of roots is changed to ^ when followed by any consonant. The ^ of 5^ is changed to 1st. The roots ft. . as 415 ' The ^ ' * to go by leaps. to raise. ( 4 ) The initial ^ ( or ^ of a termination ). is changed to \j after a soft aspirate 4th letter of a class ( 6 ) ^ or ^ followed by 5 is changed to ^. Imperf 414. and rffr optionally in the Special Tenses. when followed by a consonantal strong termination as g-f ( 2 ) The final f or 7. ^wr ' to stop. ^3^. ^ as T*r^TW> &c. &c Second. and that of roots beginning with ^ to q. Third and Seventh Classes. %f ^ and f roots have tlieir 8llorkeIXfld tfr. or by nothing. finals * *. &. 3fT 261 assume the forms and f3f respectively. pors. *. 416. under the same circumstances.412-416 ] CONJUGATION OP VKBBS. ^i^ and ?& l to obstruct belong ' to the 5th and 9th classes. short or long. ' S|P ' < to obstruct. 3?ft. ^ftl^. Special rules of Sandhi of the finals of roots and the initial letters of terminations: ( 1 ) The ending ^ of a root takes its Vriddhi substitute . ^ftft. *T. T> . as 413.

also in the case cl the root 8 P. termination of the Parasm. and the ending or ^ before the termination ^ and optionally before tr. 419. 8 ) Visarga in ^ to ( gf of a root is optionally changed to ^r or the Imperfect second pers. ?r or 5. 101. The ending % 9 ) When is a conjunct consonant having at ^ is or ^ for its first member the end of a word or followed by a consonant except a nasal or a semivowel. q^ . 4. ' 418. . ( 1 ) * The second person sing. 417. Imperative is ft when the base ends in any consonant except a nasal or a semivowel.262 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. are dropped after a consonant. or s?3Tf$ ) Class. ( changed to q^ before vowel weak termi- when the base consists ef more than one syllable. ( 7 ) The ending f is of a root. [ 416-420 ' ( 6 ) ^ and j when followed By a consonant are changed to the nasal of the class to which the following consonant belongs. In the case of roots ending in 3ft. those given in the 2nd and 3rd Chapters should be observed. ^ or ^ is N. e. The ^ and ^ of Second ( the Imperfect 2nd and 3rd per. not preceded by a conjunct consonant nations. sing. sing. the dropped. short or long. and to an anuirara when followed by sj. In this class the terminations are directly added to the root. < to sacrifice. B. The usual Sandhi rules t. the terminations of the third person plural of the Imperfect is optionally . 420. VI.

203 Paradigms.'to fill. take. ' to cook r add ^r to bathe 421. 7 ' to tell. *) to blow.420-421 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. ' to ' go Imperfect. In order to exemplify the rules given under ^r. 3. 3. ' <nP. ' ^ P. to fly. P. ' Imperfect. Preunt. ' ' * to cut. Present. 2. Potential. 3. according to some ) . ' to go. Imperative. !TT ' P. Conjugate aimilwrly ^iTT P. *i P. 1. ' ' to eat/ ar P. *r iff to give/ 5JT < to give or '. 2. shine/ 6 m to measure.' e^r P. 'to to ' protect. 416-418 we will give the forms of the regular verbs P.

I. ' ' to sound. ' to praise ' Imperfect. a * See TOU* p. 272. ' ^ P. Potential. ' to awake. $qr to ' P. * ^ P.264 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 2. and ^j to drop out. ' * to seize. 3. Imperative. Imperative. gP Present. 2. Potential. i. 3. ' possess supremacy. * to join. [ 421 Imperative. to attack. P. 1. . 3 Conjugate similarly P. Potential. Imperfect. to distil. 2.' 2. 1. 3 5 P. ' ' to sharpen/ 5 P.

Present. A.. 3. 266 &. Imperfect. V ^5f v <C-v ^t W SC*s ^ .^ fW !<% Imperative.s. . 5^ tv^t[ l^i^ I'fl^fl |(iflf| L- 'to speak. ^r^( ^=q v$\: ^ |^T ^ Potential. 'to go. Potential. - 1.' Imperfect.' Imperfect. 'to go. Present. I'fl'r 1. o 5. <K 2^Ji 2 1^ 3.421 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. ^^ A.

2. 3. Imperative. P. [ 421 Imperative. 2-TCT Ti^ . pfl: pn^W pTR. J5 P. Potential. Potential. A. vide 95. ^: Imperfect. 1.' Present. . 1. f and ^ being substituted for ^ and * For the change of ^ to r x. to be similarly oojngated aft respectively^ . |fl^T: f^g.266 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. A. ^% '<Jrier* 55 : 2. 'to milk. 2.

' &c. should be similarly conjugated. to lick. 3. 5^ all A. 'to Purify Present. 1. 2. &c. S Imperative. &c.421] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. i%. 1. 3. Present. 2. &c. A. ' 267 P. 1. &c. f3T. Potential. 153^. &c. i^L. 3. 2. * f?M%. . Imperfect. Potential. * fto^ A.

forms the 2 and 3 sing. am: Imperative. 2. < 9ffi 2. ( to breathe. Imperf. L 421-423 IRREGULAR BASES. ' to sleep. Potential. ' P. Imperative. offer 3. ' insert the augment any consonant except they insert and the terminations beginniog with *r. e. In other respects it is regular. P. of the roots of the 2nd class are of irregular conjugation. 2. 3. in the case of 2 and 8 sing. We P.. f to sigh ' and between their final P. 3. arfa: 3R*i: 3K3T 2. g. Present. will treat of 'to eat' 3^ them in alphabetical order. Many 422.268 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 3. ' srac to eat. . ^ ' ^ f or 3f. 2. as and 3ir^ respectively. ' Present. 3T^cI Potentia*. to weep. 3. ' P. Imperfect. Imperfect. 3. to breathe. Imperf. 2. Sift 3T^ 9Rini 3ft P. sr 3^3 423.

. sing. 3T^r o^f^rT 3 qRlW R: an exchange of duty. 3?^:-^. 3. Imp. it Bhattikavya II. Imperf. 3.428-424 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. sing. Pot. sing. 3. 1. 3.sing. 1. ( ^qm ingbe' &o. 3.. ft^Tft sing.. >*f%fa 3.. 2. Imperf. sing. a^rft^-q^ 3 sing. Before 2 and 3 Imperf. takes the augment f . *wm. where implies *nfcrftlT or . 3Tft^*l'. sing. * 35 ' Sf^ia Atmanepadi in a few cases. Imp. ^ Imperf. Pot. 1- sing. 2. sing.. sing. 1.. 2. : arerff:-*: 2 sing. sing. ^fitffc ^fRT-^ Imp. A.. Imperf. 5 iing. >\^ and ^ similarly .} Wrn^ 1. sing. sing. 269 Conjugate :-<i: Imperf. Imp. It is irregular in many Present. SW<rrr% 1. Imperf . sing. P. ^. Imp. &c. 1.. gf3( P. Pot. a termination beginning with it ^ and &r. as **^ 3 sing.. \ ft w 3. Ajqift 1. ftftfw Pre-. Imperf. &c. . prftft 2 siagImp. Imperfect. Imp. A. ' Cf. 1. Pre. 2. Imperative. Imp.. &c. Pre. its sr 424.* rare ) 'to drops before weak terminations and ^ before respects. *a1%ft 2.

3. 3?icnri% 3rd pi. 7 . ^: 2 eing. Present. &c. f 'to study. Some think that it is to be conjugated like f in the Non-conjugation&l tenses only. 1. 3TRra Potential. pin.. plural. Conjugate 426. Pre. * |P. eT^[ A. 'to sit also drops its ^ before ^r Imperfect. TR Sid. 425. $37$ 3. zr^ 3. 3.. 2. Pre.270 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB Potential.. [ 424-426 2. Imperf. is regularly conjugated a& before a . sn^i an^ Imperative. irg f with &fa A. 3. 2. sings. 'to Imp. qrfjr ^: ?yf?^ 3 pers. Imp. IS. Thef of the root 5 P. &c. The Bhaf ti 'frtft?rtt III. ff|. "an^ A. f f With Pre. third pers. Imp. Ran. g^Tq^^^riT 1st Pers. * to go ' is 3rd Pers. 2. I . ' * to dress similarly. Imp. |% conjugated regularly like 2 sing. aTOTR> 1. pi. According to them the line of will be 3T*fap%. 3.* /to go' is changed weak vowel termination. is quoted hi support of this opinion. remember' should be conjugated like f . Imperf. arRr P.

2 pi. sing. ^T: 2. Pot. ' to rule ' have an added to them before terminations beginning with except that of the Imperf. Potential. 427. 1. pi. 2. Potential. plu.. Imperf.426-428 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. Imperfect. ^ or n flv Present A Imperfect. ffl^ be similarly conjugated. sing. 1. Inly. y and 53^ A.3 %ft Imperative. 1 Imperf. 2. J sing. except those . q P. ^ 3. Imperf. 271 Pretent. 3. sing. f^ft<T 3. ^^ A. Imperative. S I. Imperf. J^A. Imperf. 'to &o. sing. 2. * to praise. 3. 428 w cover r substitutes Vriddhi optionally before consonantal strong terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing. Jf^r^^ ft)F its g- Imp.

3?|qf: sJt'n 3. Present 2. Prawn*. 3. termination. . Imperativ 1. to them. ^^ng is Imp. 3. to shine/ ^^T^ ^[ ^TO. 2. 1. 3?fefR *|c(iq 2. they take gr^ as ^ of sing. OTTg-SJ'ffg Potential 1. ' > > . pi. 2. In the Imperf. S 42y ^r^. Imperfect. P. A. 3. 3jf^ 3. Paradigms. plu.272 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. s^iqi^ ajt*jqf 2. termination when added drop ^rn^ 3. ^3T and the ^ of the 3rd pers. [428-429 P.

3. tffelfo 2. Present.O. ^ 3. sffrr P. 1. Potential. *feTT% Imperfect. 3. ' to be podr 'drops ita an fcefore -weak before termiaationa beginning with a Vfrwel and changes those with an initial consonant. 3. 18 . see am and above: Paradigms Present Imperfect 2. 1.429-430 J CONJUQITION OF VERBS. "^flrft 2. Imperative. 1. | 430. Prtentiul- M S. P. it to f Paradigms.

5% 155: ii fg% Imperfect.274 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. i. 481. 2.'^nft 2. 5 P. A. 2. ff^P. Par. 1. < to hate * takes g-^ optionally in the Imperf. . pi. Present. 3. 3. S^R ffe f^% Potential. 3. 1. l. [ 430. A. 2. Present. - ---^ -% Imperative. l^ra Q[*t. to speak 'takes the augment f before consonantal strong terminations. | 432.432 3.

432-433 ] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. Imperfect. ' to cleanse ' substitutes Vrddhi for its vowel necessarily before strong terminations and optionally before vowel weak terminations. Potentiat. ^ P. <% ** Potential 1. 2. V 1* Imperfect. 3. 2. . 275 fr:-3n5$: 3. g 435. Imperative. 3. 3. 2. 3T5r*fH \ " "\ afljflw ^g^i Imperative.

' 3. Kan).276 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Present. to speak' is deficient in the 3 plu. 2. Potential. L ifa 2. >. 2. according to some in the whole plural. 3. [ 433-43* 2.* Present Imperfect. 3. Imperfect. 434. Pre. and according to othersin all the third person plurals. 4S5 ^5^ P' ' * w *3 ^ ' changes its ^ to ^ before weak terminations. ' w^P. &*5 (Sid. . m Imperatire Potential. TO: Imperative.

?inr to it and then appending the forms of the Imperative of Praent. to teach.' &c. 437. 3. optionally Imperative forms are made np by adding fr. ftft 3 .5 4M-487 486.^j 2. SflTRf P. f before consonantal weak terminations. See ^t|5Tf^ also Present. with 3n A. snfer 3.^% ftfl:-ft53: fi Inperatiie. 2. to changes its vowl p.*to govern. 3. Imperfect. should be conjugated 1 iKe . 2V 2. Imperfect 1. ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. sarfin 2. 277 ft^'to know' takes optionally the termination* of Its the Perfect in the Present Tenee. 2. ?m% Imperative.

439. Potential. ' . 2. 438. * P. except that of the Potential. 440. Present. [437-440 2.' 5 P. Imperfect. Present. Potential. 'to grow' and ^ 'to sound' have f optionally prefixed to the consonantal terminations.378 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. W 2. 3. Imperative. 3. sft A. to the termination of the third pers. A. Impttfsct.* O K& Imperative. to *? A. . 'to give birth to' does not change its vowel Guna before strong terminations. 3. < to lie down' guoates qr its vowel before all terminations and prefixes pi. <to praise.

^Ift 3. *\ A A tin.] 440 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. ^*^ 2. VP Par. Present. Imperative 2. ^31^ Potential. *ma Imperfect 1 I I M _. .

Conjugate similarly 441. 2 sing. 'to kill. and it 3f before a vowel termination. beginning with any consonant except a nasal or a semi vowel. Imperfect. P re tent. fpf * Preteiii. Potential. s. the F then changis ing to 9. Imperative. in certain cases . < kiirdrops its sj bcfere a weak termi- nation. Atm. 3. 1. The Imp. [ 440-441 2. to go Imperfect. This root is used in the A. 5 and to *> ^ P. 3.Z80 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. A. i|5*P.

any. after reduplication. TU 442 |gf A. Imperative. Hules of Reduplication: 444. first vowel of a root together with the reduplicated t. THIRD OB 443. 3. . initial consonant. Ho take away' Imperfect. 281 Imperative. sj. . Potential. b) CLASS. O 3. are guftated. third personal plural termination loses its (c) ( Imperfect third person plural is termination is P. e. N9 Present.as q^ &c. 2. The if . is doubled.5 441-444 J CONJUGATION OF VEBBB. formed by reduplication of the root. before which the final arr of coots dropped and the final f ^r and 3^. (a ) The base is ( The The ). Potential. short or long.

) and ^to ^. %^-f%f^ g-<J. A radical long vowel becomes short and ^ is changed H in the reduplicative syllable as irr-^TTj ^T-R^V. to g.. . $^-3?^-^re^. 3- The penultimate cr or cr and 3fr or aft . . A as radical its aspirate ( 2nd or 4th letter of a class ) is changed to syllable.g.jgre first If a conjunct consonant begins a root. * to know.. be a sibilant (si. corresponding unaspirate in the reduplicative . &c.^A:j<lr but 446. Present.282 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.^or^r) and is the second a hard consonant.iJ . of a the reduplicated root first q- is called 'the reduplicative syllable 445. ^53[-^^ra[-^^= gT^. or first g- in . [ 444-44 & Note The first syllable . ' Imperfect. to The guttural of the reduplicative syllable is changed the corresponding palatal ( subject to the e. 447. % P. become f and respectively in the reduplicative syllable Paradigms. 449. |-^5 &c. in tnrg. ^IS^. hard consonant reduplicated: yq^-. 448. above rule . e. the is con- sonant only with the following vowel reduplicated* e.g. (a) If the first member of a conjunct consonant. ^-^^ &c. however. the f*>j-q?<T.

IRREGULAR BASES: 450 The vowel of the roots and ^ is changed to f or to go ' ^ $. P. f in the reduplicative syllable m. ftsiii ftsfeH 3. Imperfect. The f of the reduplicative syllable of f^. 3.449-451 J CONJUGATION OF VEBB8. __ i. 2. ' f Present. Imperative 1. Potential. 1. ' fT 'to. 3. to sacrifice. Potential. c ' ^[ P. 283 Imperative. Imperfect. Present to be ashamed.fill' 451. 2. 3. f^r and . 2.

Potential.284 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. to hold. Preeent. gr to abandon assumes the forms irfg. * ' forms are oT 5T and Paradigms. singulars are ~^ff and ^rf^ respectively. Present.or ^ff before consonantal weak terminations except in the Pot. to place. 2. ^becomes ^T before Par. ' to go. 2. 1. weak terminations. 3. . ' 35 Par. Imperfect. before *r. 3. Imperuti vt> tsr. Imperative. to go ( a ) jrr and 51 vowel ^erminatioDS and ' r assume the forms fti^ and <JL f*ffT before fifrfr "d fjr^r before consonantal ter- minations. ^T and drop their arr after rednplication ?j. *ft optionally shortens its vowel before consonantal weak terminations. . vq-f 452. 454. The Imp. 2 sing. ' ' >sn P. 453. and fpr before vowel terminations and those of the Pot. 1. [ 451-464 far. cf and The 2 per. takes radical is it* Guna substitute before all terminations and the not gapated before vowel strong terminations. A.

2. 2. . 5. 9.454 CONJUGATION OF VERBS 285 2. aj is similarly conjugated. Imperative. v. Imperfect. 3. * Present. ' to cleanse. P. A. PflMnfta/. 3. Imperfect. 3.r The forma it of 57 will be obtained by changing to qr wherever occurs. 1. 1. 3.

Potential. iqqf^ fqq4: f^rf atfqq: * See 394.. . P^ to fill. 3.P. f. 1.. fqsifcr Potential.ftqf8 I%T: Imperative.286 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB [.454 Imperative. Present. 'top^tect. 2. fill/ Imperfect. to Present. ftqfir 3. to protect/ Imperfect. 2. 2. 3. 1. 3. . 1. similarly.* Conjugate f^ P2 A.

Potential. Imperfect. Pretent. ITOlfa 2. ft^m ira: ft^-T: mR: l^JST ft& ' i&A I%H'4 ftw ft*i^ /mpcr/^cf. P. fWift 3 fwft Imperative. s to hold. 2. ' ? *ft P. A. 1. Potential. . ft*WTft ftw^ 13*RUT 3.454 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. *. 2. to maintain. 3. 287 Imperative. 1. 1. to fear.

A. 2. 3. ' Imperfect ft*/l*f^ 9TTflfR 2. Imperative. 2. 3. [ 454 3. Imperative. wfi5^ . fitersnn fojiNsp^ ftjfi^n* . fift fifrfal ' to measure. 1. 3. Potential. . 1. ' to pervade. Present. 3. HT A. to sound.288 SANSKRIT GRAMMAK. Potential.

3. i. Potential. O 19 . TT. 189 Imperfect. 3. ' ^T P. 3. Present. 2. Potential. 3. i. 1. Imperative. 1 2.464 ] CONJUGATION OP VBBBS. fl. to abandon ' Imperfect.

455. In the case of the root ^ is changed to % before consonantal strong terminations. Imperfect. . In this class the base is formed by inserting ?r between the radical vowel and the final consonant before the strong and j before the weak termii*ations. H^iiPi Potential. Imperative. 3. Ioperative. [ 455*456 Seventh or ^m? Class. ^^:. 456. Present. ar^ . Paradigms. &c. 2. BR^TR 3.290 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. ( b ) ( a ) The original nasal of a root is dropped. 2. Present. ^g^ f? E^ > |^n^^ &c. See 20 ( a ) . A. f 3T$ P. * Also f^. Potential. ~x to anoint/ &c. 1. 3. Imperfect. ' ' to anoint.

Imperfect. Pre. and P. to play. ^ A. 2. Imperative. Potential. A. 3. to break. A. 1. &c. ' to ' kill. to suffer pain. ^g. to spin. g7ff% 3rd.P.456] CONJUeATION OP VBBB8 391 SP[ P. A. A. of ff^. . 3. to ^ %^ %^ know. to kill. surround. of gR . P. 1. to shine. A. to disregard. ' to ' pound. Pro. consider. 1. to cnt. 3. to P. should be similarly conjugated. 3*3. P. ^orf?r 3 sing. Present. P. Present. A. to be wet. Imperfect. to P. P.

' to join. 3. 3 Imperfect. TOg ffeH. f%T: fte ff^f^cl 2. . g^ir gp5(: 333*: gir 2. ' Imperfect. 3^. fin% 3. fife. Present. ftr P. Imperative. 2. Potential. %^ to distinguish should be similarly conjugated. \ . 3. Present.292 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. ffafe ffe: Imperative. ' fi^ ' fif2IRl. [ 456 2. P. 1. A. 3. Potential. fW'. ffaft? ' to grind.

35391^ Conjugate similarly 7*57^ P' to brfiak ? ' A OT p * to eB i7 ' ' . . to eat/ (%^ P. ' P. Imperative. 3^ 3f11 Potential. to evacuate Imperfect.3. 3. Potential. to ramble/ 4 and fir P ' to avoid. A.5<5] CONJUGATION OF 293 Imperative. ' to shake. 1. .

' to A. &c. ^aiT: 3.. 1. fczm P. ^IJ Potential 1.' ' ^ . siw^ Imperative. * Or ^r. ^TOl 5*an^ 2. see note p. Conjugate similarly ' contract and is to touch. 3W*TO 3. < to separate/ <fo^ P. [ 456 2. 290 .294 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. Imperfect. A. ^B. 2. 'to obstruct/ Present. 3.

Imperative. ' . 458.in the case of certain roots. 2. 3. . Potential 1. 295 to ' kill. GENERAL OB NON^OONJUGATIONAL TENSES AND MOODS. II. derived roots and roots of the 10th class are always Set. 457. and those that do not. Present. e. e. ( b ) Oi all in the following couplet monosyllabic roots ending in a vowel those given ( Karika ) are Set and the rest Anit. ). such as take it optionally are called ^ Wet ( 3T+TC. Imperfect. i. In the General Tenses and Moods and in the formation of verbal derivatives generally. roots ending in long 37 and long ^. 2. ( a ) Roots of more than one syllable. with f ). Such roots as take the augment f necessarily are called S*t (^T+f^t. the roots 5.456-458 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. e. . are called Anit ( 3*3+ without f ). the augment f is prefixed ( necessarily or optionally ) to terminations begin- ning with any consonant except q.

( e ) f^r i <d) The following roots are Wet: their * The following qouplet give the endings of these roots and number in each: ' The first line the students to know gives the ending consonants and thus enables at once which root is Set and which is Anit. 6. monosyllabic roots ending in a vowel are Anit). one. Of monosyllabic roots ending in a oonsonant the following 102 are Anit\ and the remaining Set. one ( being the first consonant ) in number.3.S fa*r are Set ( ft. e. 0. . . *fc3. all cl. [ 458 P.296 SANSKRIT GBAKMAB. fIX. ( being the 6th consonant ) . g. The second line gives the number in of roots ending in a particular consonant. roots ending in are i. ^ ^ roots ending ^ ^ in ^are ^ w ^ t. in number and so j on. Thus roots ending are t. 0. ^^may be at once known to be a set root as ^ does not occur in the first line. A. cl. and ? V. excepting these. A.

Neither Oupa nor Vrddhi is substituted for the vOWel of a few roots of the 6th class even before a strong termination except the 37 of the 1st and 3rd person sing. 3^ and for themselves and ^ respectively. 4 A. Also the roots ft 6. and 1 aft are to be treated as roots ' ending in 3ft. * ' Roots of the tenth class preserve their anq^( i. the 3TO of the causal and the f of th<? 3rd pers. and ^ ^ preserve their oonjngational bases optionally. the present learned S'astri at the Poona Training College. to throw '. 462. A. 'to perish/ before a termination causing to adhere or cling to changes ita vowel to srf nnder the same circumstances. substitute js*. r^r. optionally Gopa or Vrddbi- sft 9 P. of the Passive * These couplets as Well as those bearing on the 2nd variety of the Aoriat are composed by Mr. ^. sing. *. undergoes before 461. 463. Roots ending <?. 'to kill/ and gfr 4. q^c. The roots TO g^ . Chintamana Atmlram Kelker. of the Perfect.458-463 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. . A. fr 9 P. it in the general tenses. 3W with the final 3? dropped ) with all the changes that the root 460. ft^. 297 Hi/3 HiJld *iit} '* <r5w **<i<l ii ^ it In V STTn " 11 n H H u II 5 II 459. ^. A.

298
These are
a
*

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

[

463-169

Aorist.

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

6W more not

often to be

met with.

464.

The root

9^ assumes the forms ^TSJ; and H^ in the
^^
3^

Non-conjugational Tenses.

and is changed to ^ 465. The penultimate ^r of before a consonantal strong termination in the General Tenses..
466.

The intermediate f
The
roots <\ft 2

is

weak in

the case of the root

f^C

6.

A.

7 P.- and optionally so in the case of 3^5.

to go r do not take Guna or Vrddhi before any termination. They also drop their final vowel before the intermediate f and 3. ^HST a ^ so

467.

A.

<

to shine

>

and %^r 2 A.

its 3fT before a non-conjugational termination except in the Desiderative and the Aoriet where it retains it optionally.

drops

THE Two FUTURES AND CONDITIONAL.
( 1 )

First Future (

g^)

ALso called Periphrastic Future.
468.

Terminations:

Paraam.
1. cfff^T*

Atm.
319?:

^q:
^I^T:

1.

^
cllf^

2. cnr% 5.
ciT

^n^i

2. 31% 3. ^T
5IR:

31%

3R:

469.

To

these terminations the

augment f is prefixed in the

* The forms of the First Future may be derived by adding to Nom. sing, of the noun of agency derived with the affix <j the forms of the Present Tense of the root 3^ to be in tne lst and 2nd persons. The forms of the Nom. are the forms of
the
*
'

the 3rd pen.

469-475

]

CONJUGATION OF VERBS,

299

case of Set roots, optionally in the case of fixed at all in that of Anit roots.

Wet

roots,

and not

470.

All these terminations are strong.
therefore

The

final

vowel

and the penoltimate short of a root substitute before these.
471.

take their

Gupa

Anit roots with a penultimate change it to ^ opa before termination strong beginning with any contionally sonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel; ^r-^nftRlT, MHIKW & c

^

P. A.

'

'

to give &c.,

2. 3.
ft

2.
^Rfltt

3.
'

P.

A.

carry &c.
:

&o.

A.

IRREGULAR BASES.
472.

The

roots

f^,

*$

I

A.,

optionally in the First Future;

e. g. 1 sing.

^,

fi^ and

^ admit

inHll7n,

473.

when

in the First Future and cFtf is optionally Parasm. so it rejects f ^qRTTf , <fe<MI$i ^g^l^R 1 sing. &c.
:

is long in all Non474. The augment f as added to conjugational Tenses, except in the Perfect} ir^T(nf?JT 1 sing.

^

475.
case of

The intermediate % is optionally lengthened in the and roots ending in ^ except in the Perfect, the

^

?

300
^enedictive Atm.

SANSKEIT GBAHHAB.
and the Aorist Par.
ing.

[

475-480

476.

before which

when
to

inserted before the ending consonant of the root it dropped, and after the vowel of JT^, they are followed by any consonant except a nasal or a

n if

^

aemi-TOwel;

inp

&c.; ^CT, srftnTT.

The

^ of irf^
<

is

changed

^

when not dropped.
TT is substituted for

477
before

3T^

1 P.

to go

9

necessarily

optionally before such as begin with any consonant except $r, %fTT,

any

non-con jugational

termination, and

)

Second Future

(

^
:

)

nd

(

3

)

Conditional (

^

Terminations of the Second Future:

Parasm.

Atmtr*.

1. ^nfif*

^?Rt

WW

1.

2.
3.

479.
JL

Terminations of the Conditional:
^*4i*i

^*ij|
'W*
^^^F

\^n*i

*
^2.

x*r

ju*

WM*^

^*in

O

Q

of a root when fol480. ^ is substituted for the ending lowed by any non-conjugational termination beginning with 3.

^

* These terminations,
those of the Present to
*T

it will

be seen, are obtained by adding
its 3T

fir

with

lengthened before initial

and *, and dropped before a vowel.
f

the Imperfect to

These are obtained similarly by adding the terminations of <*r the usual rules of Sandhi beiag observed.

481-484

]

CONJUGATION or VERBS.

301

481. f is to be prefixed, or not, or optionally to the terminations given above, according as the root is Set or Ami or Wet. Before the terminations the final vowel and the penultimate short take their Guiia substitute. 482.

In the Conditional the augment

&

19

prefixed to the

root as in the Imperfect.

Paradigms.
Second Future

5T?55 P.
1. 3?pnft
2.

9
1. 2.

P.I A.

SIWK
siW'

3R3J%

ww WT

jwnv
wrf^J

3.

TOra

3.

Conditional.

1.
2. SRT^T:

ww^i

QTWRT

2.

3.

IRREGULAR BASKS.
admit f in the 48S. ifH P. 5^[ and Anit roots ending in Second Future and the Conditional; ro P. ( also that substi' to remember ' ) also admits tuted for f < to go and with

^

3^

*

it

in the Desidorative;
1.

Fu.

sing,

nfoqTW, fH^HW, ^f^nftr, &c. Sec.. ammwr*, 3T^f^T^, 3*5R*n*, &c. Con. 1. eing.

roots ^r, a-^, ?vj, 3T>i and ^?| optionally take in the Second Future, Conditional terminations Paras maipada and the Desiderative. They reject the auement f whei Parac-

484.

The

maipadi;

302

SANSKBIT GBAMMAB.

[

484-487

Fat.

sing.

Good.

4*. The roots ^^ ^, ^r, when followed by an ardhadhatuka
nation
)

^
(

and

^take f

Non-conjugational

optionally tenni-

beginning with

^ except
f with

in the Aorist;

Oond &c
486.

In the case of

tnted for

f

arft, in is optionally substu in the Oonditional and the Aorist. ^ is substituted

for the final vowel of the verbs 51 3 P. A. 1 P. *r, ^t^,^, WT, and WIT, ITT ( substituted for f 2. P and 9 with grft, ) qr, ft,
^ft

before a consonantal
ITT

weak termination. All terminations

added to

substituted for

f

are weak.

Paradigms.

2.

3.
1. 2.

3.
487.
roots of

We give below the first pers.
more
difficult

sing,

of some

of the
find

conjugation.

The student should

out the various rules by which he should arrive at them. Boots.
1st Future.

2nd Future.

Conditional.

487]
Boots.

CONJUGATION OP VKBBS.

303

First Future.

Sec. Future.

Conditional.

3

2.

P.

*

ft

ft*

^

804
Boots

SANSKBIT GBAMMAB
1st Future.

[487
Conditional.

2nd Future.

TO to dwell

Wet

roots:

IK

31

* For

the change of 3T to

art

in

this

and in

it.-note p. 317.

487

]

CONJUGATION OF v EBBS.

305

Boots 1st Future

2nd Future

Conditional.

d.

* Bee

ft.

note p. 320.

f

See

ft.

note

p.

323. J

^

is

set in the

2nd Fat. and tim Condi.
H. 8. G. 20,

306

SANSKUIT GRAMMAR.

[

487-493

P. A.

&

^

P. are similarly conjugated.

5ftGicii(*H

similarly conjugated.

488.

There are two kinds of Perfect, Reduplicative and

(/) THE PERFECT \/

Periphrastic.

489.

The Reduplicative

Perfect is formed of

all

mono-

syllabic roots beginning with consonants, as well as of those short. beginning with the vowels 37 or a^r, And f9 ^, and

^

Exceptions

^gr,

gw, ^r^,

3TT^. These take the Periphrastic

Perfect necessary.
490. The Periphrastic Perfect is formed of all roots beginning with any vowel except 3? or SH which is naturally or prosodially long, and of roots of more than one syllable ( roots

of the 10th class and other derivative roots included
tions:

5)1$

491.

). Excepwhich take the Reduplicative Perfects. The roots ^, fi^, 5TTO, >ff, ft, f , ^, and ^ftsrr take

&1> d

*fe-oi%

both the perfects.

THE REDUPLICATIVE PERFECT.
492.

*

down

in

The root is 444-449.

reduplicated according to the rules

laid

493.

Terminations.

Parasmaipada.

Atmanepada.

493-497

]

CONJUGATION OF VERBS.

307

tr

31335

3T

%
^
singular terminations
are strong;

3. 3T

3T^[

3^

494.

The Parasmaipada
its

the rest weak.

Before the strong terminations the penultimate

hort vowel takes

Gnna

substitute.

The

final

vowel and

penultimate

at

take Vrddhi
first

necessarily

in

the third and

optionally in the

person singular.

In the

2nd person

singular the final vowel takes

Guna and

the penultimate 3f

remains unchanged.
495.
ate
(

f
a

*8peoial rules about the admission of the intermedibefore the terminations*, *, *, %, *fc jff, *; see (457 )i

)

and g, 5,

All roots, whether set or anit, except , 3, JT, ^, and 9 admit It before admit f . Bat ^ with

g

^

^

,

before
(
)

Anit roots ending in short ^g except as ^rfini f fom ^; but arrf^I from J
1

,

reject it

^

.

Anit roots with a
it

final

vowel or with a penultimate

gr

admit

optionally before 9.

496.

When

initial

f or

gr

of a root takes

Guna or Vrddhi

substitute, the reduplicative f or ^ is changed to otherwise the two vowels combine to form long

f^
j

or

3^;
as

or

3:

497.

The

final 3-,

short or long, is changed to
q-

^r

before a

vowel weak termiation and f to fv or

as it is

preceded by a
1

conjunct consonant or not; as f^+f9r=^[f^Rr

dnal;

vn.

2

is.

Kau

308

SANSKRIT GBAMMAE.

[

498-502

498.

Boots ending in

3TT

take

aft

instead of 3T in the 1st

and 3rd

per. sing, and drop their final an before vowel weak terminations, and before such as take the augment f as

1st Per.

^^nr, ^f^r

2.

Per. sing, o

499. Gupa is substituted for the final vowel of roots ending in ^ preceded by a conjunct consonant, and in long sg and 5TTOt fl s ^qrr^ 1 dual of ^, &c. and of the roots 3^,
CT,

? and

weak

optionally take the GuDa substitute before the terminations, and shorten their vowel when they do not*
q*

^^

dual of
500.

CT,

&c.

Monosyllabic roots, having a short 3? for their penultimate, change it to <r and drop the reduplicative syllable
before the

weak terminations and before
letter
1st dual
.

q-

when

it takes

fr

provided their initial
reduplication,
g.

^

undergoes

no change

in

the

2 sing, 5fT%sr, 3731^4
as the 3f here is

qfasi 2nd dual of of ^r^, but 3Rff33T prosodially long.
2, sing,
q-

^at+^zr^+fq-^KTsr,

Exceptions:

Roots beginning with

and the roots

and

^.
501.

^ is

inserted after the

case

of roots

beginning with
thai- oi
is
'

3?

reduplicative syllable in the and ending in a conjunct
'

consonant and in

373^

to

pervade
3TT5

and 3T^

'

to go. r
--

The

reduplicative sr
of

changed to

315^- 3T3T;>^+ 31=3?

-f

3T=3TR^j
a

similarly

3n^f
its'

1 sing,

of

502.

The change of

semi-vowel to

corresponding

vowel

is

called Sampraaarana.

Samprasaraoa generally takes

place before weak terminations in the case of the following * to dwell, > % sq-, |^, f^, roots *^[, *nj, cr*, ^5, *^, fqr, and 5^. In the case of the \?m wsr , ir^, iP^[, 2T^ and , 9 form an exception. Perfect the roots *re, ff*

^

5^,

^^,

503-504
503

]

CONJUGATION OF VBBBS.

309

Before the strong terminations of the Perfect Samprasarana takes place in the reduplicative syllable only. In this case the initial conjunct consonant of a root is reduplicated as
it is
;

t.

a,

( a

The vowel following the Samprasarana is dropped. ) 504. The roots that reject f altogether in the Perfect
>

P. A.

'

to

do

'

2.
3.

Conjugate similarly 3,

and
*,

^

tMCcept in the

2nd per. sing.

which

is

^?^.
But
With

2.
3.

Pan.

VI.

1.

137139.
<rR

5

is

prepositions *tq and

when
'

^ M rM r prefixed to the root ^ after the it means to ornament or collect
i
i

together ; and after the preposition OT in the above sense, as well as in the senses of imparting an additional quality to a

thing without destroying the thing itself ( ^t 3WI*NWf MM<4M: Kas. on Pan. H. 3. 53. ) or preparing as food, or supplying

what
f

is

implied.
5R is

7

The

changed to GuDa as

consonant

now ( Vide

preceded by a conjunct 499. Sid. Eau. on Pan VII. 1. 10-11. )
it is

of 2nd per. pi of the terminations <fr^, t^, and J of the Benedictive, the Aorist and the Perfect, is changed to ^
tj

The

^

when preceded by any vowel except

37

or an or by

*r, r^, c^,

^

or 5.

When

the intermediate f is added, this change is optional, if the f be preceded by one of the consonants given above.

310

SANSKRIT GBAHHAB.

[

504-606

^

P. A.

3. gsra

Conjugate similarly f, f , g. 505, Boots that admit ?
(

1 )

Set roots ending in a vowel.

^
1. 2.
3.

9.

A.

c

to choose.
1.

'

33R-TO

^fe
33^:
35Rg:

3^$
33^

^
atdR &c.
'

33%
33R
*J, ^,

2.
3.

33$

^ &c. are similarly
'

conjugated; a3Trc-ft9!T>

^

9 P.

to tear,

'

&c.
1.

^
2.

2 P.

to sharpen.

1. 5RIR

'W^

9Riitn

3.

5R1R

SRRs

^RR:

3.

^
Oonjngate similarly

is similarly

conjugated

? and
'

<.
'

^
1
.

2 P. A.

to warble, to go,

&c.

2.
3.

J^l

3H:

^^

2. 3.

R

^5:

^:
5
P.

Conjugate similarly

3P

$05

]

CONJUGATION OF VERBS.

311

tft

2 A.

'

to

lie

down.'

P. A.

'

to resort 1

to.'

2 ffofto i%i^: 8 I&TO ftf^:

\Ww
fii&g:

2

3
:

(2) Anit roots ending in a vowel

?T 1. P. A.

'

to give.'

1

^

^3
^^:

3$$

1

^

2 ^PT-^T

^

2

P. 'to sing/

2
3
5i

51*13:

513:

All other roots ending in
conjugated.

&

3TT>

7,

q",

and

aft

3rd per. ^?ft, 5^$:, ^v^:.
c

3[t

are similarly 'to cut' 3rd per.

2 P. 2
3

to go.'

f

1 P. 'to go' is regular;
*

f^rrir-^

fftw

tf*frf

&c.

f

1. 2,

P.

4 A.

to go

'

takes the peri. per/.

312 SANSKRIT GRAMMAS [ 505 ?ft P. ' to throw. Atm. P. itm. ' to destroy/ 3 f^ig: ftig: * 3 to adhere. ' to be able/ . See & 'to lie down above.' ft 5 P. r to carry.' Far. 3 i%3Rf.' 1. fe ( fe^rg: i^g: Like 3 ) Anit roots ending in a consonant: 5 P. 4 A. A.' ft 1 9. 9 P. ' ^T. P. ' to remember. P. A. to melt/ /\ Par. A.

. A. 3 IS . g^ ^ft* 1 sing.99% 99^ A.ft 3. P. to toft g^ 6 1. 7. A. P.. 2 sing. 7.. A.. CdDJngate fl^ 5^ 6 P. 'to separate/ purge/ l. 7. &c.. t fr^ P. f|r^[ f%%^ 1 sing! f^ftM^i dual 5 i%frl%*r 2 sing. A. 3 7. similarly . A. P. f%^ 6. P. and others P. P. P. 99^ 99^ 3.505 ] CONJUGATION OP VBBBS. A. &c. 'to release/ 1- 9^^ ggfo? 2. 'to 1 P. gsj. A. 3ftfef 99^5: 2. g^ having f or *f for their penultimate. 'to cook/ tot % 99^ 99^ 991 : 2.. A. 3. A. 'to abandon/ . 'to ask/ 2 8 1 P.

'to go. Q^ 1 . A. P. P. A. A. 'to fry. P. P. 'to cut' 2 3 Pj-f^*( I^F^i^: ftP^ ftf^: 2 3 i%^ ftf^<^'- q^ 4. 'to see/ should be COD jugate d like 7. 1 6. ^^fir^r. 2 tra&r 3 ^RR ^5T: ^1^. 6. A. ^ 1.814 SANSKEIT GEAMMAB. 'to break or to destroy/ . [ 506 7 P. P. 'to decay/ .^13: ^5f 2 3 ^^^ SST^l.' 1 3 4.

. A..... P. P.. P. ' 1.* A.. to afflict. . -%nr^-^Tr^ 2 P.605] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. 99^ 6. P. 2 iing. P.' 2 3 . 9 P.. ^fifa 1 2 3 ^Dff^r ^ra*j: w% wig- 2 3 ^5j and ^^x are similarly conjugated. $pr P. 1 P.. TOi^fa 9 ^^ 6. ^ %m^-^^^ * sfg 2 sing. m* *C A. to bind ' 2 fV 5.. < to go.. 2 sing. < to dance g^ A. A. sing. 1 P.. P. to rejoice. ' * to touch. similary. P. 3 99^ 1.' P. 1.. ^ ^ ^ P.. ' ^ ' P. to drop |^. to grow. > cTFT 1 A < to salute. < to be glad. to accomplish. 3 <& " Conjugate *. w? ( ^n^: 4 ) Set roots ending in a consonant.

1 P. ' to give. 3TR% P' STffif ' to worship. A. ' to be crooked. to acqnire ' &c.j i-^pnw. cr^l. P. . [ 505-506 2 3TRf?*T 9TW%: W*t ' 2 '3 3 3TR^ 1. 1 to dwell/ * Roots of the 3?^ class ( see 463 ) retain their vowel un- changed option ally in the 1st pers. 2. ' ^JT^: ^?T ^9*.816 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. IfraT 2 ^TCT 3 ^fe 506. sing. as a substitute for 5r may also be conjugated in At* f ^ . 1 Per &c. ' 33^: ' 3 P. of the Perf. 3f2g : 3f2 595: ( 2 3 regular and irregular 5f2^: Roots taking ^TKTqrKOl 1. ' to speak. P. to throb. ' to vomit. 3 3TH 9TR3: 3JR1: ' 3 g^ 2 ^Rffiw 3 ^TH 6. ' ^5^ 6. ^ 2 A. A. to go. P. ' ' to flash forth ' to cheat. SR^ 1. 5 ^?T3l *l<j: ^: 3 ' ' t 1. 'to worship. 1st sing. P.

OT? 2 3 6. P. A. P. 4 : ^ -KJ: ' 3>^3: 2 3>[^ 3 3>^ 35^13? 3J^IrT 3jf^E[ 3rf^ to sleep. 4= . 3^: 5: ( 33% A. 'to grow old/ 2 s**?q*r 9^3: 95^'. P. in some senses ). by 416.506 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. 'to speak/ 2 33I^T 3 33T^ ^3 2.' 2 Sqffa-S^ 3 3^rq 3ftg: 3?? 353: 2 3 ^^5: 1. 3. A. 3ST 2 P. 'to deceive/ 'to surround/ *When the ? substituted for the sr is dropped. 'to carry/ 2 3 3qif 1. 317 2 3 1. the preceding =:.3-5t? ?r of the roots and ia changed to &\ and not to an: ^ ^ + *r. 3 S^i^ 53' q^2. 'to sow seed. P. to desire. sg^ P. P.

' ( Regular ).-818 SANSKRIT QEAMMAB. and or before the weak terminations of the Perfect. %( 13*RT 3^? * Irregular ). [ j$ 506 9. 'to swell. A. P. 'to pierce/ 1. ^ . A.' P. P. before the strong. 'to take. f % optionally assumes the form 3^9. ft it to be optionally considered as |f in the Perfect.

7. &c. f necessarily before consonantal terminations except 2 sing. to contract. ^ and ^ admit ^T. 797 6 P. %: - 3 A. ..' 1 2 ^i^T 3 ^P5 is aerag: ^cW 2 clcreg: ^55: 3 similarly conjugated. 'to call.' 1. 'to shrink.3O < 506-508 ] CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. 508. 'to cut. P. 1 dual. ^f -^rprir^ 5^11. weak ones in the Perf f "jj strong terminations and ffi\ before is to be considered as 5 in the Perf . * *he oq- becomes f^sqr^ before . ^vftsqr 2 sing. of ^. 919 ^> 3^2? 393: 3J: 3 g^T r\ ^* 2 3 f^|4( Hsjjg: P. A.' 507. Wet roots: Ttie roots *j.

to anoint.' 2 3 R^ ra%^: T%%|: 4. srar 7. tq^and ^insert a uasal when' their final is followed by a vowel. 'to be wet/ ?RF 1. f 8ee * . P. [ g 508 . r-^. to purify.' 4. c to be TT is similarly conjugated. except in the Perf. 3 to destroy. P. P. P. SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. P. does not do it in the Aorist or when ii takes f. 471. to be able.920 2.' T%^ 1 P 2 3^=^ 1.' 1 2 3 4 P. however. A f to distil.

21. P. S. G. 476. Roots ending in q change j- 'to ^ when followed by ^ or t See. P. RI^STjJ: ra%5j: P. H. 351 . 'to pervade/ ' '. * Sea 512. .508] ' CONJUGATION OP VERBS. to be afflicted/ ^ 3 ' 4. ' to forgive. A. fcrperish. 1 5. A. to forgive/ 1.' ^ with ^^ 1 9. to tear. P. to be ashamed/ $m ' 4. A. ' to occupy. 3 T^'SI . to expeL' pare' should be similarly conjugated.

f to kill 2 cl^l: 33*3 3 ^| 4. P. A. takes the Periphrastic Per! .322 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. P. . ? or 3 is hsn> thrived. * to hurt. A. * to take/ A. P. to kill/ <S 6. ^83: ' ^|: 3 to bear malice. ' to conceal/ 3 ^J5 c gg^: 6. A.508 1. ' to enter/ 1. the preceding *r. A. [ . to kill/ When^or i^is 6feppe<3.' ^ ^ 6. P. 1. is Set and should be conjugated as such. lap * 3 P. in? 10 P.

and drop their nasal optionally before the terminations of the Perfect. obey 500. gfTT%^r. even before the strong terminations -when their ^f^ nasal is dropped. 509. !I^T <W. &c. 323 similarly conjugated ftQ*r 58Ra I dual. 3 is to bfr similarly conjugated. f*w. ^wfifa-^W 2nd ^ 1 daal ' 4.sing. The roots sr?*r. ' to love. is %f is similarly conjugated sing. . 3T?gr. . 5KTC. 3 wr * to T&e final f of th roots j^. <grt. gf T^T^ . P. IRREGULAR BASES. gRt*ST .508-509 ] CONJUGATION OP VE*BS. and ^g^ is changed q or 9 when followed by any consonant except a nasal or a )i vowel or by nothing.

* ^. ^^H: =^P5^: =^1 2 3 ^^: v^ is optionally substituted for aq^ in the Perfect. ^P^ and dropped before vowel weak terminations except those of the 2nd variety of the Aorist. A. P. . the ^ of ^j is then changed to 7 and 3Tt( and become 5^ and ^respectively. 5^[ > 3T^ .324 SANSKRIT GRAMMAK. The a? of the roots inr . 2 3 ^^i ^n^ 511. ^ 1 2 snrftsr WR^: smr 2 3 3HP*4 o ^PTTJT ^IH: ^n: Conjugated in the 2 3 ^^ sfUfsT ^ft^ ^fft? Perf.. as a substitute ^ ^ffiB of 91 which see. [ 509-511 2 is $0.

with 3?q. P. ' ^^ and ^^ optionally obey ? gj. 4 to qnr. te bear fruit. to cross. 4. 1 P. ^. ' * Vide 515 f ^<^>?3T5fTai 4. ^ P. to go. 2 3 4. ' ^ it means 1. to wander. ^ and n^ when X ^T?r. and T53[. ' 3 . 'to serve. P. cf^ offend or to injure' necessarily. 500. I Pan VI. 1 ' &c 2 3 5. ' ^[ 1 ' 1.511-612 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 825 512 f The roots ^. qqfj A. < to be old. q^j 1 P. ^^. P. 122-125. .

and the Desiderative. P. . to shine.' ^3W 1. & 1 1*1" I W I5^FT 2 . 1% and ff are respectively changed to f*T and f^* and f% optionally to %. [ $rT5T> 513 T forms its base irregularly as 414. A.' 3 TT^ aTe to be similarly conjugated.326 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ' to sound. after the reduplicative syllable in the Perf. [ 512-514 2 1.

319.' 3 516. f to go weak terminations ' ' lengthens its reduplicative . before the For the forms 517. its base as 37153. 3R: 3T^. p. 325. 37^ forms 476. The base of f with 3tfr ' to study > is 2 3 518.514-518 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. 827 2 3 515. 311. 3f an d scfr admit f necessarily before 37. 'to go. 3JK aflfa arife? For 3^ and s^ see p. see p. Its vowel it not gnnated before a strong termination when is optionally takes f. * See f See 477 .

328 SANSKRIT GP. rarr and 7^7 are optionally substituted for ^r^in the Perfect. and necessarily in the other Non-con jugational tenses. Par. Atm. 2 3 519.AMMAB. . Atm. and cf^rr take both the Padas. [ 518-519 Par.

<ft is. ar Tg. j see k 525. grow . 526. assumes the form (533 f^T? 523. . PERIPHRASTIC PEBPKOT. f%>^ 1 ftftir 2 per. substituted < for c^ 'to 1 sing. 1 sing.5 520-527 520. fat' > in the Perfect pi. fltffcjsfy protect' asstimes as its base the 1 sing. y 527. the final vowel and the penultimate short substitute. f^- rafor&-| 2 The syllable in the Perfect root scng tak^s Samprasarana in the reduplicative f%sq-F 1 & 3 sing. 522. $( 2. a Parasmaipadi root takes the Parasrnaipadi forms and an Atmanepadi one takes the Atmanepadi forms. ftifc. Ho in the Perfect. forf^fty sing. 1 to obey. and in the Frequenfative 524. A. ^i after reduplication %ia<* 2 sing. For the forms of ft^.. ' to praise/ .' fKA fcflWfc 2 521. &e. form 2 pi. and dual. A. 3if^ added. A. ^ 1. when the forms of ^. prefixed to vowel 329 q^ifl < weak terminations in the case of ft 4. The Periphrastic Perfect is formed by adding 3U*T to the root and then adding the forms of the reduplicated Perfect ot& or as terminations . except that of f^ take their Gun a Paradigms. ftftnft-| . 466. J CONJUGATION OP VERBS. Before 3tre( .

aJltlHJb^:. . &c. are similarly conjugated ' to give. 'P.' 2 ^i3 ^?FI is similarly conjugated. 'to bum. an^itjttig:. P. &c. sfNi^i. &C.' . 3fl 3?^: > &C. 3ftafa3F>. &c. i3 similarly conjugated. &C. &c. &c. &c. . [ 527 frta* frtart 3 &c. 'to know/ .330 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. sri^t^f^.

or qot or f5^^Tm^TT> ( &c. ft^r . ?^f^r. 831 2 . &C.5 527-528 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 1 sing. &C. ftfea-- f^TRRT. &C. 1 sing- ftfif^. &C. fHgr qrir or ^qnrt^n^T. to awake. ^S^Tt ?lmMW2 eing. f^i^ &C. are first ^emirtw &c. 'JT^T. ^pRWTg:. . 1 fing. &c. fifcWflS'. 2. fir &C. snifWTKR. ft^WW^:. qurNM^H 7araN^f according to Bopadeva ) &Q. &C. &C. &C. &c. ft^Rf^f^. dual. &C. or 3?R(T or 628. &c. &C. P. .' . ^firtlTO. 3 fiN f. ftw!^^:. &C. 5^. ' &C. ft.. &c.- P. When 3ttn is added to the roots -ft 3. w and ^ they reduplicated as in the third conjugation} g. ^rncwRi?!:. 5IWWRQ:. &c. ^sTHRmw. . &C. 3RRR^: . 'to fear/ fwr . &c. TO~ ^PftTt *Tt<TT*Ji'c<*K. &c. &C. 1 sing. &c. ftwf^ &C. fl?3: WWl^fR. rai^m 2 ft*jftr. fi'*?^^: &C. ^fr^ ifniM!^*HF. 1 sing. t e.

&C. 1%^f 1 sing. ^ti Paradigms.9 of the Aorist. t* takes roots 97. except that of third person plural is wlrch g: 3 531. ?Tt P. f^lfa^g: &C. ^f ^f. 1. ^SJT. the Third Form also.*ft> ^ take this nd *ft Tho optionally. There are seven Varieties or Form.' f^W T. belong to this Variety They optionally take the Sixth Form. 530. 629. &c. TOT. ^. ^!TT. ). as The terminations of the First Variety are the same those of the Imperf. 2 &C. <l The 459 radical 3fr is dropped before } 3^.. l%qH^:. &o. !%3fa$. ( 6 ) THK AORIST ^. . and roots assuming the forms of %\ and cIT ( Vide 533. Variety. fiH*r*OTT-*^-nRnr sing. P. sr is perfixed to The augment the root as in the Imperfec f First Variety or Form. Tf 'to drink 7 and \j. &C.SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. :. &C. . &c. 532. to be ashamed. ' [ 528-633 gt 3 P.

. 3rd per. a^j. short or long.-. Par. i^wbenAtm. 3TTTTR 1st substituted for f in tbe Aorist ' 3*irn*. W*$* 1st pers. vn. . 2. takes tbe fifth and 536. dropped before ^jj. 3. ^r. the fourth Variety in tbe A tin. ITT is per. 3TCTT: 9WT^L 3rc*nfiUi aiwa arc^ 2. also take the The penultimate nasal of a root is dropped. s <* <m am. as ?l- . a final ^-. The roots fjj<r ft^. In this Variety 3? is added on to the root and then of the first the terminations of the Imperf. 535. and The radical vowel except 3T?rT and lengthened before 7 and IT. . ^ ^ ^ ia 2. Parasmaipada with a few exceptions and 3?^ 'to throw with a preposiand *g take this form in the Par. 540. group of conjugaAtm. such as tion. pi.. does not undergo The preceding Gupa or Vrddhi substitute. riz. 537. 3. . and tbe 35 of g^j. is ^. and . s?t This Variety with ^u ^qr. 3. . &c. . a^f* 3POT . ^ takes 3^ instead of g^ in the 3rd per. ^ with 3n\J 'to remember arwrnr.533-540 J CONJUGATION OF VERBS. Second Variety or Form.. and optionally in the Atm. the fourth. tional classes are added. in which they Fourth Form. arc*n^ 534. This Variety is exclusively Parasmaipadi. 833 2. changes 3TO?TC(> its vowel to ^[ before tbo vowel terminations g. 539. 3. take ^r with a^|% Atm. 3HI*. 538. and .^^.

. ( 542. . [ 541-542 541. 3 a . The roots giving the following couplets Karik&f belong to this Variety necessarily: u 1 u %[Rl: u t ^ I ii w ^i^ : u ^ u i nnri&: ^ft: n I ^ u Rr^^Rf^^^T : 3?%: tgf^: II X II U ^ II n * n u ^ n ^ i i n s u P. *$*rr. 3rd uing. with ^E A. &c. <T^. y. ^[ ? 5TTS. .334 SANSKRIT GBAMHAB. 1% and g *. and g. respectively-. The roots 3T^. become *.

< 335 3F 3 P. ( also that substituted for . srfeqcn wfa^ aifeq ( 2 3 Variety in the 3rfc5H^ * f&r. A.3 3rflR: aifiracP*. and Atm. 3 3ffc^ STPIH Tf^ 3 2. 3 to ' go 1 P. P. 3rft^ 2 3 BH%^ amRcn^ sjftR^ 1 2 3 orfeq: arfeqan. ) 2 .542 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. with 2 2 an*: 3n*craL 3n*3 3 9?R^ 3n^ sn^L I ' . 3 P. Par. A 2 . to go A. f%5 aud^ also take the fourth Atm) .

4. P. in the Atm. 'to covet' 4. to decay' to kill. to wallow/ ^g^j 3=rr%3r^ - rcr < 5W-4.' .' to be wet. 3fl%TT. takes the Fourth or Fifth Variety. We * give l>elow the 3rd per. takes the Fourth. 'tobeuDctuoiiB. withqft 1 anww 2 3H^T: 3TfWTq afl^KT ? 3 3nwr anwrr^ ajiwi. to melt t 6. 3T5rf% as well as the Fifth Variety. to be 3n^f?f 4. P. P. Roots. P. . P. ^q^J 3ffr$qi 4. 1 ^q: A P. 3rd sing. P. A. c TOT: --4. 3 of the rest. 1 A 4. 5. 4. to throw' 3fft^ P. A. ' to be oily. P. 3T$TrE. A. 6. ' - to kill 4.336 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. P.' 1 . < Roots. f ft^ sicg. A. 'to hurt' * 5T3? 4. P. 3T>f^ 3*d J gq^ takes the Fourth Form in the Atm. [ 542 . P. P. A. to collect. ' mr^: ^* 5 ' to perish. Ho prosper'- ijvr 4. P.' . ( 5. siog. P.

H. ^ ^ 5^ 4. 543. to release'- ' 3TO3T^ to fade away ' jj^ 4. 'to burn' 3?g^ 4.P. takes the Seventh Variety. to kill' arf^ra. to divide'~ roots belong to the 2nd Variety optionally. S. to direct' . 3TO( jre( 4. 'to strive' P. ' to embrace' ' 3*$^. P. 'to be angry or vexed' to spread same as fi^ same as ^ f( I through ^IT^ R^f ( 4. P. P.' arerjT^ P. to weigh. The following * fi^ Atm. P. 4. G. to be confused or ^ <qft- 4. JT^ 4. to be fMraty' 3^w^ 5 5^ 4. P. 'to < to be spoiled/ &c. P/to decay. to perish ^[ 4. P. P. 'fco be straight' ft^ 4. 22 . agitated. P.642-543 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. <to 3T^P1 3^r5T^ ^[ 4.to falP 3TCITO 4. to eat' - . P. ' to be thin 3T^T^ ' 1. c ^ choose' to go. P. . P. P. 1. P. P. P. P. 'to be dry' 887 3T5TR<* SJ* 4. P. to change form' [ 3T1^ ' 4. P. 'to cut ' 4. 'to injure. they optionally take the Fourth or Fifth Variety according as they are Auit or Set.

Optional forms. [ 543 II * II Boots. Optional forms 3? 313^. 3rd ting.aSS SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. 3rd sing. takes the Third and Filth Varieties besides the 2nd. . Boots.

3 sing. which are all Atmanepadi. Optional forme. In the Atmanepada they take the Fourth or Fifth Variety according as they are Asit or Set. \\ <\ : u H n n x n Boots. Optional forms. are conjugated in the Paraemaipada when they belong to this Variety. Optional forms. The following 25 roots. Ssing. 544. 3 sing. 339 Boots. 3 sing. Boots. Boots.54S-544 ] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. Optional forms 3? 3132^ .

) 3 sing. 545. and the roots qr and ft agent. Boots oi the tenth 547. class. fo-3Tf5rftr<r^ ( see p.340 SANSKBIT QKAIOCAB. Par. ( ^ Boots of the tenth Glass and Oansals: is ) The gnr of the base it ing place before being retained dropped ( the vowel changes tak) and a short vowel subati- . see 461 and )5 648.' Ac. 548. Terminations:as those of the The same 546. 'to go.are changed to fq^ and s^ before 3% and dropped. when it takes an^ . [ 645-648 THIBI VABIETT OB FOBM. b ) Final f and 3. g. 338. foot-note (% also takes 1st and 6th Varieties besides this ). do it optionally. and the roots the root qn^ f$r. A. 2nd Variety. cansals. and g when expressing the this take Variety necessarily. ( a ) The root is first reduplicated and then the aug- ment ( final aft is gx and the terminations are added as in the 2nd Variety. 2 3 Atm 3 also. fa P. Paradigms. some derivatives*.

B. is not lengthened is ^q r d=rq^qrd only. by a conjunct consonant followed by a syllable proeodially long. P. the consonant is reduplicated and 5. *rnnr ( Oau. modified is then reduplicated according to the general rules. : ( d ) To the base so prepared the augment ar is to be prefixed and the terminations added. ( ^f^( from f%O=%a=f%^=l%T%aL &C * I ) f is substituted for the 3T of the reduplicative syllable if ths syllable following it be short. B. ifof%^=^n%rj as it is followed -as q- *^-^=^=T%*^. yftftf%g from f%g. the f of the reduplicative syllable is lengthened if not followed by a long syll.. by this q^= . the second member of the conjunct redupU- . the f . & A. form in ft when not given should be supposed to be understood. Bases with initial vowels: and ends in a single con( a ) If a root begins with a vowel sonant. The Atm. . -of jj ) =*rre=*T*=5nr^ after so The base reduplication. 549.added to it in the reduplicative syllable: 3^=3T^= q[ t ( b ) If it ends in a conjunct consonant with ^ is or ^ for its first member. 3TMH^^dl-(T from from TV. and 541 tuted for the long one ( q- q- being shortened to f . and 3Jt and sft to ^ ). optionally the long * being changed to the short one 3^ ^&r=^ after dropping gjq. causal base Boots having a penultimate 35 short or long. ( c ) preserve it. as in the 2nd Variety: from ^.and 33. thu97H^=f^^=firvT7.. and not proeodially long. or a conjunct consonant.548-549 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS.

to wish/ *H. substitute .j similarly 3T <fl ( considered as g?^. provided be not (immediately) followed by a labial consonant or a semivowel or ^ 7 followed by 3T or 3H". ?sn:. 551. w 'to go' w 'to swim mflm%. 3^[. 3T^. substitute in 3- changeable to 37 like it ) for ^ the reduplicative syllable.342 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. 3^ Atm. ( Hoots ending in jj 3-. sing. ' srrf^R^ . 3T?>3C. otherwise from ( c ) arrfSrST^-cT from g. ' The ar of the reduplicative syllable of ^. ( to cut/ go/ ^or 'to sound/ rT ^^to sound/ 55 'to harass/ %. and some The roots 37^ 3f| others. or ^^nsrrop^ or sriSfts^. . 'to The roots moan' ^OT . 9 31^!^ 3ita<3Mn or 553 below). aq ^ or or ^XJ^IUIH 3TfRor^[ or or 3{tc(Ti!i^ 3rr%?rnn3. ^ y. But ' to hasten ' ar^fnFT^ 5 * to bind . for 5^ in the reduplicative syllable* 3 ting. &c. short or long. . is not changed to . -^*ld. ^r g^ and 7 . 550. 5-3T^T^-tf. P. 7 and ^ optionally retain the 5: arilrff^ or or 3Tgr or 5^ 3rf|rsr^ or 34^81 !<!. shorten their penultimate optionally. ( sen 552. or 3f^ rs 1. 3T|F. f ^^ 1. A.' <to for 'to give' ^^6. and [ 549-552 oated : ^?^=vT5^=grf^[^ [-fl f rom finally 3ftf?5TC-ir 3 8ing. P. g * to bind' ( a ) The roots $r.: or . 3T^^[ or . and ^q*^. to pound. 'to sound. JT^T . &c. A.

3 sing. E s. 1 sing 553. s^ji^. ( <TT 'to protect* forms its Causal Aorist regularly as . does it optionally. The unchanged&Q. can. and 84* to surround* % optionally change their to sr.552-556 f ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS.(f with ) rememW ?j f 3T\i?nfTiTJ^ ' f to envy arr ^TT 'to drink' a^qr^rg. %^. do not shorten their penultimate. ^rqc-^TT^ 1st sing. take Samprasarana. - Roots which form their Causal Aorist irregularly: <to j 'to with 3?ft study. gT^^ 3T^TO P^ or 5^> then 550 then 3T^T5n3[. 554. 555. Tbe roots . 0. others less important. The roots g and fqq. roots given under 400 preserve their vowel do not substitute f in the reduplicative syllable.3itTnftinq[. %^.~^tTm^. and &c 556.

Par. 557. SIXTH VARIETY OB FOBM. (i. before The Sixth and the Seventh Varieties are given here the Fourth and Fifth as it is more convenient to do so. fr'tCLdo. with f?r. Atm. Terminations of the Sixth Form: 2 3 tft: ^tcj final to 31T ). a.544 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. ( Only Parasmaipadi ) N. P. 9RT. 558. B. Hoots ending in srr (including those that change their the roots q^. *ft ) and R^ ^ . [556-558 Paradigms.

SEVENTH "VABIETY OB FORM. 663. tion . 3rd pi. 559. PABADIGMS.558-563 ] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. or cT for their penultimate take this Form. &C.. ?n ST^nf^ 1 ^. optionally belong to this Variety. take the The roots ending in sg which are restricted to the and Third Varieties do not take this Variety. ^5^ and roots ^. and Atm. Second First. and ^ A. 562. g^is an g-. 845 take this Variety. ft OF . ^ and ? and having y. ( Parasm. it therefore takes the Fourth Variety. A. A. ^ or ^ ^rr 7 f?J5 .. Atm. 1 P. excep- 55^. S! BT^STI^q^^ &c. ) 560. &C . &C . 2 3 m ^ 561. optionally. f^ . mj with s<T or 3^. and 5^ when Atmanepadi of the terminations of the 1st dual. fourth Variety. Terminations: Par. and 2nd sing. and . ^^ ^ 2 3 in ^^T^ Anit roots ending ^ ^ ^ ^. 6 P. The drop the initial ing.

2 3 f^P. [ 563 PARADIGMS. 1 3 5- is to be similarly conjugated. 2 S^ being a Wet loot optionally takes the Fifth Variety.A. 1 A. 2 3 sn%3T: 3n^j^ arfe^ciiJi 3Tfgci 2 srf^ arf^e^ 8 P. .846 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

*% with FOUBTH VABUSTY OB FOBH. 1 f^L ft j_r. 1 J-JL Atm. . . ( a ) Anit roots not belonging to any of the preceding Varieties take this Form. Anit roots that optionally take any of the preceding Varieties and Wet roots optionally belong to this Varirty. Roots 1 sing. 347 Roots. as Auit.563-566 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. Terminations: Paraam. r 565. * Wet roots which belong to this Variety. S 584. optionally take the 5th as Set. 1 bing.

. &c. . After a short vowel.-. and after a consonant except a of terminations beginning with nasal or semi-vowel. 1. t%-3T%^ is changed to f ^ or . Guna is substituted for final f or and the penultimate vowel remain ^ unchanged.348 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. take the Fifth Form only. belong to the Fourth. 5 . 1% A. belong to the Fifth Variety. g. ^T-3f^^ y Paradigms. its ( 3". sing. may ( 2 ) Boots ending in 3* preceded by a conjunct consonant take Fourth or Fifth Form in the Atmanepada. ( e ) The Panultimate -^ of Anit roots is optionally ohanged to T 567. 1. ( 4 ) Of belong to either ( 4th or 5th Variety ). 35. an%far Atm.final 394 . and JR^ when A. 37^. when Parasmaipadi. 3rd sing. final = In the Atmanepada. may take the Fourth or the Fifth Form... 3 Conjugate similarly other Anit roots ending in consonants. ^ see below. sing. [ 565-567 Exceptions: ( 1) ( ^j and $. 5ft-3^fi*I 35-31$ rffo ^S^anrisffS &c. 3 ) 3T5^ and ^ Par. Set roots 3 and those ending in =^ ( long ) when Atm. P.-3T^ftr. the ^ ^ and TO is dropped f-3TffT 3 sing. in accordance with > ^T-3^ ^-3^ftg-. 566 ( a ) In the Parasmaipada the radical vowel takes Vrddhi substitute . b ) short or long.

XTS^-^xn^ sing. . with T* sing. 2 3 Conjugate similarly j%.. A. 1 sing.. *>J-3nrtc*n* A. dual. 5^-3rarT$rn ararsn 2nd dual... &c. 1 sing. similarly A. 3 f^[ P. Conjugate 3 A. tne 2nd and 5th besides this. P. &. * Vide 465. . r. is similarly conjugated. 1 and L dual 5 P.. t *c ^ 5 -> ^- P- P. 8^1% g^T^C 1st sing.. f Also take the 6th Variety when it substitutes an for its finaL &nd ^t also take the 7th Variety. sing. 2 per. 1 with *nj[ A. Wre 2 sing.-.. A. eft.567 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. *THT% &c 5 1 sing. ^ P. 3^ and take t ?5l. 1 sing. 3rd sing... 4. A. . * 2 3 STft: Bif| ^S^ aqjftgin *$fr Bf^T 2 3 A. * sing. r^ A. ^C ^ . ^r. 2nd dual fif Atm. 849 1. areVire 2 per. t A. &c.

3T^+STf^=3TWRJ+^^=3reiTTnj 3rd it is Set.350 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. sf^rg. ' ^C-Vide 480. Conjugate 8i ^^ 2 Qror^r. dual. takes the 5th Variety since t Also takes the 5th Variety. &c. A. &c. [ 567 2 3 ar^iBf: srStqwm arlif^ sretarau 2 3 arere whrer . Atm. &c. &c. 2 3 with similarly conjagatd . . swili srwi W!^: ^jT-a 3 snn^ wi^i ^-aren^fa. . RSIT^. IK A. .

' 570. terminations. In the Parasm. nations. A. the The third person sing. before gr which the penultimate takes Gun a. ^[ 4. ^7. Paradigms. and q^ with gr<T to marry. roots take the first Variety ( vide 459 569. A 2 ( with 3TT ) 3 with 3& 3TT.668-571] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. these 532 ). It takes the Fifth 5^( ( with 3JT A. ) drops its nasal before the termi- Form is Atm. when they take the Atm. This f does not take its Guna substitute. and substituted for it. qi^ when ' the as faults of others ) necessarily it means < to give out ( drops takes its nasal. Fourth Form. 571. in which case pj optionally both in the Parasm. ) and roots assuming the forms of ^r and ^r (Vide gft. of <r^ is arqrf^. termination f optionally in the 3rd sing. im. and ^JT substitute $ for their final vowel in the Atm.' optionally drop their nasal. TO with . 351 Irregular Aprist or the 568.

sing. Terminations: *[ * Vide 486. [ 571-572 2 3 wrer with ^ir to be similarly conjugated 5T<Trfa*f|'. . g. . 572. grrpi%. 2 3 ? with 2 3 1 sing FIFTH VABIBTY OB FOBM. aagment the ^ These are obtained by prefixing theto the terminations of the Fourth Variety. .352 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. dropping in the case of the 2nd and 3rd per. ^trnmn ^ sing. 3MHI*mi:. 4m*J<Hlf3 1 dual.

3KrTTfiq** 1 sing.^.^. to pierce. *. 353 Aim. 565 ). 3- (b) The penultimate short vowel of a root takes its Guna substitute. Par.' ^r^. of roots having an initial consonant and not ending in ^ or w q^-. . Paradigms. ( a ) In the Paraarnaipada. or to be diminished/ does not ^ |^ (0) In the Atmanepada the radical vowel takes 3*$yfir. ^ ^ . to beg. (d) But the vowel of roots ending in roots ^. y and of the 'to cover. a^rrfr^ 1 aing. ssr^ .3^1. WWrf^ 23.' qsrjto go or move/ < and <to sound to churn. the final radical vowel and the penultimate 3f of roots ending in ^ or 3^ and that of ^? and take their Vrddhi substitute necessarily. 2 ^T: 3 3 573. W 2 {: ** 52 5$: 1 0* ^^L 383. 7 ^yir^ 'to stick or cling to/ *T*T Vrddhi its take substitute.f\J Vrddhi is optionally substituted for the penultimate 3T.572-574 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. l areTTBTTS ^~3Trfif% f and f 1 sing 3 sing. 3 sing. ^ q . its Guoa substitute. sing. (e) not prosodially long. & ^ to All roots not restricted any of it is the preceding Varieties take this Variety. H S G . 'to break. P 3 sing. to surround/ ^. roots ( Vide Consequently peculiar to Set 574. 'to ask.

J Vide X Vide p. &o. 5^ S* Par sETCC 5 3**rrraTO[ 1 sing- f/sr A. 3 sing. mftaft. ^bH^fld. 3T5RmTO[ ( See 569 ). f sjftfsm. 3*^ also takes 7th Variety. 575. 5T^ ^T5TT%^ 1 sing. For the optional forms of these roots see the preceding Variety. ?TT^ an d cqr^ optionally sub f for f^ ( third person sing. 3 sing. 1 sing. . 3 sing. WTftrTT Bin g- ^ST^rRV^ 1 3 sing. 1 sing. 3 sing. 3Tm?ft-3T^Vfir 1 sing.354 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. W^-aroro?^ 1 3 sing. <> r ^^frarareRer: 2 sing. ). g^r-SRTT^r^ 3TTltar 1 fling.3TUffft 1 sing. 3??fjjftg[ 3 sing. 7. A. 3 sing. cfi^ 3 sing BT: fBT: 2 sing. iTTf^ 3Tm%ft STirrri^ 5T^^ sing. and Atm. sing. &c - am***. 3R?rftl^ 1 fling. 3 sing. 1 fling.. Irregular Aorists of the Fifth Form. eing. sing. 3 sing. . 1 eing. 3TOfr*ft. 5T^. sq^-^^rqi*^. sing. 6. Atm. f Vide 46ft. stitnte The roots ^. P. tp. [ 574-575 1 . awrtl^. aiwRnR - 1 sing. gg *<iflW X . 461. 249 foot-note f . 1 sing. * See 475. sing. eing 1 sing.

sing. c. The su it -consequently i of optionally dropped in the A oristtakes the Sixth and the fifth Varieties. its vowel after dropping of q[. . 355 or 576. 518 ): 578. optionally takes Gupa substitute. Parasm. also it option* ally remains unchanged before f ( Vide 466. Roots of the 8fch class ending in or ^ drop their nasal and substitute optionally $rr^ and 3 for the terminations fgT: and ?E of tbe 2nd and 3rd person ping. ^TT PJLBADIGMS. *ng lengthens 577.576-578 ] OoNJuaATioir OP VEBBS. The vowel sn takes Vrddhi optionally in the Parasm. i. Atm. 2 3 Atm 2 3 rni: amrfirfw.

and the Atmanepada ones terminations of the occurring in them Atm. OT- 3TT<T 2 & 3 aing.*.356 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. sing.. *rr^ and ^ of the 2nd and 3rd per. Par. sing. ^R[ 3TOTRTO. Atm. The Parasmaipada terminations of this mood may be obtained by prefixing to those of the Imperfect. Boots of the 8th Class. (^6 ) THE BBNEBICTIVE ( 579. ^*3[ 3TfsT?T 2 & 501^ 3|%|fO|tf^ v 3TOT&rf^r ^ ^T^TRT^J S^R*?^ 1 sing. srornSTv 3T^r^TT'j c Par. 58 o The Par. & 3 sing. Atm. Atm. pada. terminations are weak and therefore occasion . S^TRHT*. sraR'sr. sing. 2 & 3 sing. Atm. I Atm. Par. 3pygf 2 3?w^n. 1 1 & 3 sing. Atm. Par. 3^?r 2 & 3 sing. 1 At mane. Atm. 3THRTO 3Tm%ft Atm. 3it!M^^ 1 sing. Atm. before the dropping its final ^ ^ sings. ^ Atm. 3ran>?^. sing. Par. 1 sing 3" sing. 1 sing. sing. ^nrnir^. 1 1 [ 578-580 Boots of the 8th Class. 2 (a) Parasi. Atm. 2 Par. Atm. 1 sing. Atm. 3^RTf 1 fi i n K. sing. Atm. S^RT 2 & 3 sing. therefore. aroRftT. by prefixing Potential and also to the ^ ^ to the and ^ These. are: Parasm. Par.

857 no Guna or Vrddhi change in the augment f. 581. and the q. terminations of the Benedictive. root. and roots assuming these forme. substitutes f for its vowel. q-. All roots reject the The ft. i^T^ra[ but to 'protect. final 3* short is changed to and final ^ changed to f^ or to 3^ when preceded by a labial or a^ before the Par. ^ri^rr^. are strong. the ^ and roots ending in =^ admit of f optionally. 51. are changed preceded by a conjunct consonant and the to Guna under the same circumstances. its terminations. (a) f is and optionally after (b) prefixed to the terminations Wet ones. W. % *t*na. 'to abandon' and ^r. Boots capable of taking Sampras aran a take it.of the Passive. radical The Atm. 'to drink'. Before these vowel takes GnDa substitute. 584. root ^t Final =5. 587. but when the inter- . \jf ^T. changed to optionally &c.j g[T ^^"TT^. final f or 3- is lengthened. the roots dropping their nasal thus are: 3T A Some of 585. change their nnal to or substituted is . <rr iT--W^. ^T. A tmanepada. after Set roots root Roots ending in ^f preceded by a conjunct consonant. Final 3TC ( original see ( 459 )t if it ba preceded : by a conjunct consonant. qrq-r^. ^T. fir 582. JTT. 583.580-587 ] CoNJUOiTiON or VERBS. penultimate nasal is generally dropped. 586..

Par. . P. &c. not prefixed to the terminations. Par. 2 : 3 3R Par.858 mediate SANSKRIT GBAHHAB. fo. or <jffe. A. 3 2 ^n: S nt iwi Ti* 3 . Atm. [ 587 f is the final remains unchanged and or ^precedes. f% ^ is changed to ^ ^ or to QT if a labial %^r. wn^r 2 3 w: wiK wfePi w^ilwi^ w^iw w^?W wfe: * 1 2 3 A. Paradigms.

shortens its ^before waak terminations beginning with SECTION II. whereas in the case of the primitive verbs of the 4th class. 2 Conjugate ^ Par. but shortens q-q^T. when joined with prepositions. its after a prepo- gf^TTH^: Atm- g^ also.587-589 ] CONJUGATION or VERBS. Atxn it falls on the radical syllable. ' f?TRnc. aition j f ' to go . like 1 sing Irregular Benedict ives. 588. . 359 2 ^K^fgr: wfrfawnj. in the Passive it falls on q. * The only difference is in the accent . Every root in every one of the ten conjugational classes may take a Passive form conjugated like an Atmanepadi root of the 4th Class. THE PASSIVE.* 589.

37 and . ^r ' &c. ' ft^' c ) The final art C original or substituted ) of ' to give. ' when l in an Intransitive. ' Sidk. he is passive verbs ( e. 1?^ ?zr. For example. to purify ' arizr. ?f?yr *w. ^[ gr^r. 4 ' * . to agitate. ed by native grammarians as Atmane. Monier Williams. but ^r is ' to cut. ( a Formation of base: is it j ) IT is added to the root. f f^^ ). pr. which roots weak ff t. fr. terminations of the Benedictive farc.faT. verbs of cl. ' So kahulh. *T w. that the occasional assumption of an Intransitive signification and a Paraemaipada inflexion by a passive verb. CONJUGATIONAL TENSES. class in the The passive base Atm. to join when used in a Transitive sense. they do but before the Par. also push. or it the Causal. jan puryate. was the cause which gave rise to a 4th class of Primitive verbs as distinct from the Passive. a8 TT^ t it is a Reflexive ' ) the and(3) la ( SF&ff^ft sro ). ^T. fr. 7. aud some he is born. fir 592.jydyate. g. ^. is ^ fT fTO". ITT. ( >JT% * ). ^ r qrT to drink. in other cases it remains unchanged. to accomplish. Instances are certainly found of passive verbs taking Parasmaipada terminations. no Guna or Vrddhi substitute takes place before ( b ) . ( f$r ( *ffa. 4. ft^fw as Before q* undergo the same changes . and tapyate fr. [ 590-592 ( 2 ) There are three kinds of Passive Verbs: ( 1 ve properly so called ( ^ftfor s?o ). ' in cl. l to nourish. . Kltsh * to vex '. many roots appear in class 4 as Intransitive verbs. Again. which alao appear in some one of the other nine as Transitive. ' to %. 4. * ^. g. . tap ) are regardfilled. at gftf*: T^J% 'rice cooked. * ' either in cl. ^t and ^r abandon^ changed to f. 591. ' ' ' . . ^TT. as ^or jotf an Impersonal Passive. $> sftJ. *^ w#. conjugated like a root of the 4th " It might even be suspected.360 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB 590. e. is conjugated yuj. he is heated.

Imperfect. . Imperfect . Potential. Imperative. 361 Present.592 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 5^ Present.

the 3rd sings. e ) gjjj shortens its 37 when a preposition drop their final it. 3 sing. Boots. ^ and at the same 'to lie 5fsg[. pie.?i^. regular and irregular. drop their (a) Theroota^[. 3*3*114 598. ?[hff and %*ft vowel before ( e ) aj 1^ also 594. 2 3 Potential. optionally ar$ time lengthen their ( & ( ( ) 5ft down' and ft form their bases as is ^xf and prefixed to q-. I ' <n ' to drink ' qr to protect/ ur . ring. and ^R[.362 SANSKRIT GBAHHAB. To assist 3 Boots. of some roots. & ) Tft&T. are given below. [ 592-594 Imperative. substitute and 3?^ substitute q^ and ig. for themselves) and sfr respectively. 3?^ ^ and the student.

. 3 sing. &c. S &c. &c. 5T A. ' to drees ' ^with &c. tfP.594 ] Boots. S6& 'Boots. CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 8 ling.

^Tf and similarly |f ( b . the Conditional and the Benedictive of the Passive by changing their vowel to Vrddhi and appending the Atmanepada termination of those tenses in the case of roots ending with $ prefixed to them invariably in 3TT ( and in tr. q of the Passive. ( a ) The forms of the two Futures. t. ^mrl. q. [ 595-596 NON-CONJUGATIONAL TENSES AND MOODS. every root being supposed Atmane- padi . the Bemjedictive. t 1 &c ** y^ and ^ take Vrddhi in see this . forbidden with them 463 ^rr takes Gupa . case though . ( 4 ) the Conditional and 596. a ) ( The Reduplicative Perfect of a : Passive is formed in the ordinary way. Atmanepftdi terminations necessarily ( 2. ( 1 ) The Perfect. f ) Roots ending in a vowel * and the roots 5^. except in that the Auxiliary verbs take .ft dered Atmanopadi ( b ) f^r .364 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. &c. root in the 595. immediately before ^ and before an affix containing a mute 5^ or TJT .it is usually only Tho f of f ^ is changed to g. jra^ and 5j optionally form the two Futures. (5') 3 ) The two Futures. '. every root being consi. ^ sr^s). Conditional and the Benedictive of the Passive are made up in the same way as those of the Active. R^[=f%R^ j The Periphrastic Perfect of the Passive does not differ from that of the Active. e.and sffr changeable to an* ) ^ is inserted between the root and this f ^r-^TFTm%.

does the v>^ 'to break ' forms K*lfr or ' ^HTM? 5T^ A. 3TTpT. 0. second. this f . 3rmf5r. fT &c. (4) a nasal before their final consonant. (e) The third per. third and sixth Varieties take the fourth. Aorist of foots belonging to 3 597. in accordance with the general rules. take Guna or Vrddhi ^^ without a preposition 5 with a preposition necessarily (5) same optionally and 3T3i?r. 3T3^. (7) to ' go has annfir. ^HL> and the final vowel take their Vrddhi substitute but 3R[ : ' . fifth or seventh Variety in the Passive. ?P > with an 3ff 5rnfl'5 ^ T^ 3mTmj but^ 3^n& &c. 3TT insert ^before &Q. 3TTfH. f^-3tfWP? 1 8 i n o-. 3T5JTPTj but sn^rr. 5th and 7th Varieties. of the Aorist Passive of all roots is formed by adding f takes short vowel (1) Before this f the penultimate ( prosodially ) its Guna substitute and penultimate 3? except that of ^R. or (2) Roots ending in an original or substituted ) ( t. 365 (6) The Aorist. of roots in ^.597 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. an(* and of Set roots ending in 3^ except ^p^ with STT. is made up similarly by append. ing the Atmanepada terminations to the base i-3i?rftf5. 4 3TRf &c. : sing. 3nrf* r. ?Hlfi. ^. arwnf? or .. ). (b) Boots belonging to the first.' 3^rffir *nd 3T5nf^ in the sense of (6) to observe ( 10 j ^^ takes f ' Vrddhi 55 lengthens its vowel . with arR A. (a) The Passive of the the 4th. w insert so that their penultimate 3? cannot substitute .

3rd sing. of the Pass. also Roots which do not lengthen thier penultimate sr ( see 603 ) lengthen it optionally in the general Tense? of the Passive. aw[rftrfti 3TTfT% ^^ififft. awfirft. 1^ 1 Perfeel. except in Perf.. [ 597-598 (d) <nfir. The Aorist forms. ^W-^rtl^-ST 3TOf$ Aor. sing. sw with the final sr dropped ) is optionally dropped in the General Tenses. (^ The 3 per. 1st Fu. -^KJTjni^ ^RffT^ .-. arf^ft. P. ing the Aim. <W^flf<i%. ' to know.. when srcis dropped. except the Perfect. sref&fts A <>r. ping ar^ necessarily and adding y. 1 sing. (b) 3T^t<firfir. ^r f*Z 3Tff%. TT?.366 SANSKRIT GBAHHAB. . ft^-sri*i%.. 3T$Trcft. 31^ ? * 598. ^r 1 1 sing. Form . gcr-3i*fnfi. except that of the 3rd fiing.. arrS^^rwr 596 (b) ^-arrfS or ^rRrw 3 sing. holds good in the Fassiye Aoriat except in the optional forms must be made up by appendterminations of the 5th Variety as the roots necessarily take ^. ikfosraft . PARADIGMS. are made up by adding the terminations of the Fifth Perf .. . Aor. ^r^ ar^qpinft.' 1st Future. 31%flr. 1 sing. (0) the 3rd sing. 3RTfirR. (a) The gpj ( i e. &c. Aorist is formed by dropsing. ^<H44)i|.. The roots at 461 will have two forms &c. Roots of the tenth Glass . &c. 3 Anrist. -cTlK'fl^l 2nd Fa. Ben.

( 2 ) Desideratives or Sannantas ( fr*r?ff )i ( 3 ) Frequentative* or Yanantas ( q^?ar ). class do not see the forms of given in the next section.598-599 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. Aorist. Conditoinal. . differ N. B. SECTION DERIVATIVE VERBS III. ( 1 ) The Derivative Verbs are divided into four classes : Causal* or Nijantas ( fargSRr: ). 367 2nd Future. The Passive forms of roots of the tenth from the Passive forms of Causals for which g^cau. ( \ and THEIB CONJUGATION. 2 Benedictive. S 599. Pass.

of the Tenth class. The Oausal Base form is formed like that of a root of the Tenth class. ^n 1 A. all meaning 'to move in a zigzag manner. $i. to see and q^ when ' ' ^ : substitute.' q^ ^ cover/ P. or to be in the condition.. Thus from ^j comes the causal base *ftnr. to pity/ ?^. denoted by the root. ( a ) Formation of the Oausal Base. ^. class the causal In the case of roots of the Tenth identical with the primitive. 4 Denominatives or N&madhatus [ 599*603 and ( ) ( snuvimq: ). except love/ ^pj 'to ctit/ 51?^ when it means it does not mean 'to eat/ and the roots* marked with an indicatory frdo not change their vowel t. Tto doubt/ ^ ^ ^. of a root is 602. ^tvnr^-^ ' he causes to know '. 'to laugh/ ^p. |J^-$ftWT% ' he shakes or agitates/ *TtJT-*TOT*TfS * he causes to count. 3^r . given in the Any root belonging to any one of the Conjugational classes may have causal form which is conjugated like a root 600. ' *fr-Hmmff ' he makes another lead or carry '. 'to spread/ JR[ 'to pound/ A. to cut/ $33^1 A. H^Ho . to convert an intransitive verb into a transitive one. their vowel takes its Guna ' ^qfowra. 'to destroy. 'to resist/ speak/ sf^'to dance/ P. 3^ 'to go' &c. The formation and the conjugation of these will be present section. Roots ending in ar^. qg. 601. <to shine/ sjng^P. < ' 1 A. s^ir. also employed. The Causal of a root implies that a person or a thing causes or makes another person or thing to perform the It is action. g^. ^ K 'to cling to'. n * These 1 to are: q^. to distil/ surround/ ^gr <to 1. ^?fiT.. n^ 1 Par.368 SANSKRIT GRAMAIAR. 'to go/ . p^r. &c. e. I CAUSALS. fj to do ' and to * eg- scatter ^r^rfif ' he causes to do or scatter 603.. sometimes. 'to go/ f$. The Oausal form takes either pada. 1 P..

lengthen when not preceded bj a preposition. ). 24 . and inserted ( <j to cook' ^ and ' and jn ( wz(.603-606 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS.^3[. q& if^w^tiays. or ( I ) The roots $".' also insert T but after changing their conquer. ^r ' to be ashamed. 3*c. sr^nwrS fi* &.' *ft 'to flnisn/ ' P. to go/ t s^ * Bee H. to sharpen. sir their vowel Becessarily. (6). bofore ^h when not preceded by rrarntf prepositions. ^ TTWf* fr. but irnfrt wHvf?t. P. $.' ^rw. ^t 4 to cut. iee ' ' 459 ) and the roots SR. but irararafit. 'to kill.' final vowel to stf. ). f^r> VI P. to reduce/ 'to be crooked. Sfmfif. and meaning to injure/ ^. ***tr-^TTOTftr. C06. 860 bat jsn -^TO^. ^CH^rfS. } ( { 604. and jr^. to shine/ TOL.' ft 'to perih/ 1% to ( and s?r to buy.to go. nmfifr. and their vowel takes Guoa substitute. 605 8. &<M but g^ ' to eat ' TOTT?}. ' . to gratify. to shake/ Ho move/ ( r a^mr all P. (a) The roots their vowel optionally llJUjft. * to give. to sharpeu. cl. ^. 605..' ft 'to destroy. to go/ insert ^{^f r the augment a before . O. ^T &f to loll the tongue/ ^ R^ ' to be poor. 'to kill. $mfir. ) and ssfr < to choose. 5H* in other cases. Boots ending in 3^ ( qr <t or aft changeable to 31T. . shorten 3T optionally. IK^. "to honour/ ^rw to thine/ gj^. to manifest. ^ * . f*nrfjtr &c. to kill..*H. 'to eee' 5rm*rf?r. . to boil. y 9 cl. ir^^ndjirB^i P. A. ? or \mT^ *r. 'to flow' ( 4. to live or to be' (^gfflf in other senses). HiT^Tf^. but ni>4^f?r 7 ^Mwm<jf?T only sft 'to pare. fl. ^n^. ^r^ v 51^ ^. t & (a) fir 'to throw. * JTJ^. but q^ q-rari%> srij. to fear/ ^ <to guide/ n to cook.. ). *^.' ^rw.to go. <to port.

The The roots gn^. tremble* 'to conceal' <HN<l(d simnrf?r 'he causes to sound. T^nmf-t.' piasc. 'to collect' collect. 610 lously: The following roots form their Causal base anoma- to go'with u fti * to remember. he causes to but the sense of ' sin unchaste' he corrupts or makes depraved. &c. &c. *^rfi|%. ftr^r. 'to drink' insert % % Ho waste away/ and ^ &o. ^fhfr. %4r nd ^fhtr drop their final vowel before SRT. 10 cL 'to awake to be be rouses 3^ -'to sin. ^%j . he frightens with.f . conceal. 609. roots 608. 'to please' 'to fear. their final. . ( a ) and ^ to protect' and % when it means <to shake/ insert <$ M<jfi *n* respectively before awj TOraft 'he protects/ <n shakes.' 607. 5^.. tremble. [ 606-610 'to weave/ to call/ 5^ 'to cover/ instead of *.' 'to shake' he causes to shake. 5pr . or ^jar 'to sound/ &c. fear- . and ^^ insert a nasal before 3f*inrnT%. 5 cl. q^[. ^ f <P3T.370 4 SANSKRIT GBAXHAB. and ^f^ have two forms in the causal. ift<rnnrfo-?r.1- study' STrM i M << in. f .

take 7 and d jft -'to grow'ft^Tflr-%. cuts down. 9rmrft% 'to fa*T- in other senses. Bat firgft only. The Oausal base conjugated like the base of a root all of the 10th or Ohnr*di class in the ten Tenses and Moods of . VI. 371 <to wipe' to dye' rwrfR he trfi' dyes or paints : also in the sense of <he propitiates or satisfies'. 'to strike or kill' vnurA he causes to strike. 4r irprf&. Ni.' blow' armfft he causes to blow or move. to swell. sense to of he hunts deer". as 3ro be %rf?t. to smile' feHmmjfft he causes a smile by ? or astonishes or frightnes by. and <ft*vft. ftamft-% he plants or causes to grow. he causes to go. ir^qft he eauses to fall. ef. Sa. (5) Conjugation of theOansal Base. with reference 7 accomplished I to sacred rites or things only. e causes to fry.' wt?^tS.5 610-611 ] CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. fVfWrfft he causes to tremble or shine. &c. Rwiq^ he astonishes. ^nnrft he causes to conceive . he accomplishes or prepares. is 611. ftnnrft%5 ' embrace/ / > grrTTfit in the eenae of melting an J adhere' 'to nnotuons sobetanoe. he makes r-'* swell' *nmnTlt he cuses . 'winft jtf . &c. 84). TOWfft he shakes. perfect.f *1T- Bh. ^TC TC 'to tremble to shine forth. ) 3RWfir%. 3. in the (Vide Kir.

2 .272 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. Paradigms of all the Tenses and Moods in the Par. Atm. 612. Causal base and Pass. of Special Tenses. Par. The formation of the Aoriat of cansals has bean fully explained along with that of the U roots of the - Tenth class. Imperative* 1 A.of the Passive. The with the final 3T dropped is retained. 2 S Imperfect. at 548-656. 2 3 P. 2 3 A. in the General Tenses. and. Present. Atm. dropped before the q. the Atmanepada and the Passive. P. except the Aorist and the Benedict! ve. as remarked before. [ 611-612 the Parasmaipada.

2 Atm. Potential.612 ] CONJUGATION OP VMBS. Par. 2 3 Atm. *7* P. 1 2 3 General Tenses. 1st Future. Parasm. 3 2nd Future. * Also ihnniT . Perfect. Par.

Parasm. Passive. Par. 2 3 Atm. Atm.&C.374 SANSKBIT OBAKHAB. 2 3 Conditional. Par. Aorist. Present Imperfect . 2 3 Benedictive. Atm. . Atm.

. 2 ^h*j^ q(<)fi+^ ih^MH. 'fl^'dlH.CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 3 ^ 1st Future. Potential 375 Imperative. 2 3 3 ^qai^ fMai*^ Perfect. 2nd future.

'he wishes fatfsifa or sentence. Benedtetive. [ 612-613 Conditional. Any primitive root of the ten classes. &c. see the third Variety. t. 613. MQ^ft^ft .. 2 For the various irregularities. 11. may optionally* take a Desiderative form * Or the notion of desire may be conveyed by means of a 7 to read. as well &s any causal base. 1 Aorist. .SANSKRIT G&AXKAB. &c. DESIDEBATIVES.

ST of the reduplicative changed by *he following rule. ^ 616. > from q^. The the characteristic ^ of a primitive root ^ is changed to not changed to \ when M%*rflrc *-ss*. 3. . g*$fr ' he is about There are a few primitive roots. ( See new Desiderative bases may be derived from them according to the rules given below. The Desiderative expresses the notion that a person 614. however. B. As these are looked upon as primitive roots. also the same. though they 615. fttrfsroff * to die ' fr. y. &c. He wishes to study ^. TCT N. or thing wishes ( or is about ) to perform the action. therefore. and by adding 444-449 and ( which given at may by changed The to 3 according to the rules of Sandhi to ) to it. be equal to M Note: (2) Though the Deaiderative form of a root is not to be found often used in cltssictl language in its character of a verb. syllable is f } e. The Desiderative base is formed by reduplicating the root or base according to the general rules of reduplication 649 (a) (fc). do dot convey a desiderative sense 396 ). flr^-ftn%8^ sra^cau. is 5-.and conjugated in all Moods of three voices. when the agent of the wish and of the action expressed by the root is the and not fW^?W. of Note: (1) A root takes a Desiderative form only. take a Desiderative form. it 377 the ten Tenses which. . as ^ft^qfr * he wishes to censure ' from ^m^ &c. so f^rfft sense of the root must be the object of the wish: f^T: *&% I* S* cannot. which. yet nominal and participal derivatives from it are not uncommonly to be met with. or to be in the condition denoted by the root or the desiderative base.613-416 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. like the causal base.b*t wr-rasr^-. forms f%-fa*Tl^.

&c take f 3-333. (ft) The final ( Bubstitut-d for f and 7 and the penultimate f of f 2 Par. *6 A. sp* *q^- and gp^do not admit of f in the f . ^ 484 . ^. f. &c. see ). good in the The usual one case rule as to GuDa substitute holds other. 'to respect/ . and optional Can. fg^. and does not in the gq^ftqffo.) (8) far. Base of ^T ). Vide 485. ( ST^. and reject radical Towels undergo the following changes- before (a) ^ The ^ with f is strong and without f weak.. fir. *t?^ take f . 'to scatter/ 'to swallow/ take f necesExceptions: ij The is intermediate f not lengthened in the case of these sarily ^ &o. subject to (1) 3T roots. 'to go/ and for f with ^ and 3|fr 'to . if^and Atm. The roota g^. (5) it in the 618. necessarily.378 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR [ 617-61* 617. 5. to give/ ?H^of ffs. 3T3?^. optionally after ones and not after those that are the following exceptions: and Boots ending in 3. ) take f optionally. In the Atm. 33-T'<i3rlt. To this ^ the augment f Wet is to be prefixed after Set A nit.or 37. and 3? short. 3T^. ftqidlc). 'to purify/ admit of f ( see also 4 below. (3) Par. The w take f in the Par. Vide 35 - ^ > - Exceptions: ^ 'to go/ 5 A. the last two do (4) Boots ending in long ^ and f? and the roots rffer. ^ ^. they admit so optionally. ^iR^ ffq^C ' the 10 cl. ^. 'to hold/ nd i A. and the* roots do not 618 ( <*)> *rTO. ^t^' *o prosper/ 5*j.

base. and having f or %* short for their penultimate. Art. 1-mrfH. ^ - ^-%mf ST-OT% not 5^% - 619. to eat ' . The formation of Desiderative bases of cauiali differ and of of roots of the Tenth class does primitive roots. 621. except their vowel to Guna optionally whan f ii ir^or 3. The roots and g^ do not change their vowel ( 6 ) fir^ to Guna . * when the ^ is nnaugmented. . that they do in the primitive. or to snt a *ter labials or . and ending in any consonant. ^-1%^K. ra-ftnfta -55^. ?-gS& *-SS$. ^ . Pre. abort or long. The following roots form their Desiderative bases irregularly: Roots. from that should be attended to in forming Desiderativea from Oansals and roots of the Tenth class. The roots ^n. Parasm. terminations in the 620. change &c or to prefixed f^TfN . changed to y^ . ( n ) Roots with an initial consonant.. to go ' ' with erfa * with ' sjfrf to study to be convinced' to sound ' . a Desider. &c. 550. f? And g$r take Atm. Roots in their Desiderative forms take the same terminations. cr Atmane. and the roots OT ^tr and jr^r take Sampras AraD a.618-621 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBB. . ' Third pers sing. ' 879 remember ' or to stud j ' ) are lengthened and final ^ . Desiderative.

Base of m Hi^ opt cau B. Pre ' to prosper* with *m. sing. & optional) ) fft^ |fr*n% Oau. Deiidar.380 Boots. of 9T 9^ 'to stretch' or <te'tokffl' ftd^ or ^J 'to give' ^ 'to protect' % 'to cat' . to ' A swallow' ' to gather ft 'to conquer' fP3[ 10 cl. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. base [ 621 Third pen.

base. to kill' to propitiate' .r injure. sing Pre_ m fit 'to mewure' Ho throw' 'to barter' lit 'to destroy' fc desires for Ubeition.621 ] Boots. CONJUGATION OF VXBBB Desider. 381 3rd pen.

ones with the intermediate f. (c) In the Benedict! ve the Parasm. and ^ ( see 490. * These roots do not change their ^ to ^. 91 is it is added to the base in the Conjugational Tenses and then in thfl conjugated like the special base of the 6th class Active and Passive. Desiderative base [ 621*623 Third pers. ^ 8. sing. (d) The remaining tenses have no peculiarities. terminations are added without f and the Atm. Conjugational Tensef 622. A. P. rfS IT1TH5T*** f**T*R (b) Conjugation of the Deaideratiye Base. Non-Oonjugational Tenses.38* Boots. . (a) The Perfect is formed by adding srn^ to the base and appending the Perfect forms of the auxiliary verbs 3T^. Pre. <to obtain' i*mm <to throw' . SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 526 ). 3 623. (6) In the Aorist the Desiderative Bases take the terminations of the 5th Variety. ^.

( 3rd sing. desi. Pre.F. Present Imperfect Imperative Potential Perfect T^T^ . Future Conditional . the Aorist 3rd sing. 3 sing. is formed accordThe forms of the remaining tenses are ( e ). -P. A.CONJUGATION OF VERBS. Roots. f 'Tenses. ^-. Passive. Atm.Aorist Benediotive Boots. made up in the usual way. 383 ing to 597. Pre. ^ *** l^ . P. A. 624. 3 sing. -1 . Future Sec. In the Passive. Paradigms. ) Par.

9*!'$ar% < he cuts awkwardly. ' these begin with vowel. * Exceptions: ' 626. from any monosyllabic root of the first nine classes. Pre. on the above 1. Pan. ' A 3^ cl. 23 Sid. ^ ' 3^* ' and JT ' to swallow. t ^M $f* R^y^rw^orf ^yfr in^WT^r: fa* *h%*q. Kau. &c.384 Boots. III. J The ' ' to sink down. SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. I P? I Ill 1. *t to go. 10. Frequentative of roots ^^' to cut. ?t. and ^ 33" c). [ 624-626 Roots. ' to go 3f^' to mutter prayers. The Frequentative or Intensive is used to by signify the repetition or the intensity of the action denoted the verb from which it is derived.*tA Q'^tk^^t^">i \ Vart. * ^ falls down ' badly. 35^ cl. I $ i^ij^3wrr HWTBjMW . t Pan. 3f^' to yawn. ' imply reproach on theto bite. 3 sing. III. 24. manner of doing the act $. Pre. 1 23. FREQUKNTATJ A Frequentative or Intensive form may be derived' 625. ^r^ ' ' ' * ' to bum. '. 3 sing. a and from 10 ' to hint. though they belong to the 10th The Frequentative of roots signifying motion convey* ( ft ) the notion of tortuous motion and not of repetition. ' though to go. . beginning with a consonant. (a) f Frequentative may be formed from 315 ' ' to eat and 3^5 to conceal. 10 < to string together cl. III.

in is tho other the affix dropped ( q^^r?F ) and the base to conjugated in Parasm. ulso. 37 y^ for their final vowel} ^TT^ becomes f^n( and ( c ) 395 should be observed. q- Frequentative base is formed by adding to the root before the before which it undergoes the same changes as of the Passive. ^TT ^ sir^. q- The Atm. ) 5TT and VRT change their vowel to i\ and ( preceded by one radical consonant is changed to ft? and not to f%. sqvjr. some grammarians). sff 3TO. There are two kinds of Frequentative bases derived by a peculiar reduplication of the q^. alone. f *q &c. Frequentative. ( ) If a root begins with a vowel. . ^T qffar. the following syllable is reduplicated. sr^. only ( in the Atm. 25. and the other the Parasm. 629. . ) is from roots. substitute and and %. 628. ATM ANE PA DA -FREQUENTATIVE.( added to the root before is is reduplication takes nlace. S. T% xfrqr.627-629 J CONJUGATION OF VERBS. ?qr and roots ^ f^. The form in q- derived as above is reduplicated according to tho general rules of reduplication. 385 627. G. Frequentative. fq^ 7 take Samprasarana. It will bo convenient to according call the one of the Atm. and the base q- conjugated in the Atm. hot a arc formed root} but in one the affix q. b ( ) The vowels ^ and 3- of the reduplicative syllable take H. ar^.

is consonant. t [ 629-630 their Guna substitute and the ar of the reduplicative syllable is lengthened.=' 394. base is 3rd sing. ) or 3TSTlct. 3 ( changeable to an Anuswara or the nasal of the class to which the letter following it belongs ) is inserted between the reduplicative & and the first radical 630. yg^TST ^arTST=V^Irt or or 3R ^>^ &n d ^^ &n ^ ^S?rx a ^er ^ change . Freq. q^. ( *||<H14J^. the 3T of the reduplicative syllable remtdns unchanged ( against 629 b. but when 3T53[=3fFr> the A. a i ) The same <5 rule applies ^?X. qn?= or ^T5^=5%^|J^ o' ^F&^Srlr by or vivfctrq?t. ^n. sp ^^ by 628 f^fw by reduplication *^fnr by 629 reduplication by reduplication similarly ^f^ nasal When a root ends in a nasal preceded by 3? and the not dropped. inserting 5fl 3?^' the 3( of the following syllable to 3".386 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. to the roots ^r.

-when it is preceded by a consonant. ( which remains short against ^ t 629 b) and the radical consonant. and in all the Tenses of the Passive. is conjugated like the and drops the As *r itself. Active. w Tenses. Base Cocjugational base of the 4th class in Atm In the General Tenses. Present Imperfect. When a root contains a penultimate 3^ ( ) original or brought in by samprasarana the syllable f( is inserted between the 3? of the reduplicative sy 11. The 3 sing. Imperative. ^=^T=?r^?q = Conjugation of the Atm. Freq. 631. .is preceded by a vowel 632.CONJUGATION OP VEEBS. Paradigms: * the root 37 tiiat Base of the root *z and Fraq. terminaintermediate tions with the f prefixed to them are added The passive is also formed like the Passive of derived verbs. the Fre. Freq. Base. the base loses its final gg when the final q. form are added. terminations of the 5th Perfect. of sn^W the Atm. Base takes the Periphrastic In the Aorist the Atm. Potential. In the remaining Tenses the Atm. Passive. as usual. In the Oonjugational Tenses the Atm. regards the Perfect. 633.

^ftutaf F. Base. In the Conjugatlonal Tenses the Paiarm.&c. Frequentative is peculiar to the Veda. ^fR?N%&c. ftlf^T Like the Active. ^ or the syllable ft or fr is inserted between the 3? of the reduplicative pliable and the radical consonant of roots ending in short ^j" or having it for their penultimate . The root is -. Passive. 637. Sec. similarly or or is inserted in the case of . and the sr of the redupli- 635. Future. Active. Like the Active. =^-9 or or Conjugation of the Parasm. B. It* forms arc very rarely to be met with in Classical composition. Fre. Future. The Paraem.388 SANSKRIT GBIMMAS. cative syllable is lengthened . Bases will be given under 639. Fre. Formation of the Base. [ 633-637 Tense. rules ol reduplication reduplicated according to the genera] the vowels 5* and g. N. Perfect. PARASMAIPADA FRZQUENTATIVES. Conditional. G34.of the reduplicative syllable take their guna substitute. Irregular Aim. ?m-tnw: or "T^i -<R or 656. Base. Benedictive. Frequen. Frequeatatives . itatal>. The rules 630 (a) (b) apply likewise to the Parasm.

tenses tenses the augment f ia always prefixed except in the Benediotive. of the Impera. The Perfect follows the usual rules for the polysyllabic roots. In the remaining 638. ^T-^T^lfft or or sm^fir or or r or ^n*f ^ or srfrfrm or srfirftfSr or or As regards the formation of the Non-conjngational grammarians seom to be at variance. *rfa or rnr^f rora the root *. Imperfect. follow the conjugation of the special base of a root of the 3rd f is optionally prefixed to the terminations of the singulars of the Present. 389 class. and of the 3rd sing. is As this form of the Freq. mostly confined to the Veda details are not given here Paradigms. 2 or . or 2 *im\fir ^1^5: ^1^4 3RiH: or or $w4i& 3Riw: ftvra: 3 itoitft ftqfe swft^ or Imperative 1 x Potential. when is prefixed to these.637-638 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS.. Present. of the 2nd and 3rd singulars of the Iinperf. a penultimate short vowel does not take Gupa.

. &XJ.: &c. &c. Perfect. I Korist or 3 Future. &c. it^t^^: . Ac. &c. Con^Viona?. &e.390 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. &0. &c. 3t*n^ ^iw or ^ &c. st*jj ftgra3. &c. or Wfl3 or . Ac. 2nd Future. . &c.

Aor. &C. itafifaict wfofSww awtafite or Bened. v &C. &c. to sound dig or or . Boots. Passive. Par. Imperf . Pre. &C. or or be born to shine to See a. 39L Bencdictive. Atmanepada. 3 to swallow ^ to walk to worship See 630 630 S a. *ta$Kte ft^OTts or roots The following form their Frequentative* irregularly. Tenses. Imp. 3$ to cover 5 1 cl. or or expand See 630 a. Atm. Con. Perf. or . 639. Freq. sitHftciT *mmr WiSl**in sr^vrisfczra or or 2nd Fu. Fre. 1st Fu.638-639 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. Pot.

641.' ( 5 and g- are lengthened 9fl ' 3^tafff he wishes 3 ) final ^ is changed to ft} . behaving or becoming like the person or ings. according to the affixes by which they are derived. NOMINAL VERBS. a nominal verb may be to ing is q- derived from any Subanta or nominal stem by affixThe derivative verbal base derived in this manner conjugated in the Parasm. These will be arranged here under four heads.392 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 639-642 3ft to lie down W^^ra stl%ft or *te3?[ \zft PTift or ft to swell ^ smcf ^Mift sfcffitfif or or to obtain to or SM^RT inure *t*m or in other cases siRffi or IV. practisor using. 642. and at others they yield the sense of desiring or wishing for the thing expressed by the noun. Those ate not very much in common use and are generally used in the Present Tense. Verbs are formed from nominal bases by means of certain affixes.' ) 'he . When i^. thing expressed by the noun . sometimes they express the noon by the idea of acting. and are used transitively. They have various mean- They sometimes convey the notion of performing. ( 1 ) final ar and stf are < 1T?r ( T + * = 33fHq"M iT 3 T changed to . or treating like the thing or quality expressed ing. only. Before this q>. 640. 5*fr- 2 ) final ( ior a poet. ( a ) By means of the affix ^ ( RT^[ ) and Conjugated in Parasm. 5^ 3TPJR: **&{% wishes for a son. the sense of 'wish' is to expressed.

^rftr^ ' flfrwft he wishes for holy sticks/ &c. after $frT *nd &9BT one the is when the *fr: desired to be drunk and the other to be licked. son of nJ irrttT ( 643. artfurifr 'he wishes for a horse/ q- The affix is not added to nouns ending in ( ^ and ). affix ' expressing a descendant of is dropped the and then the changes mentioned above take place. and aft are 393 ( 4 ) final aft changed to 3ftt an^ ( 5 ) a final nasal ia dropped and tho preceding vowel is changed like an original final ( owe! 5 TTH^Ksftaffr 'he wishes for a king.' the final consonant remains unchanged. to indeclinables. qn^^l^ ^R^iTfR ' he longs for heaven 646. ( 1 ) The Tad. le 3f$R has af^nrrqiff he wishes to eat/ and ar^rsfnTUT wishes to possess food/ ' water and 34^ ' far has ^5q-f%. Final af ifl dropped before 3^5 ^fqfh (a) 3T^ is inserted niter g^ and apq. so &c.642-645 ] CONJUGATION OP VBEBS. The consonant ^ and the syllable 3f^ are inserted affix *T.' But fwnrm 'he desires to have a bull/ 644. sr^^rfk for the cow longs ox/ 3^ J ^qla > 33T3T 'the mare longs for the ' horse/ $frT<qftt ^T5J: the child desires to drink/ the camel wishes for licking the salt. 'he wishes to drink he wishes to possess water/ and %R has ^p .when the 4 sense to be con- veyed is that of longing for them. between any nominal stem and the jrg 3ftr3T srfv W\p*Tf% or trererft '^e wiahes for honey'. ( 6 ) in other cases 4 sr^Farra to eomo he wishes for words/ f^-f|gifft Sftenlr according ) 'he wishes for heaven.

HIWJf?r *R^ ^ 'he adores the gods'. affix: Nominal the characteristic signs of the tenses and any moods and the . and 2nd Fo. 646. 648. ( . the people with wonder. *ftqfettK Pwf 1 sing. 'he wishes to acquire money. qfaflm. To express the sense of wishing for that which is denoted by the noun. <he treats the Brahmana like Vishnu/ (AT) Tiie affix q- U added in beggar considers his hut a palace/ f^rqfa smn^^nn **he king in his palace considers himself to be in a hut. from ^mvTf?T.' It is also ' added to <rq^ in the sesse of 647. fefcl^M. but (b) H^NMfeK from By meats of theaffii^rwT (^TT^ ) trad conjugated in Par.394 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. g^qsimfft * he wishes for a son/ U^i^feimR /he wishes for fame/ q|7fcimtff 'he wishes for ghtej 649.' [645-650 and ^rfium 'he wishes to be wealthy. the affix $mr is also added like the above and the base so derived conjugated in the Par. (c) W^l^lrf By means of the affix T%rjo) and conjugated in Par. bases are formed without the addition of $ 650.' In the general tenses the affix 3 sing. the sense cf 'treating or considering *ta the pupil as a son/ f%w>r*rra treats like-/ gsfanl* OTPJ. practising/ *r and $*r^ be given hereafter ) is dropped when preceded by a consonant. the senses of 'adorwith and wonder serving* 'striking respectively. The restriction given at 644 does not hold good in the case of this affix. ' This form of the Nominal verb has not always a desidertfive meaning. 7 (b) Tt is ing/ ' an<* f%3" added to nT^. as before. q-Rgwfff qra 3ftrq( ^e strikes 5*^ 'he serves the preceptor 7 . ^rftriwn^ lt.

( ). ' ' ^e or 4 acts like a garland ' Peri mate* ' &c. fWT^. and are cdnjugated in the Parasm. Before this affix the final 37 of a nominal base is lengthened. j)4d or C^SIM^. 395 to the nominal personal termin tions being added immediately The bases thus derived convey the notion of acting or base. ( * ' m3T-mdll3 ). The penultimate 37 of a noun ending in a nasal is lengthened. gt? ( & child ) and ( and ^TSF f^optionally and are conjugated or ^^il^MIMc^. ife^mffi from Indra. The words At man t take the in the affixes a bold man ).( ^q^ ) and conjugated in the Atm. jugation ( .650-653 ] CONJUGATION OP VKBBS. other final letters undergo Tbe the same changes as they do before the other q. ( d ) By means of the affix q. ). 652. 653. fas-far^ act? like the earth as ( Perl. ^ fnr^nfTRf^ aroad/&c So name of ( b ) he acts like a king/ qrw^-q-^iRffw f^rrf?t from ' it serves as f^. 9?f% ^rhe acts like fjwr ' ( ' I act the poet or behave like a poet. |^R?f 4|q4|?r?t aumiyii or jfi-mq^. behaving like that which is expressed by the noun . 3ff remains unchanged. Tbe base is treated like a root of the 1st con651. 73^ final of a noun ii changed to srr optionally and that of . &o. The affix tr ( 3*r^ ) is added in the same sense aa above to nominal sterna and the nominal verbs so derived are conjugated in the Atm. 3T r ' f^ a<H<ffi 3TT?T he acts like Vishnu. its last ) name of Vishnu < yowel only taking Guna before this 3?. lat sing.' ^-H^ft is the base). he acts like a father. ft ^TW ' he be- %wum it haves like a bird.

' he behaves like one who famous. in'. ^"^H^ 'agitated/ &o. ' *TOTE ' qgmflv ^Siro* re^nfifr. flR^nqcT is ruminating. ^jsor $% 3TT^KT. The following affix qpiTj^ is nsed in the particular cases given below.' But tHR^aT f^ 'she acta like a female cook. ^OTTT^ he ' * acts like is $**.used obiectively.' (c) to ^rsj 'taars/ 3^Jnj 'heat/ and qnT..' ^|^M|i|ff ' he iheds tears/ ^RpfFT ' gives out heat/ qr^TPTfr \ sends forth foam. ^^nTff. (a) It added to is added to ^3.' 654.' . ' [ 653-655 and 3U3T^ necessarily. a stout woman.. &c. ^^ it ( <ntf prompt Kau. ^^ ^s^ and lyf^ <rrqr in the sense of ' de- sirous of committing sin/ f%WUf ' tf^TOfr. 7 and not she acts like a co-wife. are the different senses in which the 655.in the sense of 'send- ing forth. ^gSc^Tf^ inl:. term. TrenT has ^Ta^i 'she behaves like a young woman. such as 'learned. in the sense of 'becoming what it was not ' before/ or 'what it was not like to before/ *rem ^TT7?T what was not much now becomes much/ 3?9TOTqi% he ( who was not gr^r: ' agitated before ) becomes agitated/ similarly giHiqff &c. { has also the sense of (b) to f^TTtq. 3TMfT-3Tl^nM one who is lustrous ' ( power- mcq<^-^CH^rqd ) she behaves like an Apsaras/ a A feminine noun not f:ffHR 'acts like having ' ^ for its ' penultimate drops its fern.. The affix q- is 1 added to a few nouns.396 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. airatti* $*rm*n* he behaves like a girl/ $Ruii* aiKKfil Sttornrft she acts like a female deer'.' ^ 'much/ Jirgp 'alow/ 'qw^W fpreff 'generous-minded^. Sid ). &c.. vomiting. f%5^ re5**rW acts like be acts like a learned man. bat ful ( .

to 9- Jtfi?r WlrfffPTirr-^ 'becomes red:' q^Mdl^ ' utters the sound Patpat/ ( /) By means of the affix f ( foi^r and and conjugated in Parasm. curry. ^^fjgpcq^ f*Tg: 'the mendicant ' collects together or wears tattered garments-/ Manavaka'j f^sr~mT^fff 3W*C boiled rice with ( curds. ^ri* <E^ra $l*iWtt he makes a sound '(also cau. 31*.' ftg-o^rf. ' ( q^ * sin'. and Atinane. e. ). ' 397 ( d) ' to 3Hr and others in the sense of experiencing or enjoy- g' S# %^T^ ) SOTTR ' he enjoys happiness ' but he show* the happiness of another. it ) ( By means of the affix cpr? ( q. <a cloudy day' and jfrsn..is added to &\\fa and some other words words ending in the affix srr (Tx[)andthe nominal base thus formed is conjugated in the Parasm. and and qft ?jar in the Par. and Atm. those derived by means of for? are conjugated in 657. 5^5. ? sT^qr^t nT^ 'he observes the vow of living uoon milk only. y. **J*. and Atm. f g.' to 5T5?. by the addition of the affixes the Atm. &c. %r.with |%. and y ( ftr^) with various senses. and *- The affix q. ^f^T 'a fair day'.' ne weaves cloth of a very thin texturej' salt with condiments. kea^y dw/ in c the sense of 'mak- 1 ing or doing. 656.. 35 those by fur^[ T?H^3^ *raiscs the tail..' jr^gfar^ri^fi^* he observes the vow of . Verbal bases are formed from the nouns given below 5 ( for^T ).655-657 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. qff^'ci^^} fTna^- 'collects together the vessels'. and conjugated in Parasm.

he envies. mild sports gentle. becomes hand. ' f is changed to grffq when added to ^q-. [ 657-660 abstaining from eating food at a Shadra's house*. Kau. ( declares her variegated.. or becomes merry. There are several loots* which are also Praiipadig 660. kas and which may ba regarded as Nominal verbal bases derived from those Pratipadikas by means of the more important of these are given below: f*ri=Hr affix *r ( q^ ). 555 gfKrfff 'he uses plough-/ Sid. ^ is further added in the following cases. <j^f quarrel* ! &* sin or hait or matted hair. I ' 5*^ ' ( ( g^ ' Sid.). affix q- The various changes taking place here before the student will easily notice as irregularities. &'. &c. some.398 SANSKBIT GBAMMAE. The he scratches. *m rff& ^ worships. g^-f!|Ujfd it contains arrows. he or honours.. he offends against.%gnr. 658. he becomes angry. ) g^ri?r ties into a braid the hair } &c. <4Wl3 %<<ftr4lc). ) .' 'he clothes with a garment. jealous.and 659. ( the g ) By means of the affix ? ( *Tf> ). &c. is angry STS 3T^?nff% ( 3TWTH ) he is feft ftjfWfr h feels ashamed. Tg?*^>tf ne stammers. 3^^. according to ^T5?T. also tfg-gflr f^^-f^q^fri treats medically. a large qn% cj^ra ' he 1 Kau. ^f or * In the Kaumudi these roots aje classed separately under the head of*^jrf^Tor^or the group of roots beginning .

krit. the causal form of a transitive verb is used re- or when the object in the primitive sense becomes * This distinction. The Parasm. that this distinction is admits of both the Padas. unhappy.* &c. *' As denotes that the fruit of the action accrues to some one differnt from the agent. is irffrKT he is adored. the Atm. however.' ifeK^rt 'he 0. the already remarked there are two Padas in SansParasmaipada and the Almanepada. seems to be very little observed in practice. however. 399 ^WT JTfV f?PKfr 3*3" wfi he approaches. &c. . as ' Or *nnT or ^nrfff he off era his own sacrifice/ 'he weaves his own mat/ ^ ^r ^^ ^ ir^ q5T^fer% &c. &c. ^b) When flexively. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. ( a ) If. dawns. 3CT^-3W3rnT he becomes healthy. makes another do some- hing for himself. Even the best Sanskrit writers are found using both the Padas promiscuously. is optionally used. 3T^ 3T^n?^he becomes powerful. 5W understanding.' The Atm. he quick in M<t^f% he disappears. as q-^fff 'he cooks for another/ frM-ufi makes soma one do something for another. 661. denotes cpqrt <he that the fruit of the action is (fcjmffi '. <ni^ M<4tlfd it spreads. it & ATMANEPADA. CHAPTER XIII. It cannot even be supposed meant to be observed where a root The Dashaknmaraohafita and the Kadambari afford several instances in which the two Padas are used exactly in the same sense. &^*\IT ftek happy. there be a word showing the accrual of the fruit of the action to the agent. cooks for himself.660-661 ] PARASMAIPADA he shines. it accrues to the agent.

qf?JJ^ < to apeak.' &c. (e) When the agent of the action denoted by a verb cannot be other than an animal. eat/ ^RSWrft. 3TT9Q1W 'makes another 'to . even 3[ of action is implied. on Pan. 3T5HJT: ^^TTR clffcf^fth the Mm. when an exchange . &c. and to ( to ' ^ ^ ' dance. 67./ *nur Bhava/ WT WH. ^Pnrft. Vide Sid Kau. 7 ^w ' to dwell '. 1. vrjj: ?n^ar the religious duty is changed' ( as when a S'ndra discharges the duties enjoined upon a Vaisya. even when the action refers to the agent as frog: $T?T 'Krishna sleeps/ iftfr spot 3TT<nrft 'the cowherdess lulls Krishna to sleep/ but qrw qanr <tne fruit causes the fruit to fall ( falls down. used except in the sense of *4 mqPd Devotees see %$ifa 'Bhava *hows himself to his devotees/ is Atm. of these roots the usual rule holds to shine. even when the f rait of the action refers to the agent HUKqui. roots (a) But verbs implying motion. 3. or the exchange of duties is to be implied.). bat f HTfcT **<ftc*ro: (Sid. [ 661-662 the agent in the causal. ^rgT^rV n^lrf: 'tho kings exchange blows. ' in the case good.' their causals take the Parasm. 662. the 'remembering with eagerness. the causal of the verb takes the Par. to ( d ) ' to faint ? 3fT to endeavour. *rg: qj# vmm 'the wind down/ d ) In the case of verbs meaning <to eat/ except 3^ t and move. When the notion of gafctrfrtfTl t. ' drink. Exceptions to ( c 3Tf ' ) and with ' ( d) * to ( c ) ^ to ' to pacify. &c. doing wbat is not proper for one to do. 'he shakes' &c. ' the Brahmana reaps is used. Kau. ( corn 7 ' which is the work of a Sudra and not his ).400 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. the and other similar roots do not take the Atm. ' ' qrjj with to ( draw in ' ' q^ 9^ qr ^^ drink. e. or meaning to kill.

preposition is conjugated in either Pada . Kan. when preceded by a ^r\f ^rorf*t%. Sid. a preposition . VIII. with 'kill). 8. ( ).. Kau. 16. 26 . Kau.' and Atm. it is Atm. fldim^wfr is ( Sid. ^x^ffi 'he collects ti^^^ *ii Parasm. . PABASMAIPADA & ATMANEFADA. f with smj-in tbe Pada causal takes the Parasm. 'JfawrtS ^nrrfo : fisiufB (Bid. arwift ). 50. ( 8) ^rT or -serving.>. g^g-. 5T^. J .' preposition in following senses: 4j. <nrn.vn f or 'hurting/ a view to injure ing/ ( with 3r^^?t 2 or ( ) 3T*TO 'censuring. The following their proper an alphabetical after certain list of the roots that change Fada prepositions under tine circumstances given in each case. (1 ) ) .' is conjugated in either qr^r arf^ft-^i 'he destroys sin ftTftfft 'discards / fr^r gfa"-^ 'he gathers together. It i with 315 and qrj*j 3Tg*ftfS ?HWat STRWORir (Kd. me e: are gratified/ '. have come to ^ns[ qim*l TOnfhCT: Bh. 79. ). t *I H. 401 The Oausals of the are P***8111 ? ^lM<rQ roots 5^ g^. 664. when used collected/ fT intransitively.668-664] 663. overcoming / informs against 'the hawk reproves the snail/ . VIII. f with 3ft. ?ft without a preposition admits of either Pada. . O.' ^ with 5^ my desires is Atm. attending 3. when used transitively. I - ^^M<lt^< & c as ' ( Bhatti. ^UH when preceded by . <aJI 3|f^^with is Par.

) it is Atm. ) 'two which one obliges another' ( Kir. in the sense of ' forgiving or overpowering / 51? srf^^^ff ^forgives or overpowers bis enemy.' as TTOT: U&*ft 'recite* from the Vedas . ). &c. Pan. when ffnOT ^s is prefixed to it . serve to intesify ) each other / ^Tf 5J^(^T^ff ^Tf <T^HT 'that is wealth by means of ' is used in both helping or doing good to sr^i<ft <TmT**T ^Tf^rT: ( Shar. P& Q Sid. ^T*T \^W^ 'P^P^ 3 study/ *THT^: M he musician varies the tones/ but r%?f <Love grq- affects the mind/ fiif$ ' qrift . holy purposes-/ cf./ bat CTgqrMfvifrOfff 'the S*astra authorises ??W ^y^- men/ With fq-f it ia Atm. 3. 3TTf?C?lt yft %& 'the bull turns up the ground in joy/ similarly 3jtrr%^ $cr$4l a hole for lying in) . Bha.402 SANSKBIT GBAMHAB.' at ^nf T heat to water / stories *Tf^ 5RT l^fogTF ) Devotes a hundred ( Rupees. ^ ffc strong lights do not indeed help ( t. 18. VIII.' ?37 <to scatter' with stTt Atm. 3. VIL 28.^r Bh.. 21. 142. e. with grrq-* Bhatti. ^ with in the sense of the Padas. The Oausal of 5 is Atm. 34-35. 3. ^ 9). [ 664 upon}' as 5Kgf*& 'he serves Hari/ ( 4 ) .' ( 7 ) 3"<rot*T or 'applying to use .&Tf finFT or 'acting violently/ 'outraging/ as trf^rn^ JT$^ 'outrages another's an additional quality' ( ^fr . when used transitively. *qr STOCTTraf. 1 STCT^g- Pan. . 1. 1. : I 33. in the sense of 'turning up or scratching with joy/ or turning up with the intention of making an abode or in this sense for maintenance ( by quadrupeds or birds )/ ^ is prefixed to ap. q^ 'mispronounces the accent on the syllable.' ( 5 ) qfefo^ or 'imparting Kashika \ as <T\T: a^tfctU ST^ar 'fnel imparts ( 6 ) sn^qR or reciting. - VI. ( ^I?T to also VIII.

'&c. is Par. 1. (with f^ means ).' Atm.' In the same senses qrr only (t. when the it prepositions 3T. 18. 8. 'to sell 1 <rR and are prefixed to e/. mastering) the Rigveda 'tfriji4iuftRqV^ 'moving unobstructed in the assembly of the enemy' (Bh. VIII. in the sense of 'a graceful movement of the feet. in tne sense of 'the ascending or the rising of a heavenly body. *T>J ft*Flfit wnft 'the horse movei gracefully.e. % t : 1.1. development or increase.38-43. . J4)l . ^. 'free : movement. III. ^vmjJTW *RTOt 'shows I ability or energy for studying. 'thus began to talk with him in private. if preceded by any ) siaRW*. proves very powerful in . Atm. Bh. 3. energy. e. <m**ra might ) T#ft3g7nKfjff ( VIII. Pan. VIII..' * T^Rnr i&ft 'the Sh&stras find enlargement in >H^MIH Vikra. 22). is used and not inserted: ^fjmf^ aTTfo'rfa' ^fir 'the woman scatters 3rtTT%tfff flowery f^H* T^t '<jf^ I when not preceded by a preposition is conjugated hi both But it is used in Atm.' annsufr *& 'the sun rises.' but sn&mffl 'goes 'to buy' it Atm. I f%: ) When preceded by 3TT it 3TOUmft OTt f^ftmT^ 'the Also when preceded by or ascending. Vart. 22-23. ^ Rj 5TO7t 'his intellect moves freely in (i.' ft. .2.' as in and by T: sr and ^r in the sense of 'beginning/ I ^ is M Kum. but *tamf7r ( *rr%S is cf. .664 ] PARASMAIPAPA & ATMANEPADA.' but smoke issues forth from the upper terrace. when preceded by CT nnd other prep. the Far. 403 When ^ is the root has its original sanee. ffg^^f ^ mt&B ( showed his made bold ) wpft TW AffilUC Bh. by itself when the meaning ii the Padas.16 him or are it is satisfactorily mastered by him.' tortfforiTrTf *&*' 'the joint splits.

404
1

SANSKRIT GRAMMAB.
'*o
IB

[

664

aft**

play
>

Atm.

after the prepositions
'

g^,

3fT,

and

^, 3l3-3TT-<TfT-tf-3frgit> bnt not when
fa
t.
.

*$ governs a noun,

Par. when

it

means
throw*

'plays with Manavaka. 'to creak as a wheel/ as

is

Par when preceded by the preposition*

3rf*r,

q% and
with
'

rra ;

^rprf^Rr 'throws up/ ^MI^Mf^ 'throws

'throws back.'

TO

^

is

weaponj

safest

^^

Atm;
<

^^
it

5^

'

whets or sharpens his

dispels anxiety.'

with^isAtro.

with, join'; *r^f goes to a village.' In the Causal
<

in the sense of 'to be proper, unite d*l**a, ^TTH: ^firss^, &c., but
takes the

Atm. in the sense of
'

having patience or waiting/^
3J\ar

|m*w ?mr^

have patience

first'.

'to

be greedy'

is
'

Atm
'

in the Can.

when the

sense is 'to

deceive/
'he

monns

riNr?*

he deceives MAnavaka-' but *$&

<|^fd

makes the dog greedy.
with ^ro
is

tr

Atm.

when

the meaning

is 'to

pledge one's

S& ^fiRW ^e promises
is

^T^ word; 100 (Rupees, &c.)/ **MftHl 5^0^ * proclaims Hie merits of his master/ but ^rTrrm 2TO *he swallows down a mouthful.' If it ( t. e 6 Oon. ) be preceded by 3ft-, it
word,

to promise, to proclaim;' ^filf?T

'he pledges his

^m^

ij

Atm.

srefttTO ^TTftnf R5Trr:
'to

*

the fiend drinks blood.

'

walk' with 35

is

Atm. when used

transitively-

*?ter3*<n?wr*rPan,. 1. 3. 21. 3^: ^fjTf^RPTmi Sid.Kau. t 3TWT??rmwr: f|nr: Pan. 1. 3. 80. Pan- * 3. 29. t ^Tt
I

*

^^f^WTT^
^T^S*i^

I

.

S 5R^T^?: fTH: Jn%5TT^

I

P^.

1. 3.

51-52.
I

$

3n[W
1. 3.

I

^'fl^dV^T^Tfj^

^MW

fTF

Pan.

63-79.

'664

]

PABASMAIPADA
'

&

ATMANEPADA.

405

ne transgresses his duty.' MM$lWi: ' Bhatf. VIII. 31j but Hmm<ft vapour rises up.' With fro or ^HH^l it is Atm. when used with the instrumental of a vehicle; T^T H^(<\ 'he moves In a chariot' ( See Bh.
\

VIII. 32

);

arf%*ror 3^Rfc

Smt Bag.
Parasm.

XIU.

19.

now

passes

through the path of gods/
3T3
in the Causal takes the

T%*

when preceded by fi and
<to

qn

in the sense of

'

to conis

quer/ and <to defeat' or

find

unbearable/ respectively,
'gets
.'

Atm. fasro%, 3Tf^
study/
VIII.
'her
9. 71.
<

UlsHqe*,

~3renHldl WWlfr
the sky,

tired

of

^ q<MqHMl^r 'filling up
who was
to

&c

?ft

getting disgusted

with/

&c.

Bhatt.

(

^rmi ^^l^r
Atm.

know' used intransitively by itself is Atm. snrS?T Sid. Kau. i. e. ^proceeds to perform

having obtained ghee for it ); with the preposition in the sense of 'denying/ as ^nf 3pr*TRnt denies acknowledging or hundred-/ with srfft in the sense of promising/ and with ^nc in the sense of 'expecting/ it is also Atm. ; snr STKftTTsfift * acknowledges a hundred/
a
sacrifice
is

3W it

*

on the condition of
'looks
for

)

promises the hand of his daughter by the drawing of Hara's bow/ $Ttt

(

t.

e.

mother/

hundred/ *n?rft nprf ^nsmff 'thinks of his When this is used without a preposition and when
a

the fruit accrues to the agent it takes the Atm. irf *rr4ft; when a preposition is prefixed to it and it is used transitively, it takes the Par. *rict$ * iMMtft *g? :. In the Desiderative
this root takes the
'

Atm.

<TtrJ

to heat' with ft or

^
19.

,

when used

intransitively, is

I

Pan.

1. 3.

4tqaHDi^ I ^^yf^lWJIHHIWI^ P&n. Pan- I- 3 - 27. m^rf^iiffi Irfcm
I I

1. 3.
I

44 46j

Vart.

406

SANSKBIT GBAMMAE.
^rfqit or
*

[

664

Aim.
or
<a

QdMH

TJ$:}

when used

transitively it
its

ia

Atm.

if it has a limb of the

body of the agent for

object;

he warms his hand, but STTTllr 5*o goldsmith heats gold', 4bft JtsRT ^TfoTSrTTm; when

ftw&l

ITfifT

it

means

7 practise penance it of the fourth class.

'to

is

Atm. and

is

conjugated like a root

According to some

cT<r

with 3jg

is

Atm;

3*3cfq?t -repents/

( 3 cl. ) by itself takes either pada; but when it is Atm. in any other sense than opening ( the 3H by preceded mouth, &c. ) \CT 3ir3% 'accepts money ;' fifaf 3JT^% 'acquires knowledge-/ ^r^% ^r^at *Wf*T Tg4 ( Sak. ) does not pluck your foliage through affection-,' but g^- cqjTTTfff 'opens his

^T

#<to give

'

;

W
'

*

mouth-/ l^qiT^t
the root/

c?rr53Tf?T S^T
'

1

but if

f^t$9 eTT^fffT breaks open the bank the mouth belongs to another the exception

tDe doctor opens the tumour on of a river;'
is removed; break open the mouth of a

sUTSTJT

mifW gtf frftf^r:
M&h. Bhar.
(

'ants

moth'
^T

(

).

<to give'

singly or coupled

provided

it is

when preceded by the preposition ^m with any other preposition takes the Atm. used with the Instrumental in the sense of the
I. cl. )
'

' Dative; ^TWT tta-ogci or tfsnTx^ gives ( something ) to the maid-sei vant/ but ^TTOT ^CT ^9*T^*n% f%?R gives wealth to a

BrahmaDa through Ma

maid-servant.'
1

S^

'to see

Atm.; ^rowi

preceded by ^q and used intransitively takes the 'sees ( thinks ) well;' this root takes the Atm. in

the Desiderative; f^frld 'wishes to see.'

y
3

<to run' is

Par. in the Oau.
is

with ^r^

Atm.

in the sepse of 'preparing, being

ready

Sid.

Kau.

rf^dt Pan. 1. 3, qTT^I^ R^f: V&r..
I

20.

I

664

]

PABASMAIPADA
'

& ATMANEPADA.
ef.

407

prepares for battle-

Bha.
'to

beg or
to

solicit for
for', 'to

any thing

'

is

used in the Par. in

the sense of
it ia

'

hope

wish well' or

<to

give blessings to/

Sid.

exclusively Atm. *rf<Nt TTO Kau. ifrgm ;mn* 51%: ( Bhop,

)

In "

*rO% T%g

<rfff

*

used in the Atroanep&da. Bhattoji Dikshit supposes that the reading here should be <?ro% and not JTTO^T. Mammata also
in his

W* Bat

1*

" Kir. XIII.

9.

the root is

KavyapraKasha

finds fault

critising the verse fSTm^TSW and &c. says that n$rrf should be ^i^rfar,

when

^
'

with the Atm. use of this root

^^\ ^STT^t

HT

$*tt:

^Tj

<

to lead or carry
3*3*. g'q-

with a preposition or with the prein the following senses:
'

positions
(

or {$ is
<

Atm.

1 )

^T^T^^
Sid.
:;

or

showing regard
2

for;

^i^'

^^r
'

*

gives in-

struction in the COD elusions of the S Astra

(

Kau.
(

),

(

)

^^r^^

Stt^T&ROT or l ftR[?fT ^PRCmfM sn^cft^^: f| 3<Ffan an^'tef &H^ ( Sid. Kan. );
3
)
'

raising up; initiating into sacred rites,
I

or

*

'

(

3<ra*Ri<feaTmTT4 4 ) or ascer-

^f

taining the real nature of; 3r4r ^Tff RfsTJUtfTHr^: ; ( 5 ) *fa ' or ' employing on wages; ^Hch'<|(T?RT?V * employs labourers on ' ' &o ; wage*. ( 6 ) RTn^T or paying off aa a debt, taxes

^

f^Wff *r|r$tf

wm ^%A^ViAn(!^ and
'

(

7

)

&m

or

<

spending
(

or applying to good use;

^Tcf

f%T7% vrrf^

ltm3%

?r?r^:

Sid.

*
t

3TTf$[ft

^T^
I

.

Vartika.

B^
^dfBT

PAn.
q;^
i
I

I. 3.
'

3G-37

^115 tn? Q*i

Sid.

Kau.

408
Kan.
with ft
is

SANSKBIT GRAMMAS.

[

664

). sft

Aim. when

the object

is

something other

than a limb of the body but exists in the agent; as q?ft frnrit;
trat

sfr

ifrvf

f*=wf>
is

fSpar: , irrrt ftsnrft ( turns aside

).

9

with

n*

Atm. sn^tt Atm.

'he praises.

'

srs^*

with

3RT is

in the sense of
10.

(

taking leave

of

3nT*9K* ffcrereWS*" Meg.
'

take leave of this thy dear

friend,

also with the preposition gr$

when nsed

intransitively,

'he ascertains.

'

Atm. except
eats

in the sense of sftrfftr*

'

'

protecting,
'

3Jt3f
protector of

food/ 553*

sfirflW
(

**3T*
'

th

the earth enjoyed

experienced the pleasure from the possession

of

)

the earth alone;'

f

^

3f4t

hundreds of miseries;

'

JTff

f :*rOTTftr ^F old people ' ^Rfe protects the world.
' <

suffer

^r; with qft
touches.
'

is Par.;

sR^tqQ
either

'

endures;

but gfr^sirfr

he

inc J

with
'

3rf is

Atm.

when used

a limb of the body of the agent for
tree spreads;
t

its object;

intransitively or has ' the auq-cgfo

^:

<^N-o^ Trftr^' stretches forth the hand; but arnrsgriR ^mgvr^ draws up the rope from the well preceded f ifc is Atm< exce en ifc has a literary by JETCL, ^X and P work for its object; v^f ^N^$S 'puts on a garment
7

'

^

-

^

;

7

jj

'lifts
*

up a

load;'

rf^ 3*4^
'.

(

gathers rice;' but

tries

qg; with of 'accepting, or espousing a girl;'^rT
iVartika.
1. 3.

hard to learn the Veda

77 is Atm. in the dM^Wfr Accepts the

:

t

S^t^TO

I

P*n.

65.
*1 IH

t
75.

mm; ^f^^ Pan.

H#t mf5T:

I

Pn.

1. 3. 28.

mKUfcufr TOT 3F$r
ftjfrtfwtf
I

I

Pan.

1. 3.

1. 3. 2. 56.

Pan.

1. 2.

16.

664]
gift given;'

PARASMAIPADJL

&

ATMANEPADA.

409

drops

its
;

CTira&Tt ^7VT 'marries a girl'; in the Aoriat this nasal optionally; TT*T: ^Tmt a*4Nd (See TJttar. III. 112), 'makes another's wife his own.' but <r^q- *TT*rf

^nrs^

pjeceded by sr or ^rr, or generally by a prep, beginning or ending with a vowel, and does not refer to sacrificial vessels, is Atm. ST5%, T^%, *3OTT: fOTT *ro ( Bh. VIII. 39): but
'arranges the sacrificial vessels
"srS ftifrk (S'ak.)
sfl^JTi,
;>

q-

f*rf

3mm-

'who appoints her to the duties of the hermitage';
fWfc Rag.

S^rftW

XI

62.

'the lord of the earth asked

his preceptor ;' <TUHrH3mmnMa: six expedients beginning with peace.'
zpj[~-in the Cau. takes the Par.
^jrj-

^IT^ 'Aja employed the
Bag. VIII. 21.

to sport' changes its

positions ft, ?RT and qft; *??TflTriff*JT cease, oh child, this( Uttar. I. 33.). nft>* arfcfh* Ibid. I. 27. Manu. II 79.
4

Pada when preceded by the pre* from

was for a moment delighted with his

Par.;

^^ ^mrm
'to melt,

sight.'

With
)

grrr

it is

fJW?ft??nJ:

(

Sid.

Kau.

When

intran-

sitively used it takes either

Pada
,

;

^MiHI^-l. Sports'; cf .

&c. Bhatt. VIII. 54. 55.

#

to embrace' is

Atm.
'

in the cau. in the tense of

Adoring, defeating or deceiving. vHdlftgsFM^ 'is adorable on account of his matted hairV Zp^* &W*1<\ *3\ 'the dog is defeated by means of a stick ;' 5*5^ gffolggimm ^i^Rl^: ( over-

powers

^rqu^r ) ; reason of his folly.'
in the can. is
'deceives

m^ir

'

WT^rnr.*

the

Brahmana

is

deceived by

in the sense of 'deceiving;' Minavaka;' but stfjf TOTTff 'avoids a serpent.'

Atm.

-

3- 64.

\

Vartika.
I

t
t

II<MR>Wt TR: ^re ^fiq=*ft: TOwnT Pan.

I

f^TTT^^^T^
1. 3. 69.

I

Pan-

I. 3.

83-85.

410

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

[

664

f'to apeak' is Atm. in the following senses: ( 1 ; or 'showing brightness ( pioficiency in )j ^n% sr^T 'is adept in ' the Sastra ; ( 2 ) ^q^iVTTT or 'conciliating or coaxing' (generally
f

^

preceded by ^q-

);

^
(

ledge'

srrer

1&

Wfirr?^^^ mc^rrftaw-, 'knows the Sastra/ ( 4 )
in the
field-'

(

3

)

=TR

or

'know-

trgr

or

'effort, toil;'

^^%
(

'labours

(5)frof*f or 'disagreement,

quarrel,'

generally preceded by f% in this sense
HHr*i
'of

); N<4^rd; q^Qft mutually conflicting Saatras / and

6

)

^mrsror or 'coaxing, requesting / ^r^rf ^<T^T

'praises the

donour,'

&c

with

^fsr it is

Atm.

in the sense of 'distinct and

'the

loud speech (as that of men gathered together )' ^ Brahmanas are speaking aloud together .' bat

7%orJj TTr!3 ^OT^f^cT <?F^T: 'oh beautiful one, the cocks are crowingj' with 3^5 it is Atm. when used intrasitively; atffi^fr tt> 3ttmW -the Katha BrabniaDa imitates ( speaks on the side
the Kalapa Brahmana; 7 but 337 3f|3$lff 'reproduces what is said j' '^g^m snoTf 'the lute imitates the notes (indistinctly );' with f%sr it is optionally Atm. in the sense
of or recites like )
:

of 'disagreeing or disputing
disagree; with
ing, refusing/
grq- it is

-'

Atm.

|%ST^7^T-^ %?TT: the physicians in the sense of 'reviling, reproach-

when the

fruit of the action refers to the agent

^T?
the result does not

7 'greedy of we&lth reviles others unjustly-

'refuses justice

;'

but ^M^^lff 'reproaches'
);

(

when

refer to the agent

cf.

Manu. IV. 236; when the fruit of the action is indicated as referring to the agent the Atm. is optional ^3^ STT^r^m-'cr ^f with ^qr in the sense of 'advis( Sid. Kau. on Pan. 1. 3. 77 );
;

^

ing or speaking stealthily/ when used transitively,

is
'

Atm.
speaks

ftt

3<nr^T 'gives advice to his pupil;'

M^KK sq-^

stealthily with another's wife.

t
:
I

Pan.

1. 3.

47-50, 73.

664

]

PARASMAIPADA
both Par. and
'

& ATMANBPADA.
is

411

rc
Parl
f%^*

is

Atm. but with %
2nd
cl. )
'

restricted

to

the

to

know

'

(

with

*fij

is

Atm. when used

intransitively in the sense of knowing of, being aware of/ and adds j; to optionally in the 3rd per. plural; ^ft^r or tff^r

^

know well;' cf. % * fiN^d srtfr&n^rftTOT^RjaTT Bh. VIII. 17.; who do not know that the mountain Mainaka ia the friend of Vayu ?.' but *n%rf: FSH^jft <T^fif> ^TOT Bhatt. V. 37, aa it is used transitively. It is also Atm. with ^f^ in the sense
they
*

of

'

recognising-,' as tfnNf.

f^tf with ft is Atm. fti$^?t; %pq;;qrf} rgfc$l(T &o, Bhatt VI. 143. Alao when ^ft is prefixed to f%, 3TmRR5Tff ^JTHT ( Sid. Kan. ) 'takes to a good path-/ see Bh. VIII. 80.
3T<jJ-

meaning

even

when
S

<to reproach or to abuse' takes the Atm. the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent;

takes the
*

Atm.

in the

sense of

*

wishing to study;'

f%$T<T
3

wishes to study archery.'
'

ft <to ^ ear w i tn ^f^ i hears well-/ 3W frsjqj^r
fl

Atm. when used
(

intransitively;
<

'

^5jnj^

Bhat. VII. 16. )

Listen with
1.

heed, oh

monkey/
'

f%ar5T T: ^oyff ^T fip SJS: Kir. he hears the sound/ This root takes the
cf.

5 ; but
in

Atm.

the Deaiderative, except
3*T

when

3TT

or

srf?T

precedes

it,

^^It;

but

TOT

S^fpTwith ^F,
3??r, sr

and ft

is

*
t %ft^T:

Vartika. %wf3rHP?r Pan.

Pan.

I. o. 17.

J ^rq"

STToJ*^

I

Vartika.
i

Vartika.

:

|

Pan. 1.3.22
Pan.

3^ srfd^l^ligTO^TR^ Vartika
|

Pan.

1, 323.

24

Vartikas.
1. 3. ^6.

^TT^H^^ot

I

1. 3.

25.

Vaitikas.

412

SANSKRIT GRAMMAE.

[

664

.

1. 36. )
'

one who
till,

is

&c.

it is
|

mild, used in the Par. grot Hariv. );

Bee

Mrch.

'fearing an outrage does not abide by 1. 36. ( In the sense of standing

*

qfiteld

^RtTO?^

sfn^N 1*^(3^3: )
'

'

if

*

'being

remains breathing though only for a moment;
I

Sis. 11. 34. srfifff?*

SeeRagh. IV.

6;

Kum.

22. f*filH%;

Atm.

WTCtr fttfisriTR Sis. IV. 4; with HT it is in the sense of ' laying down a proposition, asserting

*)$*

H* ft* WT W CTTOHIWKft
Par.

solemnly;' ^rs^ f*ftf 3*Tm&^

'

Affirms that
'

sound

is

'

eternal;

for thy sake I will ( Mah. Bh&. ) 7 drink water or poison; in the sense of ' observing' it takes the

when used
is

transitively; ftfimrf^BrfS
itself in the sense of
iftcfjr
'

'

observes

the vow.'

TOT

Atm. by

disclosing one's intention
I

or abiding by;'

recourse to

Karna

faerfr, 3H^nf ST*HHIlft ffq*p Kir. IIL 14; 'who, when in doubt, takes and others ( as the deciders of the matter in

$nw

'hand

is Atm. except in the sense of 'getting up or getting by right.' Htfcl^frlB^ 'earnestly thinks of (aspires to) absolution-/ ( See Kir. XI. 13. and Sis. XIV. 17. >, but <ffora hundred is yielded to him by a
).'

With 3^ it

village ( as tax, &c. ).' With 37 it is Atm. in the sense of: * ( 1 ) worshipping with the recital of holy texts,' s?rjJ ' worships the Agnidhra fire with the recital of Vedic

Bh. VIII. 13, but H 5* qft^ftBft ;nfr Vop. ) where the meaning is to approach for intercourse, to serve,' See Bhatt. V. 68, ( 2 ) < waiting upon, worshipping ( a divine being )' am^rg^fflTSHj ( the Atm.
texts,'

* ^Jgrrr^T% ***-

C or

use of the root in ^5?^ fgftffrreqrf^aw STTWft' Rag. VI. 6. is to be explained, thinks Bhattoji Df kshita, by the fact that the

king

is

considered to be a divine being
d;
(

),

(3) 'uniting or joining;
'

4

'

)

forming iriendship with

^: (Sid. Kau.); and (5) 'to lead to' rf%B% 'this way leads to Srughna.' When a desire to get something i implied &n with &t takes either Pada;

Age:

664

]

PARABMAIFADA

&

ATMANEPADA.

418

<a

When
ftfgft

beggar waits on a lord ( with desire of getting something it is used intransitively it takes the Atm;
'comes at the dinner time.'
is

).

*3
^r

fis
fjj*

Atm. in the Desideratiye; Par. in the causal;
3TT is

3fq$t
lerrifj}'

with fr^ and
with

Atm.j

^fosrfr 'roars so as to

Bhatt. IX. 28.
an*

ww*

'utters a loud sound.'

when used

intransitively or
is

when

it

has a limb
'kills

of the body of the agent for its object dashes down-/ **%T 3TTfrf Strikes his
(

Atm.; 3TT$^
head;' but

or

own

Bid.

Kau.
is

)

in the senses of 'following the habits the natural of, acquiring Quality of;' ^[CTrar 3HS<fr 'hones always follow the gait of their progenitors;' so mcTf Tnc~

ft

with 3f3

Atm.

' ' 3*357%; in the sense of acquiring a new quality by imitation it takes the Par. fMtUHi5<fd ' imitates his father. ^q preceded by ^q, ft, f%, and ^p^ and used intransiti|rj
'
}

vely
sense

is

Atm. ^r
of
'

ftT^ ^
^rgff

challenging;'
to
battle;'

gT%; with 3r it is Atm. in the < Krishna challenges $>MJl84im^H!y^

Oh&nura

^K<IU^<fR

Sis.

XXI.

1.

but

in.

The following Kansas, extracted from the A'khy&tachandrika are subjoined here, with some alterations herb and there, as a help to the student in remembering much of what is given
in the present chapter.

fffc

WRW

I

HT5* WT
STT
I

Sid.
5

Kau.

f gTff^fffffl^1<^ Vartika.
1. 3. 30,

t

ftWiMftgft 5:

wfrmT!?F: Pan.

31

-414

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

664

11

ii

*
:

it

II

II3.M

:

II

v

H

u

x
:

u

U

1%:
II

^q: u $ u

U u

vs

!|

n

u

II

3

^^Mft
:
II

II

n
u

II

IMV
w.
sr?:

u

IM^

u

;

664

]

PARASMAIPADA

&

ATMANEPADA.

416

n u
u
:

i*

n

u
^
u
:

||

IM%

U

:

u
II

*o

n

:

^^
:

II

U u

^^

n

416

SANSKRIT GRAMMAB.

[

664-666

u
:

U

U

CHAPTER

XIV.

VERBAL DERIVATIVES
or

PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES.
Derived by means of the Krt Affixes.
665. The Krt affixes (Vide 337) are added to roots or to their modified forms to form nouns, adjectives, and indecli<fe^H &c.

These are called Krdantas or Primary Nominal Base*

as distinguished from the Secondary Derivatives formed with, the Taddhita affixes.
666.

There

is

a peculiar class of Krt or Primary

affixes

designated by Sanskrit grammarians Vnadi or those beginning with the affix sqr i. 0. the affix 3* with the mute or indicatory letter cj go called from the words gap
technically
,

9T5. &c. in the
TJjQadi affixes

first

Sutra being derived with the

affix.

These
forirt

form primary nouns, like other Krt

affixes

verbal roots, but are classed separately because their application is limited, because the nouns derived by their means are*
senses

either formed irregularly, or the connection between their and the meanings of roots from which they are-

supposed to be derived is not BO clearly discernible as in the case of other primary derivatives; . g. arsg^ 3*c*R 7TRtmi 7 'to pervade/ 9T 3T^: "a horse which is derived either from

3^

or from 3TO3(

'

road;'

and

3TTT

with

f%,

&c-

OT^

'

an artisan

from

&

'to do,'

&c.

667]

PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES.
SECTION
PARTICIPLES
(

417

I.

Declinable and Indeclinable

).

1. Participles (
( a
)

DacUnable

)

Participles of the Present Tense.

is formed by participle of the present Purasm. the addition of the affix g^ to that form of a root, primitive or derivative, which it assumes before the third person plural

667.

The

termination of the Present Tense.
is

If the base ends in *r, the 3T

dropped;
1 cl.
)

e.

g.

T%(

*T^4- 3Tfr?r Pro. 3rd pi.

TO+ 3T^=? *Rcl

Pre. P. being.

( 1 cl. )

standing.
hating.

similarly

from

3R[

(

2

cl. )

3Tf^ eating.

^( 7

cl. )

qT
(

(

2
3

el. )
cl. )

qj<j going.

3, ( 8 cl. )

^^
)

sacrificing

^
g^
-

^v^ preventing. $% doing.
fftn* buying.

( 8 cl.

)

<Tr^ stretching, &c.

4
(

cl. )

frars playing.

gpr (0 cl. )
( (

5

cl. )
1.

^?^ extracting.
3^. gi vin g
of
VT
,

9

cl. )

gor^ stealing,

&c.

6 ^ (

P ain

5JT

10

cj - )

^""^ stesHng.

lu.

^NHfl
,

causing to

know,
to

desid. of ^vj

^tm^^ desiring

know,

desid. of
[.

^ f%cWX
&c.

desiring to give.

of f^T^, %f^nr^ throwing again and again.

&c.
(

&c.

&c.

&c.

a

)

The term. The

3^

is

to the root
(

fa^; ft[^
affix
7

optionally changed to ' ' or knowing.

^
'

when added

Rl^

b

)

ar^ when added

to fi^ and

^

to extract

Soma

juice in a sacrifice has the sense of an agent; agf^^OT. 'an enemy.' Tfl' ^rS ti^^'d- 'all are the extractors of Soma juice in a sacrifice.

H.

S.

G.

27

cl. P. 2.' * ^ ( 1 cl. The The declension of the Participles in stfj has been treated of in 669. fires. 4th.cl.) ^^T. killing.' ^ ^ ( 7. ol. ) of ^TR is changed to | in the case of q^. cl. and ^ can. g. 5(6. ) l^NTR ' < growing. ol.) fTSTOR ( 6. . and base ends in 3T> caw of roots of the 1st. in the 6th and 10th. extracting. 3JT5T is changed to OTT.' IMHHabo.' but 668. pre. cl. 670. respect.) 'one the who of saored 'one sacrifices. ) armT* ^TR 'lying down. ) ^reTR 5^ g^TTR ' giving pain/ ^v\|M 'obstructing.' one deserving respect. to to know/ know/ &c. ) ^ ( 3. ) tt with STT ( 2. ) buying/ ^r (10. cl. take the affix 3^ when the idea of di- fficulty is not present^ 3TOT*T5t'stu lying without experiencing any difficulty/ VTIT^^ 'holding or bearing with ease-. tfV ( 2. ) ( 9. 7 q^HRR: that which purifies. III. cl./ ^VTR folding.' saluting'. VIII.418 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB has the sense of < [ 667-671 re) When ' affixed to 3* it fitness. cl. derived roots. hence. participles of the Present Aim. respectable/ ( d ) f2 P. 671. cl. 116. Rag. the root f 6 sn^ 'to eit/ Pre. cl. ) ( The an 2. 3TRft5r. 126. * The termination an* may be added -^TH^t 1 to any root Pan. ) *froF?T ( 1. ) 3TR added ' to the roots ^ and e.) &c. classes. or rather when the before which the 3T of the base remains unall changed< 9. $sftor 'doing. iryr ( 1. ) f ( 3. cl. the wind (c/. forms nouns. 9. ) ( 8. 'stretching. ) 7 'playing. is formed by adding Before sfffi to it. ) cl. the root which undergoes the same changes as before the termination 3^ or gr% of the 3rd pi. ( ^r^snrwr-^r^iTRTSf 'causing desideratlve f Jftf^W-^tRl^RniT 'being desirous 5^ cau.' 7 f^(4./ fift ( 2. g. cJ.nft 'stealing/ cl ) ff ( 8. cl.

' stolen ' ' know. *. is formed by adding m^ and an*T generally to that form of the root which it assumes before the termination of the 3rd per. ^rctntttT gj^T. Root Perf. Base ( 3rd pi ) Pers. ^ . . De9. ^frij $*iw. ' 3rcrflTT what is ' eaten. ( see 584 ). g. g. and therefore the radical vowel does not take The penultimate nasal is its Guna substitute before toese. and Aim. f is optionally prefixed in the case of the roots ipj. what is done. ' 419 in the sense of in the habit of ' or ' to show a * particular standard of age. to and when tbey do not take 5. . ^^ ' HPT 672. -cOJmm is caused to who what cau. plural. f 5*. g. to 673. The participle of the Pre. 1^ has the intermediate f added to it. Passive is formed by adding to the Passive base in q-. If this form consists of one syllable only or when the root ends in sn. Pass. or capacity to do a thing.' 37^ TOffR: the enemy. e. to know. gfiqin* * who or what * is given. able to kill i.671-675 ] PBIMARY NOMINAL BASES. or Pass. termination. sing. form this ^r^ and trq[ and 5T3 base that which from they would asiume before the participle 2nd per. ago young enough armour. and the Past parti- oiples are weak. of the 674 The termtea*kms Perf. The participles formed according clined like nouns ending in gf ni. generally dropped 675. Ptc. ' ' < ' who or what ' $c. 5r*> fi& and f^ ( 6 cl. f to go ??i ift*^t w^ Of . ^ PABASKAIPADA. gui^M who or what is ' ' known. ' &o. ^rf^7RTOT who or what is debired is gathered. ( 669 are de- b ) Participles of the Perfect.f. ). The participle of the Perf Par. * one habituated to enjoy pleasures:' of a sufficient I%flTOT: to bear e. famjim ' who or what is what is scattered. and n. *.

to cook >. ) to carry fifcft who or what carried. sacrificed. or saw. spoke. &c. entered. ATMANEPADA. to enter r or has or or . to do speak q^to sg ?5 to praise to hear &c. ( a ) For the declension of these participles see 124. . .> to break to broke. and ( 1 ) In the cage of roots beginning with is not inserted as it is in the Perfect.420 Boots sfr SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. to know. Perf. throw do threw. to speak to sacrifice . Base ( 3rd pi. cooked.&c. [676 Perf.. to praise to to split to give to eat to see ate. f to carry to give r 7 3? to cook to sacrifice a &c. ptc. praised.

* taken become/ 5-5^ ^-^rT 'heard. Roots capable of taking Sampras&rana take it 680. adaiit of also ^1 A. q and g. The affix ft is weak. and Atm.f. |r g. g. and first is finally redu- reduplicated and 0. . final *% changing aa before. ft*^ 1 ol. are formed by the addition of the Perf. fklfy Qaoa change bafore ft when f is prefixed 6866 ). 681.675-681] ( PIUMAKY NOMINAL BASES. undergoes the changes mentioned in plicated: when a root is Atm. the . The Past Passive r of the affix ' to the root' e. ^ ^ 394. F+ ^Tjf by reduplication similarly < j%r!^. ' ' fsr-^fcT l con- quered. which then h ) 676. .. Participle is formed by the addition 679. before she jj affix ft. loes the same when it takes f ( see (a) W and W to it. of the auxiliary 3^ or ^ to the base in 3TPA[ 8- </ (c) Past^Passive Partioiplea.' or me'thought 'abandoned/ T%5-f%TT/ away/ fiT^-^TT^ rff-^tff carried/ ^-^ t ditated upon/ &c. is added to the root. irregularly. n. The f%rr only participles that are most commonly to be met with are those formed from the roots 678. it is afterwards added. ^T-^fcf bathed. Exceptions: the The roots ^ft. The Perfect participle is not frequently used. by reduplication + C77. 421 These are declined like nouns ending in 3^ m. The participles of the Periphrastic Perfect Par. Participal forms verbs 3?. Boots ending in and 3? ineladed ) form their ( fj Perf. m^. P.

cri d out &c. %* called &c. The augment f ia prefixed to this certain roots. and roots ending in consonants generally. or when it conveys tho sense of beginning perform the action or undergoing the condition < expressed by the root. snrri%<P SrgJJ similarly. As a general rule. all roots ending in a vowel. heard. ?^ sacrificed. and guch as take the f optionally before any termination. but to begin to ' or or delight JTg% U]Rtf%?t STRtf^TJ srg%t *gTt<T-' or to *TW &c.422. 1^1^ awakened. ?^ fT W^~W m?G abandoned. seen. ^p^ ff^ covered. <TT P.. *% . become. P. ^ fried. done. Such of the roots 01 tte 1st [ 681-684 class as have ? for their penultimate change their vowel to Gtina optionally. P. Sjrvj-. when the affix a. Roots. Participle is used impersonally. Ptc. and the P. P. do AnU not take % the rules of Sardhi given in the foregoing chapters that are applicable in particular cases ought to be observed. P. ^-XT^firtf or 682. Boots. optionally in the caae of & in the case of some and not at all in the case of others.f^ pierced. SANSKRIT QBAMMAE. 684. 5Jsr obtained. TKT protected fr?T resorted ta carried. radical nasal is generally dropped. See 674 683. g^ Ho delight' gf^r<T. T ^r cJ^Q QTT slept. g<T ^^^^ substitutes gr for its ^ ^5 bound. ( ^rfc* The Penultimate ).is added with the intermediate f . Ptc. covered. woven.

&o.bnrot &- srraf accomplished. &c. sfnrffa. &c. Ptc. Ptc. Rooti. f^ f^JJ gg- WW destroyed *ftf licked gr? or ^f fainted able [ ^^9* bound tf^ T%T! sprinkled ^TT diopped --^r asked Exceptions: ( a ) $ft. Ptc. spoken concealed pe d off> ?j^ fjft ^ bitten f^j hated. ] PRIMARY NOKIKAL BASES. P.684-685 Boots. grown happened.' STfoRT Spread. 'inspected. and Atm. f^qn?r ( b ) q^ The takes f though roots it admits of f optionally in the Desiderative ( e ) A nit *^ and gy^ admit f before ft and 685. P. ^ FTT endured ^>J ^1 &c. ^rRffr. P. and all derived roots Set roots ( subject to roots of the Tenth Glass and causals reject their Par. ^TT *nd 3[flffT take f. the final yowel of the last first two takes Gnna substitute. P. and the two drop their final.' Boots. grig. Ptc.' . Frequent a tivea q*: their final 3?. 1 ^[ TO *Vide 437. . admit of f leal 684 ). completed. Frequent at ives their Roots P. P. ^RlfT 'spoken. ^j Tfc-J* *? satiified ^53^ borne <T? perished. 'told. 425 P. rite governed ^rq. P. sw.

Base of Exceptions: f?r. 1. Par.424 Booto.n.' 'taken. hair/ or when it and ^'4.' &c.^j(.. -B.. Pto. to to observe. 'increased [ 685-686 Roots. 4.. q>. ^r ^. 3ifHcTj ITST. 'wasted. 1 des. The following with roots insert f optionally: 3TT. ' Fre. * ftw>. ?ftW. P. Ptc. . f%pH[ Base of gv 'made to know. participles in f and others irregular ly. and JV. Base of f>r sfrgftcT frequently known/ f|iir Par. ). f%g^ 'to know. . 1. 4. P. A. perished/ qiftRtt VW. tT* SANSKBIT GBAMMAE.. TC. ipr ( see G88 ). of 3? 'desired to do/ Stolen} deceived. cl. kill. P.*. Fre.' a. <*Rnr ^r^ oau. they will be given in their proper places. ). P. There are many Set roots which reject the intermediate f but their P. horripilated with joy/ ?TT^ fi^t and Icf > ^ take ? optionally oefore ?f and roots admit of f optionally before 3 when the P. ( see 696 ^filrT. P. Participle is used impersonally or conveys the sense of beginning to perform the action or to undergo the state c ) ( The following expressed by the root. 1%> *&$ and % 1. P.' &c. 'to go. b.' ^tfW Atm. See a ) 696 a ^3. as some of them form 686. P. 7 'shaken. when used with 5^*73 'the means Ho be surprised or disappointed.*s. sTfrff. % i.. ^[.

mannered'. not need in f^oruur. with 'worshipped / ( takes f . cr and sfiT cnacgeable to snr ) and beginuing with a conjunct consonant containing a semivowel also substitute r for cT 5 JfT to run. . ^Tf. B. is N. ^HT and g?r.' ST^f^cT or cl. A.f* is substituted for final ^ 3 when it immediately follows a ^ or ^r .. * Pan VIII. 4 f^r^ 'Chaitra has begun to perspire. $?: 425 '- or srf?ro: he has perspired/ &o. rf 'filled/ (alsov^pf when it means 689. sounded in the sense of 'to worship 7 687. . \&~$ 'perspired. 42-44. Roots ending in ajr* ( q-. ft^TKffT 'tormented or ill-treated' 688. ^^r 'to name/ &c. 5T and ^^J ^ ).686-690 ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. VTTTff . has f^rf^r also.f%5T in other cases. ST- Exceptions : (a) fvr^ has fiTf when it means 'a party a portion. WrM 3H"f% <TT?t) and (b) ^r^ reject % when they express the idea of 'immodesty or rudeness / TJE <rucle/ fifSTW 'ill. (b) f%^ P. the sense given above these roots reject inarticulately/ &c.' pro in other senses. to sleep/ groT} y < to ' fade/ T$yT5Ti v3'-?wnT : 'collected to a mass/ &o. takes <T i Q the serse of 'fit for enjoyment or famous. property/ (%TT: 'famous' . this final ^ is also changed to ^: f*R[-f3n5r.' ffi^r 'wealth. ?5TOT RBTrfl *f 2. When the participle ^. J . ^. trifled with/ &c.' but qffa overpowered. Exceptions -. ^Tcf. arfsjrT ^-^3. (a) 3f>^[ but 3^: 'gone'. roots given at ^ 'to contemplate/ sq- and *The 414 and *m substitute f for ?f. ( c) the same as W^. 690.

P. Ptc. . to nourish to hurt. 4 A. I Scft to go. &T A. to move. P. to accomplish ft P. etc. to move to gratify to shake w jj to bear. to swell to bring forth.426 Boots. to grow.. fr SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Ptc. to break r fror 6. far . to waste hurfc 6. A. to move tO to tear to load to fill. to hold ^ T to go. to to torment to dry. ^ jq ^t ^ IT ^H to scatter to ifurr grow old 3/TiT to praise. ^ to hold. to flow. to cover 1. fTto go CT to abandon to be ashamed with {> with qft 4. P. 3 and 'Q Ho sound } indistinctly/ substitute ijtf. A. fly Boots. 691. [ 690-692 Boots 3} P. to kill to choose to tear asunder ^ <g to destroy to out to go to scatter to utter a sound. Ptc. P. to be languid 4 A. ^ft P. Ptc. etc. Old ?ftof $T $V T to melt. ^ 'gone/ % ?ft The following roots substitute ^ for ff: Boots. to give ifV^ 4* to produce to pain flr to perish. A. P. for lengthen their vowels $ 692. P. P. $4. A.

) gone. t. die. ft^.irroror ^frsr or^H. the change is optional. I VIII. &c. VIII. has when it is used with 'one's own limbs/ 9^. IT. ' ' a sport in which nothing is staked. WT and ft take * or OTf and ftor 35T olr 3W> f*W or 695. fjfcfofrsflr: <fche fire is extinguished. f is not substituted for its vowel. or pity expressed. 5R-* 427 ' 693.?> debt} but 379. but when it is used with 3*73 or 37^ with the preposition STT. $fiorTS: or %mg: HW t. nffH <ffa Pan. srcqro:. but when a curse is implied. '& ^ffct T^F when preceded by :. 2. f Pan. reduced. ccrrar ft^r.f or cffa in other cases. ( * ^r . ' ( a ) when ' it means ' ' to incur debt substitutes . 3rroror^T?(.but ) ^ takes : . 60. arm^: 3?^. ^^. P. ' . ft^Wfr gfti the age is absolved. 6. tutes fT. has *n* for its ) t err with f%^ takes ^ except when it subject. 3?nr^n4 or arfi^fW ^ff. f in necessarily substituted. Participle has an active sense. 2.' when it be coagulated or cold' it* 3 takes qnm<m (f ). 49-50 . the change if optional. A.. a^VHft or a^r- but roots 694. The 3^ . ( cJ but qtf gambling.T when the notion of touch is not pretenlf means but also 'to scorpion contracted through cold.693-695 ] PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES.. substiand lengthens its f ^fi^T. emaciated.' gfiar: ' or fiftf-* a^tf H<TC$T ' oh. ^fpt ^?t. with g^fir and an* srfirj mTl^T fff. the poor ascetic has ( c ) ( grown thin but f ff ^ takes ^ when it does not ' mean ' < to gamble-. when the P. &^d not ^ftf as the idea of touch is present here. when it is preceded by a preposition. aud c*n. as cqrqr: or <fhr: ^y:.

a vowel is someit is times changed to 37 before dropped. $nT ^ ^ 'to bow' 53 r^ *TH <TO * to strike/ 1 f fT f?f *rq( 'to restrain 1. Ptc. 698. the root sr^ 1. 696. when gtft. think'. ) ^r^^ ' much/ .' Uhe mind. % R^ ^ or ^T ( See The following roots (some forming their P.' 'attached. P. P. P. P. ). the S3 mo time lengthen their vowel. &<?. fef ' &c. 'to go ' TO cTcf ^ to serve. and the eight roots of the 8th class-^ and others ( seo p. Kau. o.' f^^ftfts^T ^Ipa^ *a note. *j?T 'to sport P. P. The roots 373. irregularly ) reject 5 in the limited sense attached to each: 'a churning handle. ^ cT and ^[. 355 ) drop their nasal before a weak termination beginning with any consonant except a nasal or a semivowel: Roots. [ 696-699 ( ) Roots ending in a nasal long then their penulti- mate vowel before a weak termination beginning with any consonant except a nasal or a semivowel.' TOTC) <a decoction easily ( prepared.428 a SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. Ptc. drop their nasal and at SffiT. A radical ^ preceding or following or *T. it is preceded by ^ ^^T.' 'to shine'' ^TT gpr 'to graze' ^ ^ ^ 697.' 'indistinct. ^gtiT. Roots P. ^fcT. 699. 5$ 693. or before the affix ( b ) Anit roots ending in a nasal. P. 'to sound.' OTrafi^fr Sid.' 'darkness. Trq( 'to. ^^3701.

&c. 5T* * &c. <rf 'to gf*r?r. j^rf.' or . as ^T. to shake to be thin 3 (f) ? or ? (t) 5 <fftW a master. to cleanse. increased']. irregularly: Hoots. The following roots form their P. to putrify. to sing to split (ff)f5cT 4c. P. form their P. to suck ^ to be diffi- cult or painful. P. fe<m^. Ptc. ifQ to stink. 'grown. Participle? Roots. |j g^ 5 otherwise to put.699-701 ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES.' he lean. to weave. the touchstone. 701. to stink. to measure. or A . 429 In their usual senses they have and 700. to eat. P. give/ and %. > to be bulky or strong. srrf3* 3t3rT &c.' or 'convalescent. ^TTcT ^Tt 'to sharpen.j ^ may optionally be retained also . ^rf. 3T3RTW. faint. mar is very diffiC ' expand. gold rubbed on to barter. be intoxicated. with or w in the sense ft to cut. ^ to bind. *fhf. qr to drink.' in other cases 1. to instruct. Ptc. Ptc. the of ^rf is dropped after a preposition ending in a vowel . P. in this latter case the preceding 5 or & is lengthened. The study of gram- q^r to cook. q7c[ MTT vf vfrff of 'being near. P.. P.

of *' dwell/ intransitive roots.W. ' &c. P. or eating' shows the place where the action takes place. P. * participles have not always a passive force: affix ft The added to roots having the sense of 'sitting or going. cle( lit. [ 701-705 Roots. Ptc. or 'sounded. Madras/ v&rtft 9R9F*' Hari embraced Lakshmi: have an active sense. irftts? W5TSTO 'I went to 'the boy has become languid. P.3Tr% 5FH ^T.430 Boots. ' 4. g^flHlf%gtgft* ' ^ ' ^rTHT^rraiT: ' slept . and of the roots fsr^. ' *p Ananta took his food. The P.H$^H1 3TT%ft 'this is the place where Mukunda to of | $ qift ronrft: this used to pass. P. experienced. and ^ . ' ' is Kam& q^ the path by which the husband BTtfrTOT 'this is the place where 705. P. is added to sr *nCT3( in the same sense.' 'clever. sit.' * skilful. . 4. go. to*). cl. become dry. ( a ) The roots 3 and q^ take the affix q-gr like ft in an active sense. on Besha. 702.' & with sr to delight' to cook (also CTCT 'boiled' cau. ivr ( who knows the and ft here the ^ is not changed dangerous spots in a river ) but in other cases. ' III. - P. 53. Participles of roots implying motion. one with srfifr srfff*|3r. 704. participles in ft or ft follow the Declension of nouns in The P. ( also gfjuiclfl )> The 3?. gfto? or 5f^ ' one who has optionally 7 become old 703. of SIT ) (when it quali- with with ver. Ptc. Q*93 'one who extracted Soma juice/ 'one who has offered a sacrifice*/ 3^. $ft. to SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 48.

RcT. to be to do to scatter 5 ^ etc. Bee Bhati. T%^ to cut %*r etc.' n>3H|fr$t sat on Garuda. simply by dropping the final f and the final the ft. etc. *j?T P.g. : ' ^R : grew old after the world. Passive. ' Past Active Participles. P. king/ TOrf ^1%^: f^: 3U%: ^he (d) he w honoured by the kindled/ so *rm: etc. Pto. as 5TT5TO 'speech'. scattered . know. Participles of roots meaning <to think or to to adore/ and of the roots r*j. . 125. The root. have fire is sense of the present Tense. and the Passive Participles. derived to 708 Past Active participles are Passive Participles in Roots. *fr etc. as well Participle of the Simple Future. VII. . 13- 3 or tf by adding from the P. one by substituting *nT for . the Second Future of a 709. g. ( e ) Participle of the Future Tense.706-709 ' ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. The Atm.j ^of^g. P. Pto. fi^ST^ etc. Roots. $rftr<T 'sleep*. Atm. ^!T qftof "^Wl^ one or *hat has been done 3ff*g. is formed from person singular formed is Ptc. 707. Par.' 706 P.. 5%rT 'laughing/ similarly fcnt. P. Active of form the third as Passive. Pararsm. or or . Participles have sometimes the sense of neuter abstract nouns. cufc etc. TT^T.' ' wish/ tfie 'to P. e. The P. them the affix *?r e. TK. Ac. k 431 : ' dwelt in Vaikuntha/ f5T*g<Tf%<T: served Shiva/ ' observed a fast on the day sacred to Hari/ was born after Rama.

<T These Participles are declined like words ending in and 3T. Before the penultimate short of a root take their Guna substitute. &c.'HI. &c. Anit roots take it optionally. [ 709-712 Atm. ( /) Potential Participles ( and Verbal Adjectives ). and not to ^ ( as it sometimes does ) T: | P&n.: off iff q^ Fre. 711. affixes The Potential ?T Participle is formed by means of the *<&?> 3RT*T. . This is transitive and impersonal when the verb intransitive. Similarly fqTft^ Veal. 1 ) Participles in 357 and 3tfhr are added fit 712. Passive. The affixes <T3r or 3T*fi*T to roots or derivative bases in the sense of 'must be these the ending vowel and to be/ &c. Before srfhr 3ftr penultimate eg* is always changed to g. and rarely rf^r. and Wet e. added to a root or derivaPassive when the verb is is tive verb. or A. It is also used like an adjective when denoting ( fitness. Before ftzq Set roots take f . arfsrax ^rmanair I Vdrtika. B of ^sTPTf^l^J^ . SANSKRIT GBAMMAR. 1. 710. roots do not. TiH(3^m FT. Par. 96. Base of &c.432 Roots.

is preceded q. is is 5 > known 712. of root 8 of the tenth class and of can- sals. censured. heard. 28. Freq.of changed to gn^r against f Q^ lengthened instead of being Gupated before a strong. when the q. G. &c. . the final 3? of by a vowel and the whole are dropped Atm. Atm. what must. what must or ought to be given. The 7 H. frequently * The %. Freq. what must or ought to be searched ft into. To Deeiderative bases it is added without any change g. coccealed. Ptc. . The final 3T&.. termination beginning with a vowel. . Pot. . 433 Boats..when it is preceded by a consonant. Bases.. of 8. 713. created. done.$ 712-713 ] PRIMABY NOMINAL BASES. atolen.. wiped. . or ought to be told. known. Base of arftTHT*! ^53. before SRiq". fried. released. made to know. e. carried. been.

f% %qsfrr ^ 715.' &c. and q^ . cut. Base of fvj.< and aft changeable to fit gn ) is changed to ^f %q* what is % %r STf or ought to be given. q^. ^q^ni ask/ ^ 'wealth ought to be acquired. take the affix q when . freq.' 'look for. Besi. The affix By q (q^)* 'fit means of qq^ is vowel in the sense this of for. 'what ought to be spoken ZI^-ITO [II. .' Before q the radical vowel undergoes Gupa substitute and final tr. led or carried. The roots not preceded by a preposition ^^^ . ^ ( changed to ^) is inserted 'what ought or is fit to be 5 )^.. rT^T 'what is fit to be laughed at/ 'what ought to be killed. 714. [ 713-717 r Atm. 3TT?M killed / 3( is also inserted when ^p^ is preceded by 97 if the meaning be <to prise / ^q^yq: ^ig: 'a Sadhn onght to be between SlRtfvq praised / but 716. Base of *% ^pg-qsftq' what must or ought to be frequently. IN" . ^q<i and ( q ). ^T^ and frg take the affix q-.484 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 3CT (<. fJlfvUuftir (2) Participles in q. . collected.( desired to know. 1. sucked. $r for their penultimate Roots having and ending in a consonant of the labial class take the affix q* (a) When &* and is preceded by 3TT. . or ought to be. The 5^ to ^q 717. 97. uq^ ). or fit added on to roots ending in a to be.. roots ff^ 'to laugh at/ 'to kill/ ^r^ to q^ao strive/ ^r^.

In XV3II. ) but 3<rennT 3| ( 3-T^ + tni^) ^r^ff snw^T fq^: (Sid. Kau. T ) Q*FWt 'the name dentation/ but 3*9^ ( 3^+ST^+^n> of a preceptor ought not to be tittered ( out of respect )/ qtnrr take the . 722. ' a master ora Vaishya' take q. If it . The traneact business/ 3^ implying reproach. 1WT ^with 3tt may take this not mean 'a preceptor. qurx meaning to and ^ 9. take the affix $ as 3T3rftTT ^^^-- 5^ takos the affix qr^ optionally. qualify ^fl 'friendship/ Bhatti.' in which case it takes the - ^. any one ) can seek ift: 4 a * ' the hand of a girl/ but 3737 by a particular man. a qngj* carriage or a vehicle/ but ^rr$T ( ^-FTO^ ) 'wrhat can be borne/ a master or a Vaishya. 435 or told/ JTCT. suffix q. if it does affix crq-g.' 720.( if ) <a country roots fit to be gone to. cow is saleable-/ but <nuir: ( qor+inr^i'. ^ with ^q in the sense of 'being conceived' takes the affix *rj as ^tTCPIT ifr: irvfnrr^ ^TOT gr^T?g ^P^?gu: ( Bid. 721 to it takes this affix with the negative particle prefixed and forms snrq* 'what cannot grow old' but this must c/..' ' 718. affix.717-722 ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. 7. Kau. but arixTTq': 'a preceptor. Atm. ( f +W*^ '. in which case *rr^ be killed/ substituted for . not denoting limit or restraint. does not qualify ^JTJT. e. r but anq ('K' + WT^) 'fit to be grf: approached or adored. T ) ^TT ' to be married 719. a *T ) aTgW BrahmaDa deserving praise/ q$ ' that can be chosen or Bought after/ as ^5T **A ^TT hundred men ( t. the word ^qcT must be considered it will as understood. 53.as STTC ^T<T ^in is reprehensible or merits con. VI. 5^ + q =^T = what ought < optionally takes it: inr^. The root ^5 ' and 3t in the sense of c not denoting an instrument for carrying.). > before which to is ^J is substituted for it it.

[ 723-728 By means . prepositionally with ( ^ when it. it takes the affix q^> *r^T or sr^oq*. The roots f 1 2. g. or . except and ^^t take the affix cpq^r ( r) in th name sense as q-^ When . 35* sjsq 'worthy of Doing served/ to be increased as wealth. the roots ^f^. cfq-q: ' a ) g^ under similar circsmstances takes either or 17*73. in a passive sense or impersonally. 'to go/ ^q(. ( to ^ and aj take n1x opttonally. ^[q^: (if+oqjO a class of Kshatriyaa'. % the Veda' ( *3T X*t expounding %^ 727. P. ^ ^f t^kes this affix./ ^T 'deserving f <fit praise:' 1 5THJ fSr^T 'fit to be instructed j BTTSfir. 725. gpq^ acd <nr^ are ^q added optionally $&qi. has a Subanta prefixed to it and is ) ( without a preposition takes the attix ^rq^impersonallyj srgnnr * *fl^: *{&>%$ identity with Brahncan. ^M According to V&mana. ^^ a root ends -in a short vowel. optionally they take the ^-^TW 'praiseworthy/ f^ pr 5^ be given hereafter ).short for their penultimate. when precedes >r. | 723.' 728. ITR^. 1 ol. bu^. what takes this affix when the participle so derived does not form. but drops its ^ and adds * f to its is fit penultimate vowel g^+q-rr^r+^s^r+f-l-q-s^ir or ought to be dng or excavated. P. sr^i^ or ^^<4<| Sid. ^ is inserted between the final vowel and the affix ? t. &c.' When no Habanta is uaed 726. Kan..436" SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. 359 'what is fit or ought to be cleansed ^ optionally it takes uq^ before which the final ^ is changed a to IT it *. a name. who ought to be nourished *pqr:'tnose or maintained.' 724. f-fRT 'worthy of being approached. of the affix ^mrj *r ) * 5. affix inn]. ^g[ also takes this affix optionally. and roots haying SR. ' but ^cq^rrif ( =3Tj. her ce servants/ &c. . A.-ftnT^ ) 'that ^- ^g- ( opr^+q^ ) 'able/ ought to be teased or hurt.

from JT of the 3rd class and affix 729. *The following seven words affix ^q-gr are irregularly formed with the in the sense given in each case: or * 6. ) f^fm: <5&6: 'in which ought to be destroyed-. In other cases these roots take the affix i ) Similarly the words 3tr: and fcr^Vo both the names of ( the constellation Pushya. P. preceded by f%. 'to incite/ 'to im- falsehood ( ' from OTT + *3[+ OT + Kir. 114. 111. t C/. I. Kau. finft ^Hl^ld^ft ^nrrV. two 730. a wife ' ought to be derived rjq^. V ide Sid. f^^Efl 553:' The Munja grass to be prepared for weaving into a rope ( fpsrif^jTornr sfrefqW'l' fwnf: Sid. ^?^ and f^ respectively. ( a ) The following two words which are the names of rivers are derived by means of this nfiix. &c. . take tnis when they are connected with the words fpr. I 35. < 487 N. sjcKn other cases take* the affix inr^. Kau.\ The roots ^ sft and fo. ' what ought to be concealed 3 ^^ : $g ' I ^ir^^ q^*^ ^^q^|: growing in cnltiv*td ' ^oi'H^FTT: 'not feeling pain. The word war meirinj. fr. fRf?T ^9 fw : . Manu. ^^ H^af ffff ^^T: ^f (any base metal) 5TTT^: &* ^ TOH7T^ ^^^(Tf^ST *T* ^T^ W ). WU I.728-731] PBIMABY NOMINAL BABES. see Rag XI. 8. . 1 7 . i I Pan. III. VII. B. 'on the same. 96. 59. Rig.' ftrerafr 731. 5ir5^f|eniraf: S^v f^W^WRR^C %W. affix. 1. are derived from 5^ and far respectively with the affix sprr .

SPJ5J. iqirrq. ' mmign %rff * an army stationed outside a Sid. [731-736 f: 'The plough to be pulled with great force/ affix 3%r ^q\ *hjcq:. ^?qv ^rf. in other cases thesd take the 732. its final to > By means 735. q^. fiJRq.438 SANSKRIT GBAMMAR . T^TII^T%f ( ^(T^sfr^TcTr ??q^T I Sid Kau. euch as' The following words parrots. Before this affix the ending ^ and ^f of a root are changed to ^ and rr respectively and the final vowel and the penultimate 37 take Vriddhi substitute. as <nf&ivqf ^q% ^rftRrnrf ^3:5 similarly ^jrq^niT- . 5^. and those ending in a consonant (q ) in the same sense as q^.. &o. Kau. affix arranged. 733. sr^[ to The root when preceded by 3?m 3^ is 'with' takes the uu^ before which the penultimate optionlly changed to Vriddhi. 43. take the affix uqq. HTq^^T^' 3n*fa|i: a?<I$nmcT farf: See Bag. are derived from the root 52with the affix ^qtr: 3?3q$f. II. SK^IVJ 'what ought is. 0. best/ &c.j is W^MUcMfr 'what be cooked/ ^^ 736. ' to be impelled/ &c. Roots ending in ^. 3~<*X> wi 'what ought to be chosen. < ) siding *ith the noble.j jr^ done/ * \% vff^f what ought to be 1 worn/ 1W&.' a bull to ba harnessed ITJ *rrq: iff: in other senses it takes the affix o q^-tfr5q . <Tf <two technical terms in grammar/ qjp^r: 'birds restrained from free motion. in the sense of be harnessed' takes the ' > affix 3*n and changes to the yoke. any other penultimate vowel generally takes Gupa.. tre in conjunction/ (a) igs^ when preceded by <rrfor or the preposition wm takes the affix rnr^. of the affix aq^. a sentence/ T^ qn^q 'what wti} what is to be purified/ &c.. 3jqr ^ff q^TJTiTifqT ^"^anpf swranrr <> r 3TWr 'the day on which the sun and the moon are with each other t. 1 3> qn*$ 'what ought to be &c. The roots 3? and 3 take both cpr<r and irq^. 'to 734. village'.

rm*q. ST^[.' as sron^'^^T^T in other cases.iMABY NOMINAL BASES 439 and 737.' 738. and ifr^ 'what is fit to be enjoyed.' ( fr. 3*^?. it 35^73. f%*tE" < )5 with worldly pleasures. 7^ i3 meaning *: does not change its to ^> before gq^g. woids are irregularly derived by means of the affix uq^. ( fr. . ITT )} ^T*T^ nqfr 'rir ( ^jumfffff xrm fft kind of offering ( See Sis XI. 3TRTW 'what ought to be brought from the G&rhapatya t. ) but Sffffq- in other cases.) 4frT. Kau.' ( Sid. ?n^. )'. 1 ^[ . rrr^ . e. Boots ending in 7. a^H^iq : ). 41.sftT3r ?W - as 'ajar.. when the 'what ought to bespoken out. 3 'to ( a ) The roots ^. ^fc^. <r ^or^to^orjj ( qr^ra. takes the affix ^ ) ' the sense of 'what is possible or capable of. ft^nj. ^nfr from with ^^ ) fffarttsiT: 'a . S*W disgusted but I 740 jfnTit 3*%T ffcT JT^ ' a measure ' ( fr. . but w a sentence. ^. with 3H aiimai. take the affix <nrq[ in the sense of 'what ought or must necessarily be done. 'what must be spoken of distinctly. speech/ *rq-. w^ *what must necessarily be sown.ft with aur ) The following ( Sid.' 739. ( a ) The roots do not change their ( i ) ^ . and does to IT. Kau.' 3JTc<rs[ and ^q. ^5^ when .737-740 ] Pr. w$. . g. .ft with q.*' 3T&T 'what must necessarily be cu'^ off. the Dakshinagni. t srar^r^. not change its 5^ ^ ( ) 3TC has ^7 ' ' meaning food. when it means means 'to ' go' does not change ^r its to to bend' the is changed to ^ when it is preceded by sr and nr. short or long.' <n3* 'what 5> must necessarily be purified. before W^.' ( c ) . also do the samefT^.

qr^T'( 3 ) By means affix *r : of %fam. ( a ) INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. with 3?3 3l31*r I. f^[ ) ripen or to ' <&TOT: the pine to ought to be &o. 745.as trees q%fiTT *m:. so . The declension of these Participles follows 3*. fr. A few transitive roots take the frf^nr having the same force as the q%m*r ^. <rfigpar:. 744. ( ^%W ) affix fit 742. 5JTT:. pj *WT 'having gone. be cooked. Indeclinable Participles formed with ?^rr. ( particular place? for depositing the other cases sacrificial fire). fr. ' having experienced. that of 743. The formed of all roots indeclinable Past Participle or gerund in CT is or derivative verbal bases to which no pre- position ( nor a prepositional word ) is prefixed. The roota >g. 741. The Indeclinable Past Participles are of the nature They fall under two heads: ( 1 ) Those derived by affixing HTT tc the simple root) and ( 2 ) Those derived by means of q. and ^ <r< take the affix and nd^r^.' ig. ST^p. of gerunds.^ S3 ^: ( also HOTW^H / take inr^. nouns ending in II.affixed to tho root compounded with prepositions or words used prepositionally. a sacrifice). [ 740-745 r:(fr. * 4 also ?ft ^TIT 3R5T )> nni^ff^ *fa: one who sings' one who speaks' 3<rwfar: <one ST^RHT: )j who stands by'.440 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. The affix aw is of the same nature as the 3 of the Past Passive Participle. Indeclinable Past Participles. in an active sense. fi^TOP felled-' ( if. : T % ( with ft).' &c.

and this will be the form of the gerund in Roots. know to give to stand 5T to go fT to abandon to place W ^ nr to conquer qf%ft or ^ ^ I to purify to be ift ffft ^ to do to cross to fill rfW <iat 3* to protect to release gxf 31^ to eat ^jt to out see f^ to : to be hungry to dwell to speak to carry r to sacrifice tO BOW to bind to know ?%y * See to rule - 684 ( e ). to rctf e. $ 750 . Ind. In other wojds ft generally also take separate the ft or ^ from it.745 ] PBIMAJLY NOMINAL BASES. ?9T instead. P. add g. 441 that all the changes that take place before place before ?ST. Ptc. P. Ptc. of a root. Ptc. from the P. P. P.

A. ^[1. A 4.^1- ^4.^ ^>^. ^cfw. P. ^ 1. the roots do not take Gnna ?3^?[%(3T . ^ftr^T or jrffor. 1. A. the preceding vowel takes a Guna ( ) The roots 33. P.^5^. ^ ^ar 1. 4 P.P. P. P. ^. ^U( I. P. P. A. %i ** I9. 33.^^. 5^. 1. P. and r%^. to cleanse to enter Ind.P. P. P. 4. A. 3T5^1. 1. ff* 4. P. 5TF^ 1. ^ f%^4.' ^f^T. P. ^ A. with TJ BT^ 1 P. and 472 and the five roots given under g^^ the roots marked with an indicatory before ??rr . 4th 1. 5^ b ) But the roots ^. A. A. P. ^ 1. 5^. P. *p^. i^. P. A. A. Ptc. except reject $*. P. 1. P. P. A. $^. $* and ^ take Gu]? a optionally or JTffoT. 8. g>. fur 8. <^5. 8.442 746. P. P. rgs^ 1. P. Wet roots. 4. 4. A. P: A. 2. . ^r* 1. P. ftr^ 1.^r. ^ f^ 1. 4. P. A. r^ 4. 1. SR^. ^ ^l. A. P. P. 1. P. P. n^8. 3T^ 4 P. P. fl. 10. A. P. ?T5r 1. P. or Ger. *$ 1. P. q^. TlfSfTT. A. 4. A.P. f^. A. 5. 1. ^ 1. <Kl. 4. ^ and ^ which which takes f necessarily. P. P. 10. *rr^ I. P. WTrir?*T. S*J-H3W*T or having covered r j 747. P. P. P. P. 4. 10. A. ' having rejoiced. *m I- . P. 3^8. or affifalT( ^fo*IT or ^fforT.P. P.g*> . P. 10. ir^ P. P. P. [ 746-747 When its the intermediate substitute f is inserted. sr^. TT|T ^T The following are the more important of the roots marked 5. 4. cp* 8. P. a^ 8. P. ^ ^ 1. P. ft( A. P. A. 10. 7* admit of f optionally Roots.4. A. A. P. T. x^^ 1.^l. A. SANBKBIT GRAMMAR. *P* 1. 4. P.l. 1. 5. 1.$*. 7. P. 1. P. ar* 1. 10. A. all of the cl. P. ^ P. g. P. 5T^ 4. P. P. mentioned at ' 463 and f$*r 7 cl. 4. A. 8.

f^tT%%^r } Atm. The 3T is lengthened optionally btfore . srHiPIT having to go. ^and ?r. fre. ^r.' nasal of roots ending in si or <$ and ^to deceive' and g3^[ *to tear out/ are optionally dropped. or Ger. - ] PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES. roots of the 10th class and rqr. (a) The roots ^^ and m do not drop their nasal} (b) The penultimate that of ^5^ 'to roam abroad. But jr^^748. P. roots of the 10th cl.747-749 Root*. to worship to kill worshipped to dig to stretch to tame to pacify to go &c. Set roots ending ID all consonants. to be rffrftrr or a^Tr &c> &o. derivative their verbs. 443 to conceal nfzt*r nrcWr JJTT to protect to desire to endure to covet ^Tf^f^r or *ri%f3T or 3tPt?3T or 3f7?3T having gone. 749. &o. to be straight. A. Ptc. 1 4 P. preserve aw be- fa-^rc^T ^f-s-fir^T -orf(frT or desi. Ind. The admit f before fore f^r roots fa. ^fr.

751. [ 749-752 and (c) . ST^rST or and ^^ is insert a nasal optionally.is changed to r7 after a short radical vowel ( even when it combines with the ) e. final vowel of a preposition to a Jong vowel %[ with an f%" fif . ^ . tsRTT or ?[^T$ 3T3T BTf%!r*r. &c. ^^x &c.444 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.immediately to it the q. 502 and 587 apply to Che roots also in the gerund in *r: g with 3 MJry ?r with q- with OTzn? with f% . 2. The rules given at 394. 3- f with &c. roots beginning with any or a^when ?^r has consonant and ending in any except f prefixed to it. R^r or 5|T. 39^459. Gnpa sr optionally substituted for the penultimate f and 3-. Indeclinable Participles formed with q-. 750. *rr or the root tf^rf optionally drop their nasal before f^f. ( or Sr%??rr.. indeclinable participle is formed by affixing q. ffe[-T%ftr^T or or ^rf*r?5r so fer^r also ffer^r ).ft 3*T^FT * with 1 ST 5^T with R^-f^fW?^ ^mBffq f^^rq3Tgij*r ^^fTrq' with qrr with f% with ^ & with with ^n3[ ft^ with ^ ^3 3ifvT ^^ with &c. Roots ending in sj such as *pa jsf ^na x *x s . &c t 752. When a root is compounded with ons or more prethe positions or words prefixed to verbs like prepositions. y. .

The roots ^. when when it Freq. ** with |^ f^^y or &c. bases Desiderative bases add it qq-. q-iy and ^[ with ^ ^ .or 486 do not change 'Tft^PT. ?TH- with ^ ^ ? Rq^q. %. ^ before the snrrn^. if q-. &c. ^qr and 'having become . The roots mentioned under an to Jj irq^. 756. XTHPT. f\i-snmrftrt Fre. i|r with *TT and 3T3*rnr qfr^rq" 3flT^TT ^ with <ft H* with with 3*3 <rft g-<r ^Tf TT with ft-f^ftq. and the roots rr^. preceded by a preceded by a * It changes its final to f optionally. ( but 11^-^101^. having again and agaiu caused to be broken. 5T^ and its have respectively R^?q-affix q- 755. 760. ^ with 3TT Roots of the 8th class ending in a nasal. ti<^i*i or ^cfirq'. immediately and it is is add after dropping their 3? consonant and dropping the final vowel. STOnT. ^faq'-sHrr*?. anrfl^sr.752-760 1 PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. cau. &c. 3^ before not. its final r% lengthens vowel to Qupa. sr^qiq" old. sr$fnT. except 9^ 753. if it be preceded by dropped-. do it optionally.or &c. 758. qn^rrq. f%gn$ 5 sft win sr^m^q* 759. ?jjy with T%-f%cTf^. may retain its ${& optionally-srrcq* or irmiq.STTHT. 445 % m. ST^IW. aftOT-snffrq-j anr ' ^ can. SfH. 1 . &c a ) 3T(<1. it is Boots of the Tenth class and Causals preserve their a short penultimate vowel. cau. 3^ and drop their nasal necessarily. 3T*-3TcTJTrTT. and srrq changes ^ do not take Samprasarapa. .' attsrisq". their takes xiMmnr 'having covered-/ but ^r Samprasarapa optionally. frq( 754.' with qfr or ^r^ 757.Tt. &o. so srsftTcq also. \7ftzr.or or xrorfq".

22.ff Ste'SRT **' <he ( ( wa generally used at the end of com. repeatedly bending down the creepers would pluck their flowers. . Tf-^TW. 4 having repeatedly rememthe verb. and seating himself on every charming slab would remain there ( in admiration of the scenery ). ^r-^nn^ 'having given'. &c. I.' 2. f^?fr -having drunk again and again-' bered. ) Bhatti.11 The descendant of Kakutsths. 762. .' Vik.' his enemies. Aorist This Participle is pounds. generally undergoes of the Pass. The participles in r^j and ar^* when repeated yield the sense of repetition of the r * ion or condition expressed by or ^jrrt fir. I. H*-nP*. smiling gently. this the root or the derivative verbal base the same changes as it does before the f 3rd sing. would sip the waters. ft?-*^. ^-^T or irr g?*T or siw^ *TH-n?*r or 5JW ^fww or 55TH ?yTT^ Pan III. ^^ &FZ1 g^T or ^nt ^HHC. 4.. sfr-tTnnr 'having carried or led'.^-TO*. At the end of compounds . formed with the affix 3^ . &c. { 761-763 ( b ) THE ADVERBIAL INDECLINABLE OB PARTICIPLE The Gerund in g^- There is another Indeclinable Participle having the 7<>1. this may not be repeated and yet have f he sense of repetition as in ? Bhatti. ) 'He totally exterminated 763. wading through every stream ( that he came across ). pelted to death. 11. <ftr?T "TTf^T or <Tnr fqw n?5rr WJH similarly .44C SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Before same sense as that in r^T. 'She was taken a captive.

all of them*/ . n being added to these as before. although the notion of 3T2JT. . ). This gerund or the one in f^r is nsed with the words and 3^. reply I will eat in this Kau. does not. if it is used * with the noun governed by be compounded with prepositionally when ' . 'he eats having sweetened er seasoned his food. ITW or 766. a thief. ( ft implied. provided the root 3 loses ^^i^icHif 'he speaks in a different manner-/ tnforT but ( is ^% <he eats thus:' similarly with the particles inn and given. SR^j and ^q^f.' ( e ) with the words its sense. a.' In this is censure ) with the words sn$. tft. mn^it ifa% ?TOT*T* d ) HT when an angry ( Sid.. ( a ) it ( The gerund in s^ of the root $j it. in eat that I will manner. 3T7qriT. e. ?f^t.764-767 764 ] PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES. ?' The Gerund of the roots 5^ and f^r f totality. 3nnTt3T-:ff?r9T *T 'having first eaten be goes out*' so snrevfnr or 765. repetition ia not present in these compound?. compounded with their objects 1 and expresse *^r^j chooses as many girls as he sees. in 447 The Gerund 3T^ many instances. express the notion of repetition.?* and qjtf. ^^ f% rT^T^T have you do with that 767.J^lgj s^r'pj-fir*}: ) case ^is added to the noun governed. used as prepositions.^fTOTT 3TTeFl^TfR cries out ( he is ) a thief. what mnnner.

' captures him so aa to preserve of him i. .HI.' ( a ) The gerund f^and 1 fq^ is used with words signify' l ing instruments ( of action ). &o. 4.^OTTff r% ' kills destroying the roots t. t ^rHhr^fr: $. e totally'. alive. t Tfeis gerund of f^[ is uaed with ). Kau. e..448 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR [767-769 ( Sid. t. 4. I in. 35. . qrr^^Tcf 5f?ff=qf^T fPfT strikes * grinds with ( kicking ) wi^h foot. ^r- ^^?r^S qtftrft. Kau. 31. qrclt? a ) *fH[ 'to live' are joined 'eats % wbat be gets. and 5^ with Sid.. 3T^TT and ^ft^r are used res^J the gerunds in sn^ of the roots 5^ i& and q^ in a cogpectively nate sense. TTffenfW ^nrif^. Similarly the gerund of tbat of ^ and I ?TJ is used with 5^ 'and its synonyms.' With tbe words ^TCJ?. < ) be feeds every t.' is ( 5 ) f Witb the words ^jfa and g^? the gerund of fil1 ij used . tr& 'does what ought not to have been done.t \?.' 769. so ^^^*3[ similarly f^^Jf 5T%^T . S^T^^ I ft* P*". III.' gr^q R5Tr%=3T3%^ I^Tf% ( using ( b ) ) the water. gs^ so t ^pf and S^^r farfe s 5^ ftsnR^* ( Sid. Pan. 3640. 9?n<frc*r$h Kau. Brahmana them ' tbat he knows or comes across or renembers ( all of ' *The gerunds of f^ to get' and witb qrsra in the same sense. 4. 30. eat8 so as to ^ 768. 'be grinds to powder. 4. P&n III.

4. H. 43. i HI. o. III. ( a ) The gerunds of qr^ ^ and ^. f With the words gffa and s^r used subjectively the gerunds of . 45. ( b ) Kau. 29. 48-63.^ and ^ are used. when same. - ni. 41. 4. 4. ( 5 ) ff Sometimes the Gerund in used with words de' noting a standard of comparison. Kau. are used with words denoting the instrument the object of the gerund and of the principal verb is the qusWmd <TT: OTSJTfir * ' 4U)<fi<<tll<f he collects toi gether cows beating them ( ) with a stick. III. .: qp^q^fhr Ti Sid. HI- 4. rr T^ *mtflf& ara. 4. 44. 771. fr I Pan. grq-. ^rTRvrm RfgH 5T^ water was kept with as much care as ghee-' 3OTC3T3T the I* TO 772. are used with nouns having the sense of the Loc. J PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES. 42. i i fm^rm *r Pn. Similarly . The gerund in sr^ of roots haying the sense Of 'to strike/ &c. is i Sid. or the Inst. Pan. ( a ) J The gerunds of g^ and ojr are used with gprf simi- larly.. &c. 449 * The gerund of ^^is used with words denoting peculiar arrangements of stanzas.' 3<JdlH with but P M*im.] 770-772 770. s.

so- and 3^ are used with nouns 775. ^rf%^tf grenjf^ 'narroot *A be used in its rates contracting the eyebrows* but %T 3"T?$T**T (not f$R3f$TqT^) as the severance of the head would cause death ( a ) Similarly when a part of the body is completely hurt or pressed in the action. ^ittftrorrf ^T^fil 'runs having quickly got up from the bed. 4. 55. gr:xrffrW ^Tg*: <f(3TTW afflicting the 3W% . &c. III. I similarly ( gifcm 5T or I * l ^Hf^ ** f%*T 3fT^ *&&( Sid Kau. fThe roots ft^. 5^5^. 64. whole bosom-/ 774.' ^fejTTfr 773. Nouns having the sense of the Ablative and the ( c ) Accusative are used with this gerund of a root when haste or hurry is intended. Pan. and ' ^r^ are used in theit gerundive forms in 3T*r in the sense of pervasion or repetition' i complete occupation or with nouns which if not compounded ? would have stood in the Acc. 56. part. the gerund in sw is used with that ' . tr^. q^. may gerundive form in gp^ with its object prefixed to it if that object be a part of the bodj which can be severed without fatal effects. ( Sid. t. t ftftnfWfe**5 ^ OT*qHHfawngnft: Pan. every third day' 3^1 <rnrfoc9rr ^snT .450 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. HI- 4. [ 772-775 t. ). Kau. ( a ) J The gerunds of denoting a period of time intervening between the repetition or 3^ performance of the action. . tftgmgH. g^^Tf^mf or fr^SHrqw ITTJ m^^fd 'he makes the cows drink water allowing two days to intervene.

y. Booti. ^gr.. Infinitive Hoots. 57. 58. forming nouns ( substantive with various significations from roots or derivaaffixes 3 3 r ^^. In the following the list are alphabetically arranged almost all common Krt ) adjective Lve bases. to choose to sing * to Atm. Freq &c.nJR( and in the sense of the Ace. and q ( with . 4. Desi. go & SECTION II. JUff^gTHM f^ are uied ^Ifll^TlW. ^ : I Pan III. VERBAL NOUNS FORMED BY MEANS of Various Krt Aflixea. . to to Infinitive. affix 776. 451 b )* Similarly the gerunds of with 3jr. ( c ) The gerund of ^may optionally ( be used after c ) The Infinitive. The Infinitive is formed by the e. &c. grj with the same effect as the n of the Future. 777.775-777 ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. f to go tpj to grow compose cook 5T to give ft to carry 3? to do to cut to cover to baar ^ H to to be to steal shake or Caa.

ift is -W. e Madana'.' &c.. 3^t * but *m$K: ' a loadentitled to a share. ^^ W qr$ ^T> ?> &c - W- %& ome ftr 3Tur others it forms abstract nouns. to an elephant. also ' sense of wearing ?T%iTf : 'one armed with a spear/ &c. added to roots when the words forming their objects are * a potter. also when words ^c. ' md ^fTH. 3HT:. when 3^ is prefixed to it and the root is used '. <M<4S* ' : a young child. qp sleeping on the with the face upon the back aides/ &c.' to 3^ when a noun used objectively is prefixed to ' a Brahmana deserving worship^ it. tfl^W who a 'one the into (taui^q.-to ^fir when a word showing the place of action precedes. ^fTR^r?: 'lying ward!/ so 3Httfciq: (WR?ft 3WT ?TOT $^) * . ^ ^r ^~ : ( ' wearing a sacred thread. r are prefixed to them respectively. precede. j&v..462 < ' : BANSKBIT GBAMMAE. ' * also of. l^fmSdTffr f3TT?T HT^QP and 3ft when the words ^3*3 and gjof in the Loc. spy/ to any root whispers when the word $ is prefixed. q^ are prefixed to it. ^ ' af^r and an iron hook. ear. ' ^mOT*: Wliea a suprefixed to them. sm*Hr <an adulteress/ a Chandala ' to g when the noun governed by it qq^r: is used prepositionally and when the idea of difficulty is not 7 present or when the whole compound denotes 'age. but one who takes in his hand a sacred ^ * ( ^ )^T? : 'dwelling in the sky.' when 3fT is prefixed to it in the sense of to the root in the habit ff sfrsmST 3Rft S^Tf*:. ^nnr: * *SWTf 5?T+ Hf + 3T7T) thread. $**'> ^fa^ &c. *. javelin/ ' ^^ <a q^ when ' the wor ' < a plough/ qi% stick/ ^7. 5>*rOTr> .. in the &c. ' BO g-fe^W like ' dwelling in the heart. ^ W T% ^m * & collection/ 'a shower of rain. a missile. the agent' is added to [777 q^ and other roots* 31^ denoting one j who cooks to and q^. a heir are prefixed to t ^ bearer ' ( TSTK+ f + 3T?r ). 'with the ' When added to roots ending in f and to lace downwards. when the words gfrc and them respectively.

9)QT: or ^TOT:. ). : ^iiif: or f^iTTT j^ with a preposition it takes ^jsr ^rnr^: the to it takes STVJ pride of wealth. 3?^ preceded by a pre[ osition takes this affix and is changed to . ^ praise..777 ] P&IHABY NOMINAL BABES. ft and *rq takes either arq^or or inw: *nr. ^rsi^. the roots srq^and 3i<Tj 3TT: 5 whispering into the ear.. f ^T: a boon &c. the instru- . . control. a blunder. a with or ^RT'i sound. insanity. 453 hanta is prefixed to with to ^optionally. STW:. Rl^QT: or-g^n. 31^ does not. . ^[ with and ^. &c. ^HTT careless- ness. 5 TO: barley.'. &c .-. or HH^ HHK^ sound. ^ ^^:.? SHTT^:. ^ nient of doing anything fear. oversight. the hand. the roots and by themselves take sr^or ^^-Wr: or WR: ^^[ ^3^. the roots fn^M-' p^m: marriage. Jj ^ ^: . but when pre5 ceded by or ^jTT- sr or ^r^ it takes ifc s^when the meaning is joy. The affixes sjq^and -qor are added to several other roots too numerous to note here. not preceded by a preposi muttering prayers. the difference between these is that ^n? occasions Vriddhi of the preceding vowel. &c. ^ :fo*TC: takes this affix ^fa: a collection. srWT. or &c. speech.or qTH: restraint.. separation. . nm. <jw:. quj^Vjiq: or-j: ^ q^ 9 the n of this root is changed of words. ^ RTOv ^s? ( tion take s^nj. ft^Rf: &c. food or eating 5 ( when no preposition precedes. Vfl^r: &c. ^nr: the act of piercing. f^-f^: preposition they take the latter oiily. as gMvHIM: but when a preposition precedes. srjr^: in otller Ct8es takeB TO. . ^Ffrr^*' madness. or without ft takes IT^ or trst.' 'a collection added to roots ending inland short or long* it sometimes forms abstract nouns.: the eound of a lute. they take ^T ^TO*' ). M. sometimes shows the place or the instrument of action denoted by the root ^j ^f: . with R take 3r^or TST^. jp^ also takes it. when a word other than a preposition is prefixed the root fr^ ^^. it takes otherwise 5^ with ^ with f% f^^: *K: poison. similarly iy^ 3TW . 5 TT: a tree or a seat. qi^ without any preposition secret ^ or with the preposition OT.

or jr^f: one who knows. 3?^?T^T after a subanta . and to the roots sft and SFT and denotes the agent f^?arfNg-: one who writes. JJ^T: a wife. fro.Before these the 3? of the noun forming the object of the root with which it is used prepositionaiiy inserts the after {s added to the root syllable ^ after it. dreadful. obedient to the will of. 3jr being dropped ^rr.454 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 3. name of a mountain. f3q!WU This : placed in difficulties. one who throws.^n or who calls also when a subanta is one if: 3TTg: . subject the words $frr. a<I+?^=3T=?rr?5r. T^hft a portion of the Sama qffon a birde who chooses her husband. and ^r. 3WTW name of a king 5 to *n* after ^r^. or < for their penultimate.. ifg". OT^r: causing fear. and *r*r. when . ^. see' cedes it.- ^ ^ and ^ respec- after the words- W and ^flT frilCT: all destroying. [ 777 is added to roots having f . *T*TW happy. 3(WirS3i: like another and ^f^. i&c. . i%|prr: passing through the sky. a house. ^ to grr with or without any preposition. a name. ' the iuflnence to after of. spj-3jr: &c. ift-nnr one the final who pleases . 3 f%j: one who scatters . used prepcsitionally with it ^r-iff^: one who gives cows or cuts the hair. J^H fs(q -^-cR doing good.( ffTvqf ITOfTfa* ) an elephant. ^[5r?nr: an ^. %<T-fTq:. qt-flTT. f^HWTJ God. <f. ^r^r: like to. ?. also added to n? ajf a house. ^ and g- after the words to flifagT the^earth ? $faf: Indra. all powerful r . also when a prononn prewhen the words is and 3^qr precede added similarly. ftq- ^ ^ > ^^fn% ' ^ > : to the root ip^ &c. 5^. ft^nr^: one who speaks sweetly . fir. T is is added to g^ not meaning 'to . and when the ^. it is also added to roots ending in wise . : i to the roots whole is Veda. ^faq*: name of a ?TJT^^: king. ^T^nTJT: one who restrains his speech for the observation of a vow r : m to the roots tively . jrof: a measure of corn. a bird. like that. ^ ^ elephant. added ^jf it has various meanings .

^^is coming in collision with the clonds blowing away dry cowdung. a goldsmith. is added in the sense of the place or the instrument of the action or forma abstract nouns 5? with 3rr-3TT^T^ A mine . ana ^T^^ff: causing flatulence to and \JJTT after the words *9RTC: a t aby sucking breast. the queens of a king who are shut up in the harem. &c. &c. idea of ease or difficulty difficulty. : a path.f 777 ] PRIMABY NOMINAL BASKS. 5^ffrf^r ) wounding the words showing measure after fax and HS'-ftmTC: one who cooks measured corn. is ^ added to any root with {^. &c. sr^g^: ( ( ITPTT ) kind of bean. jr^ and and ^TT^T respectively. 455 its also a rogue. . after the words 3*3$ and ^9T?. 5*3^ done with 53^ T?^T-* done present. to ^. as in *ffiifrvq': making the people tremble with fear. srarijaT: scorching the forehead. 3WTO: a place of traffic . of a fierce TT afer gir. OTfifT^ ^^Tf: and ^^ ^^7 aipect. a kind of deer. who considers himself a Pandita. to 3^ and 5T 'to go' after the words *RT. to meaning 'to consider oneself as. kitten. as a strong added to q^ cau. a- touch-stone srg- . qSr&i. ^5: a shoulder ft*m: that by which the . SHafa^rr nail-scorctiing ( as ir^r^: ). is or $ prefixed to it when the easily. done easily. ^r j ifr^T" & pasture-ground. lightning. as the wind. <^3<I^Ui: those who do not see the sun t. and ^7. Rahu. (rrfwrq: a road ( shrouded in such darkness that one has to clap one's hands for driving away f n?^: serpents &c. so g:$rrcR. tfifefiRT. e. that may be in the way ). to ( *f g^ after f^j and the afflictor of the moon e.53. vital . $*CTT ( a river ) sweeping away banks. *T?W3T: facing the wind. S*. *fttar: dashing against. a to 5^ ond f!^ raiser. *&% with 3Hr 3TT^r: & spade. who is very humble. trot with ^T. ffteT and flatulenof .parts. a pedant. painfulto after q^[ as sr^f^r^T WT3T. irfaHf: one who considers himself a cow e. name of a king. cgfiq^qj wind or gale. re?pectively. )W '. ffos^p an oilman.

kindness.: by f^rr. a house^f: fr^ ^ touch. a Ian. f*$n> ^TT) 7HT ^ a soldier. Before this not preceded by more than one preposition becomes 3* ^T3J- added to roots ending in consonants has almost a universal or application and a variety of senses*. Tsn* being. [777 people are guided. the act of moving a piece at chess. ^: ). it. &c. 5 q^_^rr^: food. arrtnT: or ^r: a loud sound. ^ is added to the root ff preceded a numeral.. strength. &c. grifT*:. annr:> 3*. &c. a 3Tim:HT: leader. f?>j ^: ) fuel. 3^99: e confinement of a a grammatical mark.. ^rc^T f^3Tf! want of JTf draught. ^. ^nr: desire* or 3Kfrrrr. with ft preceded by a preposition. unr: and anp. draughts. it is also added to 8TT or r% ^ ' ^ : ^n the hand. fro?: or of the hand. wrq-: ruin . ^ 3Wimr: or RJTTf : impediment. ^C^TI &c.dysentery. f%[. of the and words place showing action. and to preceded ^i}:. <T^.456 SANSKEIT GBAMHAB. fcr after 307 thief. &c. substance. a stick' &c. H^^^ 'collecting flowers with and &s^ with ft. The roots and fijr^change vowel to 3TT before this. with arft-grft&c . w. but 3t3iTT?: means when the the whole take affix ^sr 'gathering flowers hands' DU ^ with the s*uo|Hj:. ^. mq*: chief. the Nyagrodha tree. &0. . a thing disease- a ^^^ W& ( * necklace. ft -* ". rain. and nouns governed by vfT^T: the sun. separation. rr^. 7335?: hump-backed. <rr^: a foot. thb Veda . angro^r: a deluge. with marriage: f with t^-^rrq': justice. to 55 when the warbling of birds ( otherwise the body. ^ and J preceded by 3n : the throbbing take bDth ^37 and arr. before bhis the final ^ V are changed to *TIT ^ or jj. . and to ^ preceded by 5^:. 51^: ^^ f^MTlT: rest. Sometimes the affixes q*^ and 377 are used in different senses. : f%-^mr: *q^6R^Rm^ their r: a house. jronr: friendship. f%^r ^tfrfer f^WSTs. laxity.

ffalT checking bile. 3f?ftT. &c. ( time with the hand. the sun. 'one who goes to the end. 457 affixed to preceded by arm or f3* changing to fr the whole meaning 'bearing an inauspicious mark '. consoling. a husband causing the death of his wife-^rnmr bearing a mark ^ ^ on his body indicative of the death of his wife-. such as ghee* <rf^sfr (TTftJTto g-qr preceded by ). a son. and preceded by qrftt and arc in the sense of one having the skill.' fffOT 4 one able to kill an elephant/ &c. &c. .but qimUliq: (when a prep. the senss of the Loc.' position. qftgr 'a ditch 7 . similarly ^is is also added to g^ when the agent of the action <rfSrOTj is not a man . are also formed by meant 9HT:. ftfHT^ and denotes the agent) to irq preceded by ^r and ^ and shows the place of action.' qM>K>H: 'produced after 9f^r: a younger brother}' &c. are*^. ' **<* ^fer. qv creeping on the ground.' qrftre: 'one "ho beats ^OT .' 3f^T3T: &c.777 ] PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES. gffP r%nT3( is changed to f^fHir: '* to 5^ when a blessing is implied' bird/ ^: fortress.'&c.' fl*Ttq^: 'the dispeller of darkness. or of the Ab. also a drummer ( beating a drum with to qr 'to drink' and if if not preceded by a prethe hand ). or when it ii * preceded by a preposition and the whole is a name. and not denoting a class. ^^uili'' !r5TT:. *rf. 'one who chants the Sama Veda '. ^ftnq 'one who drinks the Soma juice'. some operation. $fTTTT STTSCnfir.'-to 5^ preceded by a word having. before this the final consonant with the ^ is preceding vowel or the final vowel of a root 4|*btfrflri 4irii|: dropped. . *ic*lfl.this is also added to ff^ with qft ..' araif: 'a traveller. SRptf 9 TOT. also to 5^ with anr after the words fj^r and ^rr^ t %5U^f serpent. ihe words fl^r:. R^H' born in a stable. ^T TR. precede? it ).. (f^f^and ^TTH" in the sense of 'having the power to do what is denoted oy the root. of this affix..' mi^M <a lotus. <TT 'to protect' takes 3?. 1 : T U affixed to ip* preceded by 3T?<T.' 'a ' ' : 'removing pain. 9 <re S^r: ^Tff YV%^ 'may thy son be the destroyer of his enemies.

5R[. ' end '. 'wish/ ^^-^fr^niT 3|^Tn ^ambling. ' one who to and one desiring happiness/ 3^-.' ' wakefulness. wishes for flesh. ^5 ( $r^> ^^ (these may also take 3f^[ ). of tpfwith ' i-q^. fills'. trickling/ to arrow X. ' ' faf^J O n who plasters.' ^qTOTT^TTf 'good-conducted-. and ' : f preceded by a preposition. g^ro: : Bbatti. an electuary/ *TO 'an embrace/ irif : 'an alligator/ ' ' a thing* to . 'to smell/ $4?. nonna> ^-farqr 'service-/ ' * an ' act. emells.' iri*PT$r: one who eats irffr^vr: flesh'.' gfpj 5nTtrf qir-^nrr 'hunting. ^TT-* ' a leader'. %T and 5 not preceded by a preposition. ' ' oozing. RRr$fTcJ: one who keeps flesh. <n*. a thief. . &c. g^ q^qr to $r and vjr 3 to ^T: 'one who holds.' 3TTT%^: ' a lotus/ to the Oau. frf^PT: a god/ 'name of Vishno'. 25. ' ' ft. 9T($. ' to f . ' qr-ftv: one who one who drinks. lambative.' 1 . vt. >^[and^. ^T-^*: f%^. Z^[ * to be confused ^7 forest-fire. Hf jsnr: one who cl. aregTT. frost/ srfifctrnr a catarrh or cold. a H$. vnr<T ono who thinks or knows/ who makes another tremble/ cft one who holds' . added to roots ending it. ^T5J: or STO*. ^TO: ' a to **.ft ?irnrt 'a hunter/ ifr*?: respiration/ nrw: seamonster'. if and 'forgiving after a weaver. when ' flwne or bla/e/ &c: their objects are prefixed to )> 1 ' them.' * w ftvqp'one who knows/ also when the former is preceded by ft and the latter by iff and other words. to qfoff. and ' w[th ^^. their HT *T^ WTSnT > ?ig^PT objects. mist.. added to all roots it ( 'one forms abstract fern.' to ^. JTT. 3T-3TV: 'one holds/ Ac to * [ 77? tr ' or is in arr which insert be-- fore who who receives a share/ ^r qw 3$ when preceded by are and ' one sift.?Jf: 'a r%$. ararnr violation.458 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.' sees. 5Wsnfts?: much. r^: l ' food. 77 and ^8T^. %^q-: l one who 1. WT. ^77. f^and one who gives. f^if : ^ with ' ( : : VM*miq: is measure of corn-/-to 3^^ added to <rr. and \j.

^fr-^nRr^r sleeping. it is added to roots marked with an indicatory f and to ft^ and others. f-?ffT desire. to roots ending in srr if- a preposition or the words r^ and 3f?ff^ precede. *TT-inrT lustre. its ^T-^HT . *g-siqifl<fc| dysentery. 3?f 3TfT a guess. acting. or is in the habit of blaming or censuring others. &c. M^-f*T^T distinction. ^-ftqffa a desire to have a son. scab. ]%^- f%rm contemplation.. which changes ^ to SKHS^T mercy to VRI cleansing &c. ^-JT^^fSf^T vomiting. io affixed to all roots 3> : W 5n^-$m$:. Also from ^nimr a consonant having a long vowel for their 3^ penultimate. ^flf is ^uf ^fa^f TnR qRWP &c. abstract nouns 459 3T -forms desire to do. itch. ' and ^notes the agent of the action. reviler. S^-*rnre: ^T ^P^ > ^TW. ^T-ST^T giving gift. &c^ similarly forms abstract nonns. 3f^^: a father. ^Rp: ing vowel is not lengthened. s added to ^5^ 5 *3T*: ' a washerman. A. &c. separation. ^. 5 q^[ *Ttt'> one who cooks. &c. f^with ^R ' sense of the ' agent/ or ' in the and in the ^ ^.dded to some roots it forms a killer.. with f disappearance. Krishna. ^T with snjsr^r faith. diarrhoea. roots ending in from derivative bases. anxiety. . it ^^-f^^M^I &c. &c . reasoning. ^TT3: one who makes. he goes desirous of seeing Tj ..^.' to fifa*: 'a ' f^and ^^ wno calls preceded by 3rr. &c.' f%^T ^^^ : <ODe wno blames flfa. *rn* W% habit of. sometimes of futurity. the name of is diseases. &c. fimi s^with ft. added to f.777 ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. it is added to in this case the precedbut of that 5T*J and other roots group. &c. ^if-^IW. ij' 3TTT old age ~ OT-OTT shame.^T^rfr: gambler/ <one out or vociferates. fifa. sometinfos added to denote the meanings of roots arr^-anfi^i it has the sense sitting.

' the god of love. ^T: ' one who delights. 3f and ^ in the sense 'ekilul in/ may by 'skilful in walking}' 553^: 'skilful in cutting:' this added to any root when the idea of a blessing is to be conveyed. 'thekiUer of e^ one who bears.' ^j to ipfif: ' a glutton. irascible. srfiqq^ T^qr: 'mayest thou live for many years/ Hyiwq ^rr: 'may eat thou be the giver of delight. '-to ^. irrqR : *a singer/ ^nrsn 4 a year/ a kind of rice/ is affixed to verbs meaning 'to go or to sound/ one who moves. r^ ' action. a 5|f and fT. ' ^. the of name . anxiety/ &c. affixed to ^q^: dwelling.' 'that which blazes. abstract . of ^. f[ with g^^Aiqun ?rr^ VT^r: 'he ' searching.' ^-fcror: 'one who makes a sound/ It it also affixed to verbs be angry/ flgro: : meaning 'to ornament. and ^SJm m^ * one who goes again and again '.460 added &AN8KBIT GRAHHAB. 7 ^q^-4r added the art of/ <a in the sense of 'one who knows ^5.' ^ 3^ sr^f: terrifier. is [ 777 to sr. '. some other roots ending in a consonant. ^. rf affixed to and other roots. nouns with the cauials of roots and the verbs srw and %% not meaning ' to wish/ f7-KUU ' doing f^-W^r: &c.^rra^T^T: ' ' one who accomplishes.' fa tumour/ '343: 'pain. OT and who knows 'one the art of dancing/ 13^5: ?r?fe: to <a ^ digger/ a miner/ ?&fq>: dyer/ 3*3 <3!^() %^>T^: 'tremor. ?*T. it also forms fern. and to serving as an ornament: . q ' ' ' a swift walker: **<$<{' ^-^OT: one who goes fire. to deck. R*fi^ui: chastiser of the sinful/ B&vana's brother. ' Madhu. a ' son/ j^ ' who exhilarates.:-to the freq.

( sense of 'in the habit ' W*WK: $| g^and * in the srf^Tg qnaHW ) 'a who divides or prattler. spade.' f^sjr-f^TT^: 'a 33TO: ' he a beggar-/ $gre?: man. cuts. Jfpftf^nr a milk vessel ( here it shows the place of action of Adhikarana ). condition. *rp-*rnR. added to TT^ and other roots. fqr is added to ^r^ and other roots of the group. and q^. abstract noons. drinking. &c. a panegyrist. faith. ^r^r^. to ?r^ and to for. &c. )- 5Tf^: the sea ( here it is used In the sense of 3Tnj<Mi)l is added to 'It i ^ ^ ^ Wt > a rudder. &c.' 9TTO* poor destructive. battle. i*T3R. hurtful. is added to the cau. endurance. q^. ^^*s5 longing ftgrg disposed to ^ing compassionate. forbearance. ^rfosf cause of generation.' '* robber. * langhing. tTT ^Rr: a joint. desirous the words r%r.' full of f ( f^> is f3^* : ^ %> sm%: a <one who tills the ground'. $ft sleeping. r % is added to the roots ^r and <qr forms.. ^-fnR: a mountain. an in the sense of * the instrument of an action '. ^rftsf patience. <rrThis is also added &c. an axe.' sleep. ftf^r: a treasure. 471^: a well. made of the deer's skin. ^TT%. JT^T and of.a dwelling. arrfit: &c. sn^. . peace. added to all 461 is nouns to form neu. vrw^ a fan . 5^ fS* ^nPT g^ ^ ( TOS ) is affixed to of / m^ f fa*. helm. 4^ ^T^ praising. jr*^ 73ER: instrument for cutting. of ^g. *MUg:. afrir a K> and ^nr ^r sickle.an oar..777 ] PBIMABY NOMINAL BASES. ^qif^r: and others assuming these fraud.

WC. to 3j with [ 777 sr. with if. 55? . ^<crHTT5r^ ( ^f^r TW '^tt&tfCT ^rr^rf^t one who acts 'one who the Vedas or the nature well. tranquil. ?*ra[ blaxnes. 3rffT and gi<r y^ with grf^r. with ^. ^r?. with f% and ^. it is it is also added to fft with prefixed to it ft- when the noun go- verned by and when the idea of censure or reproach is to be conveyed. a lover . ^ snj. 3T* with affir. ^ft^ timid. with an.. ^rq^rfffi. ^rfq^ wast- ing away.' *f with ^R-^R^ff^ ono ^. ffr. srRn* a conqueror.all of passion. &c. ^t^and . jr^irf^^j but with or . %. JTW.' sfnivHid3l 'one who cuts is guilty.. ^jf. 5 . with with 3^3. and denotes the ^ HIlfiK one who abandons. this is also added to and the other /oota of that group but without occasioning jra[ any change in the roots. W* all all 9^ 9^. rrfir^ . precedes it. . ^ff.' f^ when precede* by ^ITR and ^inf f^mm 'one who murders a child. when the subanta other than one denoting a class. T3T with an. *?. -is affixed to ^^. ifcftiMn.' This is added to any root.' W5T3Tf^ expounds of Brahman. impassioned. &c.?. Las performed the Soma sacrifice-/ so .462 is affixed SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 3*. %. ^r with n . ***. ^ swift-going. off who defeats. 'one who preceded by the name of a sacrifice.' sense of f%wh! 'a sensualist-/ f r^r with f 3fqr who to &c. 55 35.^^^*W. ^tRTTOft. . ^witharr.' to q^ after any subanta. %. ^. ^rf^ one agent. srrftni one who takes a share.' &o. ^ with qft and with ft. similarly ifnret fflfttT > &c. the head. this is added in the sense the Past Tense to q^ ^. who is added to the roots of the 'the agent. <TTO^<Tmftj[ 'one ) 'one who eats hot things-' ' who considers himsalf a Pandits/ ^jnfhnTTI^ 'one who conof siders himself handsome. in the sense of 'in the habit of/ 'disposed to'.' f% with 'one K q?r group in the yz^jmft jrrfN 'one who takes.

sr^ f>T<^.' when a noun signifying a standard of comparison is prefixed to it.' ^?<rr%tj 'clever in flying up . able. hopeful. 37 with an:.) 'repudiating. &c. turning aside . Rfifift^' ^eairous of conquering.j and to with 3U.' arsteRwr. IT. 3TT5tg: desirous. ^fegqnfcq who observes the vow is vow to of sleeping on the alter)' also in the sense of 'necessity' or the payment of a debt .777 ] PBIMARY NOMINAL BASES. and to f^ when the noun governed by 463 it is prefixed to it. vqifrmfq< 'one who cries like a is also crow. *^&t TfefT. 100. 3?tRr%i( 'one who alters a sound like that of a camel'. 'decorating. knowing . STOtrvrrfcg 'what takes place of necessity-/ 'one who pays and off is a debt of Rs. in the sense of 'in the habit of. ( see Bhatti. flqmmfrtq[ This is also added to a root 'one who hat killed his ancle. sflTi ^VT and fiw prefixed to it in the Sense of SfigCTgTW 'being what a thing or person was not before:' 3R|^r: srresF WHfff' 3TT^JKW^: or -Hf^?: becom- ing rich not being rich at first. and f . pervading. ^^^? ) are added to >g with the words *T. ffftroj. e. 1 . that which mighty. ^: creating. with f%.' with sr. . and ^ <HJ H^ all added to ^ with stf and f%r. ftficg qn#**r ftfreftv ( see ^5. Bhatti. ^fqrwy. fti%^. also to ? TOrT?-' . &<M it is found added to some other roots also by poets . III. desirous of doing. ^. 1. ) so is added to Desiderative bases to form nouns. q^. Y. f^: %^ all wishing.1 this added when the observance of a 'one be indicated. and^q[. sn* with 3?^. possessed of the 1 properties of. ' ^fffwj. skilled in decorations . g. f^[ fvng: a beggar is j fqrg: added to srif: ^ one who knows. 3*.' and ^F-( f^por^.' or 'expert in 'acting well . S^TRTOJ ''powerw 'resplendent.

H a affixed w WOT/ ing a holy verse. ^[ f^ .' &o.' 3fT^: *one who ^Trftm ^T^I^* Bhatti I. an TMrfim ascetic. 20. 3TT*T^ ' watchful/ &c. affixed to knowirg. haughty. 55^^1^^: sporting.464 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. if it ends in a short vowel. II.-* and denotes the agent. The following words are to be accepted as they are . *n^-qnir^[ (Jtift ^Jt^ft flft) sacrificing a priest who officiates at regularly a sacrifice* at >j^- every season. Bag. glittering ^. ).' ft&i ti^. living- ^^355: 'who knows. Derivatives are formed with these affixes which are added to roots and then dropped. of a metre. Sis. 36 ). and sr affixed to **. sr ( ^*F and qpgr. 85.. ^^ proud.^ ?r^ a garland. f^: %^: ' cutting. 5^-: ^: 3Tfff$nfr ^T mutters prayers repeatedly. ) is XX II.f%n[. f%^ a direction. Bases of *nj. serpent. ' one who performs sacrifices frequently' (see Bhatti. 'breaking. ^33^31: one who touches water' and not ^33?*%^. demon ( vide 26 ). the difference between the first two is that in the case of the latter ndfu* 3 is inserted between it and the root.' added to arpj and the Fre. ^ to f g$^ preceded by a sulanta .' and f%^. [ 777 moves to a measured distance. falling : ^inpj: happening. words like m^fa derived from the name ^rfOT^ roots srs^and the words 333. brittle.5^: $*: gffir^r *T XIV. and SRSST ought to be considered as derived by means of this affix. except when the subanta means water. streams. ( Vide Bhatti. amorons. >^T$3^ ' one one who touches anything after recittouches ghee. ' 5^: g^: arm^T^r *f ' a biting frequently. ^Tffg: which runs in a hundred Name of a river. 22.

. 1 &c. &1^> final . ^> CT$5^. . 465 added to a root with or without any preposition . 3lf?ff%r^ one f$f ijrfrfafr who consecrate* the sacred Iiidra. 3^ the an of ^rr^ is changed to f before this . &c. 3^5' those who sit in heaven. 3^ 3P?3^ the constellation jrfij^a fjj[q[ ' of stars called Aswini . ?fc(. ^nr ^jr feverish. ^ ^ what troubles. This is also added to g^. &c. the people. powerful enemy.*g ^Tfg^he who praises the t*T$r^ the extractor of Soma juice. qrf an ^ ^^ dr P their nasal and insert ^ before their ^ RL dropping down from a vehicle. fire. Q. by them seeing all.8777] is is PRIMARY NOMINAL BASIS. as $rar-ST$n^ tranquil. 3?^ object governed is prefixed to them. ^flcT^ stretching on all sides . except in the case of roots . before this affix or following ^ is dropped. before this amx (^7 changes its 3 to 7 and other roots change their to 37. 3TTT3T^ a blessing IT forms fiftr speech .. this forms =3Rr: the protector of swift-going . poor. a demon . 8. injuring. g-^ hurting. ^ a^ft ^: or ir^: one who bring-. . dropping down from a vessel . al#$<l the Killer of a Brahmana . m stretches. Vtyttg on the axle of a carriage. nr . f^^ ffioTT^ a flesh-eater.forth. qft yielding. *n?*S^ touch! Dg the to and 5^5 creator of the universe. . to ^57^ changed 3^. and. . SO . the roots well restrained. 3?^r^ (31$ifr3irm) a gambler. a householder the conqueror of gods* 5 n^. protector . the vitals. prefixed to it a mother ^ ^ ( OTi^ name the creator . fjnr ^iKcftfd ftwf^nt one who givefl advice to his friend . 3KIH3. Vriddhi with a preceding 3?. the gods. q^-^J swooned. g^ga^ a garment. arc^R *T^mfa sraiftt a traveller . ^^. to one who and ft| which drop their nasal and then obey the general rule. Before this affix roots ending in a nasal lengthen their penultimate.ft %^Tft the leader of an army. when the of Havana's son. %-^T: a weaver. falling down from a leaf . e. presses heavily hence the cart-load: the following words are irregularly H. MuKqg.

a bow. &c. . the wing of a bird. f ?r and ff in the sense of ' the ^ ^f^ an act. the thun- . ^ qft^T^ an . <f*qf%: or ^rq^. added to ^T or $f. ^-n% sport. is added . ?njr the instrument of guidance i. 3^-m^3r the rope by an animal is tied to the pole of a carriage. with ^ri^ or . the eye. qr-qrra: drinking.. 3^( 3ft. ^53. following ^-^tffr: taken as they are: ^t ^TH% end 5 f^ %|?T a weapon-. a kind of worm. ^-*rrre which a hymn of praise. q^f 5%. It is added to the roots |. SHH^C devoted to. ^r^ ^f a weapon. ^j or ^t-^Tsr an instrument for cutting. sr^ SH^T one who asks by will. isr *T^ speech.. name of Shiva. is affixed to *T33[ which lengthens its sr before it. ?Rf^ one who goes. jr^-ir^. e. ft and to < and instead of ft is added to roots ending in others . prosperity. g-cfnr a whip. one who takes a share . sft. ^-^ instrument of. TOF fan% state. ft^ habitually sacrificing ( ) &c. ^TT^ ^TT^f. 1% 5^-^ ^ r_^ q^-. To the root : q^ ^q^ adversity . ^55. n^ snfV a leather-strap.. ^-^tf or ^f|?j. f%^[ or r%q. wealth. a sickle. &c . aenae given ^^ ^rj the jaw. and ^^ and shows the instrument of the action q^ is } ^ denoted by the root . m*fcf . irn-irfir gait. &c. . *t *fn% a song. &c. forms fern.%. the ear. &c. q^. a ploughshare. &c. q^g^ qfifc: cooking. ) ^^.is affixed to all roots and denotes the f^-^ agent7 tT-*<f a doer. a gambler* . ft<n%: or ^ H ( 3^. &c. worshipping. abstract nouns - P^ise.466 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. f%^r~%^T a watering pot. e. aecetic. or flRra or or &c -. sgfff: the instrumen 4 of hearing t. . a sacrifice. f^ lightning - iy^ 3^!^ the world vq* %ft the intellect. it is also added to i^in the the snout of a hog. The words are to be scattering. [ g 777 derived acting &o. q^ qtsr a vehicle.. 7 'one &c. S-'ETTST. q^C-Tf.

*^. affixed to it andf%^. and effort. jy^r: a sacrifice. q^[ and ^r and forms fern. an also takes 51 ( attack..^5ITT is ^ ^jr^ and voracious. . it is ^ ) with <p^. ^?qT wages. abstract nouns. ^ruTT * bed. a garment. frf^flT artificial from produced by gift ( see Bhatti. ^. a is ^*grSP ( dream. Tjvn. >j^and %q. the earth. grass ( fqparac ) ) is added to a few roots-. JT?CTT the nape of the neck. f^qr a fSfirr. either the place or the instrument of the action denoted by a couch. a question. 10. and \jq^. the root?. *r^. ijsor^ bold.777 ] PRIMARY NOMINAL BASES. FWrqT slippery ground. of ring of Jtusha. and to ^ And \n. sleep. is ^ ^ ' ^ ) added to q^. qj^sf an instrument for purifying. glutton. Emhlic myrobalan. *rr^. in the sense of in the habit of . ^. ^TT^qT assembly. HRT^ ) added to **^. <nr <n$3TT: ( ripened. $?qr doing. 3OT a sprinkling with the 3^. I. 13 ). 5 ^1 sfr in this case Soma juioa. a sort worn on the fourth finger on religious occasions. ^n a vehicle. 3 (W3) *in i8 added to of. 3*qi asceticism. vrrar: a mother. q^f: an f%^r: going. 467 derbolt. ^wr^ thirsty. f < ^T^. not changed to R3J. a market place. matured. fror. a kind of deer. bold. f^TOT the hall where an assembly meets. fqr$TT: ^ *re *ir *mre: a singer. and q^ with ft. %^5 *TC ( throwing. ^RT^ ^. casting. greedy.in the sense of qg^ covetous. ^w. a foster mother. ^TJT: protector. sr^r qrair Beggary. sacrifice. going.. gluttonous. name of a tree.' g-fsj the habit timid. added to ^35. and in *ho sense of f ra^. sleepy.' ^SHJ 5ng^. f^. ^fti. confident. lustre.

ffcr. Government and Order. similarly me who has seen the other < lim^m<. q^Fir shaking. and -U4$r4^ in/ the roots q^ ( IET^ ) is affixed to f .. Syntax in English depends principally upon the last. and no change occurs in the meaning of the sentences. ip^T transient. murderous. ^r ^T*: 'one who gives vn& 'one who drinks-/ %^: one who binds-/ who goes or destroys-/ ^5: one who goei or takes . ^. 'H^Wi. cruel. Change the order of words and there is a corresponding change in.' one and ^ %. sentences. therefore. tremulous. which are rich in inflection. sfhr shining.468 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. CHAPTER XV. fsr. fncMi victorious. the mere order . *f%i and ^. and tf <r . fifc. fjfa injurious. down. [ 777-778 ig affixed to sp|. But in English and other languages. ' ^ ^ side. In Sanskrit. 'order' is everything. deficient in inflection. the meaning. ??^T go- it is ing. In Sanskrit and other cognate Languages 778. beautiful. adept king'. and T- added to ^r. ^ * TO bowing smiling. Syntax deals with the mode of arranging words in Of the three divisions of Syntax Concord. the Syntax of Sanskrit is mainly concerned with the first two. The word g^TO adt>. going. yielding. ^^^ perishable. one who has fought with a 4M$r<K. the relation f is which one its word bears to another in a sentence determined by grammatical form. ^ desirous. how-so-ever the order of words be changed. 5?^. or eats. is also derived from gr^ with * (changed to 3T . fleeting) to also added irq. hence.

7 some M. and the absence of the indirect construction and of the subjunctive mood.778-780 ] SYNTAX. a predilection for passive forms. though a perfect arbitrariness in that respect is not allowable. * usual order of words in a sentence In ordinary prose writings the is. as equivalent to 'the*' ^f%gr<i ^: a certain man <r^: qjRr: a traveller. Besides these general senses As the great bulk of Sanskrit literature is thrown in the form of verse. f. There are no v*ie pron. numbers in Sanskrit: a singular number. 'the predominance of co- ordination. THE ARTICLE. the laws of Syntax will be found not to be always observed by the poets. then the object with its adjuncts. The chief characteristics of Sanskrit style are in the words of Prof. are often used in the sense of 'a ceitain ' and 779. the use much less definite than in Latin and Greek difficulties. a fondness for compounds and indeclinable participles supplying the place of subordinate clauses. the frequent employment of the Past Participle instead of the finite verb. Max Muller. denoting a single individual. first the subject with its adjuncts. Williams 1 Grammar for Beginners. For the latter reason the use of the tenses and moods is of the cases. and participles. the various tenses and moods. n. The words cfifsar^ ud q-^. however. . 469 of words is not of material importance. Sanskrit Syntax also takes farther into account the meaning and use of partici* These ples. 3. will be treated of in their proper order. being presents comparatively simple. a dual number denoting two. and a plural number denoting more than two. &c. the use of the Locative Absolute. articles in Sanskrit corresponding to the English Definite and Indefinite articles. fT3" m.^j3T the king. then the adverbs and other indeclinables ( extensions of the predicate ) and lastly the predicate. . on the other haud. 54 ) there are three As already remarked ( See 780.

we rule over speech a. ^fTv 3WTTJ. . ^?$?r a male and a female of sparrow. ( c ) The **3t. ( 1 ) The plural is pect oj reverence. ( 5 ) The plural of proper nouns denotes a family or race- as in English. : we ( t. the writer ) ( hold this opinion. (*. [ 780 ( ) The W^il^T-' the lion singular may be used to denote a clas. should always represent a class. &c. ^r f%55n gTCTtHlV be went to Videha. 2 ) In the first person. 3TT<f:. I. which are dual in sense but singular in form ought to be always used in the singular. ( 1 ) Note: Words like g[q-. 3 ) Words like^m:. TTsfr. though some of them aie singular in sense. &c. great personages and writers some( times use the plural instead of the singular. such as ^^f. plural. ) too but we jfr^H% ( (. must be used. must be used in the plural. ft^ aTI^I^TT^T^ this is the opinion of the revered preceptor. are always used in the plural. 1. &c. But in country. except when eevcral pairs are meant. (b) The dual sometimes denotes a male and a female of the same class} ffcRT parents. *a ( 2 ) Note: Words like ?*cfr. meaning pair/ &c. . fgrihr. the sing. f i% 3fr$fc?TCTOT:> hot unfrequently used as a mark of resso ( says ) the venerable Shankaraeharya. f . language ).470 a SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. like the ( singular. ) may STTgratt: or sn^fur: *&?' Brabmanas class ) are adorable. Names of countries which are really the names of the ( 4 ) people inhabiting them. an% ITT^^T ^IdlSa-H sn^ ^JIT^ there is a town called Pataliputra in the country of Magadha. the Brahmana be used in the dual in Sanskrit. *%. ^f%lT^ T?: SIB*: &o. is the king of beast?.ffr^fr. gir. &o. e. the case of compounds ending in words denoting a ftw* &c. &c. ask you something. e. e.t.

number. Bha. &mt nRshr^wnw: a ) . ma Ra y u and * sha11 do this third. Sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest subject in number. ( a ) When two or more subjects differing in are connected by 'and' the verb must be plural. ( 2 ) Concord of the Adjective with the Substantive. ( these b y s take tne man o fit. Nala by name. 781. *TR-' 'Let Rama or Govinda go. II I are connected by 'or' and are all sing. . the Terb . person.' *r qr f W ^RmTT nim or 784. number ^fr ^T Mah. &c. qf[ H^Tft ^T ^Slf^ft Mah. prft: c.' a verb agrees with two or more subjects of Different persons connected by 'and. CONOOBD OF THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECT. ( b ) Bat when they the verb will be singular. Bha. and ( 3 ) Concord of the Relative with its Antecedent. person or tense. When ^ ( 6 ) But when the subjects are connected by 'or'.781-784 ] SYNTAX. and when the subject differ in number the verb will agree with the one nearest to it. I. STTSTofr *T*W two Brahmanas go. the agreement of words in a sentence a* regards gender. 3Tf *P53Tf& 782. verb must agree with its subject in number and there was a king. The 3m 783. amffa TT3TT 5T5JT I go.' the first person has and the second over the preference over the second or third. Oonoord is The concords deserving notice in Sanskrit are three: ( 1 ) Concord of the verb with the Subject. 471 SECTION CONCOED.

3cTT f^Tr the (b) When an ad jective-or a noua is a form of the roots 3^ or ^ may be used with used as the predicate. . riches are the abode of miseries. *f H^rfi^K he i& tnat. or an adjective or a noun may take its place. ( a ) The same applies to transitive roots predication used passively.' &c. it or may be agrees omitted. 'words like mifqq. ST^^^T^q^r desirous of being the lord of the three worlds. igywr: ^^: a good servant is difficult to be obtained. [ 784-786 tgwes with the one nearest to or it ^r^T W we accomplish thtt. &c. to be. is done. 3f either I or King Kama or Tnd*WT Lakahmana fl^TT aedmVIIR? he S^WaTt *T vfotft *T will perish. 5 cffqr 3^f^tHM*im': &cr* ^ in these cases the verb agrees with the subject in number and sot with the noun used predicatively and not 786. jfrr ^VRTf^ ITOTfir their bonds were cat off. CT$ 5<T the work creeper is cat. The predicate may not always be a finite verb. the substantive or adjective so used must agree with the subject in case.472 SANSKEIT GRAMMAR. retain their gender and number. fo gf^RT that sage the mouse was made ( transformed into : * W^ ^& ) of incomplete f<T: by : a cat. qrsr. but a participle. ^ JHimTOSr: 5*W* * a at king seems igjmr: emaciated through wakefulness. tively with verbs of incomplete predication such as to seem. to appear. When a substantive or an adjective is used predica- l to grow. &c. crqf *r fovzm this is my resolve.^r^pnft she said that. a king is thought to be Vishnu. 55^: ftg: good son is the object of his father's pride. (a ) When a participle is need as the predicate it must agree witfc the subject in number and gender. 785. the adjective subject in osed predicatively with the number and - ^ &c gender-.

When with agrees substantives differ in gender. ) it is first not fit to cat down even a poisonous tree having reared it up* here the indeclinable 3roT9cT is equivalent to and the whole sentence to %$ tf *&3 BTOTttKT ( * ^ Concord of the Adjective with the Substantive. great calamity. satisfaction of desires. An adjective. when the when they ^cT- ^f^^KcU conduct. a good wife and ^T^^Tit ^^T even by doing u hundred v young son should be maintained Hrferr ioul deeds. ^V ^r *TT(TTffafy I! ^TW WT? down ). pride. q But numeral unchanged: adjectives of fixed gender and number remain $ref 3T9TOTT: * hundred Brahmaoas. so has Manu spoken ( laid Viman. the object governed by it is pat in the Nominative case. happiness snd long Iife 5 all these proceed undoubtedly ?T ^"5T?T. g?T: \&g : I IT3T^r3 aged parents. 473 When an indeclinable used with an adjectival force 787. Sf^h?ar arc masculine. takes the place of the verb. f . a a. feminine and neuter n^TT CT^T the king and his queen are of laudable ^ ^: qjms* ! ?W f: SR!>T: g^ W I 3?Wi^cTn^ ^RTTOT fulfilment of duty. ^q^cTr woman. ^fr a with the substantive it qualifies in gender. most agree number and case. particpial or qualitative. from wealth. auger. firsrf^ 789. the adjective will be masculine when the substantives are masculine and feminine-^ and neuter an adjectives qnalifie two or more substantives them in their combined number. it twenty children.7*7-789 ] SYNTAX. * II. beautiful handsome man. ^nt \^j: a ^fg5<gllH hundred women. ( a ) Sometimes the adjective takes the gender of the majority of the substantives. 55. 788.

the cases of the relative and its antecedent being determined by their relation to their respective clauses. as predicate CONCORD OF RELATIVE wim IT^ ANTECEDENT. which man should unite to be united with anything. slights another. &Hfrq- saying that one good fortune . relative English strative that ' to introduce pronoun q^ nsu. The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender. W^eQ * P^ti or potential passive participle is used with a noon in apposition to the subject. 793. the demonstrative pronoun following that of the noun it qualifies. 3^: <FJf ^DTf 3lMWHr ^r ^fe Rejection. 792. is used like the a clause. is fit lifar ^vHlft ^1% ^VW'dvf vl^^ what. [ 789-793 ) And sometimes : it takes the gender and number of the substantive nearest to it when the particle ^ is need. fiT *T?*r ^HHHF PnHfsr: -non-endurance The ' of the merits of another is but the nature of the wicked. quarrel and an itching sensation prevail all the &fdft ^T ^ Wttfr ^ $?OR more they are attended to. ^m: 3R3* fftorr d4lti<T: ( S'akciple agrees VI. number and person. the gender of the demonff pronoun being the same as that of the antecedent noun. 791. ( ) by whose valour we have be- come happy and 790.*f*hn. ) the demons are made the marks of your arrows by Hari. sing. a wise it with &c. *T IT $*for he who has wealth has a noble family : TW. *ff TC( &W SR: arerre^iUNicf man it is a true VRinf W it is tfce pride of wealth that even a learned follows another. the partiwith the subject-.474 ( I SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. q^q. When the relative has for its predicate a noun differing in gender from the antecedent the relative generally takes the gender of the antecedent noun. so have the three worlds.

g. gender. -Bsisting six Karakas in Sanskrit Karaka 'is the name given to the relation between a noun and a verb in a sentence. The Accusative denotes thing upon whom or which the effect of the object i. In cases where both are possible the latter predominates over the former ( as in gfRstf snr*^ although srjr^ alone ). SECTION II. not a Karaka case. .* When used with a verb it forms its Subject. 3.793-797 ] SYNTAX. Sanskrit grammars ie the KarakaprakaraDa or the chapter on Government. is to the form of a word. 475 Obs: Sometimes the antecedent noun or pronoun is omitted and has to be inferred from the gender and number of the relative*. GOVERNMENT. &c. These are <<rr. measure and number crude express 796. aWT^R and aiRreTUI. when used by itself. as in English and other languages naming case. the person ol an action takes place- srom Pan. THE ACCUSATIVE 797. what ^TT<T *TT^% him who does not bestow it on men- dicants. 3?W. The Nominative. therefore. 46. is . The only portion of Syntax treated separately in 794. 795. tfsr^R. There are several indeclinables in Sanskrit which also govern Oases governed by indeclinables are called Upapadavibhaktis. is simply the and nothing more. as distinguished from those governed by verbs cases. qjff. II. its office. &c. There are belonging to the first seven cases. would govern the Dative. which is. which are called Karaka vibhaktis. except the Genitive. vr^T f% *ft JT the use of wealth to 3*3 -T^T. e.

Kum. real or metaphorito which it is directed. <f there he dwelt for some days. bat not of words denoting 'a road. II. j^ goes to Krishiia (thinks of him) mentally. $ 799. they consider thee to be water &c. cal govern the Accusative of the place fJW l-odffi goes to a village. the Dative may also be used. griTft ^cTK 1?W having made Kumara the leader ( of the forces ). an q* franrfcft ( the creator ) created Several transitive verbs govern what is called first. or duration of time and distancesleeps in the country oi the Kurus. rf ir^sfff. amMvMl (wm m* with his over the forest. All transitive verbs govern *n Accusative. ftJtfit collects flowers. ?ntf [ 797-800 H^jgtf wrf* going to a Tillage he touches grass. Prakriti.^t^T ^>|^^| ^^V the course of the river is winding for a Kosa. but 1TRTW fef^i^ studies twice a month. \ Intransitive roots govern the Accusative nouns denoting space or country.' 4 But when the relation ot object and verb is expressed by the passive termination the noun forming the object is put in the nominative case. in English a factitive object besides a direct object. Boots having the sense of motion. * 798. 4U< is milked. he worships Hari. 5. (a) When IJTO the motion is real. M<d^^^ all bow strung he roamed ^ ^T I%t while thus pondering he sank into sleep. sFf^f srms'nf he walks for a Kosa. fft: ^^Jrt t OTOTS^r*c*r?cT&frit I Pan. . they know thee to be Parnsha.n. sft^rcq^^r qfe: he sits down till a cow the hill is situated in a part of a Kosa. <HIH^^J qrt irx^^[ they reached the highest point of joy. 3.476 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 800. made his son Aja by name. 13.

4. governs the Loc. 3rf\rreclining on a stone-slab. f Tbe |RRT:. ^^HH^ffgit he dwelt in : Hari dwells in J The root ^ is with ^q. I. 477 qnjpf l^fo only. 9 sit on this seat. 1 VIII. 5^Accusative the 3TT governs Vaikuntha . 48. qft <I91W he retches the main The roots* $ft. 'to the takes sit meaning autfteffa^rffr^T 5 803.. ?T and srf^r meaning <tO. *mrr. and 'between/ and 3??fWOT 'without/ regaidi D g to/ govern the Accusative . he Pannes the path of goodness. 3TmRT^ra Tft fondly resorts but with OT to sin. ^Err and 3rr^ . T 3rmcT: ^ftcT ^TOTT ft**T fT sri^fntft I Vartikas on Pan. 802. 4. whom you Barely this have fixed your mind ( see Bhatti. 4 48. f ariStfa governs the Accusative. 4. srofcrf tfrsrft^tfsRCWT occupied half of Indra'a seat. sromH *ri&3OTlWtWT* lived f*K **& in Ayodhyl delightful in all seasons. Accusative of the place where the action takes place. 80. govern the 801. f%^TT. 46. but used with the Loc. | 3?ftf^Tr Pan. 1. &mm: fair *far the cowherds are on both . particles qfttT-'. t ^TT^OT^TO: I | Pan. with arRr. and preceded by the prepositions case .meaning 'to abstain from food' a dreary forest . f%^ with a preposition governs the Ace. . 47. g-q^flrm ^T fHT: Hama observes a fast in ^ the forest. 804.800-804 ] SYNTAX. urnrr is that harlot girl on ). Loc. but z<v*fr road by taking a by-path. 1.

(") 311% 'superior to. faiTW <E'K3mn fie upon wealth which is attended with troubles. 3<rg<TK T^fRn%^ &* ^3THT ( he stood ) very high above 805. 90. XI. like the sun. higher than/ 3^3 'just after. &c. 3T'IT*4t 35T3P qidTg: Patala fie is below the world. [ 804-805 sides of Krisbna-^gfcT: 5TOHT$ ^TOTO on all sides of the palace. g. R??frf^RrRR 5T*RTOi but a faint desire to go to the town. 5y^5tf4^. irrtf ^TR^r-f^qT sT3Tf% goes near to the Vide Sis. 1 . ?R i <rift% ^ ^: I 3TTHT^Tit I Pan.' 3?fn -close to' and ^r 'near. **fRT*r i f%m 1. jr woe to him who I have not a devotee of Krishna. with all his brothers. 8. arfar %^R[ fT^OT: Krishna excels gods in might 3n%TTR j .' e. airaTTr ?^f jr*r village. is ^OR^J mH ^T happinesi is not possible without Hari. and sometimes with the Voc. g. ^ri%?^: just Govinda after superior to Rama the muttering of praj ers . I. sqTjq'R sjfa? T^Tmop 5TT-* Hari guards keep vigil is over all the worlds. II. 68. Prepositions used by themselves and governing nouns are called Kaimapravachaniya. sjnTcTST ^T^3: ^5* <?RcTfrT>Kir. after. ( fvf^ ) is used sometimes with the Norn. 75. ftnfr 3TT?m^ upon the lord of the Kurns. by the side of. inferior to . 3. 12 ) he dispelled the demons from around the altar and offered sacrifices to the minor deities arranged round the principal one. ie ^ TTq'R^ 71^^ it rained Rrjrg ^everything Pan. VI. * The following prepositions are used with the Accusative. fogr ^ fie upon thee fool. e. inferior to. 8. all by his lustre. upon you rogues. ^ Some Genitive of the indeclinables given above are used with the .478 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. T^ffa %f^ qftSt f%H^- 4lF'MqT3fr5fiw STVTR** ( Bhatti I. ft?f* c*fa^-.m^< 85-87. %g with reference to queen Vasumati. 91. 4.

^ajjry^tree. ZV^R to like that of a hero is inferor his af &c. uro to churn. 9. So Vide Bhatti. f^T to win ( as a wager ). ^ir^to punish.805-806 ] SYNTAX. VI. and j^ to steal-. *TTT sf? 3TT*f the devotee act is not j: close to Hari. *rf* () The 3T3 <Tfc prepositions 3TPT. 3^3 his father. f% to collect. ^TTf^ to instruct. waters each and every r: \ so 3)ft also govern tl^e Accusative when they ia imply 'one's own ( share-/ ) H?*ft: 5 fnT3-*lft-S?eT Lakshmi the proper share 800. 8-10.' &c. T 3T3 5R ^ frf your STT:. similarly cTOgn^r^r the cow. > the roots ^ ^^ qq he milks 1 : ( draws milk from ^ ) begs the earth of Bali. <ra^to cook. 3T$. and srf?r are used with the Accusative when they refer to particular things. 9 -o * vig^ ajg wi ^ fq^ if *Tx^f?r 5cf: the son inferior imitates to you are not is Rama. as and also ^r. to milk. ( lit. to obstruct. property of Hari. 479 of thee ia after niine . ST^SJ^ ask. f and and the synonyms of these. sr to speak. The roots given in the following Karika govern a double Accusative i. frrf^ srfff ^rpr f^fmff t%5(r the lightning 'to flashes towards the mountain. qf ^if^T . f^. ^fS iTFaftt ^gvjt he ^rfff be cooks rice (into food). also whea they mean every one. . .

Rag. * When these verbs are used in the passive. V* with ft. fi^i*<^iRi<ifli ^m ^ w ^^ftMfff^Ty^f^n I *$V Vartikis. f In the case of the causals of roots implying 'motion.' 'eating/ roots having come literary work for their object. on Pan. VII. i. O3: ( a 35^18 sometimes found used with the Dative.480 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. nd ^ when * * it has for its subject a vvtf* HT: Sid. Knm. 52. . taught Veda to the Creator ano^ seated the earth ( made it rest ) on valors. : n Sid.' 'knowledge. rrc[ their subject in the primitive with arj. 54.the devotees see Hari. intransitive roots and the roots g^ and sit?.fr. sj. ^c^TTir cf. That venerable Harl ( of gods ) is my refuge who despatched the enemies Vedas to the next world. the secondary object in the case of the first twelve roots and the principal one in that of the last fonr is put in the Nominative case. qtj*. 69. ) The causals of . trg-and sense is put in the Accusative case. XII. *pff <** 808. 1. explained the meaning of the to his ( followers ). - But when the double causal used the subject ceases to be the subject of the root in the primitive sense and therefore takes the Instrumental. 3RT*HT ?nf *t|jR[ iie makes. [ 807-808 807. the other Accusative remaining as before. is 52). made the gods drink nectar.

. : i Kan. $ The primitive subject of I the verbs g and 3?. ^1^|^| also is construed with the Instrumental. and not such as. 31 . 3rf5" Vide also ( ) Sis. time. Vartlka. Kr|rrf^ T ^ I Vartikas. but ^Tifqiff chariot. 4. VI. 43.808-809] SYNTAX. meant such roots as are not capable of governing an object other than one denoting . though transitive. ^ Vart I Vart. 809. tHit^ici siismift IT ^r^%T. though the former when meaning srr remember with pain' is sometimes found used with the Accusative also . govern the Instrumental of the primitive subject . G. *KTqKJ STjpTT. &o. WTT holds good in the case of the causal of 3^ and he makes the eat his food. 481 noun othar than one denoting a driver. gis^i^qi^ ^4ri|ff he causes Devadatta to make Note: ^ By intransitive roots are. The causal of the denominative a sound. 8. may be used without their object being actually expressed . 66. JT but ^*3%^ qrorft and not *%&&[ though the object of is not actually expressed.* 5TT*HTfS *r$<TT?f *T *TR f^?r he makea hid servant carry a load . ^ <41SK ^T- the charioteer makea the horses draw the ( 1 ) t . H. I. of * t sffctft* M^Vl^j^^ q%Tl^n I ST^WT^ Sid. boy auqm'ff mqqft *T 3F3* Wgtt Th same ' pain or injury ) J *ra^ when it has not the sense of f^rr ( but H$Rf?t to a sentient thing' does the same. pain ( 2 j w ( ) ^T and with the 'to which denote a kind of knowledge are construed Instrumental. loss the of corn hen causes to the mind).space.

is either pnt in the 37HTC^. Accusative or the Instrumental.to a village . or see. 69.j %fo *l- M&navaka &c. 3. *'. &c. not knowing thy greatness ll Sid. THE INSTRUMENTAL 812. thou wast disrespected by me. God. but in the case of roots implying 'knowledge 810. $ know. ^r^f 3Tm *UWm causes Dev. 9^- 811.. go to he makes Minavaka know his duty . Devadatta is made to go. VII. g^rT* TTH ^l^Ud. the primitive subject ) is put in the principal object ( Nominative case . *When or eating' and roots having a literary work for their object the principal object is pnt in the Nominative case and the secondary object in the Accusative or vice versa- Devadatta prepares a mat he makes Devadatta prepare a mat. 18. I Pan. 1. f CASE. rfc *1%T 3T be makes the devotee bow down to. The Instrumental case primarily expresses either the the construction is passive ) or the instrument or when ( means by which an action is done (mqftnTH 3MMHT*nTT 3TCT^agent . ^^t . the e. eat food. II. is made to sr^RtT ^t^r^nfr te makes the child or 414^ ^Hm the boy is made. on Pin. .482 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB [ 809-812 an d $[ when used in the Aim. the causal forms are used in the passive. Kau. goes to a village. As tives the general rules given at regards the causal of roots governing two Accusa808 hold good . giT^m cfcR^ft 3T causes the servant to take or weave a mat .

^TT^&ur almost a with ease. the Instrumental of words expressing the length of time or space is used. ( c ) f The root 37 with ^ also governs the Accusative or the Instrumental. so f f&: w Vart. ( 1 ) In the case of numerals and words expressive of sure the Ace. of corn at a time. but RTSWtftar JTPIT^ as the accomplishment does not take place.812-814 ] SYNTAX. 3f<r**f: 3. 20. may f also be used* ( J ) 05s: The root f^ < to play/ however. 6. (qr^j Reft ^T ^^Hl U^T be recognises or lives in peace with his father. TT^R the instrument is * ) The Instrumental : also used in the following senses. II. by going over it >. 3. *. the section ( of the Veda ) was studied by him in a day. or a Kosa ( t. governs the Accusative or the Instrumental of the instrument used* 9T frarfiT he plays at dice. is ritualist. srrqrtir. lovely by nature-. Words expressing some defect in a limb of the 814. 43.so ^riffilcf . witn an arrow here TltTO fl i8 fc ^ e a S ent . g^r cFT^T mgtripfcr. ^r | ^^tr^TcTT^Jt CTICT I I Pan. f&sT)ui4 ^(1*3 ^RTTinT he buys T2^3[ sfelUHIrt be buys one thousand beasts at a time. I. II. 483 b7 H waa ( killed R ma ). body govern the Instrumental of the defective limb* 3r$orf blind of one eye. *TT%^: he Tfr^ror irm? Gargya byjamily name-. 813 | When the accomplishment of an object is to be expressed. &c. 3. RTT. but fS^ij ^sr |rfi g ^' remember Vishnu. nPTHtJTTkj two dronas &c. 4. Pan. .

excel your ancestors in that ( devotion : ( Mu. I the lustre I. from his matted hair 816. The Instrumental is also used to express the cause or motive or the object of purpose of an action as distinguished from the mere instrument of it.. ^ffQT f^fl-^ftfrT resembles ^T Tm^sT^fTlW ( Utta.484 * SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. his father in voice.ijuqTT HT ?7T' Hari was seen by ( virtue of ) merit. of the suDj ( b) f ff^PTT ^T^ !jft^^T5T^rTT H<rf<iTT% : S'ak. you ). ^(^M: ^yHJ>Hift 3. aleo when the object to be accomplished implied. will not ) 817 idea of ( used with words expressing the a ) excelling. 3. Ifarrnfo srcrfrt punished for that fault. 4. Kau. ) he surpasses. myself.21. succeed- simply && mflm away with your efforts swar ^TW ^Trficf f^T^J: ( Sid. ^pfa H^nTHF <nTTTrTO% Oh fortunate one. aronr^r 5*i35fif% thou art to be dwells for the purpose of is studying. equality. the. Kau. %5^^-R ^OT his face resembles that of his mother. f ( sHdMimdim^qftf^re f?*nS: Sid. HidHc*HI ^tt I conjure thee by my life. ^nf^f% TO sfWSfR ( c ) ^ ( d I am ) rejoicing. likeness. A 3T?TTm. Yr^Rrf pleased with thee by thy devotion to Your preceptor and S^ compassion upon me. e. 815. 17. ). [ 815-817 characteristic attribute indicative of the existence of $ particular state or condition is put in the Instrumental. I swear by Bharata and swearing. satisfied with little. being pleased. . II- J^ Sid Kau. g^^Tfef low person IB . reaemblance. equal to Vishnu in valour. The Instrumental is t.rTTTO: he is an ascetic ( whic* ia apparent ) ). by his lustre.

snr?r: SIR* ^ETT^ accompaniment such as -R^T ( Bh. what is the use of his wealth who a ) & c ^tT need of SEW ^WU'WOTra. ^ftfr I. N. 70. easels Sainpra- * The primary sense of the Dativ * ?T5^ Pan. Words expressing the idea of use or need. Destitute of wealth/ ) the optional use of the Instrumental see the Abl.' : though possessed of wealth/ &c. W5& Pto. B. I.. case: ( The following words also govern tha Instrumental 3PRT. the -. qqfcM and the like. the Gen. etc.. cases. *$ruftirr: Uf^W: 'the life of a friend ought to be saved even at the cost of one's life/ 818. && is also used with a gerund ( b ) The ' particles ' away ^roH" 'away with misunderstanding/ ( c ) Particles expressing *T. and the root ^ with j% used in same sense. and the Loc. 485 (0) motion ( the conveyance or the part of the body on which a thing is carried being put in the Instrumental case ): ^ifr ^TRft ' he moves about in a chariot. d ) Words meaning ' having or destitute of. . 4. " 3^^ firsrr-^rrR ?rif 27. CASK. 3i%r real or metaphorical ) at which a thing is 5^: bought for a hundred ( rupees. VIII. ' oven the rich sometimes stand in grass.' similarly 3^ and &$ meaning enough-/ 3^ ^enough of your weeping ( do not weep ):' 5^ afHrr^oT with overpressing'. 3T3T. 63. 13. ). ?nt. ^HT f% <n &c. &c.817-819 ] SYNTAX. such as f$r. 32.II- 3. ). XIV. For THE DATIVE 819. ^. T %^r TOf*r^r% ^sr^nr VArt .. &c.' (/) price ( bought. ' mi FnfrrRr Sak ( ^ ' Rag.

f^Miq nt he gives a cow to $$l\!\ a BrahmaDa-/ 5^rq. [ 819-822 dina ( ^nr^TH ). fmT^T %3m[-5ni% ^T a cowherdess being incited by love flatters Krshna or apparently conceals her feeling from him some or waits for 74. VII. t ^n*RT sfNWT-' qftHHOi: I Pan. and others having the same sense f The roots the Dative the of govern person or thing pleased or satisfied.^TfrW 'prepares for battle-/ . I % ^Tftr <f* will give you the prosperous kingdom of the Sibifl. 35. it the root 57 ought to govern the Dat. qgFTT T* TH?t is 'be sacrifices a bnll to Rudra/ Note: Though indirect object. 36. Pan. 5^ a stream of sweet water. .486 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. also the person or thing with reference to whom or which an action is done. *T3* TOrifrf Oh sky-wanderer.' ^n to swear/ govern the Dative of tho person ' * : ^ *tand/ to whom object or feeling is to be conveyed. 'Hari likes *rfrF: devotion. 4. &c. % ^mgg^Wi #T<*mR: fStftfcfrcr I Pan. *n<fr TOTT3. of the sometimes found used with the Gen.' *Bnt in the ease of the root q-^ the proper object is pnt in the Instrumental case and the indirect object in the Accusative. I. 73. ). or the parson to whom I something is Vait. ' i&3 *TT 'thou who art thinking of bestowing the earth 5* ^T ^n% upon Rama/ &c. or the Loc. I 83. I. 34. him or swears but <l^M The sgisiW 5r?Cr creditor ( before him-/ ( Vide Bhatti. The indirect object of the * root arj is called SampradAna. 4.' g^t ft 5*1* * 3lfl*IKI 820. minister praises his king/ ' 822. is 821. cool and per- fumed. I. * not liked by one who has already drunk enough of water/ and ^rqr JThe roots sgr^ 'to praise/ ^ 'to hide.r ^j^rir 'The Sndra should not be instructed in the Veda. 4.

4. .. or is jealous of him or finds fault with 5^ he did tfrafr ^rire^Rrrcii^jr ( Bhatt. . ) due in the case of the root <j to owe. * you owe me two sprinklings of trees ( Sa'k. ^*rfa fSTW$ JffT-3T*jqrr?r ^r (Sid. &c. * wrsf sfc . ) f^qTOH^ffrjrpTOnr^ fl-f ' But ^3.822-824 ] SYNTAX. 37. ' 487 ' and the person or the desired in the case of are in the Datfve case. jtsqrvqr: gr^fff is he longs but tronfor tg53f% where no longing . implied. ) a ' ) f Accusative case. * The roots the feeling of anger. y not ( see her ^RrsNY^STr^rlf^fff Sid. ) neither get angry with Sit& nor find fault with her . ) . 39. Kau.' ( Bhatti VIII 15. gg with J 3THT used with the Bat. also found ). ). f% me ? preceded oy H preposition govern tho ' why do you get an^ry with ^ffreqr% he always endeana^ ( Mud. The roots ^r^C. an ^ i*% ^ot ^ m ewri n 8 * to detemine the good or bad fortune of with reference to whom the inquiry is made. !R\T.. ' ) ^ * qjsMHTqfreft < he longing for her for flowers . i - l 4 88 - I. ( Sid . VII. hatred. ) < he is angry with Hari. or^ears hatred towards him. and ^ is vours to do harm to Obi. Bid - I. and others havthe same sense the Dative of the person against whom ing govern 823. ' but *rnrf' he keeps a jealous watch over his wife ' ( that others ' him. my ' body. VIII. Kau. Kaa. and sj^. Kau. I govern the Dative of the person Pan. 75. I. 4. f$rthing put ^g^. is directed. ?f fs^. Utta. 824. $MJU<T 1 nf: *rtf ^TRSHra^wnfs I Sid.

Pan. ' $ugdiq" fjr^nr ' ( Mah. ) 'water gtuel ( produce un da la ' ) urine. optionally governs the Dative ( and optionally the Inst. 40. I Sid. J ( 827. (c) ' good for a $ The word f|ft Brahmans.Dative used in this sense . is which anything put in the Dative case. with ' [ 825-827 and srr meaning to promise. ^rwit ^ i Vart. as a servent. ' is also put in the Dative ^TcTf7 %>ft&\ Rgd[ l the tawny lightning forebodes a storm. Kau. B. ) ' gold for for a ( a kind of ornament &c. i rgtfr srixm ^?Tr?r5T ^csft ^nr^mR ^r i Vfirtika. ' 5Tr*t?T SI tends to ( Mb.' &c. Bhfts. * (d) An evil foreboded by a poiteotcus phenomenon case. ) of the price at which he is hired ^Kfr 31cTTO *T <rRa?fa: I Sid. ' governs the Dative of the person to whom a promise is made after 825. Pan. qErstf WTO ) poetry is for fame. 7 is used with the Dative. N. ' worships Hari for final beatitude. The roots ^ or g^ TT5T% ( are often omitted after a . ) . I 4. 44. f The root a?r with <rft Ho hire. |j qfft solicitation fisrnr ui sfifsnjftfir STT^fRT *TT I ROT IT^T 826. expressive of the purpose for which or the result to which anything leads or the exists. .. 4. ^mu ^i^ ' wood sacrificial post.488 * SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. Kau. ' devotion leads to knowledge-. ) A noun ' anything effect for is done.

1. t Sfl. 15. 3^ ^r^T ' ' this offering to ' Agni. 94. ' ' well with the subjects. such as sr*j: *TfTO:. *. away. 98. Bhas.). is put in the Dative.* . ) II. S|<$ ' thee. 5H&:> with the Dative ( Sid. Kan. ) < who had amassed wealth in order to give it ( Bag. V. II.828-829 ] SYNTAX. and also the verb sense of 379. see $ 828 ( ). ' < meaning equal to. JT3 the other words may also be used with the Genitive ( Bid. it becomes the principal is ' verb J and therefore goveros the Accusative case. so 375 trgt ' HftHj ( Mab. are used ar. f The particles ^rr?T and *^r ( exclamat **ffcr. ^^^3 ff ( Rag.' &c. 17. similarly f^ppq-: f^iT.). |OT tolndra. Kau.' TO ( a ) But when 5 is used with qriP. a match for and *^r ( an exclamation accompanying an oblation to a deity ) govern the Dative case' ' ' snrnRT: f*i% may it be rns' 5m: 5i*fr bow to that Sambhu. Bhatti. ' 3T%*W33F3ffi6 ) We bow down to Nrisimha ( to propitiate him ). l bows down to gods' ( when the souse of an infinitive suppressed. ) Farewell to w. VIII. * HJIHN goes to perform a sacrifice.3^y Hari is a match for the demons.' noun formed from a root may ( a ) The Dative of an abstract be usd to express tho sense of the infinitive of the same root. ) 719. of course the Dative will be used. an 489 828. * The object governed by infinitive mood not actually need but implied. 14. 39. 829.. II. 7. b ) Words having the &c. tions used in offering oblations to gods and manes respectively). ' $FTt7t ?R. 3. in or ^ er to brin 8 ) ( . ) one wrestler is a match for another. ( see 'thii oblation Rag.

&c. XI. ffT H saluted her with a mind bowed down with devotion. ) I will tell my preceptor that it is time to offer the morning of Mithila that Rama was fr%*& tKl'Hl syRimg heavenly damsel against him ( i. tf RTT ^ur TT?% 3<mtf *T I do not consider thee a straw. XI. : I ^ ^ . X. [ 829-831 : ( Mai. 17. ^err.490 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. the Accusative is used. the Dative of the indirect object is used. 8 ) when mere comparison is meant. STOPF^. ). ). 3. IV.. ^f^rat ffrrW 5^% fif^^nft ( S'ak. may govern the Dative or the Accusative. can.5r^tS%'^R^r^. 15. or foo9 or a to be used. He told the king eager to see the bow. IV. may base when contempt is to Pa?. though neither ?{f nor ^^c is an animal. 31. II. ?qf ^n* not an animal. ?^rw^ Hjtq^ MM^N *The ( to disturb his contemplaBag. having "With verbs of telling such as qs^. the Accusative ought 0. crow or a parrot or a jackal/' > the former cse 5T?5rf R^STHf 3T5I5rT. 4. if indirect object of the root m cl. 79.. and of sendirg such as f| with sr. Verbs meaning ' to salute ' such as srorac . Katyayana remarks ' . with ( Bag. the annihilate r of ) gods bowed the enemies of the II. Tell me. oblations. who thou art in : ( Bhag. ' n animal' it should be said. ) this fierce form. 83?. 37. ) the great king has power over his daughter. but ^ r^t ^OT H?lr ( R[ cl. 830. ( Bag. ) the him. " Instead of 'If not If Tiot one of a ship. ( Kad. ) immortals: rrifi$f ( ^rfnrmffo: bowed to the lord of speech &c. VHI. Mad. in the latter though may be optionally used. ) Indra sent a tions ). ( c ) srafo% Sffiptf respectfully to ( Bag. ^ is an animal the Dative . &c. ftft^ &c. xrftniar ( Kum. 3.) they do not bow down to deities. 0. ' to think ' be put in the Accusative or the Dative be shown. &c. XV. 21.

1. if it put in the Accusative or the Dative. 49. is actnal motion is ' but H5RTT tf$ THE ABLATIVE The CASE. I 24. II.' hence the noun from which the motion. OTTWSffmam^ ( Meg. SRTWT^T V. also. 40 . ' comes from a from a running horse'. TSI^ <r23Hf I Pan II. 28 ^UMiq 3iqnfR^ Pan. V&rt. * The object of roots imply log motion which the motion is ( i. little Bhag. real or conceived. takes place ia put in the Ablative case . ) the new monarch. 3. In the case of words expressing fear or protection that from which or from fear. 22. the place to directed ). ) careless. qrnrr *Sa?* . & c . or 'cessation/ 'pause. 12. or 833. e. principal sense of the Ablative case is 'motion away from ).4. 1. 'swerves from duty '. f^efo ^Kt^^T *T$nnT<I ( Manu Smr.). ^fTTil^fft i* afraid of a thief . 3. mm$H village-. ) even a II.832-834 ] SYNTAX. gfiftaFir smrcfcr M^^l^ Rqfeld: ( Manu Smr. 213) on this account wise men are not careless about their wives. with sr in the flense of 'to be careless about' is used with I the Loc. steady in desist from efforts until they bore their fruit '. II. whom the fear proceeds is put in the Ablative case-. I. VIII. 491 832. ' swerving from/ also govern the Ablative he hates sin ( Rag. did not action.25. . 4. 834. was afraid of the white-horsed one t.' ^R^TPTm^ Q<IH 'falls down (a) I Words having ' the sense of ^j*jcgr.' and JTRTT^ case . failing in the discharge of the duties ( of his office )' 4 so ^un^Sinff . when meant j jrrtf UII *T *T^fa ' goes to a village } be not a road. 0. ( *fmt **t Arjuna .

fche . f In toe case of fir with <rn the thing unbearable is put in the Ablative case . ) pi^ty saves one from great fear . at mimmiHt jftfr ( Bhatti. I Pan. 4. I. 27. ) who got disgusted with the love ( of Havana ).. : I 154. rerf 31dlM afaf^lt^^TPTcf her was born Satananda Angirasa . Pan. Pan. 4. 4. 4. 4. 29 . 30. See Manu Smr. 1. Verbs meaning 'to bo born' or 'to be begotten upon' are often used with the from Lpc. The Ganges riles from the Himalayas . I.492 kind of SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. and the source in the case of i are put in the Ablasr*TT ST5fm% the creation proceeds from Brahinau . 26. is * That from which one Ablative Wttfinmvm wards . but is 836. 11. kept off is . (a) The . H<fet<llii^yt begotten upon Henaka. that whose sight one desires to avoid is put in the Ablative case . I. 31. Krishna conceals himself from his mother. 835. VIII. I. 28. [ 834-837 of this 373. : ^HlW the scorpion is born from cowdung. Pan. teacher from whom something is learnt regularly is put in the Ablative case . ( (a) ( ) Bhatt IX. $JqT^lf%^ITwere afraid of the roar of the monkey. I Pan. I. 3renRTcTO*T*KT finds study unbearable or difficult . from desire anger : is produced. 9. but 837. also put in the irf off from sin q&ft gWlfd keeps off the cow f rbm barley. 71.?qTUINI<^M learns from preceptor but s^pr mit Similarly the prime or original cause in the case of 573 (b) to be born. \ When * concealment to be had recourse to.

?!T ud others having a similar ' near or distant. ) the fnll moonday of Hlrgasirsha of Kaitika ( b ) is a month ( at the interval of a month ) from thao The Ablative is also used in questions and answers whence art thon ? from the river. qwT^T^ 3T$m ). ) the village is a yojana from the forest. ( Sid. 839.^T cFPT^HNId: ( Bhatti. where do you come from ? Pataliputra. 105 ) come without ( setting aside ) his cruelty. and those derived from the root in declinables ending in aft and srift are constructed with the 3^ Ablative. the particles a^TT^ words expressive of direction used with reference to time or space ( except when they refer to the limos of the boby ) and at the end of componnds. sees from a palace ( Kan. 29. o. 106. VII. JimTrS?? 3tTfr *T *o the Vart. ( ) f place or time from which the distance of another place or point of time is to be expressed is pnt in the Ablative case. irfnjjra: ^rfor^T ^?*Tft *ff3TRTR **%$ Tftftg *T (Mb. II. or the in pressed at on which the action takes place is pnt in the or placo 838. If he be one other than Havana and a follower of Rama. a similarly Sid. . f?fft if? Bh|ti. awni'^T^. Kan. VII. Kau. T sense. 3*71^ Sid. HST Jran.) . near or from the forest. 3^ f*F5T fcTH ^T frrorr^ different from Krishna. 49* *When the sense of an indeclinable participle is sapa sentence the object governed by that ptc. Kan.838-840 ] SYNTAX. ' 5}^ * without. Ablative case. the distance in space being pnt in the Nominative or the Locative The *T ( and that in time in the Locative. 840. Sid. ^m JThe words 3T?<T.

( Hag. if. in terror. 92. 3*^*3^5^% ^rf^T ^W: (Kum. I. without and 3H meaning far as ing 5 *?OT*r<T ^ifoiRft ZRWri dwelt in Lanka. & &c. 3. 17 ) beyond 70. ^PT r^t ( Bhag. Similarly : Samsara exists f%nf^ ) ^: ^f^rSvift^r^: until the learned are satisfied. leaves. are word may also be used with from that day. II. > now that he ^HU from the worlds. 5**n*tHrWtW%Q: ( 1%T^T^ ) gate of the town. 106 ) before the day dawned. comprehend**iArra( ( B&m. 11. VII. Pin.'. away or 'including. 4. dropping - M hence forward. first 3TTOTC. 86). 77 ) after a yearthe path. ( * The ablative is used with a ' ) The ' prepositions 5W 'as and 7 * <rf? meaning away from. the south or in the southern direction of the village. u III. 12. 3TtS. of adverbs time. bat <fcr^HT the (forepart) of the body. I. 4hnqL: TO?3PP trjj the month of Falguna is prior to that of Chaitra. 3r*fr: Vf : ? 841. Pan. gj^J ^^r^<T3: ( wenfc out of the emerald - S IX. a ) Words am^T. srff. except in the country of Trigarta. Pan I.494 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. V. . the outside the village. used with the Ablative.) in the north of the sea. ctWrf^TTSnifSr since then. I 88-89. village-. II. Tf ) after the ( Rag. 10 srfo: sri?f^ftl|f?^R^ 3. SrTTT Obs: !T ^&*K( Bhatti. like snjUT. 32 ) even without thee all will die. ( Vop. [ 840-841 east or the north of the village. sm> STrq^qr *4midl to *te east or to the west of the sn^sreraT^ ( Bhatti. 4. Brahman pervades every thingj * 3TWT : TO-flT I 31T^rarfal*pgfr I Pan. ZR it ^Jf rained everywhere. S^l N^lMlWI4''*' XII. XI. =5ft is *rfqmPcr *r5 ( sometimes used with the Accusative. of old see Bhag. 3TO f^: outside Hari.

so 5fT*T TTR. f*RT &&d ^rqr govern the Ablative. 495 meaning 'the representative of. f The indeclinables trzr^r. ffttr: srfitan^rfer HHi< g ives ( & ) SfffT mashas in return for aesamum. Kan.' sr-gg: &m|fijfff ( Sid. When a word expressive of 'a debt. c ) The Ablative is used with comparatives or words having comparative sense. n. in exchange for or in return for. 4. II. ap^TOphar: *TfUiNirafl^nr truth superior to a thousand horse-sacrifices. 3. ) The Ablative often denotes the cause of an action or condition and may be translated by ' on account of. ^a^vri^^ft not inferior to Chaitraratha. 842. ) Pradyurana giving is the representative of Krishna-. for in that case other smritis will have no scope given to them. aT(rfFU|un<Ul ( a smaller than alone is an atom. the Accusative and the Instrumental cases. 844. ti\H|r^j: irtHftt one is considered a fool by reason of 843. n . 1. i *<4 n T V4 \ ^ I Pan. it is put in the Ablative case. tied * down as it were by the debt he owes. ( Ved. Su. II. is ( H. ^^ * t ^Tl ^RTTT*TriVR^[rfl M 3^ot rajft I Pan.841-844 1 SYNTAX. because there 3%m^ ^m^l is The mountain * is smoke. ^rnuwrfgt STRmn: ^rrq the way of knowledge is more efficient than that of dsvotion.' is merely intended to be stated as a cause. by reasou of/ &c. q$ft fiery ( has fire on it ). from or without Rama. <? a thing mortgaged for a hundred rupees. ) on b ) The Ablative used to make a causative assertion or to advance an argument. ftma*nmt *qrgt killing cows and men. 25. 1 ) A you say that our argument is liable to the disputant fault of giving no scope to your smritis then we reply: this your says-if argument will not hold. ( a his silence ( if account of ( my he keeps silence).

killed with a when used adver- bially they take the Accusative also. are used ' in the Ablative or the Instrumental. jfRT without a HTflf woman ftwffOT ateMHI ( wife ) ' ( Vop. ) worldly life is vain 845. * ' culty.27. let off with little. 3. and jgftqq" 'some 9 when used in an adverbial ' %&% 'diffU sense with verbs. object ) is used in a the object and the word %g are put in the word 55 I Pan. but little poison. similarly 3T5^T a^TRSrU:. 50. The words ^fa? a little. ST^Jrrffof^rtf Sid.village. 3TriOTOTT3. the. ^fffaifa ^ffTWTfT STO'. as already remarked. ( the sense of the Kan. 3. the used in Ablative. . 31 near the village. as in 847. such as that of a servant and hi master ( a relation which - Karaka case ) iffi: 55% other than that expressed by a 53TW mcTT> 5*rW 3*T &c. J When the is that which ( cause. and others having the same sense. II. : clone with difficulty. twVfcaspflVlP4n. expresses Genitive. f CASE. It. 35. therefore. II. The case. f 844-847 &c. are ) <pf and ^TrfT^ ( the Accusative and the Instrumental cases. is not a Karaka simply the relation of one noun to anothar in a sentence.it ^or^TT away from 3TT%%3. j and evert is : in those cases where the genitive is used in the eeuse of other cases it expresses simple relation or JH^VT only.496 OANSKBIT GRAMMAR. 33.' g^ a little. s en ten e.IL3. t TOT ^% Pan. ^ftt& T^rrff goes a little. so ajfcdfel^3n^fr THE GENITIVE 846.

VIII. 849. ) under the trees(Meg. are used with the Genitive or the Accusative. ) he ( Bhatti. any case except the Nominative and the Accusative may be used. 103. HI 30. &c.. G. ) on the Arka ( plant. 34. <r^nm^: ( a ) I Words ending in ^ such as ^T$rT. Mad. 3. &c. ^MIU ftftnTRT with the object of acquir- ing knowledge. When & pronoun is used with the word ^j. ^q* RffTrlftr.j her *n account of Rama in order to show her that Ue ( Lr< v/. . such as ftftrw* <hKm. ( a ) * with what object? ifcT Why? The Ablative may also be used. I. &c. 12. &c - when a pronoun is not used. II. t triT^rfitwnn P&n. . : S'ak. ftl^ft **T fc?fr: Mark P. avHm ^r^i to the north of the river . ^5y^<WR 32. ) ^o^?T5^%ui^ ) Bhatti. IX.108. II.. 497 Genitive case. ( ( ( Mai. 24. to the south of the village. mHHI 3fT%Wf: the north of the village. g^q %?fr. l3": . but they are used an like in the Accusative used adverb. ^ Meg. as Jg. ^|^H QJH^H ( fR: %oT: ). Sift:} when a word having the same sense <WTT%?l1v %S*T. + The words I ant and sif^re and their synonyms fWwj</l<JH<iUt ^nfTt 3. %* ts^r. gsftor. 23. to the south or te ( ^4^qR 8'ak. ^ and showing such as with the Genitive. 80 to the north of Kubera's palace. VIII.31.847-849 ] SYNTAX. &c. XTR^fT^ Vlrt I t TOlTTO*rr^^R Pan. &o.. 8. the Instrumental and the Genitive may both be used. sngRV WtTOlft dwells for the sake of ( with the object cf getting ) food. 31TT<T : &c. generally ?W 38KU|-M*njffi-3**T. b0gau to .) standing before him with great difficulty. f Words ending in the termination direction and others having the same sense. 848. n 3.inTOat ) was Rama's messenger. 8. is used with a pronoun it may be used in any case in agreement with the pronoun. I Pa n .

VI. t 4>^ll4lHf *4IM^^HHIn^: Pan. II. ( 90) dost thou remember the lord? Ram. ) the great king has mastery over his daughter. [ 849-851 govern either the Genitive or the Ablative. but ^rf %$ ^affat srnffit supposes oil to a ) Verbs implying ' to think of. Mad. HHim^fr RTMiwU4M<W close to the bower of the Madhavi creeper. to remember/ such as ^. 60. ) why dost thou no compassion for those whose wealth does not see the morrow ? *TKCT 3TOR: ( Ibid. 851. r^qr qehUf &c. be who mm^ jjfmq qr Tf the forest is distant ftr/n or near the village-.51-53. ( have control overmyself. 650. * The root ^rr meaning 'to have an incorrect know' ledge of governs the Genitive. feel ( ) 3 ' * meaning to impart additional properties governs the ' Genitive. : ) Lakshmaaa remembers thecj ( Mai. is away from Rama or Siva is near sin. ^ object.498 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ) if after I see him ^ <t I shall I ( S'ak. 119. 4. VIII 119 ) taking pity OA Rama. 3. II. : Bhalti. and to have with srf^. 'to be master of/ such as fsr as on such compassion B^ &c. VIII. ) with great Kum. yf^^: ^R^% (Meg. 8 : Bhatti VIII. 119.. &c. 54. 33. ^Bftftor ^5S*. have lost all power over ?rnfmt 9*5fh$ft4f$ff ^rr? III. % with sr. . <nrfcCTO ^TT^^ fuel imparts heat to water. Wf^t limbs. be ghee-. ) 5T ?FWT^( Bhatt. govern the genitive of their ( . 34. II.3. t Verbs 'm meaning i <to be afflicted with a disease * trif%fw sstfr ^ I 11.( my mindscontrol their could difficulty they qriqRtMSHf TOOT ^ Uttar.

) ?f or ^mi-* fever or affliction pains him. tigUIMi ftgQt or g q or n^pimQ &c . f- ffaf% ^e grinds fried 854. or to stake in the Genitive of their object. ( vide Bhatti. 3j%*flfr f^ifrrnrf lost his brothers and pleasures in is gambling. fer fwu^Mtii Pin. but when preceded by a preposition. 120. ra does injury to a VrishalaAccusative. f The randf^ punish. 56. 3. govern the Genitive when meaning to injure. ITT and transact business. 64. So with ft or q 853. dysentery inflicts pain on the man. &c. 1 ^^: t.851-855] SYNTAX. 852. gambling^ govern invests a hundred rupees in business. I. yiuiMiHM he staked Ms life. H Words Tm: having the senses of II. *TR: Hfn>aanqMH. 6. ) 855. . 37. ^nr: in other senses they govern the rice. * srr^ meaning 'to wish' governs the Genitive when the idea of a benediction is implied) Tjfqr STOW wish to have itience. 3. desires to have wealth. l demons ) ) by his own power. H&ma will kill the R'akahaias. { The roots STTf when they all mean to with ft and 3T* ). ( t. r kill (drive away your anger. * ^. ( the &c . 3.57-59. 5T^. 499 govern the Genitive of their object when used impersonally or when they have for their subject names of diseases. II.3. VIII. Kau. 55. except when and *KfTO are used as subjects. t 'HlRlfimuiHld*h|VtriW t i I II. e. denoting fre- * 3TT%ft Pan. to *JUHft*dlqra *HTT a king punishes a thief? Sis. the thief : is afflicted with the pain of fever. the Accusative may also be used. ) to kill the enemies of the world ( roots ^ or with both. n. I Pan. ^nTW ST* *T irfiWsq^ f^ ( Sid..

gnTcf: ( ) ^ W^T W** to the splitting of the universe by Hud ra. According some when the Krit affixes are of feminine gender. ^NHufi wftftq.500 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB [ 855-856 quency of time. and according to others . the object is put in the Genitive ease and not the agent. I \ II. Tftrerw l^T ^T Sid. snwfr 9T3T ^l^l^li^H the milking of cows by one who is not a cowherd is a wonder. 65. govern the Genitive the sense of the Locative. 3TWI&UHI 4>Mfu| Pan. flfq(for a work is gs< ^ ). : the object of the action the protector of . 3. Kau. Exceptions. . b ) When by means of Krit the agent and the object of the bases derived affixes are used in a sentence. <refec4l&l vfrs&m food five times a day. Kau. similarly ^r?rf qfgS#: the drinking of milk. the Creator of the world. e. * The Genitive is used subjectively and objectively with Kridantas or Primary Nominal Bases derived by mean* of the Krit affixes ( i. ) the taker ^ ( hone J to Srughna. (a) in the of the ( ] In the case of verbs governing two Accusatives the secondary object of the K rid ant a may be put in the Genitive 01 Accusative. taking 856. fgft^f 5^%:. &c. 117. Kau. This is not a common creation of Brahman. 66. II. This rule does not apply to Krit nouns ending when feminijuty ftflrWT in the affixes 3U and *T of Rudra to split the universe or the desire Sid. r%:. <ne^??P &c. which denoted by the noun the good. e. Sid. 3. qire: trrjj of that poet. of which Krishna is the agent. is used in the sense of the subject or the object of the action denoted by the Kridantas ). such as of the time in f$:.* *TTf ( JUmacharita XII. an act of Krishna s.

5j$5?r: cRg^:. : life ^ also in the case of nouns derived by means of the terminations Pan. VIII. 857. wonderful is the creation of the ( Sid. passive active. ^ ^S & ^3^^: c ftoTT worldly goes easy with Hari. . as well as those used as abstract nouns are used with the Genitive M Mb. 501 when they are of any gender. II. or having the of or properties doing any thing well'. onrT. VIII. verbal derivatives ending in 7 and 3-3? except that from 3^. ) 456 and with such as mean <in the %g: - killer of demons . nouns formed with the affix ( see 858. 124. world by Hari . |?qrn. and the agent and the object are is both used. & habit of. 3. 69.jrft ous of seeing Hari. 3. but desir*T ST^T ll^ fR: Hari. past partiderived except and ciples. 3l4Mmd$ll*MHMl3uiMl4*<l 3T Kan. (a) ?ff *nf ?J TOft ' Past participles showing the place of an action. t t T ^l^ftai^-JflHiq. if $q^ or $qiu|t. II.856-858 ] SYNTAX. a habitual beggar. verbal indecli cables. ). Bhatt. I 67-68. See. the agent put in the Instrumental or Genitive case r . * When past passive participles are used in the sense of the present tense the Genitive is used ? ^njrf JTrff 3^ 3T respected. *ff? one who prepares a mat. 125. 70. ^Hl^RMj^NHUq^l: | Pan. $ft is the Hari afaff?uj:. 3TTcHTfr MgfiMa? in habit of decorating oneself. the enemy of Mura. II. known or honoured by kings Bhatti. f The Genitive is not used with present participles that of f^f. ^^ p. I Pan.

may Krishna live long. position of being compared with your lip. Kau. 129. 1^" IT Sid.). WT ^TRT (Sid. fjfc ri& he goes desiring to see Hari. Kum. 1. V. fTSST. ) clearly deserving to be compared with 8'ambhn. **. W*. but ^UIR? g^r ^TRT ^T 5ffR<T ( Sid. similarly . white with ashes. ) which rises ( The words 337 and d<(W. 5*. 72. V III. 15. 4. * In the case of Potential passive participles the agent of the action is put in the Genitive or in the Instrumental case. however. M<m4. iRf. such as jjpr. gpr: ^T^T: *nfr *T ^WTW &*ft* ^T equal to or like Krishna. see Bag. 3. $*#. VIII. ). t The words ans**. &c. IT?. ( Meg.502 SANSKBIT GEAHXAB. ftli".^rtf ?fpft one to who ha* pay a hundred ( rupees.: Hari ought to be served by me. $*rtf. > Thou should go to Alakft me - 860. SJtwftfw *C5T$ft WT who else is equal to me ? 06*. . govern the Dative or the Genitive case . 1W& WH nsrfrof ** ( Bhatti. are found used by anthers with Insrtumental the against PaDini's rule^ good to the high 34. f In the case of words denoting equality or likeness. ). ( Kau. [ 858-861 showing futurity and f^ showing ). necessary payment. Pau. Kau.. II.. H5II9. 3fcTT ( Sis. ) this forest which the lord of the demons ought to preserve must be destroyed by &o. except in the case of gstt ""* 3TOT. 85V. when used in a sentence containing a benediction. 861. 3** " d fi?f and words having the same sense. the person or thing with whom or which* any object is compared is put in the Genitive case.

the Locative or the Instru- mental 5^f| dmmffoPTffr tftsw^ he was more ( i. ^ja 4. gods being harassed at that time II. f ^RfR Aftr*? (Bham. dearer ) to them than their sons . ] SYNTAX. Mantras. & C. . e. The Locative also denotes the time when ua action takes place 1. 4. JIFHTT *T^ side of the Ganges .e^of &c - ). I f 3HmR|*. Hag. the Genitive is used. ference to the subject or object is called Adhikarana ( SfivreTO ) and is put in the Locative case.s(^nE ST^cr* -^ Pratt ha is larger than a Kudavb. 3ufwr ^ *T in the middle or on the other for the sake of this life. ( Kiim.<ul ^ I Pan. II. . p. With ( superlative?. 1. into the ear. : tn is person is superior or inferior to him in strength similarly ^^fft 73 4*11*5' H7T WA is WH1 nave a happier end than 1 *j^lf *Tj ? The lt 5 word used with the Genitive. ( a p. V. yqi^qr ^RpT 'nrft **ooks food in a 3HraT% tells ( something . Verbal derivatives in ?^ and having the sense of the STOTttt participle govern the Locative of their object ) I -. 1. ) f^TR^ ffi^gilT <I^t Bag. ^rTRan'^^T ITT^T: T^f ^T $RP$T ^TTP they passed five months and twelve nights more than ( those . ) the ( 5 m?R[ RggrtT: ^T& (^ft^r: . 60). II. * The place where an action takes place with re864. muiHT $ft 863. ) the chief of sages. THE LOCATIVE OASB. ( H>M 64 cooking utensil. Words having the sense of comparatives are used Note: with the Ablative and sometimes with the Instrumental. 45. ^ I Yaiukas. used with1 indeclinables like 503 The Genitive is ^ft> 35%. 3. and words having the sense of the authors to the tht superlative. spr33CT R : or 3TT*ta . WTflt sf*5*Hfr 3Trc<T. 15.862-864 862. yean ) $g^. 36.

f The Locative or the Genitive is used with the words ^rmt a master. ^rvr^pr: Tark. 3. %*&. I The words ail^Tfe and ^r^T meaning 'appointed Vart. If there is no intimato union the Dative is used. ) } ifY^ 5T^rT ( surety a cowherd 866. similarly fofeiw ftsr^t ^T r: toe ^Tf ^TT^ftj ^^ 3T^fTf T9T Tf r 5T : uRl^ 'TTT* for appearance in a court is born for cows. one by [ 864-866 whom the six whom grammar is studied. II. ^^iv^m^^ ill-behaved towards his maternal uncle. union ). *ng: ^07? RTrTft well betowards his mother . STO^ a bail. is used to denote the object in ^tilfft.504 SANSKBIT GBAHHAB. | Sid. ftince von are created by ^rrsrT general . &c. Sometimes the Instrumental is used to denote the object for which any thing is done. . Rr^^^r^: (constant. The words reference to lieved ^rrg and 3TW$ govern the Locative of that with which they are used . grfF* . Kau. 40. and srOT born for. ^nTT? a heir. I inseparable t T^iHi^tijyMin^Niqtift^sriff^M^iSnwi Pw^. 3fft<n3 a lord. Obs. Kau. *ran ^tfa ^& **W* the creator to do duty. 865. ). ( b ) * The object or purpose for which any thing is done is the thing desired is intimately connected with that on which the action takes place put in the Locative case when <ttf*H*5I*'fl ( ^^3?*^ I the elephant for his the deer for her hair and musk-deer for his the Chamary tusks. Anga were mastered. fulfil it. Mb ( Man ) kills the tiger for his skin.ir^f iftl *T ^trft the master of kine ^i%5qr^ or ^i^rsqT 1PW the lord of the earth. H 3 39. HTHTOlt or lord of villages. musk. %flifo ( for wages ) ^F^T Sometimes the Loc.

expert in the performance of an act. ^cft^TT I Bharata on Bhatti. ) i Sid. <jff6fr 867. Kan. ) In other senses they are construed with the Locative4HI&*: $*!<& *F SKfr*ft I 5T$%. I. 339t ffir *r ( Sid. bnt fsnpir: VT$: apq*: a clever 868. 96. 117 . VIII. ( Sid. ). The words ^n servant of the king. | With is the Instrnmental the words <rf&cr &nd g<^^. used. iHftft ^rnjRTJofr 7T reverentially disposed towards his mother.a bull harnessed to the yoke of a carriage. qft and srfc these are used with the Accusative. when the are srnr.66-870] or devoted to ' SYNTAX. II. not preceded by the preused with the Loc. 505 are construed with the Locative or the Genitive ffffrmw *T appointed to worship Hari. 44. 869. qf^ and and T^gor. *When ?n STTgrar: an object or an individual is to be distinguishthe Locative or the Genitive see is ed from a whole class. I Pan. Kau. When the names of Naltthatrat are need as showing particular time the Locative or the Instrumental is used. 3. n. . anxious ( <rc*n qft^^ Tfr srf^R or restless ) Kir. VIII. f ) positions 3Tg. srftr?T 3<%\ 31 ?ftarr sft ^ upon Hari. 3. OT: ( Mann 8. sense of adoration is to be conveyed. Kau. the Locative or intent used. 7 ^T fflftfrtt^r. 115. XVI. woman gets 870. OTdl^umiumgtft fcrern'or ( Bhatti. 43. a when her husband goes out. When preceded by the prepositions 313. I Vart.

TO% TH?T ( Mai. m&*^. The words 57 and 3ffere ad others having the same aid used in the Locative also. II 3. . Verbs having the sense of such as T%{[. aim $T ift^Qsiri q:^ ( S'ak. 5^. in other senses these prepositions ara used with the Accusative. HI. ^I^MMdNnO (Bhatt. devoted to his welfare. * Words expressive of the are wed W* ' ' f The prepositions 37 in the sense of exceeding ' and arftf in that of the master of govern the Locative. %?. IV. I. [ 871-875 interval of time or space with the Ablative or the Locative. a^T gtyquf sf| ^TrFT having dined to-day he will dine again after two *T f%^H standing here he will hit a mark two miles distant. ) III. T^. 5. and of throwing. such as 373 r &c. behaving towards. aj^ RH^H ^T^ : ^^F one shoald act modestly towards respectable persons. II. ' love. fHq^^ffi ^Mc^MH ( 875. regard for. ^ Pan. nrfl4flW TOfaf $ia<*3fl ^m?f: ( Manu. stpRpJ the merits of Hari exceed a par&rdha. SANSKRIT GEAMMAB. 3.f I do not. 179 ). such as 3!^.&c. ) takes pleasure in solitude.fq^T f%fm * father loves his son. love the ascetic's daughter. people do not love a king whose ministers are corrupt.506 871. STOg. 9. &c. for which see 805 873. attach- ment to ' 21TH^. Mad. Bhatt. . &o. govern the Locative. 22. ' : ij: Kama is the lord of the earth. indeed. *?TH^^[ are sometimes used with the Accusative ^H^H^^I^d (Bama. S. have a^ ^ 1)1 sisterly affection for them also. and their deriva- tives generally govern the Locative. 2. I Pan.). 874. srnj >f 1% TFR: or sjftr 872.) Verbs of acting. an(i *ff Note: ^|6^ also.

3. 507 I ( S'ak. THE GENITIVE AND THE LOCATIVE ABSOLUTES. ). ). is to therefore.in Sanskrit the Genitive and the Locative are so used. In English. respect. 878. Sid. it)MM(q ^3 S'akuntala has offended some one deserving ifl^*0q gmiiWI^ 3*185 ( 6'ak. lute construction. 87. Nominative Absolute ought. the subject of the participle must be put in the Genitive or the Locative case and the participle made to agree it with in gender. the absolute contrac- N. number and case.* he went away while the cows were being milked. IH. Sanskrit Locative Absolute. I. the Nominative is used as an Absolute case. 9. as arqtvqi Mi^Hl *mt TT^W$(H and not 3T3t*f M^% THT *T &c. Kau. VII. to be translated by the When the Absolute Construction be used. ). When the tion should not be used-. the Locative Absolute be used. * When thing indicates another action the action done or suffered by a person or i.75-878] SYNTAX. fff*U4ll ( Rag. When the participle agrees with a subject different from the subject of the verb. . Pan. " " Bain. B. ' The root n>J with 3fq- fc offend' is generally construed with the Locative and sometimes with the Genitive. The English. . II. when the time of the happen- ing of the one action which is known indicates that of the second action. the phrase is said to be in the abso877. iff<J $m*JMIfi TOT. subject or object of the principal sentence is the same as that of the participal phrase. 0. 23876. and not arjira ft>i ^vq-: &o.

' the moment that &c. The pronouns of the first and second person viz. tenso ( and may thus supply the place of a pluperfect ^^. XVI. while. dl?m*. q% ?nft: 5% S^ STfft HIMIwUt<iim ( Meg. by ' ' compounding ( it Rag. ing son .. while they two were thus talking . The chief peculiarities in the Syntax of pronouns have been already noticed in chapter IV. $at V| fifth ft g: ?Enrt T%tTft srfir whence can there be obstacles to our religions rites when thou art the protector of the good. m 879. 40 ) .-HfiidHM was the arrow fixed. ^^fff *>3<ft 3T 5% STO* ^T STcrraX ne turned out a recluse disregarding his weepIn this sense e. 882. The Locative Absolute be made to express the idea of ' ' no sooner than. 38.' &c. ve no g n der. ). Section III. Thou wilt accomplish the rest of thy journey ' <RW when the son rises again. ( i a ) as soon as. 880. 881. the Genitive or the Locative Absolute is used . The Locative or the Genitive absolute may thus have the sense of 'in spite of/ 'notwithstanding. with the word q* or jrr^. The locative or Genitive Absolute may be used to express the sense of the English particles 'when. * When contempt or disregard' is to be shown. PBONOUNS. &c.'. the Genitive Absolute is used more often. The other pronouns follow the . in English.508 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. 78. ) no sooner *& V trnr scarcely had I finished my speech when. although/' &c. in spite of the weeping of his son. since. [ 878-882 ^nft the night being ended.

&c. ornament ). to show I respect. respect is to be shown. Mad. Mai. as *Trjrr ftWf3N * TOT^ftsf. while others hold that it is not allowed in the Kali age. hibited by them. ?fcj this pronoun has the sense of 'various. The pronoun R^ has often the sense of 'well known. renowned/ &c. 886. 884. ft mJcflmft'qfr those (well-known) Parvati and Parame swaraj rTr^^ ^H^<yilf% those well-known forest sites. VII. ^f^ f%^ are often that I will describe the race of the Raghue. 3HM3K STT^TT: the venerable ( who is near ). 5 ^^cft^ WT^^ in those ( various highly delightful several spots. 885. $qumH may you 3TgfKldmwrra: ( lit. 20 ). of the pronoun WTO 3TST TOsq-: you ought to be asked here. ) this seat . *T3C and used in combination with other pronouns. %r%^may take the place of <{%. Irakis used in the second person like 'you' in English form of address though it is to be regarded as a third person and ought to be treated as such. as a courteous 883. $foft : ^: 5HT^: notwithstanding Bhag. you may ( also go there. 50& uses of the shorter gender of the noons they refer to. . Kashyapa occupy ( or at a distance or absent. The pronouns 3UH^> 5**?^ . an ^ ^4*dl see chapter IV. For the forms of dWId. I. (a) several-/ When repeated. H^rWYT ft^r who is not present Sometimes is g<l3dl lady Iravati used with sr^rg. The pronouns q^ and or are used in the plural in the sense of 'someothers}' HHgrg: some think that widowsome say that it is pro- remarriage is sanctioned by the S'astras. srar and tnr are prefixed to as the person with reference to whom it is used a ) When HT^ according is near.882-889 ] SYNTAX.

See also 863 Note. &o. snor fstaft: dearer than 888. roam over the earth for ( in search of ) Damayanti.tq$Ndl m^: 'a son is the best of things possessed of touch. &c. am ^& may he understood} ^rr (IM*4l(rt8 t*fr *l& *T . 3A$TO[$roT sfr: protection ( of one's subjects better than aggrandizement. sometimes 3*173. &c. sr$ret TO^ that thou dwelling in my fire-sanctuary. The sense of the comparative and the superlative may also be expressed by the particular case used.. ( a ) Sometimes the comparative life. The superlative may either be construed with the Genitive or Locative.' sr^orf- f doing any thing slowly is better than not doing . 7r *? W4~<*4$ 'SRW gPnTlfSUHH we. that thou quickly sit in a chariot or mount an elephant. The words *? and snn. 'tfttf 35Rcl* *T5g^rf <mmMI f%3?TT this is that son of thine. or but not. the aubduer of elephants shedding ichor } wno wifll1 to ^ ve 8till> even tbo S n deprired of my ions in that manner.' -rj^m^j *fb srqTTT ' the cow is the best of quadrupeds and gold of Tt 9tfT*ft ^n^ metals'. Adjectives in the Comparative degree are used with ) the Ablative. when used in the sense of the superlative govern the Genitive or the Locative. is 3iJHI^fcfft ^ro r^C Udhisthira used with the Instru- was older than Arjuna.graimt g^4 Mniuilfe$*: qf : f%% his heart is is ^T^ ^T Ohaitra the cleverest of all students. 889. of this description. 3Rqharder than stone. sing of qrt is used { with a word expressive of negation ) in the sense of 'better and not. the neu. 53. 887.510 that I SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 890. is mental. COMPARATIVE AND SUPEEL^TIVE DEOBZES. [ 889-890 the most degraded of all the people.

6. 611 it at of ) sons sr ^Tf^fir of ( the three kinds not born. than disgrace. and foolish. ffif a man is absolved by ( reason of his ) seeing Hari. PRESENT PABTICIPLEB. The roots grr^ and ror are generally used with present participles to show the continuity of the action denoted by them <rg5ft ffH arr^ used to kill ( always kept on killing ) animals <t Wl^TTOT^ rTW remained waiting for him. ( b *The present participle is used to denote the manner in which an action is done or the cause or object of an action . . ). they agree with the nouns they qualify in gender. I.- 890-894 ] SYNTAX. PABTICIPLEB. IIL 2. They are largely empolyed to take the place of the Past and Future tenses and more especially of 891. born and dead. number. ). STfft: fl*fnr: * 3 WRSTft: better death Meg.he wandering in ^^ while wore the yet the forest . 9. All declinable participles in Sanskrit partake of the mature of adjectives i. but not the last. The participles often discharge the functions of verbs. When BO employed they follow the same rules of syntax as are laid down for the roots from which they . Kau. auofr . ( Mb. and case. *T*5fT: the Yavanas dine by lying down . the first two are better. ftfrr?SPHJ^ f%H?T *?? while marriage string. passive verbs. ?^: f%^rnn: Pan. ^ .are derived. all j aMMqd*H3IUil mmeft ^ Section IV.^: ^ ^HW^T I Sid. Vide 670. 892. 126. 893. The present particple is to be used when contemporaneity of action is to be indicated. It is often idiomatically -used to express the sense of 'while' or 'whilst* in English . 894. .

. while the past active auxiliary verbs 3^ participle is treated exactly like the verb in the past tense . ffr ^rfr V& b7 aim the work was done j sr the bonds were cut . 896. number and case. The past passive participles are often used impersonthe ally. g^jfrK^H ( when he heard his words &c. The use of the < perfect participles is very limited 5 it used in the sense of the vicinity H*i<lM3sU% of the city . agent being put in the Intrumental case. *refnnri*3TfgTOr ( Bag. particulars vide 705707. I.512 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.^WTT thou 5ft*T? didst never despise me. qfiUdlNd d^M<<<5l he showed his learning. ) hast obtained all good things. sometimes in conjunction with the and ^. is PARTICIPLES. Many past passive participles are used actively in . Rama killed the B&kshasas 5cTsrr3T% *Tl^vfKmr 897. V. then the king of demons wept. ( Bag. The past passive participle is very frequently used to supply the place of a verb. past passive participles of the roots jn. w.' V.prRfOTT victorious ( all 898. the agent being put in the Instrumental. of thee who 34. 61. s^fffrf ov ?T* it is shone by the sun. ) him who had halted in <f dfimql*> ^m% ^ THE PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. who or what has done &o. The For further 900. 20 > Bhatti. In the case of past passive participles of intransitive roots the agent is put in the Nominative case . [ 895-900 THE PERFECT 895. &c. ggf^ or q-Rrf^r ^TfSTT. gy and 33t an(i their synonyms are used in the sense of the Present tense and are construed with the Genitive. ( See 857. powerful ) is the affection for sons . ) 899. &c. fa q-VMlM Qtflft by him 3flfsren?fT ^T Mlffum I am commanded ^T$ &d3K he did the work - . The past passive participle agrees adjectively with the object in gender. . by queen Dharini . j^rq.

905. 3^73 it l3^qfc(4 $Sf. future participle denotes that a person or thing is doing. 902 The used with the auxiliaries past passive participle active and passive. 77. ( his mind what he ought to do <nT:3Tgq<uTNs . 8. ' beeidts this. wishing to follow the daughter of the sage. qrqrc were. Devi Bhig. stantive. this parti< > ciple yields the sense of fitness. so Tr<raRY7 or iHTCRKT or TKTfr? I had or was gone. crossed i..) he considered in religions duty ought H. TaY SR ^T rra%m TTO: that Rama is to go to the forest to-morrow. 51S which case they may govern the Accusative case.. capacity. ^rnt an excavation. IV. to tame the wild beasts. obligation. is about to be done. irat^R or I have or am gone. spfr a gift. VI. armTOrfW: descended t. may be and in any tense.^srnr: ^fffir^cJf nfifcq/H thou wilt obtain great glory. O.*JT9K wishing. &c. &c. The about to do or what 904. . the agent being put in the Instrumental case. 33.1. POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. to the bank o'l the Yamuna.900-906 ] SYNTAX. of ' The Potential psssive participle Is used in the sense what should or ought to be done. expressed by the root. The past passive irtf participle is used as a neuter sub- departure. 7. ) which had ascended the mountain ^. &e. 3*337*9^ gRcTJ^TT^. as wishing to give/. neccsiity. qKStrq[ going or about to do. intention or Besides showing simple futurity participle expresses purpose. similarly iriRTOmr^: *rfirT got over the calamity. like a Perfect tense active} ^ntjc&rrfr^ ( Rag. the mean- 3^ ^ ing of the participle changing aocoidingly. or is about to do the action or to undergo the condi tion. THE FUTURE 903 PAETICIPLBS. 4^ l<fc^m<ftof: 901. so %aqRl'W.

sonally the noun denoting the agent being put in the Instrumental case: are %*rft tfeKfr* irftasi there must be some or in all probabiqfUF^ir cause. let This participle is sometimes used as a noun. happen. rice Sometimes the agent is put in the Genitive case. to him who asked what was to be asked. having said this he stopped. [ 905-909 to be followed. the habitation of the lordb of Yakshas. d^^^df HMNH his honour should go to the penance grove* ?r*n should have to dwell in the company of Chandalas &c. which is to happen. 4|*dcUi ?t ?fcU5l thoa will have to go to Alaka. : ^n *mt W^ft^n thon art able to bear this burden. W& 906. having seated them on his back. ' ' ' or the of what must be or in all prosense in being. this rogue deserves to be killed. he carried them to the lake and ate them up. the past indeclinable participles or gerunds serve the purpose of carrying on the action of the verb and act as As .614 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. 909. Obs. strength corresponding lity cnrr^^n ^rf^Hai^ the lady must ( in all likelihood ) be seated bability is. 908. The past indeclinable participle in Sanskrit denotes the prior of two actions done by the same agent and corresponds to the perfect participle in English. &c. INDECLINABLE PAST PARTICIPLES OB GEBUKDS. &c. pr Hari is to be served by me. H^r his be to his must srnhiT srsTTS sound. that. ' ^d q*mT|m ^^W mm in the carriage. Occasionally this participle is used impersonally in the neuter gender and singular number. The neuter forms *n%fcqr vrf^T are used imper907. fi^idlnl 3RT boiled to be eaten by Brahmanas.

they account for the sparing use made in Sanskrit composition of relative pronouns. saw Vilftsavati. 910. past. made the subject of a proposistanding in the place of a Nominative and an Accusative case often admissible before it. "cannot be employed with the same infinitive formed with 3^ fern in Sanskrit as in other languages. The infinitive in purpose or that for which an action is done and thus corresponds to the infinitive of purpose or gerund in English. <4<i<>ti4 with iNpnrrrtvB MOOD. ^^=^mr. when the evening time approached. have it languages we have the infinitive We also assuming different forms. A few gerunds THE are used prepositionally in Sanskrit. Ohandr&pida went to the royal palace on foot. 515 connecting links between sentences. &o. 25. In these latter tion. remained in the presence of his father for an hour. g^fST except. conjunctions and connecting particles. *n^m ^tQ&rq. or future . The infinitive in Sanskrit thus involves the sense of the Dative and if desired. xsQ^U. to express present. f*?nr. or. ) where Yamuna to drink water j here qrjj may be re- mfl<w IRHT ). be replaced by the Dative of the verbal noun derived from the root 5 qr^rtf TT3 *JHH14>^ aTOWH: descended may. latitude " remarks Monier Williams. 3i*^<fiPnnjK ) *frjF ( Bag. therefore.909-911 ] SYNTAX. < "The Prof. as indicates (a) its very limited cortermination Ju " fiinitive of "Let the student. When several gerunds are used in a sentence they should be translated by verbal tenses and copulative conjunctions. to the bank of the placed by ITRHT ( X. in other words. reference to. Sanskrit generally expresses the 911. with. &c. distinguish between the inSanskrit and that of Latin and Greek. Its use is responding to that of the Latin supines.

Its use as a substantive. 'being/ &c. it must be considered as the and never the subject of some verb expressed or under- stood. admits of no Accusative it. mantavai. in which the force of two cases. f r. i. is inherent and which differs from other substantives in its power of governing a case. as from han comes hantave 'to kill. As the object of the verb. fr. the infinitive occurs in English as tae subject the- or the object in a sentence. hatvi ' killing/ fr. thus ' f M?TW I desire to hear all that/ 'id audire capio. g.' f r. an Accusative and Dative. [ 911-912 nd completeness or incompleteness in the progress of time. he began to conquer the earth. man. Where. object. can before never be made the subject of a verb. e. ST3CT 'she began to weep/ and *rf ^Tg 3TFC^. a. hantos. e. killing. anu-i amxtave. the action. on the otber hand. 'to think/ there is also a form in tot generally ( in the sense of an Ablative.' 7 t a a form in and as in before fr. therefore. with the force of the Accutative case. he began the conquest of the earth. han. abstract nouns supplying its place in this case. bhu bhutvi The infinitive cannot be used as the subject or object of a verb. corresponds to our use of the Latin infinitive. comes etos from going. Similarly. it may be regarded as equivalent to a verbal substantive.' fr. 912. and can only express indeterminate time and incomplete action. han. g. would be equally correct. The Sanskrit infinitive. ). and it is certain that in the veda other cases of nouns formed with this suffix in the sense of infinitives occur.' where and audire are both equivalent to Accusative. <to follow. &c. where H^Mq 3TKH. " Sanskrit Grammar. Obs. Wherever it occurs. tva to the indeclinable in of the tvi corresponding participle classical language.516 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. a Dative in tave r>r tavai. pur hantos. the abstract noun derived from ." (&) "Bopp considers the termination of the infinitive to be the Accusative of the suffix tu ( 458. g.

time to do anything . ( Meg. qqlnfRT SHITs thou art able to protect the creation . this. him to do 914. . is wrong. X.: TT3 ( Rag. ^Nd^^ (c) words haying the sense of Y ' it is %cJT 3r%^T *T *&%* (Sid. HI. ) is not able to support tis neck. &jRlf% t<r flgflj you know how to restrain anger . 158. The infinitive in Sanskrit has no passive form. II 6. ) thou wilt to go . to be pleased and to be. ) there is food to eat. ) who wishes to snatch away the jaws of the lion Bhartr. 4. * 5Tfrfar f*RlW VTRftg ( Kad. 3. qfr *>' t?W ( Mud. to set about.' Kau.! 912-916 J SYOTAX. to make bold.) it is time to take food. q. &c. ( s that of the verb. ^g^^W^^^m^ ( I ) \ words like 3^ and others meaning sufficient or able. In * t 9i HM*<i^ 33* e < P&n. III. 103.jfr^T snfhd: J *&R ( Sid . 65. 66 ) the palaces are able to stand comparison with thee. 313ft * fc^^i*9i^e <itf*<'*t^i'&i^^I^ Pan. 66.^^T ( Bid. HI. f The infinitive is also used with : verbs meaning to be able. 22. Vide Apte's Guide 176 and note thereon.) BkiUed Jn eating. XV. 3. to know. t - ^T^TRn^rg E* P&n HI.) begin to speak . But flilflrm^rffr I wish gjfWQ . to ( a ) be wearied. Kau. &c. 915. I. to strive. 167. mm^regt (Meg. to bear. ^\mfcnft * The infinitive is nsed with verbs and verbal nouns meaning to wish or desire' provided the agent of it is the same 913. 517 Qirnrf to do uooi most be used in Sanskrit duty is beneficial and not W . I mff Pan.. %T%-iWffrtry f%?m 9f ^t-^.4. 77) he strove to fight with Angada . proficient or fikilled in. 25 ) who is able to change destiny. cnfr M&ft4i: (Meg. to begin.Kftu. srjp^r ^EfW 4l4Hvn'5'g (Bhatti.

55 > please put out the fire . 40 ) if you have nothing to conceal ( from me. . sr?3r ^nTf^rffir ( Meg. ! &c. please answer me 25 wait for two or three V. ) pray . shows that an action place at the present time awHHi^'ft a? is taking S^r here comes ( is . 58. 918. a respectful entreaty. 5 3nf z&: sage great has a mind to ask you a question. O respectable one . equivalent to the ' < English I pray. tense . ^r *nt Wtf fi 916. ft* STTR *F3 fint-except where is the the object of the infinitive and the verb same. IV. ( Rag. please her . therefore. ( Kum. Bhar.f tf ^tf%gi*i% you ought not } 89 equivalent to a ) you ought to to bewail him. V. [915-918 turning. Bag. days. the verb should be changed into the passive. the nouns * The infinitive with the final ^ dropped is joined with $ro and n^^ to form an adjectival compound mean- ing wishing or having a mind to do any thing-/ Hdfq$q*q| &c. In the third person and under the same circumstances it expresses ' ' power or ability and can be translated by can . gfor T% . The Present. V. 917. 27. an active construction involving an infinitive into a passive one. the infinitive and the woids governed by it remaining unaffectedJJTrf T*3 f^gfft. THE PBESKNT TENSE.' and is generally. 18 ) the disciple of the of was desirous returning &o. 40 ) this person < TENSES AND MOODS. gentle command fin M*U$I*J4HSI% ( Bag. be pleased. &c.518 SANSXBXT GBAIOCAB. V. * ^flgHl srffa^prffir ( Kum. Sometimes it is I. person ) The root sr| ' to deserve ' when used ( in the second in combination with the infinitive expresses 'a request.

I When a question ia asked and an answer is given to the Present is used in the sense of the Past tense when the ST^rtf: particle 5fg is used. permanent arrangements and laws of nature. the peculiari- and propensities of living beings and whatever ia constant. qs fi^ 5T5 *ETtf& 4t: where * " The principal use of the Present Indefinite is to express what is true at all times. Higher English Grammar. * It is the Present progressive. we can confine this tense to mean a present " Bain. 920. regular and uniform. 2. f Pin. JJOT ' 3$ qptft the vnltnre says. habits the context that act solely. . 510 coming ) thy and is. ** It is only by a special adverb or by ties. The It expresses present time only as representing all tii/ie. an fir* ggft!% I shall die an honr alter. . 919. 'the sun gives light. for the Past tense. 120. shall ( 9^ It ' f It is sometimes used in the sense of immediate fututhou ? Tft**n9 when wilfc g TT Thrift Here I go go ). . which expresses the continuance of an action which is begcn over sometime is only remarks Prof. 131. twice two is Hence a more suitable name would be the Universal lour * * V tense.It by means of a special adverb or the context that the sense of the present tense can be limited to that of a present act solely. Seep. it. 525. a true or strict Present tense. t *ift 5wfinre% f^tfrim i P*n. Bain. ( i . b ) may completed. ^r ?$ qimqHIdlfc the city ? Here I it ' also be used to denote an action which is recently 3^HMHaiffr when didst thon come from ( e ) come ( In narrations is used have come just now ). ( who art thon P d ) Sometimes it is used to denote a habitual or repeated action. m. 3. have to be represented by the Present Indefinite. gflg^r fT fut sf? 3nvfcq'3 now he dwells in this city.S 918-920] SYNTAX. Besides the general sense given above the Present tense in Sanskrit baa the following senses: ( a ' ) rity. son. III. 121.

fifc qaflfft i. With the words qr3cT> RT3< and others having a 922.V. VIII. **T the citizens ran in hundreds. who if ^ ( offers ( or will offer ) food. The particle r i Pan. i. 3 are used T Wllk or or * With 921. ) I will endeavour to accomplish your sn ^ETTOFrf 5Wft *3qT* ( S'ak. in. ? Whither go q^ft: ) ^flfeq'Rr or ifanPldlRr SJR Stqfof ^TtW *?faro% which of these persons will you feed ? or c. 8.520 SANSKBIT GRAHUAB. goes ( or will go ) i. e. e. ( nftmnft ) What shall ( *. in**W ^f before he sees you. when certainty is indicated. t 1TR5Tr i^THiftW^ Pan. rnaR* OT: Kir. . tho Present is sometimes used in the sense of the Future perfect . one offers &c. I rTO 923. I do . 25. III. Sid. e. b ) ' With the particles grr and irr*^ the Present has the sense of the Future I object. STM^fcdl^mm ). Kan. $d*w(?. . 3. ( move away f before he shall have seen you. (Rqrifr X shall I 3> T^lfa ? f. &c. [ 920-42$ when the particles ^ and is equivalent to mcfelMH the Present may be optionally used. 7. 33 ) he will ( gflffifclfr conquer the earth consisting of seven continents. but <$: mnr 5 ( a ) It is also used in the sense of the Future in conditional sentences as implying a condition and the fulfilment of the desired object. Rag. VII. 1 The particle ?JT wbenused with ffiTSr^nrf the Present converts it 5TflT into a Pas t tense j 3rf8rf*5ftBT5* ZH&W irfitTOfif W in a certain village there dwelt a Brahmaoa Mitrasarma by name.f%^ . ^rfSr ( ?TfTT *T*rfS *T ) *T **i? *nfi* ( ?nm qr^rm 3T ) to heaven fa e. interrogatives the Present is often used in the sense of the Future when thought or desire is implied. 4. similar sense. e.

3R<K^ <*< I Pan. 111.promiscuously. necessarily be it. grrg *H*HH 1*WK <4lvHm<T ( you will even make a 8'udra perform a sacrifice ). Bh&ndarkar's preface to the 1st Edition of his 2nd t Book of Sanskrit. joined with 5il W may not 924. The Imperfect is optionally used for the Perfect when the particles f and ^TM? we n *ed in a sentence. 3. IMPEBEECT. the Present seme of tbe three tenses. m. ) Bibhlshapa spoke to them. 2. PERFECT AND AOEIST. . where rq*TT and 3TTE^% may have also the sense of the Past or the Futnre tense. J The Imperfect according to P&nini denotes past action not done to-day t. 926. 142. In Sanskrit there are three tenses denoting a past action. f After Sanskrit ceased to be a spoken language the exact senses of these tenses were lost sight of and writers began to use them . in. # may be used in the * When 3TTr3 or arR is need in a sentence and con- demnation or censure is implied. 927. and the Aorst. i ifraMk* 1 srir <*mr* *r$ Pan m. 0. 925. 2. III. ffir f or (a ) f It may also be optionally ueei in asking questions refer- * f TSTtf dgfiIHft: Pan III. the Imperfect. ginally each bf these three tenses had a signfioation of its Ohown and was used in its proper sense in ancient writings. For a farther explanation of the 'difference between I these three tenses the student is referred to Dr. done at some time prior to the current day. The original senses of these as well as their other peculiarities are noticed below. ftTnOTTO <rHKCT ( Bhatti.S 923-927 ] SYNTAX. the Perfect. so that now any of these may be used to denote past time with certain limitations. viz. IMPERFECT.

When the particle *rr in combination with *jris need with the Imperfect in the sense of the Imperative. 930. satisfied his departed ancestors. I a In the 1st person the Perfect shows that the speaker was ( ) in a distracted state of mind or was unconscious when the event took place. * didst thou dwell in the country of the Kalingas P sn *Tnr I never XL went to Kalingas. f 5 Pan. ^ri4*dlM^ fS^ Wrfjsq^ I Vart. but when the question refers to a %? time the Perfect alone ought to be used. PEBFECT. be used in narrating events of the remote past.. offered sacrifices to the gods. AORIST. ( Sid. Bama killed her spnnfq*R<mmfr (Bhatti. III. ^coj: 928. ^ 3nTRT% very remote ? STOR.522 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.) 'He studied the Vedas. . 3T*ns^ fifc ( Qu. f The Aorist simply expresses past action indefinitely ( e. B^au. ). 115. 2. before him. the augment 3T is dropped. [ 927-930 ring to a very recent time. or that he wants utterly to deny something that he- 39 ) being has done. I. 2.. . With these exceptions the Per- fect should not be used in the 1st person. ).) ( Ant ) or an) TO snrrcr. honoured Pan. 110. (Bhatt. <rf dld^K^I foriViM *nr whose name was Tataka. 929. * 5fir^ STSTniTO grnfeoM^ ( Sis frenzied I prattled much. 2. therefore. It has reference to a very remote time and should. I am told. without reference to any particular time ^d-Kim^ g^" ).1. HI. *Tfae Perfect denotes an action done before the current day and not witnessed by the speaker. XIV.

" 3T^f f%TO it rained to-day. 0. 1 5ft 5^ *n* Pn in. took delight in politics and totally annihilated his The Aorist. . f The Aorist ought Kau. f Pan. 3 w^Rt i Sid. But when *H is used with grr the present alone can be used. the sometimes not dropped. | ( $ he consecratthe full-moon day ) and Kau. ''which the student will remember defines an action as having happened in a portion of time which is not yet expired. 154. Bha. See next Page. of six ( 523 his relatives. ed the offered fire on the last Pnrnima day Soma. 135. *n H^q^mrqm. the Imperfect. ) when the idea of the continuonsness or iiearnees of an action ( Sid. life. ffjr *<t ^$rat Ma. it brings past action in connection with the present time. have no doubt &c. properly denotes a recent action or one done during the coarse of the present day. "It " remarks Dr. Kau. 2. q*ric| TO 3TT he formerly sacrificed. in CT mfft Barely in ancient woiks the augment is retained JTF f^TT^ *W m^ : may you is not live. however. 16. to be used 931. snbdned the collection i. do not submit to years. ) 932. III. the particle g^r not joined with **r. gave food throughout hi* ( Sid. P. &c. When a root preceded by * Second Book of Sanskrit. with the temporal augment 3\ cut off. is similar to the English present Perfect. Kau. 933. 3. the Aorthe Perfect or the Present may be used I ( Sid. ( Tne Aorist is used with the prohibitive particle ITT HT^F ) or ITT fIT. do not go against.930-933 ] SYNTAX. ) here formerly dwelt pupils. enemies. oh Nishada for many 3T is a preposition. V. the fix pas- sions ). With ist. Bhandarkar*. and has then the sense of the Imperative. is to be implied. 132. i 122.

food throughout his life. 934. . 13 &c enemy. sometime* it is milMn: ^mcHl4 Some do not despise your coul by considering explain these anomalies the particle to be in and not !TT^. The First or Periphrastic expresses futurity definitely hot not of this day . FIRST FUTTJBS OB PEBIPHBASTIC FUTUBE. THE Two FUTUBES. 06*. mq^NHfrf ?T**jfff he will give ( i. to-morrow you will go to Ayodhya governed by artmf >*: *< Bharata. as in ( conscience ).524 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. a* employed to denote recent and future continuous *nrrmr% *ft irorm^HT* (Bhatti xxii. 135-I38. continuousness of an action or nearness of time the non-intervention of the same period between the two points of time referred to) is to be expressed the First Future must not be used. ) they will be delighted on seeing yon and will ask you questions about the welfare of us two and Sitft. ( Rhatti. 3. and not Pan. * When the . XXII. ( is not dropped ). The difference between the Two Futures is the same as that between the Imperfect and the Aorist.) 6akuntaHwill go (goes) to-day. the only difference being that the former refers to a future time and the latter to a past one. it is also time. III. *>Ffta3t| ( Kir. mHHJ<l ^*tl^l S'ak. ( Bhatti ) if my sons are killed I will THE 935. IH. ufounft ft^ die or kill the XVI. and Bharata also will be greatly pleased. the Second or Simple Future Axpresaes futurity indefinitely as also that of to-day. ^T IV. here the 3? [ 933-935' -sorrow or anger -dropped. ) oh monkey. 14. 22 ) they will be extirpated by the monkey-bannered one ( Arjuna ).

the First or the Second Future may be used. and the word 3CTT te will consecrate the fires and on the coming Amavasyfi day} and not also when limit of time or place is expressed is used in a sentence . Kau ous ). IV. ^qj^rfr **T% when 937. III. will f you go ? <r^ n^m% is or J|fomifa I shall just go. 936. if it were to rain we would sow corn. . 3. the Aorist. . ir: aujnw <IHfT : not and not Hsftcmsfr the First Future but when the word |5 is q-: used may be used. When there the idea of hope implied in a conditional form. command. III. 133. is 939. or THE SECOND OB SIMPLE FUTUBE.936-930] SYNTAX. WTW then you will go (i. I Pan. 131. 3.e. please then go ) to the laker &c. 132. way of The Simple Future is sometimes used as a srfS ifawjft ( Vik. 3. * When the close proximity of a future action is intended. the Present or the Simple Future may be need in both the clauses to denote a future time-. the Second Future or the Present may be used. ( Sid. 525 offer a Soma sacrifice gmrrar and *njT. courte) 938. When the period of time meant lies beyond a certain point of time. ill. J The Simple Future alone used when the idea of hope is conveyed by f^nr and words having the sense i ^n. qtf HTO: w\*uift jf^q- M-^^^KM: cTaT srorarwft w will study in the earlier fortnight of the coming mouth.

^ used when the particle 5%* srsJ meanis Krishna fRTftr ^n. the Simple Future only should be used. 941.144. ^r ^rg-: irfifarTjT will the stick fall ? arft WTftt will he close the door ? (b) This Future is also ing sure or able is used. the Simple Future is used optionally in the sense of the or fffi^mfly 5f ^MN<Tlffr or 5f jrfa TOTHC fff I never believe. &c. in. ffroft sure or able to kill the elephant. 3. When to remember/ such as the word q^j is not used with roots meaning ^. &c. ^: or *&&: ^nr: %ft fo%% or RF^miq who Potential. * When disbelief in or intolerance of an action u intended to be expressed. ? I Pan. r ^nfRrrftr or vwr^ T%ifF$y ^rw ?fsnra^ifd I &o not believe should make a Sndra perform a sacrifice. ^r ^T <IM*H when the word f%%9 t ( a P&rticle. &3. that you would or should speak ill of Hari. [ 939-942 ?*ffcf TT *m<Tfif 5far nwm: if a shower were to -come quickly 940. 1 we would at once sow corn. the Second Future is used in the sense of the Imperfect. R^ will speak ill of Hari *rqr^ ( I do not believe that any body or iiwftwrfjf. showing great anger ) and roots having the sense of 'to be' precede. will. III. the words q^f.145. 146. *R*fa 50* H$gfr do you remember that we dwelt in Gokula > gWIIT Krishna. q*^ and qf^ do not occur in a sentence. ). . and especially in the form of a question. arregrqsrrvft STTR fwf sT^rfff it is 1 a wonder that a blind (a) man sees Hari. so that or like yon ^r When the idea of wonder is to be expressed and 942. the Simple Future should be used. 3.. or cannot tolerate it. is The Simple Future also used when the particles OT and arfr expressing a doubt are used.526 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

) let your thought be I must I must go nowi &cj f% 3FWm what should I do for you not commit the horrible murder of an ambassador. (0) In the lity. which is agreeable to you. 161. * The Imperative Mood does not express merely comalso but mand. III. first expresses a question. your co-wives as if they were your friends trfqr fr[j^fc<M *T *r?*T jr^r ^nr% be thou my messenger. benediction. The third passive voice is person singular of the Imperative in the often used and sometimes as a courteous form 3. gentle advice. Sak.^fr ' q<3Hm*4 ^ Hm: (Bhalti XX. ability. used to express a blessing sr^fo? : and sometimes gentle command Hm-dl T%f% ^f feet oi Hari give us success. IV. *3l^ I Pan.S 943-944 J SYNTAX. &o. THE 943.' (k) In the third person it is often . III. stff Tdrrq. 162. abi- 3^TTf *K^|f^ <^|^afq %ft fW a^ we will ( are able to ) do this thing.' 944. oh queen. 6. . 3. go to Raghava. ( ?* ) $flHSH go gmwmiq O God $* fsfrrcn&fiff% qWI*A help ! I ( forgive my faults. and say to him. IMPERATIVE MOOD. entreaty. ? necessity. quoted on the next page. Vide Pan. &c. 527 THE MOODS. courteous enquiry.. gentle advice and benedictions or blessings. ) serve your elders and treat . to Kusumapura. 4H<4|KM qfctalgglfd ^BT ?TTO^rrHf?TT S^OT she wts addressed the truth by Hara when he said 'do thou obtain u husband not devoted to any other lady. V. q-TJTqr qT9CTfr ^"^3 SwrnHT this handful of flowers scattered on the pour may rain II. ). In tne second person this Mood is used to express com( a ) mand. entreaty. MfcJIMB^ person ft frn: it ^T*H<MH: ( Mud. down in time.

949. take this seat. 3TTSTTm <MH^ : 3pm *Tf <rffcrm: may you hear. used g&dfcudl nearly equal to an hour ) is *JT offer the sacri- The Imperative with the . 947. RH^TUl ( pressing I tifj^^ tn*ir^i'i fit<< i P&a III. jrr *nrg not so . See 958. directing a subordinate. &c. qrft Trf f 1% Tlftr ( Sid.. When time after a is gg& . ) he goes every now and then . 950. ( expressed. [ 944-050 of expression. similarly spgfr ^^ smTOTTST^q^iwresnf THE POTENTIAL MOOD. 945. 946. The Potential Mood expresses the sense of ?%ra (comin vita). so trnr *TT?ffiT %$ *mT. particle w is used when a please teach request is courteously expressed the child.FVart. T%*mmfafTT i ft WT^.528 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. ffo >JRT: *sn^wre?*fir ( Sid. Trft mfranrrThe Imperative vfl ^f H vfr^ he studies steadily. *rr 948. 16 . i t ffoM*4rs<ui R?^m>ftgwr%nmRf r% P^. the Imperative fice after an hoar. Kau. f mand. sent it is qidm-qmq wr The Imperative has sometimes the force of the prewhen used in combination with the particle *fT. ) he takes his food. 1-5. H^Tl m I second person is also used when several acts are described as done by the same person. fs?rft *Hllmfl * There is or &m% I *ish you should dine. now eating fried ( rice. 4. Kau. ^^ now eating barley. Kau. Sid. ). The Imperative second person signlar is repeated when frequency of an'act is indicated and the whole used with the root in any tense. tne prince should be brought ye Pandits . HL 3. a peculiar use of the Imperative which ought to be noticed.

: participle vrrt may be used <4 wfr: or thou canst ( art able to ) carry the load. n Pan. qifa one should perform a sacrifice. Potential or the Potential participle may be used. yon naay teach my eon ( a? an honorary duty ). fgrcftcT WH* you may sit here. srrfte ( telling one to attend to an honorary office or duty ). senses viz. > 3-<T <reb* what. 163. G. a? qjrtrf 3%:. and sometimes the noun in 3 also. may be used- Kau. and srnfsrr prayer. f 5 r^r^ gsfa your honour should take food here. HI. ft 8. J The Potential is used with the words ^inr: %OT ^i dine. tial ( also f When the words ) ' after an hour are need the Poten- Imperative or the Potential participle r ( Sid. 3. 3. 3TO**tfr ( giving permission ). ). 169. can yon kindly give me food? (All ). 164. 529 tion ). will these senses are optionally expressed by the Imperative also ( a ) * In the case of the ' first two '. oh ! logic ? vft ^t3R 5J^T good Sir. vnrof TCeTCy &c. is time now that you should When the idea of fitness is to be expressed the 953. a. i. 34 . 168. it when the word n^is used. shall I learn the Veda or I get food here ? t. 172. f^rvj- and and in that of proper time the potential participle may also be used for the Potential. TT and yr. 952. 3.950-953 ] SYNTAX. ' 951. 3. a ) The Potential or the Potential ( when the sense of capability is implied. III. *fsr*^r ( courteously asking a person a question). III. ?*r ^^iqT" TtOT or yon are fit to marry the girl. . I Vfc fat * I PAD. RT ffTH T^: go to the village.

^Mi4<l: lft 5flr?T ifit^ ^f ^RTR[ I expect you will but ^n^HTTm ^hlT^f^ ( Sid. ( a ) When wonder is implied the simple Future is used in not used} 3ff3?3 preference to the Potential if the word *rf^ be man should see that a blind it is a wonder Hari. $ *^ HI. 167. ). lives. 3. &c. When in a conditional sentence one thing is expressed upon another as effect as depending upon a cause. . the Potential . dl I f * Pan HI. the ^otential or the at. 144. ' ' Pan. the Potential or Imperative is used . I 156. 3. *With interrogative words such as fijj. word but hope he 956.530 SANSKRIT GB&KMAB. [ 954-958 954. ^of ?rfr%? if be will bow to Krishna he will attain happiness so 958. ( III. I t i iwft^ ^l%ft fr* vrm> Pan. . When hope is expressed without the use of the c|sT%3 tUe potential is generally used. III. 3. ni. 153*. 159. ^[ 9 57. m. it is my desire ( I hope ) that you will eat. cT or ^rKl^ * wish you should dine. such as are used. ^<m. Kau. but arts*? *ff^ ^TTrfWfa 955. 2nd Future may be used provided the word *r^ used. 3. the Potential or the Simple Future may be used when censure 937 is implied ( see gj: ^cffr ^T ffif )-. J When the sense of ' I expect ' is implied. . 151. $ When &" words having the sense of to wish. 153. or the Simple Future may be used. Pan. i ^UNH^^OTT^ . 155. 3. 3. | it is wonder if he study.

26). ) t.958-961 ] SYNTAX. * sentiences in CONDITIONAL. III. Kan. BrAhmanas with all that they like. of. Bnt when the agents of both the Potential alone x^ ( 959. or to express the speaker's wish. *f ^fr^TrfT( Sid. Hl^ffl^M wishes that he will eat wishes to eat ). Sid. It must be used in both the antecedent and the consequent clauses. without being jealous. 960. Sid. Sometimes the Potential used in the sense of 'a when it is used without a subject preeept or advice'. . The Benedict! ve Mood ! is used to confer a blessing sftsqr?!. may I be successful THE 961. if there would be plentiful rain there would be an abundance n. actions are the same. f%^ live long srRrftHT: af^T3* I may you *roft& ^3TR?t f?3^0: ^TT^W-Tt ^WT ST^f?nftll (Bhatti. It expresses both future and past time. 531 *T WF* ( Kan. Kau. ! XIX. in is used those conditional which the Potential may be used when the nonperformanco of the action is implied or in which tbc falsity of the The Conditional antecedent is involved as a matter of fact. he should save his wife at the cost of his wealth and himself even at the expense of his wife and wealthj q^sTl^d &rwJWTl<JI<tH<^< ( one ) should serve . (a) is . is II a should save money for adversity. the used in the sense of the Infinitive. ) I wish Your Hcnonr will drink Soma. THE BENEDICTINE MOOD.

Indeclinables. 3. 3^3 &c. arf^ ra %: tfhff ?^ TTH ^fraTf%5p^tr^ H (Bhatti. . jtf or 5: in distress. arft. * When Conditional Potential} may ^q ^m a past action is to be indicated toe be optionally used in the sense of the or how could RT%: jou ^^F^nfoar^q^ ? give up your religion (a) Also where the Potential is used in conjunction with the particles 3cT.or (a) The word . so 3^.. bads t thou obtained ( which thou hast not ) the sweet fragrance of hei breath.140. 963. 4. .532 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. singulars of the Nominative and other cases of several nouns are used as adverbs. The mu. r II ^^6^^^^ ( ?T9r i srrfrr^^rf ftHiai^ fife Bhatti. 962. ) When wonder is to be expressed the Conditional ifr ( b ) optionally used where the Potential is used in combination with the particles tr?? tr? or qr^ when the action does not take place-. this lotus ? wouldst thou have had any liking for Obs. f%f or f%^or or Wr^T Ee is having contemplated for a long time. XXI. ftvjr ia used adverbially in combination with III. 8 ). ADVEBBS. 8. [ 961-96$ corn. XXI. SECTION V.

these conjunctions and the one very frequently used It can never stand first in a sentence. 633 several words such as ways. PBErOSITIONS. b ) ^r mj. the hermitage is tranquil yet my ' Rarely this particle is used in fool. . nor can it be nsed like 'and' in English. The most important of is ^r. if the sejtta of if. ntfUtf qg love with its excellences ( a ) Sometimes this particle hes a disjunctive fgrrfifr force. STRT. They are nsed in their proper senses in sentences. The use of Conjunctions has not many syntactical Peculiarities and needs no special notice here. ^TTO^ 3*^mJd & c . thought preceding certain action ). CONJUNCTIONS. ^fttf. action is to be expressed as said something by t. qfrtmj? having way a I gi%3TC thoughtfully. TOW TOT c5$ROw. 964. 3Tf%o mi^g^n 5?TT TOTT O venerable Sir. 966. ( e. OTW 3|f3*ldmMi expanded.963-966 ] STNTAX.&c. 065. killed this cow unwittingly. &c. The use of Prepositions has already been explained at 365-371. It is used with such of the words or assertions it connects or is placed after the last of the J$ROT%sr or words or assertions it joins together. having happened before. f&^ITT'W^ arm throbs. The Prepositions governing cases are already noticed under the various cases. The word ^ srj . . and fresh youth. oh you wuh to live. srorri*^ in various is also nsed adverbially as the latter member of a compound when some of consolation*.

was honoured. but the daughter a source of anxiety.534 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. 967. 'on the other hand/ 'and yet/ on the one hand. the first 5 but. . Sometimes used aa an expletive. also excluded from fficIT place in a sentence. and where. (/) Sometimes the repetition of ^ shows the ^ ^ simultaneous or undelayed occurrence of two events. are thy arrows hard like adamant and falling sharply. Kandarpaketu *Tt<ft ^ ^nftcfT ^r (e) When the particle is repeated it hao sometimes the sense of 'on the one hand/ sfityfrMi sfrfttf ^rfiftfa* s> ^^ ^ RftraftTOT SSRTRT: srcret where. 3TTcOT $&: ^T^T n^rr is &s$ 5 l%^y the son one's own self. t}ie wife one's friend. $(|ir wr^rftai ^q%5sgr H<**d* the the cowherdess was expelled and procuress was chastised. is the extremely frail life of fawns. I * $&w H<&r$$H*\ ^ *TT ?T^ on the one hand the full moon-faced lady is not easy to obtain and yet there is this unaccountable sport of love. because. on the other. is [ 966-968 ( e ) ( it is it d ) Sometimes used to connect a subordinate fact *c|M<J with a main one nrgnrrcr it wander for alms and bring a cow. ^TT f$ means for more plain/ ^ETT ^ 'likewise/ and qt are both are often used introducing quotations. 968. to be . r they reached the ocean and at the same time the primeval Being also awoke. trar 'likewise' often supplies the place of Eama and Lakshmana instance. f% for. * both Anagatavidhata and Pratyutpannamati.

f Properly speaking this is not the sensa of sni. ( 6 ) if . including'. &c. &rf$ TiTgCr^fftfa ( have recourf e to ) ^t %g. Wl% to do with me.awmt Sfrf^nW now begins the inquiry about Brahma. 44. 10. 4 ) if the thousand-rayed ore ( sun ) did not place him at the yoke of his car. ( 2 ) marks the beginning or commencement of a work. tive. as q^ Hff *T%l%ffir tft^ cfrf TO he were here he would assist me. the Bhaaya on this sutra. arefoHR*-^ 5TTff 3^=^ now i. Amara. gr^ snnsniTi^! &c. I conjure you by my life if you will not tell it in words. q-f% 5n*ft if Your Majesty has any thing *rf$ RST %*<TT^RT TOf3Wtt% done this. V. &c.968-970 ] SYNTAX. VII.' is the venerable Kasyapa all are you able right that he may oblige the world ? $|cHffi *&& to eat? ( 5 ) 'and. 969. he would have undoubtedly but they are also construed with the Present IndicaWift if he lives he will see prosperity. cf. I. *n? &ad %^ 'if are usually used with the Potential or the Conditional. Bha. 535 ( V. II.' begun the 1st Tantra . q-f^ %*^rft had Devadatta been here. . *3nET is used in the following senses: ( 1 ) aa a sign of auspiciousness f. &c. &c. The mere utterance or hearing of this word if considered as auspicious as the wotd is supposed to have emanated from the throat of Brahma. ( Rag. ) After that passing of the night ) the lord of the earth. ) . The Particles s^ 1 and ffn.. arWTTOf *T 5nM *T *W ' choose either the missiles or your person. 1. after that. tf ^fcrf fr TT^f?!^ ( S'ak. &c $ (3) 'then' &c. e.. tfrJT: 31^7 Bhima and also Arjuna. so spsi iftirr^n^R^C. is never used at the beginning of a sentence. . 970. ( 4 ) asks is a question 3W tnTCT^ SJteTsJiJfTO $3$t ^|^M. ' 3^PT ^<um^^a^y 3T??ft: if death is aw &&' sure to befall a creature.

RT ^fTSTR^Rl *fftnTS*W.. so that in constructions the actual words of the ffar speaker followed by must be used. I ask you because I am a foreigner. f fft 3T13RTOT this is the opinion of Asmara thy a. 971.. as follows.fft INTEBJECTIONS.536 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. if ). &c. 972. the beginning. " 2 ) cause ( rendered in English because. as a teacher ought to be censured. " I who have come 3^ ( to ycur majesty's feet wish to enjoy the happiness of the sight of Your Majesty. It is often used by commentators in the sense of ( according to the rule'. fqnRr as a father he ought to be respected.. every thing is not good simply because it is old. . < 5 ) in the capacity of.. ( 6 ) to state an opinion. ft certain Chandala girl requests Your Majesty ( saying ) . (4 ) so.. [ 971-972 of a composition. . The following stanza from the Bhatli Kavya illustrates the uses of some of these interjections:-* r 3?r: v& ^RT fir fin* * In Sanskrit translating indirect there is no indirect construction. . so ffa.( 3 ) purpose or motive. thus taking the place of the quotation marks and being used generally after * the words As 3Tr marks quoted. thus. since &c. as regards.' argnrrr: g>xj: ^a$ajr: *W the Brahmaoas said '' we have accomplished our objects.they two took a limited number of servants with them that there should be no disturbance. marks the close This particle is used in the following senses. ( 1 ) to quote the exact words spoken by some one..

P. The figures 1. U. . &c. Atmanepada 5 U. 10 U. to move tortnonsly. Potential ftft&?. P. after the roots refer to the conjugations to when the root Participle ( Pot. to accumulate. Con. 3TT^T perf. p.Appendix II. Im. f%>rnn* to $M^ which the roots belong.. Benedictive Causal T%^> D. f^ft pre 5. Frequentative JTJfcrff or ^g*raT. infti to go. P. nitive. arrRjf^HT Pre. [-rT Aor. sfalTS. Aor. DHATUKOSHA. Aor. Imperative gr^. atfWte Ben. Pass. to reach. fut. simple or 2nd Future $r. Can. atffcfT. atflcT. p. p. p. ) ( also distribute. to pervade. f. Imperfect Perf. P. Perfect Pot. Abbreviations. ) **$& per. Pre. Ben.a|far Pre. past Passive participle. vwft to shine. ^ for A. like the above with the only difference of 1. 3 sing. ^Tfftff^ ben. ^^ Perf. Periphrastic g^. 2. Imp. or Des. Aor. Condi tional <g. P re - 3TF^^ Impera. f^. Parasmaipada. ^rf^-% pert 3fffarr 3TH%5eT-^ Aor. 3T?n 9fTfinft?T 10 U. Passive. ^wn^rftwr P. 3T^T%-3T^iftft 2 sing. P. Deaiderative Fr. Imperf. & l Bin 8. fot. Present is Paraam* $TR*Trff when Atm. p. Fut. Ger. 3TSnffr-3*$oitW. -3^^% Pre.fat. pot. Present 3^ . Ubhaor 1st future ^. Aorist . $QrafiHt r afcnmifa-% Ben. A. Inf. p. InfiGerund. Potential participle. yapada. inf. Pre.

g^fS 3TpmT p. to censure. q^[ 55Wt ^ to count. arrmg. 3m% aor. f . arra or 3TT% perf. nftOTngt: to go. W arfflTWTOW ^T to go. WTSTR 1st d. &c. 3T3-^rra^r-3mr-3T^gN^T-^^ t arf^Tf%-?r int. gfaft pre. sffarr or . 55^T to mark. p. to mark or stain. ben. arnftg a r. Part. 3m%S:-3YTg: 3rd P l ri%$Tf?T Des. 3TT%ETH-3nST* 3rd dual. to go. 1 Tnnft: 9?%|^m^ des. arn%$rar-tT aor. pert. 3TH1P Perf P- 1 rnfac aor - s 10 l del. pre. iut. ftfigg. 3^3. U. pre. to run. P'e. ben. also -BT^^ra ( 1 P. an^n^ aor. to speak indistinctly. 3TTRrg?i:-?T con. 3TJTT J perf . arsrm P*e.2 SANSKRIT QBAMMAB. peri. arf%?3T. ir^n^rqr to go. Bnrftcfr P- 3rn%^ra[-tT aor.p. 1 A. ars^T 8 er r?fr U. P. ar^fr con. jfa or an^nr p. pw. arl^-arnfl^ao des. 1 srfsrorteMcwff ft. f. BTf^rf^T^ ^^RfT 3" aTf^lT^-aT|ff^fT7 des. to sin. anT per! . %CTT or arfiRTr P-f. f%figw. Pass. Pass.pre. P'e. fat. 3TfTOT% gflTTRT P'e. ffSarot *nft to move tortuously. np PP. argsq^-arrfiT^con. ftrf arrfim 2nd sing. ) to stigmatise. 10 U. art^r-aT^T ger.p. and pi. ben. srf|^r p. srtftc aor. f. * vf&fri ben. perf. 3rf%?rr p. r^n 1 P. p. 10 U. aor. Oau. arnftr perf. 3m inf. inf. 1. aregf^ pre. THT^or to go wrong. same as A. a?nr$^ Perf. are p. to blame. P. B?^rf%^fcr% des. SH^fta ^rf^g aor.

or 3T3F??T 1 when means to go fat. . f. 4CTr% P r - 3TR^-ir^imp. ben. arf^fT^-T^f^^nf^^-ff aor. 1 P. 3H^T5^ 10 U. ^SUI^ arr^ Pf. f. Jut. aor. srijfHNrrff des. VIWTr p. perf. 4. 3T>^1^af p. Pa9s. 3TT5T2I he go. ar^f^rr. arfeyifff fat. 3TRjrg[ 7 3m%1 inf. ger. irra wWre 3TTRW<T con. 3Ttl> p. Oau. it with ^ij. with Can. Hf ufrf-ai pre._3TRS perf. 3^fiicf. a?^priir fat. aream may 3Trf). 1 A. i|tfV to roam.oirsq- . arreTtJ ^J^r^ ben. to beg 3T^afff-^ P'e. WW 7 P. pot. or. - 3^ 1 P. 3n^f%^l% ( dcs. f. ' worship does not drop its nasal before sf3^ in tne sense of weak terminations. ger.DHA'TUKOSHA. s?T%r^Trff ds. to transgress. he worship. pi. ^Rrfj ) ger. 3?*^gm-% pre &e. 3^mh^ . perf. to kill. aing. 3ri%rm fut. uaV 1T^% 3?f?isiTfff-^ TT to go. . ben. ar^^r gr. pot. pre. 3TTT?f 5-*T . f ?TTR*ra *rrWre. fat. ar^n^ srrefamr. ben. airsfra aor. ' VI. to . 3?f|^ff 3Tflf7 aor. arfog** 3^ ft. 3TmRR01|^nTT: f. U. 3^12*^ Freq. oU fts n ^ u| ^n nnrf^^ to make clear. !|fff<Hctf P *o go. to go. f. sr?f?f pre. 2. 3T^\ ( Im^ra. to deco- rate. f^^tw to individualise. Cau. p 3T^Fc?r. 3?n%??l Aor. to wander. 3if%[r^r. to worship 3?3am pre. - pTO. 3Tf|?rT Pes. ?T pre. e?|p5r. s 5Tf^TT p. aor. 3T^9^ if aor.p. 3TT3^r?cTT ger. 3T3rom-3T5raiT pre. Cau. 3?rr% ben. *<TT> arefhnr^ fl aor. a^rHJ 3rd 8ing ^rranr 3rd dual. Hfff pre. flcft perf ^riqm. *T*T*Tlft . ) p.-3^?q% pre p. pass. 3TTT^q^: COD Cau r arnaeTT p. 30. p. 3Trr%3T^-?T aor. Pass.^3Ti^nff% 3Tf " 1 pre. 3^r? perf. to anoint.

anf^r^ con. perf. itrfi- to go. P. arcirft pre. 1 arnbre aor. aiT^ri^r^ con. 3T<nm Pre. STJTT^ ben. perf. Pass.-3Trurorf?t-% Aor. a^rR aor. 3|f^f^rfff fut. fft-ii ^Rrfaqf^ ^es. ^THrq-TPR to go constantly 3raf^ pre.-3rrR^-^ pre. 3TFTOT Aor. p. srrf^racff Aor. 3rd sing. inf. to sound. Imp. arrftRTT pre. to sound aor. 3TrJTT% pre. ^TRftqfar des. 3Tf?RT P-P- 2 P. affq^r pw. p. * 3TrWT% f at. 3n^> ^nrRT Bn?: 2nd sing. 3rd sing. JJTOT* to breathe. STfoifan^ des. ( also STfcFrfeT pre. arTcf per*. 1 P. arfiWte ben. 3fr^. f. 4 A. gp^prerfr gg^M^lgT^ to be blind. P- ajfurrorera des. aor. A. Oau. anw Cau. 10 U. . arafr perf. Pi ST<n% to breathe.2 'ar^fwn^' ) 3TTff^:iT aor. with f. snsnr 5 perf. 3Tf5^f!^ Aor. 3Tf^T P. STTOT perf . ^TtTT *p. . 3Ttrq^ pr 3Tl?oT**ra fut. to live. arpftg. pre. 5ro3T-snnnr sr^^inf. 3TRr3TT ger. to eat aor. 3TrfS?T^-cT r^r$r to Apr. Ben.arRr per. ben 1 P. Ar. to wander 3T*fS pre. . 3T^-3T^ger. . Oau. eat. Is Hie Pass. 3TOT^ ben. to live- *Tfq^ pre. arfeggt-^rf^gfr Aor. U. Cau-3i?<nTW BTr^ffl-cT Aor. 3^R P' f ^raRfT Pcon.. to live. 3TPT as orror. 5Tf*r:-^: 2nd sing. ^nf ( and 3?^ food ) p. to despise. sreft pre. 3T[j& aor.-BTr*nrfff-% pre. ^gftg^ .SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. 3T^T^ aor. to close the eye pw. Pass. aor.-^^Rt pre. TfiRT5^^%5 to go. srr^ftri: Aor. This root same ^*> *o bind . * NgHi*i:3TR3. Imp. Cau. P. 3*&f?r pre. 3Tl^rar P'e fgr^rft des. Pass.

( sr^fq-^r^ fut. to worship. ^Trflr arrJn4^1d^--^lf?^lfllH dual. ben. 3f^r to procure. 3Tq=qr^. aqwNf pre. ^-cT Aor. sr&ft . Oau. srr^ra: aor. arfifftrifJr des to be worth. Can. p. 3TOHT^ des. anfa. P. to praise. 3TPT^ perf. 3jWTT-gmf3*fte ben. Pass. 3TT^ ^33" perf. ^QT p. grmfOTm Des. ^ P re - perf. 1 P. with q^T. arf%^T ger. des. annr aor. acquire. 3^4^*1^ Pass. to sue. iprr q^rq^ pre. Pre. ?TT% ftfWflT ^ to heat. Pass. arf%cT p. f . des. pre. <RfV^T. of the above ) srnTO% 3<TT3% BTi^nrRr^Iff-^ ) ^T to procure. to ( also can. arfWt^ ben. 3T*ffff pre. p. amt'BW perf. 3TR^ perf. arftlfT p. 10 A. f. 10 U. aTlft^^ 3?rf% <T or. sHrfa pre. ) ff con. P f ^t^^T-^ aor. P.-ff Aor. 3^^ Aor. 1 3TTreS aor. ^WT^STTTOC request. Can. frit to afflict with pain. *r? to go. sniff. 3r5*rft-^ pre. aor 5T^IT Se* Hf%l%^W des. with 3TfiraT p. Pass. 3T%ft<TT aT%f^fn? ben. WWJ. ger. STrFfa pre. ^iftqd. to take. 10 U. Aor. 1 A. arnHT^-^ P'e. Aor.DHA'TUKOSHSL. - pre a <> r . ^TTTqT to worship. 3^9%% pre. 10 U. p. 3)R^ perf . p. ( 3rd dual 1. 10 U. pre. Aor. Can. tp^ost. t Aor.

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. sr^nT P*e.f. con. * - ^TSfff-^ per. 3nf| Aor. Pass. 3TTit aor. Cau. 5??^ to p. ^^n'Sr Pre. ( arrasft-?* pre. 3?^ pre. 3TVTO ( ST^ P'e p. 3THT? perf. *<TOT<ra?f?frRdt3 to adorn. p. W*l& 10 U. to deserve-. Pa8. 3T^ fut. ( ^ asked snf^r^ <r aor. wanrreforf^rTlTSc^^ to defend. artfk pre. Pass. p. pre.anfS^-tT Aor. P. 3rft?f p. aor. 3Tl?f^iifr des. 3TT5J BTf^ perf. anftr^arrr Aor. ounfr B^lSf ^ to pervade. f r^rar-3TT? aor. anff^ben. fco U. fg^HTP* to kill. arrsff^aor. arftTWT. near ) p. arftffT P- wfi^ a r- 3?an^ben. according to some P. 3TTl Sfnh^ben. ^[ to deserve. P. 3Tfir?*T ger. Can. pre. 3n%I?T. ar^TfTTp. arrf^wr^ con.3T? -ff dea.* to accumulate. Oau--^rr^rdes. See below 10 U. 3?(|rm-3TCT 3Tfrq* rer?^r. 3Ti%?fT 3Tfsfat-3Trf&E aor.9nf^-ir Aor. 3Tr#T^aor. Pass. 3?p->r pre. ar^rnHf pro- ^RCTC-^5frperf. 5Tf3Tf 1 fam des. 1 3?fo srofaTf* ro. 3Tr%cJ^-fT aor. to do good. 10 U. ben. Pass. T P. to worship. to protect. to know 3TF5T ( and a variety of other * meaning?. 3^^ pre. be competent. perf. BTT. 5. to please. p.3TTf5r Aor. 3Tnfa<T aor. Pass. f . to prevent^ P. 3T^T%^ 9rr% aor. Oau. Ger. ). p. to beg. ) ^fiHf^r-% dee. 3T5*ft pre. perf 3*ffrTT P * STrfl^g. pre. A. 3?Tf5f^:T Aor. 3T*JftrTT d*s. worship. Pass. 5Tf^nfl: ben. this root is Atm. * *ra% to go.-ar^ pre.~3TTgwm-^ pre. Can. Jfifr p. des. . perf. 3Tff| Aor. perf.

P. . awniT P^. Hfc^ 1st dual. 3TT P. affraOTt Aor. Impera. an%fTT p. ajrft^ * Aor. a?lftr 2 P. arn*^ con. anfia^T^ cT Aor. &c. 2nd ben. 3UR . 3i^mS P'e. 3TfT%%?fff des. 3rd sing.arrfe^m'S con. ri?rf%m con. perf. 3Tr%?^r. air^^llr pre. Can. arrror pre. or^con. 5jni% to get. arr<T*rffr '. Hl3T% to eat ( with sr. * ar^h^: I ^ is substituted for ar^ in the non-coojugational tenses. am perf. fat. 3TTJfr^ 3rd Sin g ( s?nr*H 1st 8ing. trfa 2nd pers. arfafsma gfc to be. -f! aor. Can. STT^Org^ to sing.) Imp.DHA'TUKOSHA. arf%rr%^fir des. Can. OTTT^ aor. Aor. ^qrr^ben. HCTft ar^^r ger. pin. arrrl^rTT p. Oau. 3rd. atrro^aor. 4 P. f . to rock- 3^33^ ff Aor. dee. sing. ^ pre. 3?rc?^T ger. 3Tr^ perf. Jmpera. P. arn=wfif. arTST perf. Pass. p. f. *.P- 31TWfr P'e. Cau. 10 conj. pre. sing. 3Tn^"?5 t. Pass. ^m-flf pre. $faot to throw. Impera. HTSftS 3id sing. sTRrs^ ^f. to sit.f. p. MT?f?r P re - SfTSfF ( according to- some arouse:) perf. arr^iaf( 10 U.^TmFc^ cT aor. 2nd sing. to prevade. A. plu. 3rd plu. 3TTWT p. arrtfr^ Aor. 3TTOTfc to lengthen. arnr^rf^ lk sing- 2nd & pre. aTTRf^hf ben. to drink ). 3tt%<TT P- 3*T$fT^ aor. (3Tfc^: 1st dual. aif$T?T P. STffite aor. f ^rTtrr *friTfpr fut. ^T^ft. 5Tfcg^fe?r 3rd. to obtain. ansnrfc ^r^ per^ arrftrrr 3TfT%nr^ fut. aw<T . pre. Pass p. arr^r ) 2 p. 3TTSftm ) 1st. p. 10 U. srrsfttS. arra* pre.

vjwjft fat. arRTg-Imperf . Cau. % pre. to move. flflT P. to kindle. ( pre. SRrat Aor. Oau. jnft to go. - fat. 1 P. ^jq f^r perf <THT p. to agitate. nrft to ^pfc aor. ?^j^ q^r or .fat. pre. ) perf. (3rd dual. ^ft^T P.p. f=s^nTr^to wish. ffTO^re-^S^-arrer perf. fut. fgpf tr aor. ffr^nw 5TTfT ^rr^ F erf ? F^?fT P. Pass. f?>jt^ tfom ben. fflpff P. ^f^viz Ao. to go. con. q-sq^con. TS?T (f^T in the Veda . f?vnif?r % ^ p. TT^ Aor. pre. fat ff^'a'^r fat. Pass.SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [Also A. 1 P to go.. arriS Aor Oau f 2 P. ffm pre. 3TTTf9 aor. aor. f . qriarf^ fut <frgL can. fut. Ifcftqit des.f ^frrfer <rr?r des. <4V^ Aor. <f >TRnjfS arnTOct irrflT Aor. fut. ben. see Bhag. pre. nff to go. con. 16] go. aor. fat. %*m perf. Pass. VI. ^T&^5 ^g[ Imperf. f 3 1 P. pre. 1 P. ^afrTjr^srwq% oT^^ff wi 2 A. to have great power. arotfj pre. tr^r p. ygnj. tr^f pre.p. Hvfhr p. n*rof?r Pass. ^Tg^iTT^m-aT^m d BTqfam pre. 6 P. pre. fiFcKTT p. 7 A. ^r^nf pre. fifa perf. with arfo P- to study. ^fhfir to sHine. f^? perf. ben. *$^r perf.*t ^ft^ aor. ben. STgqmqQ ^r%ff p. f^ pre. tr^fir pre. Oau.p. 3TOTff?r ben.p. fut. f|%?r p. pre. 1 P.

Other to go. ^WTrf P. p. fwnff pre. p. ^TT or qfiqrqi ger. fut. to see. f OTTTW pre. ger.piirfr to go &c. ^rt-^:-^j^ 3TRT ben. ^ffa Aor. ^KC aor. f R?f p. Pass. p. to go. tn^cTT p. g^ to look t%aT Cau l^ilr f^^ fafct pre. f 4 A. ^ifr^ aor. p. an^T perf. pre. ffaf p. $%**?[ con. Oau. at. Jfalte ben. like those ^ 1 P. *nnffcft 6. Pass |gir?r pre. fat. |<m pre. lr%?^T $%3H inf. ^j%^-?f ger. ^i^r^-?r a6r. fut. p. and the gerund in ?^T of this root are qpnn and ITJ^T only. 5%^ &c. perf. . to shake. j^rfff-^ pre. Oau 3TFref?H* pw. ^TO aor. ^T^ x 2 A. ifMjfff fat. ffira p. irfff^^Tlt: to go. q pre aor. fiff^ 1 A. |w pre. p. forms like those of the above. JTrft to go . des. the forms of the p. 2 A. $s Aor. <T ^fawrg. if%-gn 1 t%?r p. fat ^frsim con. to pervade &c. i?r^ perf. qftf^ft ^jjppre. %fo aor. Ifrm p. to praise. ^r P. Cau f ^jfir-^ to go. fRcf P. ^fa?a. des. inf. to repeat. 9 mrrs 4 P. 2 P. . P. ^ ffnf r f aor. 1%^ |f%%^ ger Pass ^r% aor. fut. ^f|-^ aor. fat. con. aor. con. |r%?T P. P. des. j^Ni-^^i^ ^t. fut.DHA'TUKOSHA. to go. <rf^rf?T fut. %faftz ben. ^^-inar pre. fut. 9 Pof ben. to censure. i%ry^ pre. ?|ffV aor. * According to some. "C^T^ 3nn-^^IT-W^-3TT^r con. %$ pre. 1 A. perf. f ^ p.. Cau ^qffl-% pre. awH** P erf - ^?T fat. P*e. f3T?t pre. J^ p.

collect together. es. afrfitfsiKr ^f^f^T^fS des. fj. 2 A 1 q* ^ to command. P- P. fat. ^%?f p. oft aor. Tgqrqt ben. i?W*Tra fut. p. fajfirrrer tfamft aor. A ^^TUT^^O aim at. ffc?T to P. Cau.tfirarir ft. to throw. P. ff frHre be Q . 1 P. 10 U. fsNrfc-amr-W q-ff tfc?TT p. ff^f p. to posses*. or s$fir pre. p. fut. to kill. to wet- g^m pre. pre. con. A. g^t^ perf. move. f^sriK ^fte aor. T x 1. fut. fat. *fi^f^ 5?f^^ imperf.10 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. qrfinr?r con. con. aor. fut. . f %ff p. T^t^" perf. ^r%?rf?r 3?r%r3 con. <tfro3 Oau con. Cau f^ffT-^ pre. (ffvq^r des. 3fffr perf. fut. fut. ^rfq^?T con. fT^flr * pre. ^%<f p. 5% pre. iTT?ff?f?T^r^ to RO. -<T 1 fTWcTF P. ^ aor -^ 1 P99- f 9Tai pre. offf%TO or frf%ni con ^TOC ben. ff^lhr ben. pro. &c. ^r p. farfanc fq-fTT p. envy. 1 j^ pre. or pre. perf. ^ to mov. to see. p. T^crfff fat. - xut. rar to ml*. r . ^ftT<r-?T aor. arr^ir^ aor. *nrer<r to P. to p. ffqrai P fit. perf. fut. $Tr aor. Pass y^q^ pre. afirar P. ) TCTT^ ben. ^%^f?r fut. to go. perf.pre. f<rf3-nM^te Ben. fc^r to sprinkle. dea. p. p. <qUiK or Perf. ( also written as * P. aor. Cau P re - ^rfsfT^T^-T Aor.

55^1 to fill with. ^F^ftTf^ ^es.fut. Tsfr* or g-^n^^^rr perf. 3rf?TT P. 3U*r-*>i^r porf. 37%^l%T p. Aor. perf. ^f^ff or ^(PR<T p. con. g^j'f'ff pre. sfr^fh^ p. &c.fat. to destroy. ^fif pert Aor - ^ftff or fti?Jf p. aor. Can 753T ft P.fut. to avoid. 11 1 abandon. 1 P. ^ 1 P. P. to fat.^TnT^ -^S5 ben. gff pre. to measure. ' 3rnri* Hir^ con. P re fut. g-ftsnrr por. Cau con. p. to kill. p. ff3f5f pre f Aor. aor. ^gm-ff r pre. 1 P. . . ^f> to burn. aor pre. P. 3?tfrTrlT fut.ft *flwfif *t. to destroy. 'i?h^-?T aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. &'c. 3rfSr?TT p.3r^r*T to abandon. grf?^r 3T%Tf^ con. ^rf^r-7<%<T P P. perf. 7 P. 1 perf. 3rn%T^aor p. to cover over. to punih. g^ffif p'e. to P. . cF^^ to wet. to kill. aftfawmr or Hin?^ or 1 *?f*>?rc* aor. p. rtfr3 ^y P- perf. sfaf3 or. T dMmri to strike. A. p. P. a?^ to hurt. fnt. P. pre. B^iaor. ^^ or ^gr P or ^Tij 6 P. Oau. fut.. 1. oft?ft pre. TTJff p.3TT<rfr pre. ft p perf. to -finish. ofn^Tf P. moisten. 3-vrfefr or pre. 3?ff^?T des Can. P. to glean. to play. perf. fut. 3r3r f^ri?rT perf.

2 U. merqnoi'ft. p. fat. 3?ft3*reT con . aor. grafftfTT or 3J^fr%c!T p. 4M& &c. 3?f5?r imperf. P'e. 3T^rr^--5Tf or g^^% perf. ^RR &e. to conjecture. gruffer. grfqf p. fut. qftsm to -<T lessen. to get. Pass. grft.) itcT$ pre. arg^tf!^ to weave. 1 A. to go. to play . g^f^lffir fat. grrofflT-?* pre. fit. \ P er p* . 3^f| aor. aor. to hide. p. grftsqlt fat. aor. ^ro or aor - Oau 3rafan<t-% P re aft'^W^-cf aor. to sport.fnt. gj^^ pre. Oau gr5qi%-ai pre. 3?jrfirwr<r con. grftf^T ger: 1 P. gfrotf^ aor. to live. grqT^* arre pert grfqwr p. gcrri%^te or gnjjf^fre ben. g^fg^T perf. fat- g>o?fWte. groift%c!T or p. Pass gj^ pre. 10 U. (sometimes P. ^Bf^-rT aor. _ 10 U. ( same as ^F. to infer. srrsgrr^ to cover. ^JJrrorwr: to strengthen. 37ourar or pre.fro*ffiT-% des. perf. perf. 1 A. to reason.12 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB.fir 1. &qft pre. grT>Fr^ ben. ) P. afWfa. grfjrfsRTT. p. 5*fr?n^ to be diseased or disordered^grtfer P'e. grf^fte ben. or or ben. Oau 37^^%% pw. Aor. ^^rfar pre. ^ff 3?nt^ aor. to sew. gj* 1 A. g?<r P. ^^5TT P.

( the remaining forme see the root ^pJ^4 P. For ^WK* 6 P. ) . 3rri3r aor. 37 .p. *TT?ft*ITsrnfcT<n^$ to go. 31^-% pre. is not in the Dhatupatha but " G. Pass. g^fac ben. P. ) p. to p. 1 3^^^ Aor. &*ft Pre.SR^^rff pre. fut.Tf%ivfrf^. ^IK^tT con. sj^ p. 3rrf3iE-Cr# Aor.3wfl^-3f|^pre. arfsf^ aor. sjtf^grrnT*ut. given in the 3E?|fpT^ 8. or ben. arfttq-lTl fat . to prosper. become hard. 3ni%^a. to go. 6 P. p. arftfof^ des.p. 3nfo pre. ^tf^5?T A. Imperf. %Ml^MfS des. 13 fat. airrf^fte-^fre ben. ^r&j* pre. to please. 3n%|OTW^ be ^ttflffrflr des. 8 U. Can. aor. 3Tl^ aor. or srnrS perf fut . it is *This Sutra E. to fail in perf. smTc5. sirfirnrwT^. f?^ft des.^wiff pre. to pre. P. 3n<FT^-ff aor. 6 P.. to go. fat. 3HTO perf arr^Ta * r . SR-fsf^ p. Pass. Wffc &c. ^rfii^riir ^taVRrTi^-^tf'ng: or Crater aor. mrt p. ^nnn^-^t^. to acquire. to increase. compassionate. . sfctftaNrH? &c. faculties. to shine. ^-^11% pre. f at . perf.DHA/TUKOSHA. f^ . 3R^f Ger. STTsrJ perf. g|rf%rT p. ^r cenaure. mifdafd^ aor. 3TRof. p. 3llSff^^ des. to injure. to prosper. sir?T ( also ^or debt fat. aireff^ aor. 3TR^ perf. arf&fre ben.^qf% pre. Cau. Blotter. %^|d to pre. *mn^l H d*J gnrerq^ fut.to kill* *&*$<. Cau. p. fut. perf. ?fgcfl- to praise. arrfSfarT con. irffa pre. ^fSl^^ ft. fat. arfsTrfT p. 3T*TI%-^ pre. Pre.p. s^ 5 P. approach.-g[ aor.p. 3O^^ 3TR^ P P- ^f^rr p.

to prosper. . 1 to grow. fat. sfnff to shine. ^nre.% parf.-^*^ aor. irf^m PP. aTRytrg-gf^-^ at"'. iry^ pre. p if. frf^si ^r^q-ff^con. pre. ir^rregj-^r^ perl. ^fai?r con. Hf^qift or arfpaTRT fat. ^Tcyf^ff p. ^flo-^l^R &o. to go. ^rfvr^ fat. fat. cnwm-%. to adorn. 1 A.14 SANSKRIT GBA. con. 1 irfof p. irRrrar P. imperi. afrftr Can. gr^r-s^n t aor. 9 P. * with OT = ?f . to move. ^oiRyiTWr: pre. to be proud. s^OTTIFT p*e. A. fat. Hlf^ aor. to resist. ^f^r aor. f^T to laugh. to go. fut. fat.p. cpfaffr p. - ^ 10 u ^?Srtft to throw up. irRrfi^ Ben. sr^f^ir aor. A. <T3T% ft pro. iff^ pp. rTOrar to annoy. or 3T?KTT P.^ aor. aifcrei%-% pre. perf. P. ^[jr ir^ pre. to be dry. Oau. <rr^Rr?% des. pre. ^f^-^T Aor. With sr = . ipf^ pre. 1 P. ^^sq% fat. to be sufficient. 1 A. P. ^T pre.MMAR. ^R^ to shake. ir^ perf <rRrffT p. s?<3fer f it. 3Tf?ftr*r? ^^TW perf. Pass. fat. aftm f wrc -g^r-^mr ^r%?n p. 3T^fi?Tff con. to wish P. fut. ^. pre.p.

1 3* *>ff% to A. 3TOTS"? aor. con q^ig. Aor. 5^3^ pre. p.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^^RT or ^fe ^TffcTTor qlfecTrp.p. gfenNqnT-^? & e ^1^5inff-?r aor - perf- ^<TT or fnt. fut. ^fr% perf. 4j?nTF?i^H[~xiiiifj &c. JTrgrfw^nftt to rub. aor. 3T?T or 3&tft aor. perf. A.fut. fut. pre. 10 U. ^qfrg cr ^^3% perf. fat. ^fysufar. ^rorqf-?r pre. atre^TM to fT remember with regret. ntficg^ to wink Aor. - 4>- Pre. |j^frf fut. g-ttTw% to live in difficulty . 5T^f^wT?r. to go ^^ffr or pre. ^ to be proud. ^?r P'. =^^rir perf. - p. 3n%^r p. $r%ff p. qpf^t^rffT fut. -rjcfc^ perf. ^r%?fr con ^Tfj-OT-^r^ aor . to protect j $>4gr*TTW K pre. ^r^r. ^f?qTff or ^fe^i^ fat. H^% ( *r^ l%g^r^TOT ) T^for ^r to separate the chaff.3> to sound - ^Rr^rnt 1 fut. p. . ^^T^T perf. 1 . *e\i^ to bind ^ft con. 1 15 A. aor. ^ori% pre. qfofr pre. ?Ff qrff -^ pre. be anxious ( with g^ ). or 3^^%^g con. 3i3)lui&tr<^ Aor 10 U. 35B'T aor. to scratch . P. fcfttTT p. 10 U. 3UrK7f to cry in distress . ^fc perf. fnt. ^m perf. g?^ft pre. rrr. fut. fut. 1 TJ. ^-ftf-fl pre. Aor P. to go. ^gftffB' ben. . . ^^~- 1 P. P. con. P. or q^g^l P. .

Pass. fut. to pierce. or qewit^fr &c. ^3% pre. to praise. pre. U. xf^ perf. 1 ) cfe^Rr pre. s&snfii-^ Pro. .p. perl. aifiteT??cf*ri^5 to P. q?HT% pre. 3r^JWT^-?T Aor. pre. ^T^^TR^T: p. l?sre aor. to boast. %& aor. A.rf$i<vq' to slacken. ^T^TT? ben. q??^ pre. $rer|?$rs*i?r con. to go. Perl. CTtTTO^fe or cblH<(|? ben. " *q^ f%'ffM^ dee. or a^^^^y aor. aor. *uuift-% pre. ^TM^d gjcgfr T^if?^T?f con. ^UNJ-q^K-^ perf. ^wRl^far or $rf&*qfr fut. Oau. ^rCT perf. 10 U. effctqi^-^ pre.to P. ^ffe ben. cnrcHfWq. ^TRraf or pre A. ^/rfercq-ft fnt. to grieve. fat. f ut - ^T^R perf. P. arofqs aor. or spTTOT p. to count. fut. &c. fut. tfrf&m p. ^r^ perf. fat. fut. q*n1Ht pre. to sound. pre. p. ^T^cir P. aor. to shake. 3T^^sn9[<T Aor. tell. aor. n^f&PKT des. 1 A. to tremble. 1 P. ^fft pre. chf3aft ben. A. cpTfTT^frT or 3T^fHTrf con. ^TFcft to desire ^rT^ ^^^ ^q% . 35sft^ aor - denom. p. groqi^TC. ^(^^ perf. ^rfiC" ben. ^f%c<q[^ 3tcfo|<i0ui(| con. ^UHJ*<ff*T-% fut.16 SANSKRIT QBAHHAB. Pass. frit. ^fr^ p. cn^cTT shine &o. Kffirccrr-f?RTr. ftrw ger. Cau. 1 A. ^& pre.eCTOTfiT-flr pre. gpfOT P-P- . sgrerqrn p. fut. 1 . . 3T^Tf^T^-cT con. ^ar% p.

Aor. ^rft^?t iut. *rft*rf?r fut. ). irffl^i^T^q'Y: to go. perf. p. pre. to go . Aor. ^^t ^f|rTT P. ?^?q% pre. fut/rtf^rft fnt. 2 A.-?T Aor. es. 3TT5na. f^tfT des. 1 go. OTsnrfSr-fr P re pre. ( Also written qp^ . -^oir to teat. fut. ^t^mif to desire. p. 3TT p . ^^RT 3r^fft^ perf . 3r3T*^-a aor. fcl^MfrU .P. to punish. to wish. ^^ aor perf . pre. P. Oau. ^r^RT aretfis-srarrfrs aor. ^?t de. f^fft ^ft^r ^ to praise. P. mcfeifama con. 10 U. des. ^wr P. naf 17 *tem^ ** to 8> * c<>ant. pre. 3r3ft^ET^-ff aor. sjftf 1 ( ^^ painful p. perf. . Pass. SOTlS-fr pre. ben. fedft&Jjft-W fat. ^ft ar^ftw con. Cff P'e. ) ^ P. ftregftvfiKt JiriS*-*r dos. pre. ar^fjrc aor. 1. &o. OT%HT P. iut. mchsHd. sr^f%5^ con.-^^ft3: aor . cfdi^m p. fT COD. A. AUC. 1 !^I^T ger. 3r^fr%7 aor. srftr^beD. ^it to 80und ^^rfir pre. 3reTT%ra con. 3^?n?irar aor. to destroy. ^rjTff fat. prf. cj^facfr p. P. ^rfircirW 3Tfe|f$tUJA con.-^mN^ &c. fafrMmft-fr p. ^rfita pp. pre. ^s^f^rnrra to cough.DHA'TUKOSHA.-$re*riiT-ft oT^^RT-ff aor. f%$tf%r?ffr des. OT3TW P'e. ^f%ff or 4 A. irifl3IHH<ft: to A. fat. Oau. ^T%^5TT.Gan. 3T2Fm'hi:. P. to soratch. P. 3<4l*gra. ^^ft con. P. ^rr fat. perf. ^ -. fat. f%W?f%*ft des. ^^r^ perf. ^n%ff 1 A. aor.p. qfrjft to shine. cm^ pre. pre. 3ren%ff Aor.

sound pre. aor. aor. f%T%?^% pre. T%fin?nn p. 3 gpjfrm aor 2 P. con. %fTT P- %I%^T% fut. 1 P. to sound. *h*T^ flMSH3r . f^T% to dwell. to cure. afT^t^ aor 6 A ^r*^ ( 3TT?f^: ) to sound. ) ) to contract. A. ^f^^ freq. fat. ^t^ des. to become white. f%^Tlf^^m des. i%^ri COD.. fx^rprt to desire. P. fat. peif. to live. ^?rw 5^ft^I. ^N^T ( $STft 2nd sing. ( perf. 6 P. ^3% ( ^RfT p. 5^7 ( g$feq| fat. to come in ^n7f% aFTi%^^ fut. 5^fWTl^t: perf. ( Also A. ^i%?r p. 1 P. 6 P. ^nr pre. int. 1 ^iffiJT% pre. aor. ^f%ffr p. %<rom pre. ?&* ?TK ^M^^H%y??fft<>a4-MHft^H^ contact. 3T^r^ aor. pre. 'ST 3$% to perf_ pTT 1 P. loudly. . Pass. gp^ pre. r?g% to bind. sport. to fa *. 1 P. to ba crooked &c. > - perf. to 3^ pre. f%hy peif. suspect. fat. ^ito con. pre. ) ^T?^T^ S^fS^g- pre. to bend. %m?r P*e. fat. s. ^ to perf. 3Tf7T aor. f%%?f perf. ^tf^fTT P.-f^T%r^r% pre. ^rffi pre. 9JfcTT p. 3T to sound. Can. perf. P. aor. fut. 3r^t%l^ con. 3wfam<| P. 10 P. to curve.18 SANSKBIT GRIMMAH. ST*^ fot. ^t^TTff fat. 2nd sing. T%f%VH con. f%|%tcqtq(d fat. 3T^t^ moan. p. 2nd sing.

$Udmd-fr pre. con - 4 P. P'e. 9 P. con. fut. qFrt%rrT ger. f^qrft pre fnt. perf. pre. gffm?u p. ^u<f|^ aor. Wr ^ to apeak. p. ^r^r to be angry. ^tfwisq-i^ fut. play. fut. qftftff Inf. ST^/^r^ con. P. 1. . 10. U. ^OTT^ ben. P. foiTTnT pre. fro^t* 2sifig. A. gr^r^ ^tftg^ aor. tut sreftur?^ aor. ^5^T Prf. ^rfif pre. perf. ^fta p. perf. des.p. ^ftiNdi. 1. 3T^f^r Aor. dea. l P. U. cpnqMcfe &c. des. ^rnrnyt to speak. 10. to ehine. * With % this root is Wet. 6. ^^pr perf. ^m int. p. f^s9 to Pass. Ben. ^rifr. <fe)ftm p. ^^if^^d. ^RMT p. ^rs^t 5?^ f^t^ perf.. l A. aor. fut ^Ftf^n^ tear. f^TT^-%. pre. 10 U. $t<iffr pre. $u*f?r pre. 3Tf^nj^ aor. *nwwf Aor. 3T-r$r<nfr to abuse. fwsrfaf. 4 P. $5H* ^^^r P6 ''. to embrace. <rar?r 10 U. fnt. 3T^f!i^-?T Aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. p. jrnhrnt to be blunted. 10. ^^ perf. P. ^TOfta^'Wii: to sound. p. $f8r?T p. qreSr to cover. at 5^ aor. $rH<Jd pre. ^VWT to 1 $$* perf. r^Rr'frS' ben. 3RFn% Aor. f^nnft-fr. ^r^cT aor. ftw. 3?^^ ^sq% Aor. ^nft to shine.to expel. to support. fut. ^tw* perf . frHT^TTOr: to kill &c.

sr^ffe aor. Oau.-$*qft pre. aor. ^^y perf. ^q|ir^ pre. to converse : ^jrqrf&-% ^ to close. oTT^oT to cover. ^?r p. %&ft pre. Inf. ar^fit^^ ^qw P'e. ^uftffr-^^r pre. ger. 3T^nff^-^T^?r aor. pre. frwroi* to astonish. Pass.p. p.-q?*n?Mt pre. ^'fmrr^ to hurt. pre. 10 U. qprrA-afilt pre. 3T^j% aor. 1 4*NH Aor g^ORT p.p. ^fofr p. p^ U. 3?^5ng[ aor. ^rerc-^ perf. Ben. U. ^|%-% pre. 1 P. %^)r to cut. $^M&. ^^r pre. arerft ( 3rd dual P.-|%a>r pre. *ft*rffr% fat. f e. ^g^ inf. ^i%?f to be firm. to f ut.p. sn% to sound. *c. ^3*nc3" Ben. ^urt% pre} for and other iorms see tb above root. ^&$ perf. fa con. ^r9rn% fut. 3i^g-% ^T^ make an inarticulate sound. 6 A. 10 A. tftft 31. ^5 pre. 3T^T<ir^-?rcon. to cry in distress: ^q% P $f%?fr P. $tfrm pre. 3TTn^ to speak.- R*nT ger. & 8 U. kill. to surround. ^fSmr p. $i%ffr P-s 1 P. p. *rf p. ^?dr to do. {tTKNli^ to jump. 3T^^or?T 10 A. fat. U. . ^^-^?r pre. fat. 3^ to sound. Ben. $f$j p. des. at^iTr Aor. 6 P. ^^gfr perf. perl. fat $f*^ fnt.SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. Pa3s. ^^y perf. ^r p. STfRrsqa con. &rffo con. perf. fut. TrVT qf%*n% l fut - ^^M^d. to frolic. Oau. 'cou. fat - fT . to coo. to divide. to arefoff Aor. ^frc*T ger. 3?^a7^ aor. des. Pass.

3?%f^r aor. Pass ^ffe perf. %rg?r p. 6 P. Sff^^I^-tT > 3T^f^n^-?T con. ^|< perf. 3T?FfT-fT-fT 3?^f* aor. f^R^Rr p. f%$r^ to pour ont. sr^ to sound. q^hff or a^nfer Int. 3T^T^tg[ aor. to plough. f%%^ perf. 1 cpf^rr. . int. } ^nm or f?oft?r 3T$[fl<. Pa99. T%fRTf?r-?r ^es.ETar to become lean or thin . to kill perf. to scatter faifa or ^ftfff p. fcz&ft to draw.p aor. cfiwnr to shake . A. ar^T a or. ^f^qqt^: Scstfte Den - des. fit for. *rm%<f to be able or p. to pull. glorify *ut . or sr^g. con. .DHATUKOSHA. Pa8. ^r^jr perf. 5ir^ or *ROT P.fat. - ^ppn^ Ben. ^rft% Ger. ffljr areTSffa. ^?^r ger. P. gsf^rfir-^tl 1^!^' fllt con. 10U. afrr-^^TO. 1 P. %q^ pre.p. ^^faf-% or U^n^'^ft^ ben. or 3TBaK*frg. Pass. 3^^r^i. &&ft pre. tfirf ben. des. ^T^con. f at. ?m. -B|H^ ^TBiTa'. 4. 3^4?K*^et-iifldes. p. ^^^-<T aor. susq^ pre. -perl grfirsq-KT fat. cfft pre.con.%5i5^rtoname. 3^fT^T^-?f or pre. pre. 21 P. ^5$-^f^ perf. 3TTf|d^-<T aor.to ^f perf. fyffi dee. ^T?fr p. fnt. 1 1 P.p 6 P.p. ^c^IW-1 aor. pre. - w p. ffm^fic to injure. 9JST or TOTT p. to plough. SR%^ aor. ^frftrffr p. ^mf% pre. fat. A. aor. Can. perf. Ben. f u. ^-55% to shake %5J1% pre.p. 1 A.^q% to 3T^rf% Aor. des. 5^ p. | 9 U. H^jtH make farrows.

angiy . gR^r^g^con. to purchase. Gau. ^af^T-FT arecfcr-fr aor. p. or. amuse oneself. ?Rm ^q-rgr^fl^ ben.(Also Atm. 10 U.. . 4 P. ^ to be fat. to sound. fut. perf. ^(Har-^^TT gRgK-wc^q. perf. 5T5% to make a creaking sound. ^jrufir-fT aor. to play an^lff pre. ^T^rfff-ar? 3n%RT^ ger. . ^T%a?T^ Aor. ^mn% or ajM^ pre. arnrom-%.p. ben. 3*^jf*re aor. sEmft-iT pre. -dsfem-^gfw fut. grafn%r^ ben. inf^?cT Oau. 1 P. ^^^f^crr P. 3^3^-^ aor. .p. perf.p. i%arfwTT%. 3T?F?fr^ 5RT%*<im |%SRT^TI% -gpRi?t. &4 P. trr^R^ to walk. 3^ ^ - ^3^% pre. aor. f%aft^ f%i%^ ben. p*e.-^^r^m-fl pre. f%a?t*ft-ft des. a:^^-^ afnrrg. fut. fr^Jt. mmrra. P-P. ^^iirm^r-ir^r &c. to aF?fT% pre. a^nrfar-?t pre. 5fiffir p. ffcnnn to kill. 3Trgl% to civ. ^TOp[ inf. Pass. } p. fut. aor. aor. 3?^ to aor. to step pre. 3?^ftg:. ^j?cT p. aor. l&cTr p. 1 U. 7q*nrff-73?ff% P*e. T%^rT%7Iff des. g^int pre. ffwrfrffm^to buy. T%3T^% des. f^[ p. afn. F e 'f. 9 U. 3<Hi$ Can. ^^j5q^ des. fut. . k ^rm pre. Pass. Pass. 8FTTl%. to * . Aor. ^fr?^fT p. ^ahvr perf.p. generally with 10 U. afifir^iff fut. fut. ^7Rm. dea. fftraCT p. ( gs^ ) fiTrlHr to cry continually con. 9 U. fot. P erf ^irfifaT p fat- ^flfara call fut. Pass. weep. 3Twn^ l P. aor.sp|?Rrff aor. 9FffWf^T 5ET?PSrT.22 SANSKRIT 1 P. ^n%. ger. 3iarcq?T con. Oau. fut. ari^f^i^ aor. perl gfn%aT p. con. Oaus. A. ffE?rr^ben 3^\r^aor. ^t.

aft^rm pre. fut. sf^Ttsq^ fut. ^l^ perf. ^qm% ben. fr^fT. ST^ft aor perf. aor. P. A. j^wrfiir. f^cRJm^flr des. Aor. fut. P. ^T%T P. f|^r or i%ftm P. 3^rm $7 p. *??^r srf^T^ aor . sr&fte aor. $ftTT p. con. 4 P. %^ pre. 1%^. 10 U. feniq*l to torment. to lament. T%^ffT P. fat. 1. aor . 7% P. l^^r to be confused: aor. pre. Ptf%^. gfrer Pben. ^r^m. pre. ^tf perf. 3!oiTTp^r^ *o whisper. 4 A. ger. fat. 3TfT. . wrT ^!^ inf. ftffcftl^. i%r^^t perf. 3Tf[^-fT con. fat. ^T*rift-% pre.. 23 pre. pre. 3f^tft aor. fat. P'e. Pass. ^5^Tzrf?r P re ben 4i0HI<l WiWlffif aor. aor fa p. to call. Pass. f%^% sfcm perf. cry. fat gE 4 P. P. des.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^sfetel perf. BTr^Tcl aor. (rarely P.p. Pass. HafhST Can. P tft^ to lament. fat. aor. 3*nt% TT5* ^ to call. ajsIJt^a. ^m% des. distress^ f^%m?r fat. P. ^jfcVtffl I. gRf^T*r<T con d es. Oau. P.P- 31^% j^r aor. tariff fu T%^T p. 3ttf$r*r> to become wet.) to be afflicted. ^mrTT fat. cF7T??T PP. to suffer. - to fat-. fmf?T fut.p. f^^cqRT-W f. 1 & T55Tifr to be fatigued or tired. to perf' fsrar. 31^1 aor - 4 A. & erf. Pass. &fo pre. n%?rr p. OT% to ierve. Ben.

perf. P'e. $i<rrq!TT P. f^f^l^d des. Oau^ra. > 'g^rnr perf. 10 U. fat. aor. ^TrTF P. fut. ger. fut. fut.fut. Impera. cr^ to kill. g)u<4ia^ ben. . perf. 9)fvTfl P-P. ^^nf ^ to send.-fr aor. *$$[ to allow. 3T^fBin^-?T con. des. lift pre. fat. $r<r?rft-% pre. rforori?Mf fut. con. ^fT^ pe^ p. Pass^ ^r^ 3^rr% aor. boil. ^J^ Po. *ut. 3TSTm<STg. ^if^r perf. to kill? srutrfjr. sroisS to be timid. (%^fanrm-?r des. aor. A. A. srfftwm. A. u^rfir pw. 1 P^i^^fa des. 3T^^i*yH?T-?T.24 SANSKRIT GBAIDIAB.-3 con. $H5qTfa3l*> to hum . aor. fafefina des. P. 1 A . 51% ^r to move. gnirfihuj^con. to P. f%^finW. ebfa^fo ^nr^ ^^T^Mjr^ con. ft^nrf to hurt. f%fft% p^f. ^RCTOT perf. i)%eno.p. te direct. ^ u t. 1 ^trf^rfir-^ a^^nrgc-JT aor.fat . $f3nii%^^i^ftd. ^rror. fef^lrf or %5T p. q&ft pre. 8 U. IW* 2nd sing. -^* &c. to break. 1 P. $nnr. UOTI^ pre.gjfitmfr fut. gr^I^TS Aor. 1 STnren P. A. Cau. ^fi[?f p-p. ^nlS aor. ^r% fut. $fcrf3W? ^iNini p. i. &%*r?|. fut. *X$tt aor. to tinkle. Ben. 3I$Tfire. srsqjEWi *rf^ to speak inarticulately. 9r^nfr^ ^rnrrirfff-^ pre. ^rf8r?TT p. ben. P. ^iT perf ) . ^^i%: aor. grfBr^i'^ fat. ?%^nfir^f%-% des. fut. jf^ft arffjfTO aor. grwff pre. P*e. to give. ( Also 10 U. ger. to digest. fffftm p. to suffer.

3^1^- ST*ft pre. ^^ 3T^^ des. < perf. ^rf?q-|1r fnt. ftmwfrto pre.fot. aifra Aor. w^sir^ ^ft T%rffrTff del. rMfa. fat. $rrrf& pre. to cleanse. pre. aor. ^Twrft^ aor. to throw. srft<*fi*. ben. T%fraf3r-ft des. ^ot to throw. r^oftiS or ^oftft. fu Ben. J ger. to cast. P. . 4. ftr^ perf. grfarr p. R^ des. Pas to kill. perf. {$wft pre.to diatil . ^ft^r^wflt to wash. ^m STSTWWJ^ uiqtai^ f%$Nrft des. Aor. ^forsq^-ff fut. ^ f%n% ? P. fismm to decay. ^c^rfff fut. |nrr p. ^rf?r pre. Int. P. f%ftfatir lf& P. 1 P. con. fut. | r%9mr ^qT^T con. ^N?n% pre. P. . iofeir p. P. Pass -rcqr^-3ri^ Oau -<nrf5r-%. STT3^rfilr% pre. &{#* aor. 5 fWjfr to spit ^ft. 3^c^. 3TT%r%-?T U. 1 P. g?^c^ %cqrr^ ben. or 3TfiTO-3rf|rff aor. also. f%^q aor. 5. 10 U. |rHT p. aor. ^frr? perf. P.DHA'ITTKOSH!. P. or r%l%ot perf. 6 P. fTftnTlff. qfrqTT ben. arrir aor. to flow . Oau Aor. ft^ffiffi dee. con. 25 perl $rm?TT or con. stwffr fut. P- Sometimea dei. fat. killj tfiifif pre. swc^ aor. fifm%-% e^r^r-% 1. fat. perf. f?r^ or pre. Aor.i%jT. *cf% to endure. -?r con. &c. ^ to destroy. fat. %tntftr pre. 4 A. dwell.P. ft^rwt to f%%> perf. ^ff p. 3i$fe Aor. Pan- OTnn8-?t.

-tT aor. P. sfrf^ilf fat. rfn?T rsrrfir l>re. ^n?^. T^r^TRr^ff des. . gprar^ ar^r^frg: ( 6 ) aor. ^ftf^T> to be agitated. con. fat. 3T^^ra. ^^ perf. . ^ff^r P.. 4 ) 3?^ftf*i^T5 con. p. Cau. ben. ^fvRT P-P. Cau. con. 3T$frf3re aor. p. ^ffcf?n%^ fat. arefaftv 3?^<T aor. mn ben. Ben. 39ft P erf wfif . ^TTeT l>erf. fat. pre. $fnPri?Mr. $ffiTn pre. fat. 3Tg?fT. $$rnri to be hungry.p. 8fr P t. P. tffarrfir pre. P. ^fifiRTr P. Pass. $fWT-T 1 aor. f%^% f^fhr perf. fat. aisffafa aor. wf^TT ft^g. faffr perf. 3T^ntWT?T con. 1. 1 A ff^5J% ^JH I>erf.-afr^rf^-% pre. arsnCr^aor. to disturb. con.> kill. gpRrfr P. $fi\|qra%. perf $?fh%(tt p. ar^ra. ajirr^ben. p. *mot to strike against. aor - p. gl^T ger. P.26 9 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. smsfanefr fat. Pass. gs^. ^WM pre. fat. gfrsrfJr P*e. ftsnRftffr des. 2 P. aor inf 7 U. 3T$foftff aor. ^frf^q^ fat. gwir p. aor. & 9 p. grnrffT. ^RTfH perf. 6 P. arfft fat. gftfteqftr fat. arsfrrstaig: con. 3fTIM[ aor. ^J%. to spitj $ffWT% pre.p. fat. ^fSf pre. & H^rf^ P^e. to pound. gfiTTOnft fat. arsftefc* aor. ^m?T p. - 5^r 4 P. ^ff\-r perf. ^mg. 3Thf? f%$rnrperf. cau. to tremble. fut. fut. fat. 5^?5Er%-% des. ft^fcft to scratob or draw lines. 3*5q%i$T3 to Bound inarticulately. Ben. Aor. 515^ to cough. *% to be intoxicated.-^t^ff pre. M"ff*nffe Ben. g^te ben. CT%- A. 3T$frft aor.-v^ff 4. s^HcWri. ^^ pre. ^<n.

p. be wet.p. ^HTff pre. ^I3^^ perf. f%^. -^Wm ar^OTT^ ^m 2 P. ^|or 1 ! perf. P. A. ^frperf. des. ^i3TcTr P. p. Aor..p. *rf?l%^q. 9 P. P. ^qfOTW perf. ? 3TSm*q. perf.p. ^ymw P'e. ^m^R^ft: con. 1 P. fut. aor.DHA'IUKOSHA. ^RTI^?f P. U. p. ^TWT^r perf. smnrpre. fut. P. ^r%(T P. ^%f^^ ffcon. ^ftff 27 1. T%c^r^Rf<T des.. ^fsT to sharpen. $tcJi^ P^e. fut ^T^cq-ja fut. con. 5 ^ to laugh. or ff p. f%f^r^perf. grafts aor. . ^T=jf^ pre. aifi^g. to ^. to walk lame. f%^gr perf. ^$*W P erf - f%^RTm^ ties.^f%?rr P.p. ^nVf^ pre. 3?^^g[ or P. des. ^rfqp^Tf aor Ben - p. fat. $gj<T p. aor. *>5?TRr^nfr: to be unctuous. fesmrra des. %?rm pre. fat. <>r. f^uor to tremble. aor p. 4 P. aor. to release. ^f^q'ri. ac ^FwfSr P^. fut. 3*f$*^ r%l$^TI%-^.to limp. fat. 1 P. ^t. con. $%$jqrrt-?r> 3Tl%^$y^ des. to agitate-. $omr*jf?t ^orfirtTT P. 4 P. 3T^^t%ei 3rf^i^ release. ^T%ffT P. 4 P. jjrfacqfif fut. to U. T%^%ia-^. Cau.p. fat.P. fat. 3*$oiftg^ con. STO to waste. ^3Tf?r pre. 1 ft\j?f% to shake. ^?n^ Ben. ( T-rjrft: ) R-^ to churn. p. Can Aor. cf ^TOTr aor. -^srr^gr to be born or produced again. ^-f^ffT aor.

p.P. ^ to be proud.p. Srqpr to break. ^f?ng p. ^cJia int. 1 3^m% aor. P. Another reading for Mlft pre. fut. iut ^f|n% fut.GBAMMAE. aor. to be p. 1 P. aTOTf*T5 con Aor. ^?r 1 pre. . ^nn^rfftr to come forth. 10 U. *r&fo perf. gf^fh^ Aor. Aor.p. perf. to disturbalso. A. fut. ^Icq^q^t: to worship.p. ^fim p. to move. tf&t pre. Pass. to search. bitej^ft pre. perf ^feTT p. 1 P. 1 P. to wish. to kill. im> to go. **t. pre. 1 P. 3!^T^ con. 3RT^U^^-ff Aor. ^*TT p. ^3T5r or m ( perf. 1 P. ?fo^r to coyer. ^l%^lfe 3WTcfl^aor. OanRmQ^(& des. w?rarr ^n^rrar fut. ^ff&t p. ^^fif pre. +HJHN1H to . ^qrf^rr>^n|^ to be steady. p. to go. OT3 ^Tf^r or ^rf5?^T ger. **&& * ^^ P f. perf. pre. to pain. ^-D^qfH of pre. with des. ^fjJr-% pre. uneasy. 3TW^Rft to dig. IP. I P. 10 U. *3f*riS % pre. ^g^r xf to move. int. jarf^rrar ^ fot. U. ^^% pre.p. ?3PR. au^du ^wra ^M*T^ Ben. ^r p.p. to purify. des. ^ronsr perf. ?^%?fr p. desire. ^y?r 9 P. arorifat aor. to gather. gnafaMTfr con ^^rmq. to eat. a^f^^^ ^ con. pre.

fat. q% to serve. aor. p. to devour. ^ to strike. COD. 4 & A. JWI^ to relate. to afflict. to shake. Oonju. If H[ 1 P. tenses only.p.DHA'TUKOSHA. 1 P. to ^jgrfft This is conjugated in the pi. ^r^ Ao-. a 1 A. irfiwT p.p. s^fr^ con. to be depressed. 1 P. ^ 3^fi^ aor. ^ to roar. 6 P. tell. pre. <rfhm* <rffrft perf. fat. 1 P. a. to be drunk. 38. irfiisrfii^T^ to limp. pre.1%^ pre. ffrmn* to kill. to move P ^ ^ynfir pre. ^r^ n$ B. pre. 6 P. . $5^ * P. &c. Imperf. 6 P. 1 1 ^^ to cutj ^^ P. to sport. ?sqTcT p.p. *. pre. or. afNTTTOC to sport. H. Oau ^^rfir ft. 29 we i P. perf. fat. ?T^ to gleanr3Tft pre. pre. to and fro . According to the Nyasakara this is not nied with the prep. des. fat. nnf!^. < aor Ben. ft$%perf fat fat. fat oon . Can. p. \*r rtr p. A.p. 3rd to strike &c . aot. Aor. 4^^l^<u| to steal-. OTT^crfff HTT ^JT* perf. IP. *$rfr to eat. pre. pre. 3d^ffi?j. p. aronfis Aor pro. tml^n p. perf. ^pr P-P. to suffer pain or misery. ^qfa fat. or. fat. $WT 7 p.

10 U. to roar} 1 P. 1 P. fut. ^ fat. (Snrf^Tfr ^es. Aor. fa*. W^ll<Ht. to roar^ jnfrd pre. irwrn* Ben. ir^l^^^Tf-^R 10 U. 3^^r to injure. . STTOTFT to count mimerate : ironrffHf pre. Pass. nfir?fT p. nf^CTia' ^ P. arar^ % Aor. 1 . 3T1TW perf. ifftfu P. 8fnRr^con. snTT^ perf. P. fut. 3T*rafttt aor. Cau. Pass. P. 1 P. *THT*qrcr fat to thunder. to sound. -^ifr &c. 3Tir!%7^ con. Cn. TOTKtariir ?rcon. 10 U. to go . BeD.~ im p. fnt. snai" perf. f>Mfl(im Pass. IT^I^ pre. ^snroi^ n aor. irW?T pre. 10 U. t. to ocnd. Tf^T ger. nre P'e. 3TTnfi^ aor. Aor.p. to drawj inrtaf pre. ^r^ p. perf.Ti%5irinf 10 A. p. STaTiT^ ^1 Aor. snrf perf. arirf perf. 3nft*T$^ W or. &c. anfmoiri: ?r.TJW ( *iunm<i according to some) pre. iriS^qYR p. to sound in a particular way. CTmff perf. *RR to distil. 3TTf%W^ COD. iRTT^ ^ll^U'Tf ben. ipRTft 1 t>re. ^I &c.30 SANSKRIT GRAM&AB. 1 f IT. fut. 1 3$ to be proud. ^ ngieTff Pfe. to romr. Tf{<rui--% pre. wmr^ 11*0%. fut. snTTO per/. irf^HT p. irorfgcTr p. ml. % pre. to ask. irir% pre. 1 ^ " P. P. snrrRf aor. to go } ir^snr^ p r e. ^mr^f^TT^f to wish^ir^r^r^ pre. snnuT aor. aor. fut. irrfr to go 5 if'SSfffr pre. 5HT5T perf. fut. perf. ?nif7r pre. fut. irfsiaT p. fF%rrger. 3T*r|><T Aor. ip^T P- 't des. an*rfn* Aor. pert. SJnfTOT ^lf% to speak. snrifnt aor- I^T^ Ben.

irferf p-P. 10 U. 3fafnr5T?f 1 Aor. mTvitrhr Ben. 9T3mf^tT Aor. *riif perf. ( nrm&fr irr^rfT ^es. irr^it fat. 31 10 A. i iTf^r to be thick. fnt. 3!3fir-ff 3HT 1. 3TT?f^ aor. 3yj|f|njH con. Paaa. fffirf^Wir 10 a. to enter TqTS^rT *TT ? ^ ff deepy into. pre. fut. to drop. aor. frfa?^ to censure. to seek. 3mmr? aor. *r%Tfq^Td aor. 3TX|QI^ Aor. nrf^r?T. des. snrffe aor. nr<fvT to hunt for. 10 A. to 'irrgw?t perf. into. fnt. fnt. to compose. pre. Can. ir*7m ?r pre. ir^f^r-%. fcrfHM to 4ive or n?r p.' 3TTTW aor. iTTrer Ben. * ). con.p. ftrrrefr 1 A. Jifa^qfff ^Q*. irjyfir pre. perf. JTTfvrc^ fut. 1 Vedic. iTTCft pre. . to reproach. irs^m fat. Oqrf^wt A. irn'V'en to stand. ) 3 P. TfPr fat. \TTCT to be bold generally with clea. ^TO to ponr out. qftwT ff fnt. ^r^ fat. Can. 4T|[ ^ftw p. 1 P. ^cfTm to blame. fut.-ir?^ filter.DHA'TUKOSHI. to bathe. Aor. P. njj7j dr irftwr P. fsnrfOTf^ des. pro 3nrrr?i-?r jrfi<fte Ben. pre. ( A. to go irm pre. con. &c. *$m ^n% ^ perf. ir^rar pre. to fall down. ir*ra*rr ^SK &c. to eat. P. perf. tor. fsTOTm pre. Pass. 3Ti?%^ pre. ur% to be proud. A. snffOTfS^qrhf?^^ 5TOT^ perf. 3Tt perf. 10U. &c. pre. irmr p. mif perf. i^ir pre. . 4|^^[f^dl P. A. aor.ft. Pass. fut. sntTf perf. to praise. to seek. anmwff Aor. anaffnqqN Tf pre. irffflT p. 1 irrarft pre.. *r$% p r e. perf. 3firtf^ aor. nT^fir?fT ger. rfOTT p.

to protect. 1 P. or. syifre" ( 6 P. ^g% perf. ( See the above root. fa*. STOTfa Aor. 6 P. ^tWT p. 55% ) p*. ?T jto SUffiRir P. rr5*rf?T-% pre. ifrfhf ben. yuH4|o^4CTT 3K&u|(i)iq<l con. nftigiT des. irrf^r p. Oau. ^glRKt ift^ fat. OT P-P- . 1 A: 3f3T% 5T^ *nft ^T to sound indistinctly. 355^Prf. ?ft^ pre. 10 U. 9 P. nrfWte* *r$ft Ben. fat. fat. qftStesT to cover. 1. invite. ^ueP>^ffi 5ftW I p. TSrfr to defend. 5^*^nf 1 to void by stooij con. ^ A. the same- 5Wft pre. nfhflirn^ to play. ariuqnTT^. r trftffT. to advise. *fh?ar. ins. frn^^ QCQf^ pre. m^mSOTft pw.SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. %&% ( perf 3Tftl^ Aor. 9^^ perf. *nftT5^ ff aor. 3nr>^ aor. ^Tra ij3f Aor. Can. to multiply. to sport. &izfo pre. ^t to protect. Con. ar^^u^-rr perf. sing. or Tf$T g . ^Ulf^^lf^l fut. perf. fut. Oau. ihB^ to cover. wrrife *nn* aor. ^jrry with 177 ). ".miWWtto p*e. ^^f^vj 2nd pers.p. to go. ^ifh^ perf.p. lOU. Aor. QvcrA P. ^% to be angry. iftqrfirar. . pre. ^v^U|^ aor. iftAVT P 4 P. perf. fhrr P. ifftffo p. &S& to hum. fat. Generally des. frf^fr p. PM. 3fgeq7j H^ft^ aor. enclose^ 9037^--% pre. perf. &snfa pre. 1 A. es. ajgsfta^y H^fh^ Aor.p. ( Also 1 P.p. p. gonrr%?r ^%r P''. *III?$H 9 ITfJ in'. ^pjnrftqTff-a' des. aor. fat. to buzz. Ji^TlfficT. to sport. irtqwA per. ) to conceal. ift^T pw. COD. pre.

5^ aor. n^ ^r^ perf. qor p. ^TR% to make an effort. fjifr to praise. dee. gj^p. fat. perf. H^TT^-ff aor. to wet. ^i^^ 10 A. gcxrft pre. p. Q$^ to dwell. HJni^U-^ 3Tic-fT 1 U. pre. Aor. fat. to shine. ^ygi^rfr pre. des. *rofi* mtft aor. 3T^9^ aor. oft p.ffcnrt'fr: to kill. ( 3^. <|f%cHI ger. iftftw p.-^rqfS-^ gf^f p. an -Uf*rfo-%. ^prf%% des. fat. f%?*Tqn* to censure. inf. P^Juf^^J/fc 3T5>jf^r * or . Cau.p. pre.. 10 U. . Qffofifl p. &ft pre. 4 A. &o. nn$<g% to be confnsed or disturbed. OT' fat/ fat. jpSf to string together.DHA'TUKOSHA.p. ny p. iftf^TT p. to go. ST^^fh^ aor. 4^IMV?d lOU. P 1"'.^ll^U^te Hen. ^ijf OF or ift?T p. ift^Tf^nr p. -3jsc^rft pre. 8T^f^-?T aer. %g% to sprinkle. 1 P. sJHftlTltil. fut.or ***& 5 ben. pre. fut. ^m^ to make an effort. fat. ^MH)*fe Prf . Iftm-ff pre. ^Rfte Ben. Hijjfo aor. ^Qf^ffir. ^jsfr perf.-ifftirft ft pra. ^t^rtS-^ fat. Pass aor. p. p. 6 P. sff^Tr fat. . *ftftHl r <iP*cfr p. 1 83 A. $srf^ ) 6 A. Pass.p. irf^fir-% per. ij^ pre. wt to cover. iR|f p. !J$*rr ft. ifrq*fiH* pre.p. 4 P. ff anjq^ aor. aor. to or keep secret. or. Aor. A. ?rj5gtH-^. H^JT^-tT 1 sraf^WT des. Oau. itrnrrat^T^ -^ parf ^ to speak. a^^nrt to play. 3i?m aor. des. nfrrft-fr P'e. qJf^T P. fat. nrnfi ircfiii gnjrf perf. fat. M^H^-ff pre. 8?n^ aor. rofr*m con. ij^jfrT pro. 10 U. V) arws-a.

grmfr or gmT% aor. ^?n% to assemble. 3nfT&T. %g^ to serve. perf. A. 1 A. 9 P. > p. 5THTT or to swallow. i%J?fSrtfiT des. A. Ben. to roar- imf^ pre. 5fq^ perf. fia^" to sing. q^[ p. grfo^raii* to ieek . ariTf|q ?i-Mv^m con. P. fut. s?TH^? Aor. ift^r ( with a preposition 1 iprrtr. ^rrf^ pre. m P.- 10 A jrfnfr to 8wzt. ^?r fut. irfi^fff or *i%iffir. iri?**na-. fat. to devour. STS^ aor . rfir3r. 3Tqsf perf.) ger. sr^ to sound. griTI^ aor.-ir&n?r% pre. to seize. aor. it^ pre. p. fittffr or STSTlcJ' pe^f JlRrTT. t^% pre. fut. p. f^finq% mf de^ Cau. IP. Cau. p. Aor. ar^^fa. p. Pass -ift^^ pre. fafrf ^n^ finTT^T% des. pre. fut. ^iftt perf.. Ca -rT ^wra pre. ^ pre. ^TTT perf.!T Aor. ^Hl^dL c<>n. R^ot . 3T^Tff aor. nwfS *nt. ^jfg^r pre. arwicr r Orm?TfS or nTTT%^ des. ifar p. to speak. 1 P. Pass. f5fhnrg:-?r aor. Cau. Cau. g^ot to take. 6 P.p. 9|9ti^e- Aor. 1 1 snTriT^-tT aor. *T3fTan%. ifttf% pre. A. *nt. iftm P. f%ift %ft^% trrirft fut. n.irsorp. TcfffTT p. fut.p. gnrsf perf. snrS Pri. iffar or qfRTT. 3mrt^ aor. p. arfa^teRr** to covet. Tf^ pre. p^e. 4 P. ^TS^ to call out. to desire. pre. STnf. pre. 3i*ftfS^ Aor - . STSTHZST^-tT. .34 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Also Aor. r. ^T^rft fat. to speak in singing manner- pre. nfrarfSr. fSr*t% perf. Aor. to emit.

Aor. STlft^i:.^3 sing. ipvqrrri. re 3^c ircKlr TOrw^ ben. Pass. to go. P. This root i<l*lf8 pre. 2nd Impera. to compose. tffw&WT p. p. irfw^q% fat. J^yeHd ^^^^ perf. 1 T^tf%f T p. Oau. ^ft^iHff i H^^^~?T Aor. irRr?5rr. perf. to f. j$yfff pre. ammT p. is the same as P. sf^- to take- i<t*& pre. q^r pre. fat. 9 P *r. qtf<r p. 3?3?T ^T to string together. *|Q^ pre. to seize. pre. arr%!nr^-?r aor. UTH^m ^ P. Can. *m%ft to take hold of. T%ir?srf^m-?r A. irf^Tcgr ger.-qr^nTl% ooly pre. J5J^r p. jrfr^inf Pre. 3UWTCra[ T Aor. snr^T pe* vfSqCT aor. jrfsRT p. ^TT^R to take. fat.DHA'TUKOSHA. fat. !r aor. *&&$[ ^f^MJft fat. fat. ff^TTff P. 3nrf?sre aor. fat. 2nd sing. -^RT% pre. ifrenr P'e. Hq TWm ben. fd des. perf. i^r p. to be crooKea. fsrarforo* des. &c. Aor pre. u?jf^fTr P.p. armft aor. aor. 3nrp*T aor. Impera. fat. freqrg. p. %pfc* Wt^aor. p. 9 U. jr^oT to take. rt f Q t. % des. !TnEr<U-ar pre. fat. f ut. ufiff^r or q^*T ger. fT^jfTO Aor. KT<jqa<ui iHV ^ to steal. ?^F P. . nn%^ aor. 3T*Tr?^-<T i$nTi?*rTto des. 1. perf. 8?? 5f^ aor. BT^fi^ Aor. to 30. pro. l jrft?!T P. Pass-ffwrfr pre 3Tflf^ aor. 1 35 A. p. ^?vi^. 3|^% to swallow- 3f3T% psrf. perf. 1 A. g^n^ ben. 10 U. 10 U. ^ pre. to go . rf?sr?r p. ^155^ perf. ^?nr^t JTifl- P. A. pre. qT%^f?^ ben. 1 MTfl^t to invite. ^ to rob. ^Tin?. P. ben. 5fa$| perf. tf*j^ pre. fasten. ^fipfiir. to put together. nTSTTftfTaf des. T^fom p. 10 U. perf. Also 1 1 P. pre.

^r*fr $u<3 ^r to be poor. ST*^ perf. Ben. ii^gi*rTiS-?t des. 'ER^r perf. Aor. is irjut to take. to eat. to tremble. 5JTqiTr%-^ pre. 5nsf| perf. Pass. 'En^uw ft. ^rr Rf^RT^r des. P*e. ^n%ot perf. $*% to laugh. to touch. 10 U ^gy^r to stir. very often used for the as an optional substi- a^. aT'cCT^ con. ^f^% 1 grtrc^i^ con. a^rf^r . to collect together. ^^rm ^ to . 1 P. p. fut. WCTT P. 8T3nr^r Aor. P. &c. snrnr perf. ^111^. 10 ^ >iTmTOt to speak. qqfy pre. quaqft-fr pre. a?Tonrgt aor . Can. '?rf^^ ben. P. des. ^FfRt es. 10 U. aor. fut. to disturb. Also 1 P.-<T Aor. snrr^^ Aor.P. T^yqrrfff-^r. . '?r?IT p. . A. fat. 34Jm(uv Tnjj \| MJ n fut. srr&ft'ff l Aor. ar^r^ Aor. ! A 5%^niR to be busy with. fut. igfrq^ pre. %ST^ ( IJ&ft vrqjsro: to be weary.fsfitsrera des. ar^ra: Imperf f^ro^r pre.p. 1 V^ P'e. 'q^TT P. ^fScTT p. to happen. *rf^ pre.36 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. af^r^aor. n>HMUdd. I A. ^T?Tff ^c p. TSJtflT P. ax>r. aor. ari%ioiire *This root ara\ tute for a defective root and is It is conjugated in the Perf . ) p . TgreTUT *nt. 1 A. gnrTST aor.f ut. to mortify. per*. fut con. a^rrfir. JaNfft pre. speak. ^55>r to shake.-ToynT^ pw. perf. ^nn^ pre. ^j^r% pre. BT5fhr^-cT Aor. T^foarfr perf. T5JR p.

^vjlm perf. A. iftfl p. gffif pre. ^ot 50-01^ perf. 6 P. Aor. gftr-fe p. to strike 6 P. rar$TS3% to proclaim aloud 3TT + f^=?f^^rnr^. ). ^tqqio-TlcfciT-'TO &o. fat. fat. OTof to move to and . ^Trn^T. mfWH% ^at 5^H^ ben. to turn ronudj ^orf^ pre. f|^H^^|^i|: to kill. <marfl^ to return. gnfH^ aor. ^fSrfiT p. ^Rt pre. ar^itnftg. pre. to exchange . to sound .p. ^iwnf^TS^ft. ^jS^ pre. - to sound. 355* perl. A. 1 P. ftefr pre.perf. ^fte sing. 1 ^f^. 1 Aor. ^^rfir-^r pre. atgfoor? ao r . to receive. 3ffi^rs. to declare .sPuicf P. ^rft^ fat. ( 6 P. 31^. ^y^r per*.^ ( ^r^ ff^r^r ) ^tf^TT r Oau. 3^<Jld . 4 A. fut. ( the same as above to roll. P erf - P. g^r perf 10 U. %nTTfr ^Q pre. fat. OTreTOHCT to be bright-. Aor. to whirl.p. tfihrut ( 3}gQ^ 2nd fCTT? ) to strike against. < perl ^tftTT P- fut. P- 6 P. 6 U. 1 A. des.DHA'TUKOOEA. ^ffr pro. ^rfor ^tq% A. fat. or 53. ^qJ Perf. to whirl 1 . become old . to be frightful. gfdnr p. ^^uot pert p. ^^nt% pre. - 37 . \rtsflui Q% ^t. fat. HJTOir to roll. sr^g^ aor. 3T*^ to sonnd de8 S?T p. fro. ^f$t*rft-fr . gnfte Aor.p. 3i^T5-?T aor. ) perf. H^tR^T^.p.p. pre. sftfadi p. P. arotfro aor. 1 A. gsfft pre. to ^ pre.to cry continuously.p. jjfot to take.

srqffergt con. ^ xrfJmi^ ^r to be satisfied. ^info pre. ami? aor. 3!^rf. wTl% & fut. fsrsrreffT des. ^fir pre. ?r^ pre. aor. ^m% & *TITm%% pre. aor. 3R"^rf%?r aor. TOratJj. fut. srrar p. ^^|Rff-^ ^rmwrlr Can.. jrr^ pw. 2 U. 3T^f%. ^Hm 3re$ perf. 8 u - frHT to shine. P. ^-^rftifTT P. 5j^T perf. Oau. fut. ^ffar P. 'gjforft-% pre. ^nTr perf. con. *rr*fonT P. 3Ti5TSr<T5:cT. .P- IP. ^rf^ pre. aj^oSfe aor. ^nffcqQ-fr dee. fut.3fnft to shine. to rival.. Pass. perf. 3i'3rT% Aor. ar^of^-ff aor. Pass. 1 P. V||oiim^% anrffe. fut. ^% peri far p. Cau. 1 ^fomd aor. dee.^^rr^-% pre. 1 A. fut. P'e. ^JT^ ben. ^m. IP. i?^Nnn^r to smell. gofrf^. Cau.^T^T ^T to sprinkle. %*g% & 10 U. fut. lut. perf. pre. ^p^r^ perf 3?xi^ BT^T^ aor. to cover. ?t^ ^T^lt^ crush. WITS^^TT &c. ben. 3T^r^T^fr^. to resist. Win? P-P.p. ^nftrf p. to b c. *jfor?*T. TOT^ pre. *a. fut. fsrqrfoi^-^ des. firqfW^ des.38 SANSKBIT GRAMMAE. ^fSlfTF p. ^^ pre ^TT%?TT P.p. ^nffor aor. 3*ft to be satisfied} . aor. to rub. 3T^%r des. Pasa. p. prosperous. con. fut. pre. ^T ger. 3TW. *Fgl. #iifte ben. pre. fut. to burn .p. nwm pre. 1 A ^T^[ to sound . Paes. snTRTg. des.-?T aor. *3fT^-fT aor. aTf3TflnT?T . & ^T ger. ^rfts^ fut. rifi M^ pre. Oau 3^fr^T^-?f f^T||1H ^tfca p. to ^ p. Aor.

^ft?r p. . l 3TT^ root is A ^ to be glad. to jump. ^r^ft-ft pre.l aor. *$<n<J|<l. break. to go . ^f?3|<r P-P- P. pre. defective 7 the Non-con jngational When aor. per/. ^f^m *Ti% to ben. ^^ pre. aor. fut.p. fnt. M^a/i^ aor. ^^fo^r A. ^reiflm p. ^Mccrffi fat. to cover-. '"This ^i^m P. ^7nroiff-?t. to to say. aor.. ^ropTm-n'. Tju^qi^-^ pre. sjdfqmft-% fat.fat. perf. q-r^^ to ask. fut aR^o^fi^ . - H5T^!Wt: -?T Aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^^Ti%5^ inf. it means 'to leave it does not substitute . ^rjq"ft-? U. ^f believe. fat. ^reifT pre. H<*Rl^> P. ipfrlRi) Jjin Can. sgrom P'. p. ^737* pre. speak. 1 ara^u^-ff Aor. P. Aor. 'g^TOT Oau. 1 perf. ger. dec. firaflr^ffir dea. ^TFW/S-ff des. i\ ^ to give. P. to injure. to shine. 2 A. fe-jPaqfa de. ^-ftmT p. 89 aor. &c. ^r^m% pre. STErtfTrT. it^ to to kill. fat. V^fff P". Can. fat.p. 3T3r^ aor. to be angry. Also P. aTrfNE^-?T aor. ^ con. *?**% perf ^rfuTBT aor. ^r^fit pre. tenses. 3lfefH^ in aor. ^$r p er * <$*jifli. HWfofVfi: aor. 3T^T 3T^I? to kill. gqfcwqt: to break. f^TT^fir% 1 P. 10 u P. Ri^u^^ffi-^ ^r^fTf-^ perf . Aor. TOTRT p. U. P- ff^rm ^Rm to ^5TR perf. ^Tf^r pert ^%^m p. to itfike. ut. 10 U. ^ pre. tell. pre.

fat. fat. p. jj^ to walk r. 3*5% to eat ( with an to drink ). -^g. perf. ^rwf% pre. ^5rf & 10 U. to shake. ( with ft. aor. ^TT*n?T-% pre. con.^q^f pre. P. ay-Jf^^-ff *<>r. P. fat. ( see above for the other forms . ' U. to chew ^^rt & & ^TToTT-^ perf. <*PhTT p. ). srir*rt to console. to discuss. P. 1 ^RfrTr to study. ^tTF & to stir. to frolio. 1 8T^> to remove a douU ). perf. % pre. &c. ^l*c9T or P- p. ^rR^rft des. perf. ^Fqm%-% pre. Oau. 3^^^-^ . ( with air to perferm Pass. Ben. 1 A. ^m pe*f. Rtf^ to sport. to go. to go. COD. 1 P. fit. '^nfifcrc p. ^ref^ pre. ^f5T^ to doubt. 3Fsrrafa aor. 'sHpj'fr-iT pre. 10 U. ad^rft aor. 10 ^. fat. trfbUquiUJmri^S. ^5n*ra perf. fat.40 SANSKRIT OKAMKAB. M^Rqfif ^i% P*e. 3TOT*R to read over. ^^n%-% *TOTTlr% ) pre aor. ( s fut. p. to abuse. 3T^T pre. perf. P.p..p. ) ^nrr% PT e. pperf ^^rrTT 1 p. fat. f| W 1 P. ^f%^^TI% fat. Trmis^pC-^rifc pef . ^q^| ^^ pre. ilRtfecrift to grind. ^^rot to eat. to move. aH-JNMfl-fr aor. ^f%TT ^f%<f P. 6. ^tqfttrr P. ^f^ pre. ^refif-% pre. gRxrR^g. aor. r 10 U. f%r^fq<TT% des. I- P. g^rf%q^ aor. 5^rfttTT P. ^fgpfr p. ^r^(% pre.

f%%ar prf.DH'ATUKOSHA.-^ta pre. p. %raifr f^t. & 10 U. 3T%?r aor. dee. . P. Oau-^rq<jfff% pre. 3i^rft aor. f^^Tf^T^ ^es. ^^^rzr^-^ f% ^j% to heap up. %frf^ pre. <rfw?^r to . (%cTft pre. Aor. to collect. . to understand. fut. P. ^Ti%-?T pre. l%^> perf. tbink. 7^5^ to send &c. f^RTcT Aor. *r 41 10 U. frqn^r to notice. con. to worship. P. i%5Qfff-^ pre. to be anxious. 1. <u P. to tbink.frpr. P. %cTT p. to gather. ^rqft-^ pre. ^rRiirf?r% fut. to consider. 1%?^ pre. T%g% f^nr. ^%rW^ra: con. perf. peif. p. ^snrffHt. & 10 U. f%rf%faTfff. j|ri> to foster. f%?r 10 A. ^HicTJf to perceive. 3T%rir^. 3t%fif aor. f%?fq-. U. fnt. %^T. ben. p. f%ftar p. P. p.a wicked. pre. 3T^rf%^g. f%. ^TOTfo^STT^ perf &c. 10 U. to eat. aor. ft- 10 U. 3?WTO5^ Aor. f%r%f?ni pre. ^Rm%-% out. ^^^. aor. 3T^tf%fl^-?T aor. f%Rf*rr Pass. r%rT p. %flir pre.-cT Aor. ^. P'e. f%r%*fftruHt de?. ^ . SHTFTJimsTOT: perf. %% 1 P. f%{%T perf. ^ir1 5 U. ^51* & ^f*rf?r-?r pre. & ^T%r^T ger. f%^^ur 3T^fT^^ to paint &c. ^rpRn aor. f ut. f%?^T ger. to ob3eive. %2fI?TT p. Rram'S-^ pre. ^fnHfT %<fte ben Pas?. ^55^%-^ pre.

^%r^> c. 10 U. fut. I P. 1 A. ^fHWf p. f%fffinTr p.r to boast. or. H^f l? aor. ^-f^ pre. con. fut. to dres?. &c. atfh ( ^^T perf. P. f%grra f^TST perf. ^nFrlr pre. fat. ta tnrow. q-^jf to put on perf. P. HHTRTT 1 xf to speak. f ut. 5^f?r fut. P. aTr^rTO^fnff: to take. 9qp9ff<Tnt to kiss. fut. STfW^ to bathe. p. p. p. 3fr?fir 3T^r^f^ & af^rfif? aor. fut. % parf. ^ft pre. clothes. 10 U. sfwr pre. to shine. Hf^for aor. *^r*TT Tar move slow^ aor. ^r*f?r-jfr pre. ^"^ to cutj ^gjirft^. aor. ^ffirrTF p. arfTrfra. ^r^nff-fT pre. to direct. 3T%gfh* aor. P. Aor. f%^fr% prf. ^iw perf. f%r%er P. P. to become loose.^r^ftffr P. %l$fimfft-ft fat. ^t* perf. r%fft pre %RRTT srfiretr P.f^nTi pre. ^^^^ ^^?T p. pert. 10 U. psrf.42 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. %%?rr 10 U. to cover. ) 6 P. 3TTirfar to suff ar . ^f* perf. P. ^qf?l pre. ^tqf?f pre. . fa*.^. ^fjTffT p. r^of^-?r. ^(Idld pre. pre. rcfT p 6F. 1 U. ^r farf% **m to cat. x xr^^fgr dee. Aor. qp?^. f%ft?T P. (f?rf^) 3^ jr^ to conceal. 1 a*^5<-<r to aor. -^5F. p. parf. fut. 1 M^w?j . 6 P. des. 1 P. fut. Pass-f^Tff pre. l P. ^f^iWlr-ar s de8 ^rf^cT p. & !%<ffirif? ben.

^qfa ^l pre. 4 A. 3?%r%^ aor. ^r ^ p. perf. perf. 8?^%?^ Aor. perf. qT^ fut.. *gfe pre. p. to go %^r% pre. to drop down. 3F^r<fej-rT aor. ^rrErqT*HT ben. aor. ^roirT p. ^^ to steal or rob. ^C^M'H to reduce to powder. fttfFTTH to . sr^ffe Aor. ^2fn% to kindle. 3Tfpfrq^^-?T to suck . Cau. fut. efforts 5 %CT pre. ^RrraL. A. P. ^ff*%IT p. 43 ^*^ 10 U. %f&aT p. ^ftmer . fat. fat. aor. P. . 1 P. H^g?!^. p. fjmir^qr^. psrf. ^rrff pre. . Cau-wrffm%% pre. ST5?fi?T?^ aor. to connect . frftf^rfir des. ^xrma'Tnt-Jt des. %ffe<T p. 6 P. ^rqirr^^^rT-^flF &c. 3^lt p. ^fn%rfr P.-%?q-rff pre. fr^'B^T to raise ^r^^-% pre. ^^frrdes. *n ^^5 perf ^<Tr p. p. r- perf ^rre<rr p. aor. p. p. ^fi?fi% pre. <n> to drink. 3Tffr^ perf. p. %CT^t to stir. to drop down ^q-^r pre. f%%f? perf. to hurt. 5?^^firT 10 U. p. to make fut. ben. ou. ^f^rra% pre. niW<VRT fat. ^tf*<T g^rf* p. ft. arrir^r to flow. fat. aor. . xjcTp. ^rnf?r-% pre. p.* s^rftfTf to kill. tfr to burn . ^ 10 U. perf. ^uif^frr p. %[%fr? Ben. Paas. . U. "^TOT. fut go.DHAVUKOSHA. 'g^r^ri^ des. 3*33*^ a fut. fat.. &c. ^fo* p. ^tTmT^ % 5?5 10 U. kill . Pass. ^R-^ff. 1 A inft. p. aor. x7Cfr? ben. to contract. f%%3TfV%^[. ^5?^. p. SR'lffr aor. H^5^-?T aor. fut. Also 1 P. %fe*r% des. to take- ^Rgf?r-?T pre. ^y?r to move.to p. ^TTTOcSTT ger. fat. fat. 1 &c. P. 1 3T%WT^ p. ^ftdl ST^STT^-rT.fat. aor. f%^ perf. a^pijifo--^ aor.

^xgr^ perf fut. |prf?r pre. de *. par. ^r^ ( f ?lf? ) intermix. &c. M3{% to bore. $rft to kindle.44 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. *ut. f%x^f. 6 P. ^rVT P. ^r*ri(| ger. )%^ 10 U. OT^TTSxr^-^fr. . 35>con. 8TT^n^?r to cover . pre. perf. to conceal p. P. . 3rf^^^? Sf^d'^'h^ & 3TT%^T aor p. ^ffldl p. sr^Qvi aor.- M^- g^. P. perf.. Pass. ^ftrr P: fut. %vgfi^?ot perf. j^ pre. to play. 10 U. ut. 3Ti%5^g--?T Aor. 1 ^r^11%-^ pre. perf. des. to cut. yfftf^ll. ^KS^raft: to shine. to cut ^f?^ & 10 U. TO j ?^^Tct. f^OTn*% pre. pre. -?T ^[<t% pre. ^^|$. %^^-?f aor. 5pr$ to touch.. Ben. put. p. ^t. p. rf%-?t P con 7 U. fut. %r^rf^-^ fut. ^na-% pre. iMJItfta aor ^T^?T to vomit. ^$^. ^iTr5xr^r^-^^ perf. P. to mow f&tft & f^% pro.p. s^Slf^ aor. 3^f?Tat Aor - ^ !S ^^ grflr pre. ^^m p. 1 U. ^Tttfi to aor. I P. fut. P. aidHqfrcT con. to p. fat. to vomit. 7 U. ^f|^ p. T%^^f^T[^%des. 3T^% to eat . % des. p. . 3rei<iq. fut. aTf^rr%{f c^-cT Aor. Oau. p. &t\% . ^x^T perf .

10 U. 1 P. sTftwror fat. aR[3nT aor. 3T5*n-tffc* aor. pre. to eat. p. anr^-ann^ ger. 5T^t perf. Aor. P. pre. to be born- 5Tm% pre. 4 P. ^^ffmd. gr^TT^ben. oTWITT p. fe^rr ger. snftm p. fat. con. Stfta*of to divide. i3nn%^f% ^es. to consume. f5T3Ti^TI sre^ pre. or des. 3ff5^ ben. Oau. ^Tf5TT> Paas.P. to 3ffl<TT p. to cut. CaD. 45 t*j|<. fat. aor. sfnTTT perf. 5TT%iS T3W^ 3T3T^ff^. 5T*Tnr> snsir'S ^nrnr> sfinff prf. pre. ^TTfH?T^t: to eat.-<3T^. grftrfT p. gra^ 3Tm pre. a?3T3T*H^ aor. p- H. 3T$qr^ ben. 3T5fT5R^ 3T^f^rnr con. 3TTWT p. P. d A. fat. 3THI^ pre. 3nr$T perf. fat. $*qm-?* pre. fat. P.. ifhr aor . as above.n?!i p. 5T?i% BT^TRfr^. G. Pass. Oau^-5rnwrj?r-^ pre. tnrrfr* or. pre: fir?T P. f^qirT des. con. Tn^ffT p. fHMI^^ tfsT^r. 3T^f^> The same 4 A. 8?^ S. aor. 3% to fight. 3T3T^ perf. anmsT^ 1 aor. (Snrfnre aor. fat. fat. 3^1^. des. WtBWf ^Tl% IH5T& ^ to mutter. arf^d^-cf Aor. 1 ^n^ p. 39 . iH^rfirTT^ to yawnj 5W?f pre. ttf*U? & ben. fH^mf^ des. ^rffr pre. ^%ff p. fat. become twisted. 5TTft pre. 1 Pa89. fat. p. to laugh. ^rf% pre. fat. P. 3H5n% fat. adrfjsf^-ff aor. ^^ to out. aor. 3T^^ ben.5TnTrT Pass. pre. ^^T perf. an^fr^ aor. 3TcTT 3^ffK*7^ con. arorft aor. imperf. 5TT?f P. aor.-^n* ^^|(^ aor. 3^53T^. P1 P. 3nr%^?i. ^rfit to clot. fnri**rot 5nT!T perf. srf^rT ^mr.DHA'TUKOSHA.

aor des. p. snft^fta. P. 3T^?r^ aor. 3HTT^ra[ Aor. to kill.fn aor. vnrnrt to speak-. to prattle. anr^nrg. i P.- ^TlrR to be sharp. 5H?n% fat. des. ^rrT?Tr^ ben. perf. *rf5<raT p. ff^nrr to hurt. P. 3T3TOT5 Aor. p. 1 mil^g^ Aor. 10 u. pre. 1 P. 3ffrf?T pre. . 4 P. C*u. 1 3fam 2 P. ^3Tfa freq. ^r to aor. 3Tmffr-% P*e. 10 U. &c. irarfiqani COD Paes. p. ?fhn^ 3f3fr3Tq^-cf aor. jfteTdr to set free- fut. ^^nf^-rf. gr$rf% pro. ^nvirft pre. 1 P. 3T4TTirTft aor. Can. srernt pre. STTHfTfTT P. Sfwrfo. %^int i ^rnr^perf. 3TT%cfT P. f^ffT^TQ' to awake. t%pr p. fut. &c. fir?^T ger. ^r^f^cTT. fs&wfo pre. * It is Atmanepadi wLen preceded by % the prepositions . f^gnirt^Tfit de*. 5mTK?T 3riw> ^ to conquer. aor. P.. fsii^ir. 10 U. perf. &c. 1 gfrf^n^ fat. STT^IIT p. p. P. fat. & Pass. ftm* perf. gfT5nrfS% pre. Aor. g?^T^ con. to release. f*rai?q<n% des. swfif pre. arsTwfjg. 5nrrfT perf. 3T^r p. sfmi^r to please.BANSKBIT GBAMMAR.-3nnnrni-ifr pre. 5T^f p. pre. srf^fir P. Aor. ?$r&T jfr^ot ^T to protect. frnrf ar^r hurt pre. perf. 3T3f^T aor P. amndr to cover. srerrcr perf. sreror pre. fSF^ftcTT P. bOTfcWJ srrfe to murmur. snw^fff aor. 10 U. perf. 3T^f5f pre. fit.-^ar% pre. 5nrr* perf. 10 U.rrcft to destroy. 1 P. snTTTTC-TT fat. M^M. 5Tinn%-% pro.

*rm^ to shine.p. ^frfTsTr to grow old.-^frsir^ pre. aor. ^5TT^ -W des. 6 P.p. 5TKfft or 3Tff- ^ fut. fat. to examine. ^frfcr. sfrrof & ^nmm-^ pre. qR?T*ar ^RrT^ot ^ to think. inft to go. P . to enjoy. ^fnTOT. to serve. ^ft pre. fut. pre. fsrsn* perf. 3nfff% irfS-?r P'e. p. ^f^mr p. ^T^fn%^ Aor. P. 3nTTT9Pnjcr COD. 3r*T<ftcr & ^TT^irna^TT-^iff & 3r^^-?l aor. 3nj^T perf. p. to perf. per aor. fut. perf. ^inT perf . JTTSrftrfRr. A. zftfifti ger. to be satisfied. perf. p. ^^fr??T des. Pass. Pasa. sfff^jn inf.-^^a. sfroft pre. ^^HU^ anrfrni^ con. 3T^fa. ^r^f^rTT P- fwt. ftnm Vedic perf. ^r<tfr pre. A. int. 1 *tft pre. P. fut. 6 P - ( fCTft ) V^T> to tie up or bind. p. 6 A. ir$r5t to eat. 1 P. Cau. to 1 kill. ^q?f pre. . ^irr^ fat. to yawu. 3T3fr*re gjwi^r pre. P. 3r3JTfa[ Aor. aor. fifaret to kill. & 10 U. fJhrreq'rfT^r.DHA'IUKOSHA. 3nfhffa[ aor. Rnrf*i^ff des. arenft aor. ^3T nfriwer fut. 47 irm% pre. p. .pre. Aor. srr*rtJK$r to live. gffakf pre. ^% p. fut. 3*nvTrT. ger. 3TK*QrriT. ( ). kill. sFrfn%^5rfV: to like. 4. *N% $*^ irfau <% to sprinkle. *i*w p. sftroTT p. p. ^fR aor. 3Tfff#T?x. Oau. 1 P. af^^MT aor. 3Tfr^rf?r. ^ftof p.-^fr^^-^ pre. ftrftomTir pre. 3T^|R^ aor. ^Tf^WT^ fut. STOrfcrft pre. Pasfl. p. a^rfr* Aor. ^y* 1 P. to grow old. ^tf* pre.-gfrqft pre. ^ p. 1 ^37% pre.p. 1 P. 4 A.

srnrfir pre. to grow old. ^rmft-ft 5n*TC9CTr-^r&. to decay. ^ 3|iHf7 aor. Pass. gf^ft. Pass. 3nft pe?f. &c. froftr to fat. direct. STRT p. ai^nfft^ aor. gr^. "to slay or to cause to see. ^53% perf. 3TTOta% to know. 1 1 A. gnff* perf p. 5fnrr^. ^ff^T p. to go .-3rre*rra% pre. . ^5Rr to become old. p. 5rfr perf. 5rri5q^r% fat. sffiTRt ben. iQMKftqfa-fr des. ben.48 SANSKBIT GBAIOCAB. snrr jiRft ^r to try.-srfq^ pre. fnt. ol<j . or. 7% 10 U. pre. ^n^ ^mfm ben. 10 U. ari^fta aor. 33 f^r 1 1 A. 3THHW5 con. 3n<rfoQui-?T fat. vnnmr-^ pre. 3tr 3?nm> ^ to conquer.sromfft. ^nsn p inf. know. ^rrf^rfft-w ^ a aor. A. fat.p. ^TTRrr ger. STTsflfr 9 U. ^rnrr pftit. ^reff. P. to defeat. 5rnrinS% pre. pre. 3TTTm<H* pro perf.r?<fT p . fn^H^ft des. 1 P. to wear out. ggTWTff fat. pre. 3inqTT^ ?T aor. fat. faSffr perf. ^f|T Pr fut. t%m% pre. ' ^rft-% & ^nnn'S-if (in the sense of to gratify. aor. fut. 5ft?fT ger. g^ffr. pre. ^rtrfafr p aor. Cau. ^ ar^ft? aor. to cause to know. |<4ld. fsrift perf. to go 5R7T pre. 10 U. to see. OTfir perf. Pass ^n^ p. aor. 9 P. gfrr p.p. . ^rrar 5m% ^ to P*e. perf. ^rrcq^. fat 3T^TT^-rT aor. vpr^ pre.p perf. 3^?tfc aor.aor. 3f5Trftrs-?T c n. nr^ p. perf. grnn p. 10 U. fut. gn^nft aor. fat. 3TRnS.3rfif^rr^f -^ dee. *ift*TJV to become c. pre. fat.-^rnnf pre. I gj & 9 P. STRfifrfT p. to please. to go. anrKhj. ) pre. p. p. ^ .

^r to throw. Scr^r* pre. 2-f|pf p. fat n pre. ^. fat. 5T5rnr. 3T5rrff^ sfrfR. to TT1 tie ^ . aor. %T%rn P. fr^ pre. Oan. 3T5^y perf. . STO} p. 1 A. ^rfqm p. %^ff pre. ^ff^RV to become old. fil%% perf. P. 1. arf^fTT> 7g T%fTT ^51 : p. Oan. 3^|<. s^HM pre. 3r^ to eat. 0*u des. j^fS pre.to be hot with fever or passion. 1 U. pre. ^TRrTf P. P. fat. perf. 3Tr^T^^fonTr: to take. perf. to go. STSPT perf. 1 P. 9.DHA'TUKOSHA. perf. 3Tri%^rr-fT aor. |at. aor. %<nrnr-?r pre. to bind. fsr?*/OTm des. ^OfTm Aor. 1 P. fat. fat. ( v?tf&lfd fat. an^T^-cT aor. with ST-iT??rgprf?t% ) pre. STy^r^-. to aor. *n^T fat. to send. move. 1 pre.fiq. perf. p. p. P. to conceal. ^mer aor. 3T|^f^-% pre &o. qfhft to bum. vprf^rT p. p. %trft?TT p fat. 3TSTNT P crf - ^^m^ Aor. 1 1 P. U. ?g:f^. perf. 5rff cTT. to glow. 49 1 P.^^rfir-% pre. fosTft^ft 1 P.-^^^M-^T. P. aor. to put on. 4. Aor. vRftm v?9KqT% aor. ^rrer to be collected or matted together. aor. P. fat. |m?TT p. 10 U. fffaro-n* to kill. p. IrS'S^r to be confused.

<t^l94lf 3?"5J^-<f aor. ^ffa p. 4 P. ?& (with ^5) fly. fat. tt9WI9Vin^-^fr perf.**^-^ pre.ft. p. a%3T P. 4 A. to 10 to goj ^i^r pre. U P. ^r% perf. Hglfeqa aor. 3m% to gather. ^TT^ft pre. fut. ^frfiqW des.perf. 1 A. JTcft to go. ^^ pre. fut. p. For other forms see 1 A. fut. T%%q perf . sn^n?r-% f ut. p. to perf. 1. <SIMm>^* perf. Tfn%q^ &$( pre. f%^ perf. A%s^ fut. %qq|o. perf. |%5rf^^ dee. aor. Aor. u - to throw P. ^% to throw. f at. a?u^ perf. to go. ft^j. tf$% pre. 3^Rr^ aor. &$% peif.P. aqafiifc aor. ^rcr pre. to approach. %q^[ pre. greif%S Aor. to go. to heap. A.50 1 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. f ut. p. s*^1%T p. %ft?Tr 10 A. f^^R WTot ^^Tq^ ^ ) to conceal. f^t. ^Kn?t to gather. fit. $ft to throw? |%c^i^ pre.. send. ^ to laugh. agnlf pre. ar. Sljiri^-rf P. p. P. to bear-. 3?^r?5^-cT p. % pre. to move. 10 A. m%?T to pare- .. 1 ^m^dl p. 3TrT[^ra[ aor. pre. fi^T^raT Tcfr to fly. ^g% ( 3TH^. A. 3T^te<Tar aor. to go. TO^T fr5^ T%rTT P. ^{^RT. 3T?T^fi^ Aor. A. 1 P.. 5TRTq^ fut. des. an^fJs apr. p. O ^#nnrqL-?T Aor. f^fr^ BOD. p. 1 P. .^& perf. CTTfoar 10 A.

^ to beat P. <&& pre. A. an^m-^ pre. 3TfTlM aor. P. U. ff^T p. P. 1 P. arasftq. ^fff . ( belongs 5th eonj. P P. perf.?Rtfiir. cT^?^r ger. ^Rtr^t to shine. Pass. re p p. to A. P. to subserve 3C?Rr^.n% pre. atTf? perf. 1 to P. pre. ^cjvreH to contract. per*. to go aor. Cau. jf^f p. fTHf^F. m%rTf CUSTOM. fi%?T P. to stumble. fat. aor. a. U. 3fTT5fr^. . rtrq^TOT^: to believe. P. 3?TVT^ W?r^lt aor.f Qt cf^^na rlf^q7% fut. to go. to shrink. JfRffT P. j ?RTm P'e. cfW go*. p. to cut. pre. **. P. a^z & aor. a^T ger. aor. ^^\3TRot support. m%rTT. perf. 3T<rsfr^ aor. 3mhT^-?T 10. <r$^fo fut. P. ?nrt perf. flfamiir pre. as S^T^ to grow aor.P. &c. fat. to heat. Tenses ) 61 *jflfgr. ffffn.DHA'IUKOSHA. *fif<n p. rT?T des. ^ft. aT^?f to beat. ^cw?5|?f govern. ?fHsqifr% fut or. to IP. optionally in the Conj. ffa^^r perf. to shake. <TrE p. j IP. f%flTK to spread. ?rsnrft ben. fa . ircYTfCT?* 3>*R ^ to go. *a^ perf . eT?TR.?fg% P'e. dlgpJHI HT^T^ pre. mcf?srf^?t dee. 8 U. inxrik pre Aor. |I3$TO} to pare. 1 - . name 1 P. HfflWT^-f Aor. Pass. pre. pre. fut. fut. ?rft^ffT p. T^TTr & HM'fr? ben aro?t pre. m^^r^T.

3TrTff aor. aq^fr to be decreased . 10 U. 3I?Tm^^ con- 3TtTg[ aor. l A. aor. 10 U. pre. g->T. to rule. fit. fat. Aor. P. ff^f^T & rT^^T ger. 1 p cr P. to kill. Mdictfffr aor. a% perf cTfoff T P. SfrTfT cTmift-^ P*e. ft. rfc^r? ben. KdHmmul: cnfttlT to spread. <re p. ^r?^ to blame. cT^H. mMMI^^R-^SR to be &c. rfr%rT p. porf. ^ jm^& perf. to be powerful . tffTW %^ ^ to be anxiou8. fatigued . cfeqfc pre. fit. fat. ben. A. wfhTT^-rT aor. to suppose. 4 P. to assume ?ffn% pre. p. p. rTf9ran?r fat. JTTTirfff-?* pro. <nf P. fut. fcamft des.62 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. Ts&ffo to threaten. perf. ftfT% to guess. P &. 3M<-{qd con. 10 U. a 3? fif pro. 4 A. armfTO. 3fimT aor. p. fat. p. fut. frit. 1 p. 10 A. fr^nrt perf. 3l<nTrfi. . p. aft p*f. SKfflnarg. con. to go ?nflr P'e. Can. Cau. St&gror to decorate. arafire aor. TOftffT P. IP. fat. to menace . cT^ p. PTfnrni^K ^ pert rffffar. 1 3^^^ . to boat . to ff^fff pro. ?f . 10 U. ff^^ hurt. fffasirfn f Q t. aTtftT^-rT aor. p. &c. con. ^r^ fluff* pre. aPKtffoaor. 5IHT p. tTm?r P. ffC^rTf fut. 3TH?TrTq:-cT aor. perf xkffctt p. pre. . P. Pass.snflSTTt to establish 4 P. perf. P. ?T^ p'f. aujia. <r?r aKHCTff aor. aor. P. rTFTm pre. rfmfTT frrr?r P. to protect. qn^nif pre.

ut. Aor . aor. to be oily or unctuous. I 53 A. perf. ffc^ fut. *$1& to be fat. iut. ftnirgTTOT ben. ?TT^Tff% pre. >r%cTT p. mffgr perf. Prf. i%^nff pro. fffai$perf 3Km%^ aor. aor. to attack. ^dr to drop dowu. 1 P. ief5| to be wet. a^ pre. ftfflft perf. fut. ftfaw*ra ties. aur. 3 5 P. P. f'lt. & 10 U. anftifk Aor.DnA'TUKOSHA. fut. 3*15?*^ to be wot. to go. H$rf^<rr p. mf^c^F p. 5 P. I A. fJ^TTin to hurt. mmi%?fr fn^. 3?fer?f(^ Aor. -tffmr aor. P.ben. ?fpPf ft pre. OTnir ^ to endure. fTimFTWK'^'sf. hc5lff pro. ^q^ pre. fafasrnpnrar porf. A. perf. fiirc^iq. to go. fifiro 5 P. ^rfffff f p.-f^rfTHW pre. ftrfhr perf. to sprinkle. mfin^r?^ ( When means to sharpen 3T^f%^ aor. pre. to go. -k. kfartt p. iTfTf to go . f^fTBT per/. f?fa^ pcrf. fut. fa&fo pr. 3?^RT^aor. M^TT% to whot. %^TRcTr 1 P. fJfaWTfff des. P. ftwrnT pro. afaRTT. 6 P. hcyqTv^^rf-^r . ancfrfdcJrf -ar aor. iffgRff p. fat. aor. 3TcfTm^?T-ff aor. 1 |%RrWTI?r. jfr^ pre. P. f^fTTfT p. p. 3U*E^ *3r ^T to attack. p. rf^dfR-^ pro. vfafc? aor. it to suffer with courage. &<- perf. fut. f^rffr. P. mr%cTT p. aor. 1 A. 10 U. fut. ffrsfrifT pre. R?^ pre. R5TR ) Cau. 4 P.^jr^g^ con. fut. faffHT fa-j^ffif "pre.

fut. ararjfr^ aor. g^ pre 1 P. <rftf?f P'e. g^f5?Tr P. 3Tnrc<jt to cover. fut. to wound. fut. <ftm. 3ig(4) a^ftg. see above root. 6 P. argT?T. to killj at^m. gg^[ perf. ^Wf^RIOT ( ^Tl^ ) to quarrel. gvgTff. perf. perf. 3?g?hi aor. ^H^ pre. gi^cfT P- fit. 6 U. kill. to 3?TT* perf. 3?TiiT-^|rr^ ben. pre. sq^gft to strike. fnt. 1 kill. 2 P. 31^nif[fr aor. live- $ 9f 6 P. ar^Sfr^rT aor. sj 10 U. ffrsrmo^r^R-^^.54 SANSKRIT GBAMHAB. to *row. f^rrqt to kill. to hurt. 1. P. &c. fut. * 3*gTT aor. to hurt. <rnrfiT. a^qiA-^ fut. 1 & 6 P. jfif^mr p. f nt. p. 6 ( f 7T^ ) p at5% - to tear. anifr &c - A. aor. f^T5r5yT^T^R%r!^f to kill. to ^f^ia-ff pre. 35^ - perf. 3igf r^r Aor. to be powerful. grifT pre. atwr p. 5??f?T p r e. to kill. COD. pre. 3Tcfif^ fut. to cut-. P 1 P. gv*cm aor. SR^r?^ 3% go^: 10 u . fut. efffuraT p. g?r% pre. ?ft*n to kill. g|rf?T pre. to be strong. goifff P^. It 6 P. g?i?im-^ pre. ffn p. &9 P. siTirut fsNrTOT r ^r to reach. gfereTT p. irfiUrf%ft*TS to go. gat^ perf. cTFHf^cTT. 1 P. a?^r^T^-?T con. g?fm-ar pre. aor. to p. 3?rrT^> to mortify. nNroTO ^Tff 3^^ perf. ff?=rnU to the kill. Oau -^f^qrf?T-% pre. ft^t^ to kill. &c. 3RU<ffar. g?ft<i perf.g^T P. 3*<rrftre Aor. (9) . perf. gftmr p. 1^. arai*^ P re - amHjqr aor. glfiir pre. ggr^m-ff de aor. angg^rT-ff Aor. to search. aor. ^h%^ to curve. gmnr perf.

55^^ ben. ben. STcjg^-rT aor. art^T^^ 3Tnfr^ Aor. fiftrionm% des. to examine.*f3rtomake fut. ^eV to be pleased or t?r P. Pass. to go. m^^ inf. fut IP.ftr p. 10 A. 4 A. ^orgar pre. fut. gfgrorM 1 P. cfro5f5T^-^ Pass. a'ffOTP. 3T3^or. 3TJ$fr^ aor. gsf/ft pre. ' Can. gf ger. perf.% pre. f^c^r to determine the fut. ^T ger - . fut. aor. gHTT% Also 10 U. 55^?% des. mfr to eat . pre. to hurt. $% to hurt. to r torment. gafrr perf. 1. quantity or weight of. g^rm pre. fut. ^rfr pre. 6. aor. gtTfa perf. fut - 3T^tWgL con. des. g. pre. smtfra. ?fftrfr pre. aor. 5^TT^ 8 U. ffOTCrn* to kill. <gfa pre. aor. fff5T perf. pre. ( 1 haste. m^gf^-% pre. P. SST. ar^ft* aor. fat. ^fiff^l.DHA'TUKGSHA. to give pain. ^fwTr fat. gwfffr pre. r$*rifT satisfied. 10 U. 5^^ d. ?ynM to weigh. p. cfafa pre. to fftr%TT P. P. 1 kill. S 3P. 3*ft 1 3mtft g^ p. Aor. gtftfS pre. ^55^^ P. fffSrwr p. ^faf^mff ^nft: to go hastily. 3?(j5?r^ aor. 4 P.P. Ben. 55-^ -i%q% fill ^ut to up. 901^-90^ i f ut - P re - perf. gq^ per/. g<rfr perf . to perf. to sound. Vedio ) t P. P. ( 1 55 See g<r . (Ttetlffr-ft pre. ^ luaTunlr ^aorf P. <ftftm p. kill. fut. wg^cT Aor. qfim P. 5^ above ) gwnft. ?r^ar. ?Tr^r5<TT P. roffrff . p.

<w??r f at. ^fwr^rS fat. aor. ^RrS P'e. <*?!$ perf. 35^ pre. 3Trnfot- 9 P. ?fft?frj jf^r. dfa>5-^^l<-^T^. 5r<iT p. ben. perf. gor%. to be pleased. P. &. ^r P. ^sfn% pre. P. fut. ?T?^ perf. P. <jrrnj> dee. P. 1 to please. fff^fT P. Cau. fftgrtyffi (defiant. P. to please. to please. <nr p. 5 * to be satisfied. forffara. araffe aor. ?mf^-^ pre. aor. Cau. ger. <ra* perf.. sfh%. m^^r1& dee. perf. aTcfh aor- . 6 P. ?r?rf. ^?^n^-% fat. afocfT p ffT%qrfS iat. affccrr p. ^dfi^l con. con ar?TT^^^-?r <fftr^r ger. fut. tgfy to become satisfied.. $<n% pre. aYi^TriT. (see the next root). to kill. ffTf porf . arfaid-fr pre. avar p. ntarmfS. RqRTTHi^ to be thirsty. to r- please. 10 U. p. cfffer ger. 4 P. to injure. kill. 6 P. 3jm5ra. 3icrir^. see above ). 3T?rera. P. fat. amfrg: aor. to kindle. fat. qflsqfi-ft. |wng. ^p% pre. fut. p. aor - m<% des. ^g. fut. sfrow to be pleased. to disregard. ftUMKfMT: to destroy. 7 % U. rrwrter pre. eo.16 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. <tft%. srarcfr^. COD. p. <%$ 7 P. p. ^ilr pre. fut. $ft^T. f^TT^f to des. 3T$^. Hfffl^-T aor. m^f^ft des. - ^^ ?RT aor. P. <prr^ ben. p. ^(%. 'at. ben. g^^qfr p. . &c. perf. nni^Err wft^ra-ff aor.. to hurt. p. sfrorfr 4 P. %*uft pre. to light. ^P^rm pre. ( for other forms P. ^^qlg.

- P. mtgn ^ST 6 P. HT^^r ger. ^iSdr-^TfcTT 1 P. tn??*T ger. to protect! - perf. aor. 3^^ aor .fi^rfir. fut. 3T<fm* ^-fT Aor. ft. ?rrm P'e. f?npf p. swim. Pass. 3<dd?fo-<T aor. f ut. ^rnfl^ dee. 1 Rr?F P. 1 & ?Mfe ben. 5J3iHTf aor. p. COD. Oao. 3m$ t.p. HTvRrn ben. to shake-. <q*ifo P'e. P. 3T?q7nT aor. c^F P^ef. aqft pre. SCR p. mcffrrm ?nor p. p. to go . atctriEsft* aor isns ben . pro. rTTfrTT P. fnt. 5rfq**I%. 5jmh?. ?rftin'S fut. Pass. "^rjf to play Jfcfa pre. cf5r|: perf. =r|Pff pre. ^ffiT p. firt- <*es. 1 P. RSTM ^I5JH ^ to whet. ^ff cTT p. TRfh2:> pre. 57 ?r*rra-^ pre. ^RT to abandon . fftirW pre. ger. ^H^pre.snpft pre. ai^cwar con. inf. ^nTrrr P.. <jsm ajf perf. P. . 1 A. to move. ^fqrcTT p. to 1 go . ^q^ pre. aKtTT & ?m?TT P- gUcHK aor.fut. ?TRnf^. to kill . drop down.DHA'TUKOBHA. ^rrot ?pwt ^?fr ^ to m?ft 1 1 perf. to be ashamed . mf^TT. ff: J inf. A. A. aor. ^ 3T?jYrac. ^^^5RT fnt. cT^rnT perf. 3Tf^ffl aor. 3?5ifq5iTcT. 1 3^3ff^ aor A. P. Oau. HJ^H inf. f^fft^m. vfafov Aor. ^1%?TT P. rff%r. pre. ^rftfTT. m5fN^ des. 3?^? Aor. $FRctTnft: to cross over^to pe'f. fut. wft^^-?T aoi. W5f perf. fat. P. Sfctfrc ben. f^m^rer. . . Oao- pre. rffan^ ben.5i^ P. p. ?ft perf. mrfT^^.

} sftrrTT.gfr%*ft pre. ben. fat. 1 P. . sifiraT P. 5-^ perf. ^TTifT P. fiff 1 P. =fT<rft^r ben. ^^ P - to tear . =nrcnriS-?t pro. fut ?*firif?r. tut. 31311% aor. <rr$j% to protect. aor. a^r^cT aor. fu fut. **Wft fat. f f ^n?T ben. ^f^<Tr P. ?wf?r pre. 1& k perf. Can. ) ^CTTrf-sr pre. aor arcing. jnfjfSTr ger. fut aretfl^ aor P.-3T?*T$ffc aor - ?^r P. aor. fafc. ?^%wr. 10 U. 1 A. 8TfTOra. airnTT>^T*-^ to hold. 10 A. srmt? ben. cles. to go . r%^T^ dea Pass. Oau. . f$*TT*f to kill. *TTrgt to speak. $i&ft pre. or 1 ^?qr Same as above. Aor. |%nrf perf. p. Cau.58 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. ^ld<il>^ perf. aor. des.p. p. perf. fut. ^% ( f^rf? f f%cTT p. Aor. ?^f p. srmgrq^-rT aor. 3**t to tremble. STsrrt aor. gpjfe fufc. 3ncr> pre.. f gq-f^ pre. fut. 1 & 4 P. . to oppose . fiNfTOTRI p. ^rr^rfimr p. to tear. &c. f ^ P'e. 3T5rrWTiT con.p. Pass.p. perf. rfRr^r perf . (Stererft des. pre. f^csrf%^&. a*5rftf*Ta[ con. ^^farg-cT aor. ^iffeTT P. 10 U. =ft^% pre. 3n%cvft ben . *fffrrr ger. s^riff. i%s^ aor. fat. arm's** inf. A. to go ftgft pre. 3^JRJ. ir^ot ^r?ot pre. tr^tfr to pare .^TTff. =rfqtt pre. to fear. srwft pte. 4wA-?t P'e. ajffcr^-a aor. P. to break. Pd8? swff pro. farff T p. gr*<fr ^ to take. 3Tafn% aor. srofni. jr?cT p.

3 fl^r ^ft perf. 10 U. ^fr ^frm^r *rftff ^T'frw pre. ^qrs beu f^^fff gar. 3^f|TO Aor. p. ( *rnn<ri ^r) ( ^rff pre. ^iriff-flr pre.fut. Pass. fut. 1 c^nS ben. ^51% to bite. . ^^. 5^ p. fTf^np perf. perf. to sting. 1 ar^ri P. cffHR perf. aor. ?>^qfff-ff ^f^^-cT con. ?^^. perf. ^^Tc?T to proceed with fraud. p. fat. ^RTfTr P. 3Tr^rfrci: aor. 2fT inf. to hurt. ?^firfk% pre. ?>^rff- 1 U. glitter. f^TmeT dea ^TjJTrf p. G P. 3[^fer^ dual srtfil aor. ^npfo pre. Pass. ftftf^ pre. fTrTr^sT 6 P. to move with aor ffft - speed. ^fff pre. fut. fat. ff*Trqr to injure. move. fut ftrTf^TOT dea. 1 P. A. ^Sr ( ^rf? ) to cover. 3T^5r?T Aor. **r%tTr p. to go. ?>*T p. aor. ^^JT or to hurry. f ut. 2f%^ fat. fsrf^TfTT P- fut. to go. perf. to hurt. ) to grow. fut. 1 P. ) ^^T aor. ^fc^dt to coverj ror^rir pre- perf. to -sfrs aor. ^^ sjr 10 A. g^ perf. ^Qidr p. ^q-ff pre. 3Tf ^T^-?f Aor. to go in speed. ffrW^ perf. p. <?j% pre.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^fff pre.p. T<?r 59 3?*^ ^ to go. . to speak.fut. fut. ^5fT> to bite. *n<qrr*TT ^g^ pre. Oau. rf Sift pre. ??TRfTT P. mfN'^riff-^ des. 3Tr?TffT^ aor. perf. 3^?^ Pass. ( A. I P. p. 1 to speak. to shake. ^ft des. c^rfTeT 3Tn?e qrfr p. to hide. 1 P. to sfhft to shine. P.

pre. fylfot to burst open. ^^TT^ ben. . Pass.p. ^j p. &e. Cau. dc8 bun. 3i3^if3-cT Aor. to deceive. ^-fji porf. P. Oau. A. ^\^ perf. ^ 5 P. to ft injure. ^P?rr?j: ^^HT'fre' bon. fffWT <*e8. ^fhrwrrn fut. ^ihft P. ^wf[V . ^W^I P. ^ot to send. aor. ^ to kill. &c. . ai^Rsrnff^ aor. STRT^ <HWfr p. <X^n?T aor. fut. ^'H^T to hurt. f^^fT^T^RT. ^^rfhr aor. Pass. hold. perf. to expand. to take. ^u^f^?rr P. &o. pre.p. a^fre aor. 5 P. 3p?i?5fnr. fut. 3f^HT^ aor des. 1 s?^T^^:<T aor. 10 U. ^wn%% pre.60 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. perf. 1 A. to protect. j^qfr P re p. to protect. pre. ^(^ pro. Oau. ^WTv^-liTT-^%. ^qft pre. 3l^TW-. ben. 3^TR^ ^f^Tff p. to be poor or needy. ^i%Tr p. ^fe?T p. 4 P. ). Paaa ger. 5?r7f^T gor. ^jf^ ^^|^?T *>r. es. P. bon.p. p. ft. ^ to give-. to tear 10 U. 3TTrfr<r. ^RfftrT P-P. fu fut. ^ to 1 A. ^ftsrn^ P r *. ^reuffir pre. . ft^f^T^ jftmjfr 7 ^^^ - 2 P. f^f^<rai dos. 3TTf%^ a o f s^f pre. r^mfrr p. ^mf^r. p. ^H?r aor. fut. 3F??tfS<i-<T aor ?^nr<fre des. fut. ^^fa. ^ per f fut.p. ^m . ^m>-4^7. GDO. 10 U. 3^f^-rT Aor . irqrjn JT to be tamed: ^rwrnr pro. ^r$J to cut. to be pity. fut. ft^R* to tear. ^forer p. to present. 3f*vg^ perf. Cau. ^RqRff j^nnf^HT^m^ to give. 1 f^fTOri?T <*63. ^wftT pre. aor. Pass. ^tr^-f^iTTrT^ . aor. 5^ perf. ( Vedie to ^T% punish. vn^ot to ^Rt pre.

P. aor. bon. A. a^fa. 3?^T^ aor. ^T^TF%-^ pre. fut. 1 aor - P. 3. to wish. Pass.aor. fut. 1 U. ^raT P- 3T^T^?T con. 3l^TfTO aor. 1 u . ^tfTT^I^rT-^ &c. ^T^t. 'or perf. ^Tfr^T^-rT aor. Pass. <Tg^ ^pn^ ^f inf. 3% perf. 10 U. 5*njft-** p*e. 3T^?T aor. Oau. n . 5^. Oau-^mmff% P'e.p. t. to pain. aor. to trifle with. to 40. p. ^r^ to cut. \n^rfo fut. aror$tf<i. ^T=T to give.- ^nft? f%^rm^r ^w Pcut. 3^5. ben.-^r^q-^% ^itfi^^-W Pas pro.fat. ^ffqr P orf ^lf^?m fut aor. 3T^TTVTTr dual pro. ^fr^^cf-rT Aor. ben. *T*T g er - ^5^ inf. to sell. U. Aor.3T?Tf aor. and fut. f^T. ^piar pre. ^Jf^SFRpfr: to see. ^aft perf. 10 A. to shine. 2f5r[fT aor. to injure. TOffeTQt to burn. sr^roiq. ^nrnri to speak. ft>ir?rf5f des. 5 P. 'RT^TT^iJi'fi^Jo^^gf^^Tn^^glffWf^H^t^H^llTl^iifT^ H. fr% to give. ^r% to give. ^r^r to give. sr^lfq' aor. ^ftpfT P. ^^ji^ pre. p. ar^reft^ aor T f^mi?r des. ^rfS pre. 3^15 perf. sfrnn* P*e. ) ^rr p. G. s^TCT perf. ?ffq^ pra. perl. fut. Pass. a^Tfn^. ?rqrq. to bite. 3T^?^tr%^ Aor. 3T^R7?[rfT des. ^I^Q% pre. 1 P. T -^fW ^WT ger. s<re^ 61 to perish. ^r\qr p. P. P.. ^nr^^r *TTiTsr ^ to to make straight. sr^rft. ^nrna% &c. to conquer. ^Hd. 5ifir P'e. 3 U. gffant pre. ^T^. 1 ^% to cut. 4 P. Vedic ). ( 55fa pre. ^^<f ( 1 P. to put. 5T?T p. perf. . ( ar^rrftrz. ( 2 P. 4 P. ^RUm-ft P r .r to give. ^3TT ger- ^3^C inf fat- IP. ^^ ^q-f^ f a ben. f^^rfff des.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^rsfrfa pre. ^itT. 10 U. ^r. perf. ^fafiT. ^rf^. see above. ^ f^nqf to kill. ^r. ?rj^-ff pro. ^W <> pre. to play.

frfactt to shine. ) ^f p. to dedicate oneself to. ar^rrrcon. to invest OT to perish. pre. P. Cau. perf. p. 3T3frfr aor. &c. *%% qT5^3TT-^ rub. fat. rejoice. ^*- 10 A. f^^TT^. p. 5??TW aor. TW^fa des. ( for other forms sae the following root. f^nz^T ger. fut. ^n inf. f%r pre. P.-f%^iT^ porf. fut. to frcir^ pre. 1 ^r?T pre. f^fr^T perf.fut. fut. f^%3Tfir-% des. P. %(?<*. Cau 3?^r%^ aor. or. ^ffTf p. ft. p. 3?MH aop 1 - fteira. p. g^fa. ^?f?r.-^ft-^ ^r^^ inf. ?jrr or <ft=tr?r pre. Paas.. Pass. ?fff p. 3Tfrfq^. to go. 3Tfff?T^ to grant. A. to lament. . qfhfr?T pre.^R p. f^fnH des.-^^nrrS-W pre. Pass -f^?Tar pre. r^rm^ des. P. aor. f%% p. r%rfr^ ben. ^f^fr^. \<& p. de. Cau. f^^frer ben.p. ^rgffl-% pro. ben.) 4 A . <fra> to ahine. ^fofT Pass.to augment. mii^72fr<CTCRM4J4dclf^3ri rr . HfrRr^-rT aor. Pass. 2 U. 3TfrRnj A or. to appear. 3T^Ti%3cT Aor. 1 P. to anoint. fut. to be sleepy. 4 A.^rf^TfTTr ger. 3n^fr^grT aor.p.- ft^rcT aor. f^T* perf. aor - t^?rr^. 3^:^-^ con. &c. ^rfrf^^T^-tT aor. 3}^T pre . ^q-ra:-% fat. ( Vedic. p fut. gfriH^Tiff: perf. &c.62 SANSKRIT -GRAMMAR. f^T\jr p. afiTWr^ ben. qK^TSTk to cause. 6 U. ^q% pre.-^m ^q-fS-ff pre. %qfif pre. ^q-r%% fut. f^^rpr-^ pre.. <* & ^K^l^-ff aor. sfrfSta P. to allovr. p. ^f?r pre. Can. to f^r. to sacrifice. Cau. p. ^frf^^-fT VR p. ?f[ffrc ben.-^reir% pre. aor. & 10 U. BTffl aor. with a sacred gfr^rff thread.-^irfft-tt pre. f^rfiqr perf. A. frmsqff bnrn . g-^^q. pre.

^t perf.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^ff perf. Aor ^ 10 U. arfifq aor. to be sorry.- p. SfofT P. to shake to and f ro : 4 P. f^Wir. ^ P. ft^pre. fut. 3^:^-?T 1 P. 3T^r^. aor. ^rafinTT p. gT*T(5nft: to b perf. S"?^T ger. III. aor. ^rr perf. aqf^ to au*t. 3Tfr^^ on frwrer *ut. greff aor. ^tfTff pre. ^fgr^ ben. ben. 55% STf^T* ( perf. HK* pre. to give pain. ^rwf^-% pre. ^qrr^ ben ( -|tnifff-?r> also ^q-f?r-?r des. f%$Rqft de. ^r9rtS. to be wrong. fiNft pre. be proud. p. ^<nff f*m 3^rf% aor. - ft. pre. s^rftaor. to be impure. to make depraved pre. Cau. fut. p. 1 ^^frr Pass. 3^p. ^F^ perf. ^ jrqfT p. Pass. ^fjff p. 3T^T>nTff con. p. to give pain . to . g^pf f?TTci. <arm 3^?g[. %^^" p. ^TCTT p. . 53^ inf. 3T^T^ aor. 5:*irfarara( to give pain ^r^rfff P^. p. to make profit. ^ Hf^gr ?T aor. $|qqfd-fr pro. Cau. ^r%qrff fut. ^ffe ben. 3?^T*iT^ con. 5|5?t des. fut. 1 ^frfa pre. ^f? ) perf. ^t^qi^-?r P'e. fcqrm pre. Paas. glad. regard (wither). pre. 4 P. Pass. 3T^TO-T aor 5<T P. ar^tfj ( also %$fa w^. p. fut. to ut. distress. frfvr. perf. ST^TOT to milk. aor. 3?^5T^-<T aor. aor. fu!: . 10 U. Cau.-^^ pre. srcwfir fut. 1. 31^?^ aor. fjfawr* to kill. 3T^5Tcr & also ^ '- 5Tr?T.-^n%-pr P'e. se Pan. f(Tijr ^ pre. 4 A. ^ p. fat. . >ft^Tf?r-w 3?^^. p. <KT p ^ivr p. ^f p. 3*^ciaor.3TT3[> to worship. p. ben. 89 ) pre. a^rfir aor. fat. fut. 2 U. ^Tm Pass. to des. qtffar. 6 A. 5^f?f-^de?. ST^tfr^ aor. ^. 5 P. gtnfFt to 63 burn. fift p'o. ^TffiT . qftfTl^ to suffer pain.

. 3T^fi^. p. ger. 5T^T ?fT5^^. TT^ 9 P. 3T^gr-?T aor. 5^rm . to visit. ^^f 3i?^r^ con. ^TUT^ ben. ^ff& or ^|f perf. p. FCITT^ b en. p. fat. to cherish. f^ffr dos. 6 P. p. to kindle. 9T^TK aor. g?: strong or gfftT. 1 A. to perf. 3T^T3 . fut arf^rT aor. Differ ^T^m% pre. . Cau. ' tear. ^mfk-ff pre. ST^ot to see. 3T<figq*ifr> ^Tf^rt"?r ax>r. T^Tfot to con. 3T^rfr^ aor. atf^ p. a^f aor. f^T T^fW des. fut. ^tfft. Pass perf. ^rftj. know. gif. rfT^ra[-<T aor. P re ger.P. H^ aor. to string 1 P. to grow. g^ p. w p. pre. ^rm ben.-^ff?r pre. p. ^q% pre. r**r ^tf 5*3* inf. ^f& inf. to fear ). ^TT perf divide. ^?T p. tffcn or iffrTT p. ^ft^rm des. 10 U.p. 'e. Oan. freq. ^R-fHfT p. . ^T^m-^. aor. |lf?T P. 1 P. ^fJr pre. aor. 1 P ^ or aor. to put together. ^S ^ fut. aor pre. ( 3^% or fut. f^ffafS or %ttffir des. 11155^ to protect. to fear. ^5 Pr . tf#<n*to excite. Can. 3TfT^[-?T. gr^r to string. sffarr. aor.p. fear. Can. 5fr p. iut. ^NTOT%-?f pie. 515^ ^ff 3??^. ( ^T^rm% in the eense of Pass. to be fixed or firm. a^Tl'^-rT. p.SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. fut. 3T^r^g[-?f aor.p. together. 1 P. ?m?*T to ger. <?ftn%% pre. 3T3T$fTa[ ben. ^ ) ?i5ftfir. & 10 U. q^fir pre. ^a pre. 1 P. to grorrm P*e. ^rof p. ^*niT.

|^r pe**. 3TgtTci. aor. gfnft to shine . ^ffff p. ^f^^ WI^^T f^Tfm^ ^fhnrfSr-^ pre. %**7f3rd to make a discordant sound . to attack fnt. p. Jrrwfir fut.DHA'TUKOSHA. %1%fTT p. fut. fat. |%TOfft des. con. 3TOTT? aor. f^cflrS ^atu ^T<TTm-% p*e. 5mf%-?T pre. Pass. 3T?Tjm^ aor . to be purified j frofS pre. <pEmri Trff ^W ^T . ^r Prf. Pass -^Kt pre IP. ?a^rf^ perf. des. ben. to run. swfa pre. srrefr A. 1 P. ttftftz aor. P?e ^jfT% perf. ^rwfff iut. a^T^ft^ aor. f^f^T des. aor. P. f^rr. ^frwrfrT fut. ^Tar des. sr^ |ynr peff. . 3fTjrs^^ con. jrf^ pre. W3jT 1 P. fat. jmrT-^frafT P. . fimw. H9*gtrg% to cut. ^m perf. 3?jrjfw aor. p. 5T6ITT& fut. to move . 3rifrT^ COD. arfrrffa. T% *ut. to sleep ( generally with ^TtTT P. P*rT<rft pre. 1 3mrm to be able. ^ui\freq. *n% P^. Cau. s^ro ger. 2 P. ^Tir>f pre. 3f?nr^-?T aor. 3T^Tfq^ COD. Can. 5^ 5T 1 P. *mV to ran. ^r% to sport. aor. Cau 5g?Tff ff pre. ^ra 4 P. gr?fT p. %*TT^ Ben. de. inft to iun . p. yri^ffc ben. ** p. ft?r p. to despise. ^^ pre. to lament . p. aor. 1 A. 1 65 A. '^f^iHT OOD. snw to purify. oir^ pre. pre. ^^rrg. !HRfm< arm^ ben. fut. ?T aor. to lengthen.perf. ^pnt. p. mm p. fat. i%^^ perf. aor. 3Tpr*m% to advance towards. 3niina[ aor. or ^TT^ beD. P. Pass. p. 3^fti^. ^f^sqfr fat. gM de8 - pre. to melt. <f?r perf con. cTrmfTT p. fA del. ?TT^Tfl. yror p. 5TTT?1. to divide. 3T?[f^fhi: aor - pre. 3T^ni. perf. 2 P. to rush. ).

^ to cover. 3TMTofrg[. ?n% to sound. fc$*f pre. 5ta*h%. |fi^ pre.ffrft 9 U. a?5^ aor. 3?%r^-?T aor. itr% or f^ pre.-fr aor. MHM/I^ fat ) Vedic . to go &c. 4 p. perf. perf.-^^nrm^ tf^ur 3T#T^fr pre. fifefts- Cau. P.. nmf^rorr^s to kill. ) ^sfm> to hate. Perl 10 U. *ron?f pre. arjrf* aor. 5TTfi> P'e. ^jr perf.to sleep ( generally 3?fltTtfT5 with M ). ?%& Imp.. TfwrT^. 3T5Ton<* aor. ^m*f Perf. ft*Tl% freq. perf. to perf. to sound. g<f p. <HfTO. a^rfirc aor. ft%*. ^f^-tfcon. p. gTTOft P**.66 SANSKRIT GBAMXAB. trot. f*roroTrn^ to bear malice or hatred ygrm pre p des aor. gorriSi pfi^ pre. P. aor . . 3TfT?fi^. ^l^oHT^: 1 P. iTTOfr to destroy. show energy. *3j|. 1 fat. vrrff pre. ^wrq to OT^riSMr kill. 3*^ pre. ^nm% fut. Cau gnr or |^ ger. ^T^T to produce ftuit. ftft-freq. 3Ti%i>?g. 1 P. 5tr%?i% fat. to hurt. Pass. $*n^ben. ffTTra:. to accept. ( 3 P. Can. Pass. fat. jfHfoTlt fat. ^ ^[ 1 P. jpET?r pre. ^^ aor. ^ ( 3H%^[-^: 3rd r p. 6 P. A. pre. ben. des. T^ p.-f|^r> 1 P. 3T3*wg[ aor. f^ii^ parf. 3T^f^-?r *>*. p. u pi. to sound.

\H3lrf-fr pre. pre. P- 1 U. >rrf%?^T. g%Tff P.LEUL'TUCOSHA. tfrnrfif-% pre. OTTg(. am'fo aor. fot. TOVTOT-tt ^fif freq. ^arrfWi^ ben. tfar% pre. irid^^vTi: to rub. 3*9* prf. Cau. 3 P. ^ to pat. ^TVnffr. 55^ perf. |^r^T^- %ir^ fat. \F*fff pre. *T?ft to go-. ^vrrfi. srf^figL w. to p c fut. P. used in the Vedas perf. 3T^%^ aor. \mum1quiqVrfr bear. Pass. p. p. srvf ben. nNrft-K de*. 2nd iingular of 6 which is . f^fq^f% dea. aor.-vrnroi%-% 5 U. fif^n^ ben. f^rr* pcrf. ft%**rlr fat. to lire* ^f^ perf. ^rsurg. f%$fi pre. yC^Hfe^MvHr^f to be kindled. *o be fatigued. to e. to p. MT% pre. ^T^t to have. **q% * 6 P. aror^. ftw P. please. fat. $%<fr p. to be weaiy. to hold. to wash. fut. 3d\rrfTO aor. 3T^r\TT^-?f aor. ^pq% ifrtTT to shake to excite. ^T. U. 67 1 P. p..aor. perf. liv*. & ^ grant. *ra?fot aor. rfnn% te deHght. A. vrb^r. Oau. p. TOTS^ ger. aor. vn^rrff-?T pre. con. ^ift perf. 6 P. 1 ^fv^ir ger. 4 A. to produce. to ^rm. T^ftfif pre. fut - & gg?t pre ^^W-?r - fat. ^?f p. grrvrf^ to hold. to sound. to cleanse. j^m pre. f^prst to shake. s^fnaw^-eT aor. *T * U. aroraffa ^fii & % de3. Cau. srerftS 1 & ^^t^ aor W?H* dea. ^ft pre. f^^T Pe. ^\ftgfr. ( Ai^nr )4 P. p. *nrr 3T9reygcT OD. vntfhr ben. .

3?^Rw^-cf COD. ^ con. f^nr??T dee. fut. ^T> to heat. ) perf. above. ^. fut. 6 A. ^TTR aor. ^^ V* P. fgWTKfr: to to goj q. See the above root. I>erf. ^jftffT.. sfwft 6 ) inf. *fir pre.68 SANSKRIT GBAJOCAB. ^. \ftrlT. ijaf p. to support. *Tfr*rf8r%. p. gsflfif. arqrft^. gronffaj. tot. con. \rem% pre fut. Can. Ufirj ( 1 ) gftgn ( 5 & 9 U. ijgiri8-% s^r^rr-'^ &c. f at. ben. ^TC^i^-tT ^TT^r am. Oau. f^Afffir% des. 3T^ft^. i$*n^. Oau. & wrrs p*e. \rr?ot to hold. aR^j^TO aor. aTTCcfeft to destroy. p.-^r% pre. 3Tf^^[^ aor 4 A. to be. Tjjnrra-?* pre. 1 P. p. 3TTOTR exist.p. p. g^T^ aor. ^t. >jT. ^ 1 U.P- U. 2 sing. P. 9^ to shake. >^Tor to hold. vrru^rm p. perf. &c. WcTT con. aor.qw pre. . 3Tr. perf. to bear. heated. ben. i&ttc p. forms ftqft pre. A. \rff^- fut. ^ des. fat.- Pass. f&rr & a <> r . ( 5 ) tjsf (9) p. anif^r aor kill. ^r^% wtrft aor. aor. ^?r P. perf. 1 ^fr^ fWSr ben. ^m^R-^ pert Pa8. arafro^-a aor. \rrnrf5r-7r pro. >j(rf^JT P. P.-vj^gr^ pre. ^{^(\E bn.P. to be ben . iTrqrrcNNter to speak. U to shake. aor. 10 U. >j<Tnri^ pre. aor. to shine. ben. to vr^ of pre. For 10 U. other forms see Atm. <- qm des. 10.

qfalft tut. p. also. 1 P. to draw away . 3^\3m^ oon. arfrtfgt skilfully. Tamqf? fat.^t. VTTTg^ inf ( also H>SC ) 1 P. OTT^ ben. Pass. \fftm pre. ^ sense . & 10 U. 3^n^?5. fat. f^irram des. to ponder over. 3?TTWT aor. to come together. to conquer. ?rm^rrg5 to tread perf. 69 lysjft. to hurt. aor. Cau. H^rTf^rr ger. pfrfffS des. P. Pass. 3T^rW aor. ^s 1 P. areRrofitl aor. it does not convey a reflective pre. rmr P. 3TVmW5. to move. 5 P. STMIgfrft to be bold. sror^. arosfl*. \ffaft pre. to become old Tjum?* pre. ben. arsrsn^-aTOsfar. to be skilful . or 1 .wrnnt aor. cqr^A perf. Cau. \nffr p. \nn% pre.p. ^srffr pre. to be confident. pre. iot. fut. Wt% pre. OTtU p. wn^-gr 1 wm WTtRn%-^ pre. Cau. f^tTHHT^ des. ?'<fr perf. con. ^ perf . wnir^ or v^Mltl ben. 5^tT 1RT 1 aor - P. T=nfcn?r-?t 3fTWJ-ff. infr to go. inrft or troft pre. perf. to insult. to be proud or brave. con. f^-dNIH to think of. ( immodest ) p. srg^* to offend. perf.p. ^-RT \:RF^ aor. qr^ P-P- ^I^ 1 P. vrfr-fr-^fS fut 3nrT^I<r aor. aor. f^srfarof des. aismrff . vauni or wnnat ben. vfWTei% pre. 9 P. BTOT^.. to throw away. BTOtffcaor. <n% to suck. igntriff pre. P. P. 3T^r^ aor. pre. to blow. arcfrror aor . trf$- p. if 1 P. yrf perf. Pass. -vrrtrqft ( Paras m. ^fan p. perf. ^Tgnsrcqi'TOV: to exhale. Oau.DHA'TUKOSHA. aor. uffa. pre. VRTWfa fat. qifo pre. ^l p. jr?f> to go .

tUri^WHS ben. perf. 1 P. to 1 P. to tear. srqrfft pre. pre. ( another reading for the above ). 3?T%srera. perf. ijRrifcTT. 3T^n*T5^r^ o to sound as a bell ^H^fd-^i 01* gfV4fTl<l aor. 1 P. ^rT?nn^-%. STSJ^i^ Aor.p. OT?rT P. 3131*317% fat. ^jPET pert STfiteriSf fat. Oau.r$TI% pre. to beat a drum . P. 1 P. utter indistinctly. Winft^aor. ^Ttifii down. snnfvjg aor. snrfff pre. 5^^ perf. or 3!>i^f%? aor. . . |^v4l^l^ des. ^UT% perf. WW p. yr^TW pre. p. TVTT^ sing.n% to sound. to go. m*f*3TcT fat. 3resfr% aor. 1 1 A. pre 1 A. 3|rrr3? Aor. . to thunder* ^prf^ i pre. to wish. 9 P. srertS pre. arosifa Aor. * ? fot. 1 P. to sound . to ( darkness ) p. $T. ur^ff pre. WHR33T to be able . . 6 p - ( W&*% ) *f faw&fc to S b "tea^y . fi^KUl go 5 to cut. TsSfr^T ger. ilforsq-ra fat. STfitfiT <CHt to be pleased or satisfied. fat. to glean sn^priirft. fut. BKcT P-P. to perish. ^3TO pre. ifiHI ^$fqr to be firm 5 SJ^TcT P re . 1 P. Ts5rf*nfT .70 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. Q^ffi^ffi des. fat. vnrafct. ) perf.-?r. %*& i to glean iremlr pre. ^T^ 1 to sound. v^fT^ pre. Cau. STT^n^fsCRC C 9 n . 1 P. %CI<JI)A > ^>Jiia pre. Pass. 3TC$fcpir TcTi ^T to fall p. Witi^in fat.p. . ^f%qT?T fat. sren=fhl> 3*URfta[ aor. v4tt<*ft% pre. to echo. 10 u. ^m ( pre. perf. pre. A.

^^ pre. to 1 move. ^H^ or jrm*TI% 3Tflrr^ 3RCT3 COD - W^l^ . *5^r to kill. 3T5ft5Rr^-?f aor. vg^d pre. fut. 1 P. 5fft*n$ P-P- fut. to actj ^fff pre. smf* aor 1 P. sf^jffl-ff pre. 1 A. aor. to protect. Pass. 3?5q% ^T^ aor. to roar.) TOW pre. p. . ^Rf^Iff ^?r p. to sound.) 1 P ^^ t. aor srfV- aor. fut. Cau. P. dance. *n^nn^ to speak. amrfra.CTrfft P*e. maqiff-fr pre. R^S aor. 10 U.p. H^kT pre. pre perf. to go. ?r?m <t.to sound indistinctly j \-*. *wfe 10 U. perf. HIJ>M to perish. fut. srirfr pre. *fex p. ^ perf. 1 P. H*i*$\ to be pleased. 3T^f^ aor. ^^% pre. 3*5fT3fHor 3R^ des. 5TT^rrW-?r P'e. Pass. m$ perf. 1 P. to souud.p. to thnnder-. 3?^T^ or 3?^T3T^ aor. p. ^r^ pre. SR^fr^ aor. RH^T^f 5fr*nfr pre. . 3Tsq% ST^. h^MiHMfcsfr P. ben. ft^rfir^des. to praise.qr?fn^-% pre. to go. 3T^fr^-3WT?ft^ aor. to shine.DHA'TUKOSHA. fat. Oau. ben. p. ^jf P-P- 5T?^T ger. to hurt. 3T!fT%^ con. H^UId. ^^f?T pre. ^fqr% Cau. snns pe'f. ^ pre. ^r to salute. f^m% ^es. aor. ^RT^ or. fut. fr 71 des. 1 A. to sound j ( sr ) ^^ con. 1 ^^(% ^T^ perf. ^T^ to bellow. to go. Pass.mfff pre. to bend. Paps. Jff^fT P. to kill.p. to speak.nrf^-% pre. IP. ^^f^mq. to shine. to thrive- 5ff^T p. pre. 10 U. to describe. perf. aor 10 U.

3T^[ ben. f%^T(^ or RJTT%^ des. 3TRfw? Aor.p. r%^^ peif. ^^?T^ ben. wsgV perf des. ^ft^ql^mq): to wash. fwr.p. R?^^ fault snor^ p?e.qT^ft^rrh^r^ffV^ to ask. to . HWr?%-% pre. fut. R^Hrr^i ft^ft^T ben. ^f. BTJTftTwrg-. ftfJfir p. Can.~ 5TT5rqrfir-% pre. 3T^r?^^[-rT aor. jqqfif fut. ^T^Fnr . P.the TJ. ^^ p. Pass. pre. ffe3*T?f pre. SWcWfrtr con. aor. . same as A. to bless-.p. fat. aor. re. 8Hdqfo. fut. sffffi^ 5Tfri?f-?r pre. aor. *5Tra[. *%*TT or jff F p. pre. ^T^. *?% ***fr fut. ^H>H^-fT to wash. to nourish. ben. Pass. to purify. Bf^T^aor. ^rHNIH find with. to perish. ^%^f&.72 P. aor. 4 Q. to oe master. sf&ft pre. -ff des. 5T?Pn?r-^ fat. fut. 3TJff?T^-?T or. pre. *RT$T perf. 3RffHh[. ^j% to tie. sr^sft to be lost. to bind. to condemn. to bind. . 3T^rF aor. to blame. ^ -A. jfgrn PW. sff^ inf. 5Rra per- 10 U. ^n^ perf. Can. ftrow pre. ) A. ifrtr 3RTm7 aor.% pre. ^Brf*^TW dea. Can. SfTfTflf-ifr pre. A. P. %% perf. wfts* pf ftfi^^r p.p. Pass. Pass. 5Tr ger. ^rf^f^T Aor. Oaq. f^RI^ pre.p.^mft^or. Sffafcmfd-fr fnt.ST^r^ COD. f^U p. to be purified. %W p. ^RHT perf. f%fr Rf^ff fut Cau p. ft^jjfer-^ pre. . fat. ben. ^rfif-^r fat.p. jfrfirCT p. BTM^T^. qrwfff pre. 4 P. aor. 1 1 P. ^|j or ger. w- con. R^p^r ger. Hunrrat to speak. fat. SRTS . 1 to smell. ftsf^H%-% des. sm^RT p. ^m ( pre. ^m?TT p.

3TffT7^?l aor. ucf|< aor. 6 P. to to push. to marry. to lead. 3*^W ijf^*i 2nd- . a^% perf f^^T%^ to kiss.<t aor ^>a. jnr* ) to become thick. %^ inf. to measure. ben. ' ' 3^ ( - aor. throw. fut.or 3^ p. Aor. f^rnr-Rr %ar p. des. 1 P. to settle. ) 6 P. WOT to colour. qfrmot to weigh. 3 2 P. fi|finfl'ff-?t pre. -pre. l 78 1 U. vffcft pre. perf arista. s?froft<I 1 P. 1 P. 2 A. gtirg^ 3?*fre b* 11 33?fri^-fr des. ftfhT perf . ^nprrvft to think. ^if* aor. perf. to incite.%trffr pre.p. ^fqrfl i. to reach. to meditate. 1 P. efttf p. WFt to become fat. *3m ( ^rn^* to praise. %gfr?T% pre. aor. to commend. to grow. 3^ p. 3T%*qr Aor. 3^. 'faflH' 3T^q^-fr con. %^ft pre. 3T3*rW^-?T Aor. 1 P. to carry off. 10 A. 3419 perf. to f^fffr pre. aTTrft' aor. ^IfT pre. $rqmRiWft: to blame. fg<fr to praise. ^cqiff-3 fut. S^ %W% ^ ( to sprinkle. r-> pre. f^ftr^ fut. fttrft pre. 3^fjf pre. sffarr ger. jrrtrot f^- pre. fnn^ freq. Cau. n<T<TIH% pre.p.fls> or. *TR to sprinkle. HNft H*0^ perf. . Aor. flvfcqft P^e fat BTRpT'^rT Aor.DHA'TUKOSHA.> aor. s*fttrft fnt. Pass. eat. 1 pre. P re fltft 3T3F(3. ^^rsr^rfff % des. fitfft perf. 9TfT^r^ Aor. 1 U. to remove.p. fifr* perf sgfir fut.

. 4 P. ^f^iT p. ^T^r^^. Oau. . to move-. Brq-Ra q^ p. 1 P. STq^r^rfr aor rot -fr fut. 10 U. ^rUT^ben.*nt. fut. & 10 U. fut. ^j% jffclH only pre. qq^ aor. BTR&I to lead. pre. to represent on the stage. q^ift pre. pre. qqRf perf. P.74 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. fHVJHfd% des.^rtrfft pre. .) perf. to cook. ^r p. 3T^5f^[-tT Aor. to envelop. perf. ^UMM pre. <ro%-fr ^q^r^-jr con. s^ft. Aor. ^ar to speak.T ar^FKT. Cau. to go. Pass. Oau.^ to make clear. 10 U. pre. qrfTJT^ to take. ben. %q^ pre. perf. 1 P.p. fnt. fnt. to go.- A. to reach. 3W<ft^ aor. 4T^$ to clothe. 1 A. fut. 3f%*rfir *nt. fat. f^ffirTRf pre. S^' Aor 1 U. ^ p. 3Tqf%^T^ con. to digest. 3^31* inf. sing. 9139}* Aor. Pass. - <T$x*rf^-& pre. Mzffim p. ^ffrTT P. f^rfriS des. qwf$f-W.nsrera-% pre. R^% perf. to fat. p. arq^f^ or ar^TSn^ aor. to spread. <T*irfar-ar fut. Oau. &c. qfe?rr P. ^ft pre.n3 aor. q^if^ pre. Oau. ah accept. 1 & 9 P. <TT?l%^ to dance. ^ to carry. soTFrqs^r fut. aor.-^xq^ pre. <r$rfff. ftqfeqft dea. 5Rcf perf. aTTtfa aor. a^frr^-ff aor.p. qryqf%% pre. q?<n%-5 per. 3T^ft 1 P.p. ft^K^^^ or. des. to coyer. Aor. 5rRTT% 5fftin% ar^fat Aor. 3f. fot.

qftif g'. Cau. q^% pre.p pre. srnfcj. 10 U. 0?^ inf. COD - ^MH< aor. 1 ifJw qTOTm-ff pre. q<r^rf%%. arw^ft to bargain. q^^ . Oau. 3^^^-^ ) qqr 1 A. to go . aor. aor. q$rit p. to des. qrsgir to be master of. H/San. q^r pre. 1 P. r^ 1 P. to attain. perf. MUllNdT-qfdRTT. pre. ben. qr*nnf&% pre. qorff pre. ( qrorq-f^-W pre. q^fS pre. Cau. ut. aor. p. fly. qfsm p. q^TTr^ ben. f%*q-g. ^ perf. qfoniT p. <nrs^c pre. pre. ifT to go. fat. 5fffrr^-ir aor.arq- or 3WI3I3.--qfir% pre. perf. to fall. fut. arim^-ff aor. q^frrffT freq. 10 U. A. qar?f pre. qforqhr ben. qfq-ff pre. ^T^ to destroy. ^?r perf. con. IM^UI 1 P. |ut. ir^ft to throw. arqrffi aor. qfor?T p.p. q^r p. arqrf? aor. q?^t Pass. with 3TP* c. mnfAUJd. to rule. p. *o describe. nqfcr^r aor. 76 to WHETTf WTf% f5flfrdHHJ*Ma * to read > "tody. qfir^ 4 A. aor.p. Oau. 4 A.p. qrf)qfift. to alight. q?ftqwr. qqw perf. to collect. qnpTffr-^ pre. to bet or stake at ploy. qqnf perf. qrft ^ to heap together. 3rq?^rfT con. fqqfs^fft des. 1 P. imt to go. aor. des. 1 qv^m A. qf^drfft fnt. qf^nr p. Can.p. qqfTT perf. qqry perf. fit. i n '. WT ger. q?ffte ben. q^m pre. PaBS. *^5lr srqfnr^ aor. qfffarr ger. <Hif ^?ft to praise. *or.p. aor. to send. inf.DHA'IUKOBHA. fq?^r des. arqrft aor. Parasm. qw p. pre. BTq^fiJ. Pass. dei.

qrfftrTT p. . A. 10 U. qqq STTO^ aor. (Tim<H^ Cau. green. ^mt^<x COD. to praise. 1 P. to absorb. pre. to rule. qqgm% pre. SANSKBIT GBAMHAB to go. a^qf^ aor. qr^rfA fat. q^f to p*e. &o. ^*<IH> to finish. to go. 3WWT aor ft^ft^ <*es. MHWl^frK. Hlift*Jli9 . to go. - ii?ft q^q^ pre. to go. qoftrffi-^ pie. fqqRn% des. i\* p. 1 A. ben. to go. srqnfTC aor. qfr. q^fr. qq^ perf. m^mif)-^ fat. P. qrrra perf. qqjr pel ^TRTT p. qirr^ ben. aor. 10 U. qro pre. to go . Brqfqrer aor. & 1 P. qr 2 P. to move. 1 Pass. to move qsrfw pre. qrq^nft-^ pre atqrft aor. qrfsrfS fat. srqqof^-fT aor. a^Rft^ aor. qR*rfff% HKUIiJ^U-TO' perf.p ^fir^fte. lf3dl r. & 1 P. sn^rW to <T I fat. to go. to get through or over. Pass. ^?^r% to bind. 1 P. qrfir pre. 10 U. 10 U. g-f?<nn make ft. qrrfhn P. qarafiHr. 10 U. qq> perf. arqqffg. q^ft qq$ perf. qsinrnr pre. Oau.p. p. Pass. con. q^ pre.76 10 A. qr% to drink. perf. |>re.fut. qqi% pre.p. to protect. q^n??% perf. ^t p. qq^ perf. 3Tqrg[ aor. qu ^JK 1 perf. qpn^ ben. to break wind. perl A. fut. 9nfh9^-ir aor. qT5TqT^% pre. 3TTrq^-ff aor. qRjirr%% pre. qfiferW. g*<n$ aor. ^r^TT9[ ^en ^?r MHiNd ^Ef^ pre U. 1 P. T^t e. P. 1 P. per. q^ 1 perf. <r?ir^ fqfffJr pre. sjfi to fill. q^nfr pre. des.

O P. sri^f^^ aor. artVl^T. des. 3^f*aor. to hurt. to heap togethe pre. f^fl% pre. to throw. 3Ji5^l^aor. Pass. MI<^lo-^*K-^ &c. to injure.\3uft pre. P.cT Aor. & P. Pass. P. fop ger. Q^Ndl ftf^fT p. fnt. tqwn?T pre. Pass. to touch. fq^r perf. i^{u(f 10 U. fifarife^RUft: to kiU. ^fjj% e. iqiq|%*rft. con. to live.^ pre. q^fft-fc P". to incite. N3n?f pr aor. 1 P. perf. n^nrt ^tnV ^ to shine. iq^r p. 77 *H<mK4rflT aor.-qnaj% pre e MifSrf P.p. to P.. ftf^^m 3Tiqr^Tir^ con. ar^l% pre. perf. p. p. ft&m ^ to form. P. q|<0<jft% pre. qidNflf p. P. perf. ftl^^" perl. sfrng. Pas8. 1 ft^ perf. to light j ^^ftcC aor. srfq^ aor.-fq?OT> kindle. qrifo pre. fq^TH. ^ift ^q-4f^ to colour. 6 P. iq^ 7 A. ger. ^n% pre. R^pn^a^TT-^^ p. to grind. to serve. H. ?r$Tfcr to protect. qqir^. &c. ^ inf.DHA'TUKOSHA. 41 . to roll into a lump. G. to to give.f^%pre.^nt. fq^f perf. 1 10 U. fqson^ ben.^ to sprinkle. 1 p ^T^B^rrmrT: to sound. ii fut. Can. ben. fat. ft^r p. to go. fq^i^^lS des. to fasWf^-?*. mdftrtH ger. p. 3pfiqw^-?T aor. 10 U. Bf^rg. to shake. ^TT3ff^TT-^%. collect. qi%<rr pre. fqfq%.. fut ^r% %^. aor. P'e. con p. fat. )^nr P. A kill. aor. & 1 P q^qrar to heap. 3Rcftt%^-?T aor. &c. ztfrft^ aor. 10 U. 8.

10 U. ffTft^TnT fat. fat. Oan. ^mr P. to press. 3^ parf. ssirfiHt tFrggz^-ff Aor. 55-it-flwfir des. . ffftr^f^ pro. 4 P. 1 P. wf^- to become fat or strong^ ^ftwr pre. to reduce to powder. starrer a^f^ aor. to shine. fat. <fhrft pre. Aor. Aor. 6 P. OTfft*. 9?f^nTr p. Aor Aor. Aor. 5^ ( 53% 3 sing. igc* perf. kill. *|3r to 10 U. 9fjr^Bjf5*9% pre. 10 U. to torment. gfr^r ^T to speak. pre. 3frfWi^Aor. 3*nrfif-W 6 ^ fh^rot 2nd ( $2TTI^ ) to embrace. <fwnS% pre. 5 3^5^ P S*^1*^ to be pious. s^fir pre. - w|% Aor. perf. to grind. fat. <?(*. trwnrf aor. fat. qt^cn^^r^R-^ &c. ffi^fr perf. P- 3TfWr^-ff. to injnre. to shine. to hnrt. <ftarf>-% P ?CTT-^r% perf.78 1 BAVBKUT P. 1 P. 1 P. gOTnT pre. 10 U. to discover.% pre. nfanrn* to kill. Mlfqmffi-?r fat. drink. to oppose. perf. perl. TOft fat. 5^ ^w pre. 3TfVRvi:ir. s?*5? ( ^n'? ) to leaye. jfofym P. aor. ftfrr int. MqqnaH-^g> &c. fe$Rift: to avnfi? Aor. ) perf. P. tf*$ to bind together. HT^nrr <VA ^ to speak. to crash. 511% pre. fat. p'e. 4 A. s*uf con. to gO. Aor. Mteftmffl-fr fat 9^- ^ fa*.^mnrft-% pre. 10 U. to go. ssfOTft des. 10 U. <renrra-l* pre. W&r*frT fat.>*Rr pre. wrfN^-lf. Hfiwfo to increaae. fq^TTO dee.

to invent. - ^sqft pro.^?T P P- 10 U. ST^ffT aor. P. irr^ ( fhn% ^ ) to grow. 3rfr^r^ con. p. ^rrot to maintain. qftfTT spn^T^-rT con. 5^ perl. 3jiftf% aor. qfer p. dee. 1 P. S*ot to fill. 5?*qrT p. to develop. 1 &6 P.DHA'TUKOSHA. to bear. Oau. to become tall. $irof?r. ykfo pre. 5^ perf. & 10 U. sf3q<sqf?T fut. to tie. *rfturi& sj^ft fut. 5^ 5sq% jfif perf. fat. to regard. 4. rfftffr p. Aor. S]fcrft-fr pra. BT5T^ aor. re - 5^nr. A or 5<fnf perf. |%3F^RT to open. 9 U. 6 P. Pass. g^> perf. qt^T?f . P.-qr^- des. 3fqtw^-fT Aor. to purify &c. to receive with honour. STfS^-cT Aor. 3TTO^-W also 1 ) p. srffr pre. p. perf. qr^rf?r-^r pre. 10 U. qfir^ ben. 3TSS^-?T 1 A. qftClH ^ea- ST^^ des. ^<TT^. Aor. 55^rm des. fat 4 P. 3T5f^T^ra[ con. p. \LHi| I 4H ff( ^& perf. s*rfo. 5^"^ ben. snHfat Pas. to promote. fat. q^r to purify. $qrftr pre. ^f)^f P . 55^ perf. ffifcll* ^ dwell. U. to blow. 55^ . to present 1 with. qtq^f f?r. fut. q^ TfttTT p. sraf^T aor. fat. ^WMK<4ir: aor. *at. perf. >^M|5j7d 3TTW^ aor. p. f ol. fat. grc^rfff P*e. to nourish. 5^ P 1 ^ P. pre. <faftf^ f 'eq. iqqf^?r ^riS% pre. qtTOfa% pre. to winnow. ^nrftrTT p. <ftfan. <rt$m% fat. sffar. Y^raftMi pre. ST^wfi^aor. to ihow. aor. pre. pre. to mortify. ^STTTT^ to adore. Oau. p. swrrft pre. to go ahead. ^rf^nr ger. snnra* Aor. qfar^rfff-fT fut. 5^r to nourish.^ 1 & 9 P. qtRqfer fat. ^K-^T &c. or. 10 U. &c . p. pre.

aor. to hinder. trrom ar^nhj P.-f^ pre. A. ^rftrTr. <TTOT^TOFIT: to protect. ^^rrW to heap. fut. ^ ^ aiq-^fd.5^perf. ^% ^?F pre. Cau. qf%?rr ger. to join. . 3jgr^ 3<Jft ( Aor. 3r(*T**rfR-% fut. qi?^|^ fut. p. 1 ^nm^RslT-^W. 10. p. perf pre. con. 7 P. q^fr?r. p. P- Pass. 3^. U.-q^^ Pre. to .f^TTar^T^^ P. or.^q:. ^fg. fut. to collect. g^ra^fff-FT des. urf%> pre. 5^ perl 3^^^^ aor. fqrorrT pre. qf%q^ fut. p. tf^% perf. s*fre ben. sjfifrr p.g?^^Aor. 53$* des. stjfwr des. TO 1 P. 3m^T. con. pre. Oau. aor. . qaT perf. tjpfcrfr-n-. & SJfocTr. 3?p:<TT*T* to fill. ^5^% ojr 1 P. Aor. &c. tr?r 4 A.fut. des. fut. to join. 1 P. ^ 3 P.^ftwn^fut. pre. if^TT p. fqqf%q^ dea. fq-^T^ ben. to blow. dea. -HM-JH to qf%rlT p.3?iSo5^-?r Aor.80 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. fn^T%-% grfi^^-cT aor. imperf . p. gtjn-qk des. 3WN?^-?r aor. fill. con. Oau. to satisfy. ^cjftrTr P ar^T^ . ^ffftg^ 10 U. irf^^ fnt. ^SlftT^T ger. 3?^T Dre. aor. 10 U. ^> p. ^q. fMqM^ & 10 U. *gft pre perf. & 1 P. Oan. to heap together} spnifa'-erpre. T% ST'jft aor.T^%. to unite. wffqrT Pass.p re fut. to be active.%i)re. mostly used &n ). c.-^mT^-% to cover. 35? perf.rT inf. come oTTf%^ in contact with. to gather. fut- to split. pre. q-faft^ inf. ST^iKi^l^-lf 3T^53TcI.<Tr^% aor. P. T^7T%-cT pre. 5^ 2 A. q^rf p. to gather. p. to 3rfqqr: to bring outj mf^ pre. p. P.-7T^fff-?T pre. -q^r pre. a r. ^TTT P*rf. 3*S*|p?^-?r 10 U. p. qfr^ perf. ^ p. <^ inf. to putrify. ^ 6 Awith sqrqm s^nqR ^ to be busy. ^t. ^>togrow. fill.

wrf. srorffc* ^^ff% or ftqrf^nt. ftqfT^I% Pass. %^ f^%sr^ xni% ^ to serve. to wither. 1 r & 10 U. perf.^rfrpre. armffa. clea. sftmium to ask > to B ek for. ^ftwrfff. <rTT<Tn*-?t pre. <rnrf?T pre. ^MH^ui^i: ben.srgft to throw. to A. 6 P. fnt. to shake. aor. ^r^ aftfro A. ger.%^f*rm$FSR$ to sprinkle. Miif^tijd' fut. 1 P.^ pro. f^rffr pre. to dry. to fill. ?*<l pre. irfcrr. 3m^ra. perf. ^jirr%% pre. ^ft. fut. to go. resolve-. <TO*rf?ir% pre. to com. to delight. 2 A. in contact with. trqffT pre. tjuri?T pre. to grow. A $^fir to fut. c?rj^. - gn% to please. 331% P re 6 P. P. pre. pre. ftqffaft des. r 3TTT^ increase. 1 togo. ^ 3fc^|fq&(|^ con. uj|(7irll p. 3Ttft^^-?T aor. 10 U.-tT Aor. to swell. ft. &c.p.p. aor. p. to embrace. 1 P. <pr$ perf. 3^^ aor. aor. ^ p. aor. sftoft to please. <r^ fut. prnff p. to tell. 3 P. p. P. & 1 P. <T<rr?C perf. P.DHA'TUKOSHA. to satisfy. 10 tJ. 1 %^ to serve. grow. fat 1 3- 3<*r- Aor. ^rfmr p. to blow? to refresh. qTOT. ^4. ^^rfiJtt t or. p. ^irr!% pre. fl^ p. to fill. see the above root. . ^mi^d con. *rf?rircors^% to go. to cqrqrr pre. 9 P. vR^ wrf ^ aor. q6^t. q 1 P.-irfof^-?r pre. fquqifq^ des.J on^T pre. to give pain to.. . p.p. Vfft t>re. anm?r aor. q^et pre. to kill. qrR^%5 TTT% pre. to send. A ^^ perf. Oau. &c. ^3 pi % q^gp petf . 81 q^ perf.

xfj?f ftflfr perf. 3r$r^ con.p. !r^ft-W fut. fut. TO$ perf. to rise.. p. 3f^E 55^ perf. qfcfa pre. ftxrnr> ftfW. sftrfr Pass. OTn^ben. . fut. Can. srfirqW fut. aor. 3TfWnira[-cT. to sprinkle. A. sftaftlf pre. ST ger. sr*rofir-?f pre. ^nmfi^ IP. 1 P. P. afa & . to please. inft to go. muj|^ to become famous. sft^ p. 5^ 5^ 1 P.fut. STFflOT to swing. 5^ 3nrtta aor. srr ^t aor. p. aor. ft^t^f^T-^ pre. ai^nni^-fT or. aor.. Can. P.-srprW. srori?t% pre. to feel affection for. gjr. sft aft* aor. to ger. 1 ^ Pass. sftf^r^r 5EfW^ HMlfilll'S. Pass.p. & 1 U. 9^rA? Aor. jf^TT 1 A. ffiirqftqfo^ des. 3r?rr p. sT5H inf. fut. des.p. *Tft%. fill. STRTT p. to go. fat. Pass igifc pre. to jump. to shake.p. sffURfft%. pre. snn^ 55^%% fat. pre. 1 pre. inft perf. to filij xnift pre. srftff P-P- aTqinRT-fT aor. awfH|q<r con. satisfied^ sfriff 4 A.p. to increase. troftctt P. fpsgsm* ben . perf. sf)Rrcjr. mh?t des. &c. fat snrhraor. ansrftreaor. perf. JT A. tf> become wet. to become famous. JT^ to rub. sfl^r ger. 51% to burn. del. fcft?*gft% aor. ^sffr perf. inf.perf. to take delight in . spr?r pre. srforr p. s^ p. ifhTT^ 9 U.. 5- 3l5^. aor ger.82 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. OTTSft^ defl . ^rf^T sr^aft U. f^xflHTm-^ defl. ^tff^[<rfyll pre. pre. ift 10 U. to be pre. inwirf?r% pre. ?^ot to please. 10 U. fat. "^ft pre. jrlonifr. Wrs ben. . ffRff p. ^?rr p. ( WX\m dual > 315^^ pre. p. fat sr^ffi fut. ir^T ben. xft^S pre. ift mm^.

qTO?TT p. 5fr4Nhft to behave il) 5 to go loftly. t^Tfftuift fnt. to jump. &qft fut. 3Tf^5^[-fr Aor. fill. <sft|?T p. <rWV perf. 9 P. Other forms like 2 P. fu^. Cau. Aor.p. 3jmi4ta ben. to fnt. *tuf?NT pre. l^ to iprinkle. qtf&nTT p. f^Tfft to go. ) 3nqn^I^ ftvf?wf^ des. gcg% perf. Pasf. *ri?t pro. qiffra <Ff*in% ( fut. p. split. ). Other forms like those of the. falft dee. 1 P.p. irRr^TWt: to go.' 3Tft<ini|^:?T aor.?r pre. qrfi&fT p. pre. aiqrfeisir^ con. to go. 3T^ft^.p. f^TTQm des. i ?. c^WT p. 4 P. to result.^. 5^ sr^g p. perf. fut. Cau.89 1 U. aq^: aor. p. pre. to bear fruit. tut. 3lfttf|^ aor. ( ^c^jtfr^^coD. A. rrorfar fut. ( 4 above trgfdr to devour. 4 & ^ ) to burn. sr*n% pre. 3|^r aor. $ffir-ft pro. cgrT P. ^ffftnf P. above . - P. or. qrarft pre. to fly. 1 3T$fa[ Aor. ^fW pr*. fnt. to to be wet. O P'e. 1 ^scjy^.p. 3*3%* or. ^Tt^nft^C aor. tFOTirf^. to go. ^^ pre. qirfcft to be full. ( c^s 1> ( 1 ) cgfof 4 ) p. fihffTor to perf. ftc. 35^ 1 ) p. ytft pre.c*rnrtrft aor. 3Hr% to eat. to be successful. ^mi^^ con. bunt. 1 P. 3TgTKr?T con. 1 U. c^r ( 1 > 4 ) ger. aor perf. qrortJI pre. efnff P-P- I P. to be equal to-. to open. cfrrcr^ c^rqr^. ^jrsfif . im> to ^riT% float.p. 1 anrWT^ Aor. 3Hpifts VWHH ben. ^rqrof^. to eat ? q&rft P'e. to produce easiJy. ^^uft ( pre.

to hoard grain. Pass. pre. des. ^KMrT!iir^rrar^T%5 to speak. P. to increase. ^^for perf. P. ^^f p. perf. 31*^ aor. r 1 P. g^ir?^-^ aor. sfeW pre. ^7^^^^^-^K &c. 1 P. fut. . to be disgusted with. to be steady. sr^fif pre. fj^rrof ^rrnrt pre. 1 10 U. to restrain. to blow fat. to grow. ^otlff P*e.to bind. 3Tgr%<*r^ con. grf^TT^r fat. f. to goffer srfi^fr fat. vrrc^TfiT fnt. ^.p. STTOR qHimilra% ^r to live-. f%TTfir^T> to loathe. &c. ^ pexf . des. 5T5% to 1 sound 3R-^r-oft^ aor.^Wf perf. to hurt. ^$r?f^ p/e. to speak. to go. 3T5frW^ aor. P. Aor.^-q^ pre. to attract. gr%rTT P. to Mnd4 5F\nnK% pre. ^TW^fl^ ben. fut.^r ger. ^srTT P* T *' 3&-*n-^ aor.-^r^r% pre. pre. ^r$y perf. ^rHrOTSPI^-STO-^ 3TCrHf?^qrT con. perf. pre. stflw p. U. ^T^^^-rr Aor. to form. ^frT j pre. T^[ p. 3TW=fW?[ con. 1 P. 3T^rri?fT aor. ^^ff^r to bind. fut. 3T*TT?f 9 P. 1 P. 1 perf. g I A.84 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. tiffcqfr fat. fif^r?^m des. srf&cTT P.|}r to grow. H&Qsqfd pre. srr^rr^. to open.-^hTfW% pre. ^rigR. to give. H^T^ aor. gr f|<s? aor. .p. WHTW pre. f%^r^mm% des. t%^% i Pass. ^rvrmr^ ben. x ^f?r pre. 1 A. aor. graft pre. fta*% porf. n.p 10 U. fat. ^T%?TT P. ( as a flower ). ^hrr%fT. srvra: ?r ^nif%. amf^Aor. 1- fr^fr ^ kill. Pas8.fut. A. fw*rpfal%% des. Oau. 3T^f^-rT Aor. pre. ^f%cTT p.

10 U. to %sft pre. ST^Tlvr aor. i%m pre. to divide. fut. con. 1 U. 10 U. ^Tf5rc5rr ger. P. %OTf3r-?Jr pre. fgfwlT%. p ajran^r to swear. aor. ^-q*ff P'perf. ^f^^w-?r fut.-?r aor. 1 3T^5Tr\rg. P. & 10 U. 6 P. 1 A. 3T^^[ 3T^tf^ aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. Pass. fat.-5rvi?ir^-^ pre !^T ^t^ inf. *rnot to bark. ^^m pre. arwmtfrT con. vt^ ^TTvfaT p. to torment . aor ^rra g^rtf perf. 3^f%^ Aor. ftri^ perf. q^or ^ perf. to sink. rmjar p.-^rjr pre. ^^"Tf^ aor. to understand . ^r^ft pre. ^tvnn?r-ff ^Cf^-T aor. t ^^ - ben. P. to bathe. Cau. 4 P. arrpjsqAor A. ^faf^-?r P r f4tM. wnfTcC. Cau. to emit . 10 U. 1 3H% to oppress. p. >%TT p. vftT P. to esteem. f^RTHf pre- fHfr 1 P. to mark. fut. fat. -^rqtn^-it pre. fut. %%qr% fut. P. f^t^ perf. 3^nf^r-% pre. ^f% perf. to throw. 3T^q% to split. 85 . 3T%c5T<J: aor. 3TlTTO aor. ft^T. ^raforTr p. ^mfanr fut. 4 P. pre. pre. to instigate. w^ to stop. to discharge. fut. arwhnNr^-f pre 3Tf^. STTofr to breathe 4 P. Pass. (%%$y perf. l %forr 3T%^rg. perf. . Pass. ^t^^ to know. ger. Oau. fut. 3*5rrpi**re con. fSr^fff pre. f^tf^TTrt-?T de3. ro% pre. ^TW^T ger. ^fefr p. to plunge. ftp3[rrr p.^r^ to break. sm^gi* shout-. ^ff^im fut. to know. f^fk. to curse. ^for p. to go. f^^fH-^ pre. in'. P- ^^f^r% des. to speak. &c. ft>? perf. to dive. fut. p. 4 A. perf.

3WTU aor.86 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. ^<4iUT^ . to serve. to treat Honourably* p. Pass. ^^rr%% ben. stfhnfH^ . aor. perf. see ww. 3<i*rt sing. ^nii p. fat. des. *TsrfmT p. to roar aor. 6 P. p. Oau. perf. fat. p. p. con. p. to bite. to choose. pre. p. to p. 10 U. . to hnrt. . oQlfflrat ^fT% to speak fnt. fat. p. aor. ger. to kill. to increase. ^fiftf U. 10 U. Oau. P. pre con. aor pre. 1 TfCSqra. nf<hj to grow. ^*f perf. */in% to COD. ^T%tf p. *ren% pre. *nR*r ges. pre. 3!^T^rra[. 10 U. ^% perf. fat. to honour. 1 A. sarorannf-^ 15 1 P. fat. ^f perf. 1 P. Can. pre. oen. perf. aor. ben. aor. 33FETT ger. pre. ?nur p. T ^PTTH VT^fi'sj Pass.. inf. to take possession of. 2 U. pre. ^rr^T. %f?t pre. ^n^^ ben. fat 2nd . *TSfTK% pre. S[^?ir to strive. honour fat. 3T^% to nse. P. ^% perf. 1 U. to eat. 3THT1% aor. aor. p. dee. ^^f^T Ker. ) work. izirnT fat. f^rftm &ft to grow. perf. wfl% pre. aor.

qfeft p. to describe. pre. 5is\ to speak. to giver Wtrfwz aor. 10 A. rarely P. wife pre. 1 & pre.-^3flfTTi^% pre. f%*33T?JT des. 10 U.*d^ aor. H|^|o. to p. perf. ^rroT perf. *r<n^T pre. ^^ Oaa. Pass. trftfim P 3rnTofK aor firwiT&des. 5F?qrct ^^ XTcTrcot ^ to make > fortunate. to kill. 3TnfO% to see. 10 U. qftyrqml^|^lH<| aor. to abuse. *nnrf?M* pro &c. deride. ^r5jft?TT p. fut. perf. P. to illumine . 3Hifj%. ^rot?r p. to spilt. ) *rfif*T?r to menace. fat.fnt.perf. to pre. to give 5 10 A. wr^KT .DH'ATUKOSHA. 3^?^^-^ aor. 3m^$*T3 con. to giro. 3fWJ#T5 *or P. * 87 mnofr to cook.p. WreTS. p. 1 firHf^I^T A. frt. ^f^rTT wound.p. aor. W^nfaT a^- aor. jest. frit. ^r?Wrorf^rr^5 pre. fnt. to receive wages. *T5TT^ pre. ben. ' Aho 1 P. . p. 1 MhTOfT A. *^^rf?T fut. ^rmmt fut.-rT aor. 5 r^ aor. 1 P. xrnrfarr P. HTcJ^TT pre. to P. ^foafT ger. ann^r aor. to threaten. f**r* *>^ 10 U.p. Pats. to call fut. to nourish.fat. ger . TH^ perf. A. awfar ( . ^fangf*? des. n $cft inf. Prf Htil'RrrTr p. ^|r p. to speak. arflinra-* aor. to disappoint. perf. mrorf $ti <* to speak. &c. P 3Tmt% **rer perf. to cheat . fTRn?ot to upbraid. fut. mff% pre. *wn?Ht pro.

rf5rt%E aor. to be anxious about c. fat. pre. to shiffe. 3 P. Cau-pRT- pre. 10 U. grortfr^aor. ftr%rTT p. perl iTf3Tftrrr p. ir^^ perf. Oau. 1 P. used in the Vedas only ). fiffeir^T des. fat. fK^^RT pre. SKTO to be angry . *m% P*e. Pass. Cau. to appear. to speak. to rail against- w% des. *n<TT P. f^rfdr to separate. to call . Pre. %fir Aor. >frn?r pre. p.-wr^ pre *<T p. Cau - P. 3rf^ft$rg. *nnrft% pre.OTTXTIiT-rT aor. fat. f^nmif arr?tS3CT*r ^ to perf. i*mfiT% P re . $& 10 U. fir^1% pre. to div : de. to bark. fir^ pre. ( to censure. ^r=?fT P. f^RT ( also f^RT ). ^rff p. . down . <IT^. T (ST^rrrnr dual ). to break perf. ^TT* pert <rft?rr p. also 3T*TR?r-rT aor. to obtain fat. aor. perf. A. Pass. fat. ft?^ pre. "^Tf^m-^ fut. fihfnT or fat. fut . to cut. 1 A. Pass. to shine $ 3?rffcT P*e. jrrjra pre. Aor. oeg. 3rd pi. aor. HT^mS. WTIff 3THI?T con.88 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. fir^P?r^ des. artfr^ %fw^. 2 P.p aor. HPTT^ben. ^xft perf.aW^nrnr-rT aor. HfH^^t'perf.p. P-Pl STT^TT aor.?T 7 U. ^r to fear. fat.fat. to be . Imperf. ft^Affir 3 P. >fT^^ Aor. WT% pe'f. 3T*tfr^aor. ^r^T^T to divide. 3^^?^??-^ con. aor. %vrifn%. . perf. to blame. Aor. ^rri^TT p. mr%^ Aor. %$f?T freq. firf^ . 1 A.

3nfr$n^ to curve-. fut. 1 U. f^ft-*.fufc - P. p. HTSirn. ben.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^^ perf. perf. >Tl%cTr p. srnft to attain. Pass. ^n^ . P. f^rft THTT *eq. fut. fut. rrnr to nourish. gg. *TT$qm-?T fut. Pass. &%$ perf. to adorn. aor - S^TS. ^T^ft^t^ ben. . 10 A. ^(T p. ^^. qTOTTWreSTC'lt: to protect-. awr^ wir<fi^ en. fill. ^^filll^ ben. p. Cau -*rrgpn^% $f p.-^j^ aor. ^f^T ben. 3f*ft$^-<T coil. \grft pre. des. Pass. Pass -^cg^. pre. aor. to mix PT pre. 'trRarfir-fT fut. (3TTO5^r) to be purified. 3Tf^5^-rT Aor. *i^q|^8h perf. p. to enjoy. . to consider. p. ar^Khr des. fut.fut. ) to rule. ftrPF P. qreqiyelSK-^ ^RTI^f ) perf. aor. to ^T?ff-?r 9 pre. aor. 3?^T? Aor. TStifi p. 89 &(%& to bend. ( P. *rforr ?T dea. P. Int. ( rarely Atm. to adorn*. ) des. 7 U. ^nf%?n. pre. igfqfT p. ) to eat. aj^TTOcT aor. ifirfWlS fc fut. T^R?TT p. 3^*% ( A. ft?T*rf?T-?t freq. ( Wd$\\ Aor. 10 U. ^nriff-?r pre.-fini^. to live. to obtain. ^TT^% pre. gijr pre. g^TTiT pre. to govern-. 9T^m ) 1 g^ p. prd. P. to be bornj P. 10 U. fnt. 6 P.p. ^^^o-^^TT-^ 1 &c.P. ben. to consume. ftfnr perf. to be. fut. f^q. ^TTT-^ perf . p. >?r?rfqrTT p. ^ntf.

1 'sra^ & 4 CTreroiir P. freq. vtft p. (same aa U. . ^HUJ P- de. fat. . &c. fat. ( *rwrfiT pre. arflift^ ( 4 P. fut. gr>nfT.-wgrii^ 4 P. V^ itfft ^ P'O. S aor. 4 P. P TTn:*T ger. (IP. 1 awrfr Caa. Aor. p. MRnm^t^r: *fr^ to hold. fWT>TOTT-^T 3T?T aor. atfhrra-rT aor. 3(93r*r* & 4 P. *TfhTT P. gr^f^ aor. fat. *%?^rr. f*>ri?*17T. oft^. A. f^Tirftrf fo des.-wWT?r P'e. ^m^mff fat. 3T*fma-. ^^r ben. snnofta: aor.SANSKRIT QRAHMAB. ^WW^. fat. to fall down. T%W%^-fT dea. ifclK. to roam about. ^fSnft^ ben. &. aor. to support. p. to reproach. r% to parch. A. wffcrarr P. 31^51^ aor.) SffiTO 2nd sing. ^wfT. 1 T3T?T. to decline. ^vnfn%. p. perf. *nfo pre. srWr^ ar^n^ . tor. >TTfl^^. w*T-3T 1 U.-infiTO% pro. ftwfa. ^oif^ pre. wuma" P r WrTT. ^rr^. P*98. p. to support. fut. PasB. 3 U. TO irflrw. to fry. P.-^3nn^%. -^T. 3?>i:q?T^ to fall. pre. P. Oau. ^^nr perf. *^ perf. . BTW^T aor. ^^rm% aor. to be afraid. P. to escape.-^rjrirf^ pre. Aor. 3Wl8 deB pre. fut. IJTJT p. wfoirTr p. Can. fut. ^rift pre. 3njf3T^ 3TflT^T^. *Tf%T wfflTf^r. to go. 3?^nfl^ Aor. with the change of ^ for ^) 1 WTli pre. OTT ger 1 A. TO^T perf. W5*n% pre. to fry. f^fr pro. 3T^r^ Aor. pre. fut. ) ) perf. 3TISTfflT^ WTff. ^r?T pef. 9 P. to totter. 3rirfS aor. ^W?T-^ perf yfsKrr P- fut - 1 P ^TS> to sound. ar^ to eat.^t. TOTT. ^F P- awra* to fall down.

^T to go. to protect. ^^T^ 6 P. w^ p. ffWlfn^ pre. to beam. *nfit P. WTT%?T P. Hf%fT pp. 3nrfr or. fqirftiq^ des. mfa^d fot - srFifif^ dea. P'e. snra. u^^^^^ ben. 3WTf5T aor. eat-.). auri jpin^ 5^^. r%5^ inf. to fry. ^TOIITT*^* perf. jrf?^r p. fut. >^f. *Rtir f^Ti? to tear. ^ feoufo ^mn%i mmr perf. A. U. or. **$ ?'* ^srfS% P*e. ^rr9r. pre. ^^ pre. 3Tn5nft?T^^: to wish. f^rc - fffiTO 10 (as this is ^nn%. ( VcJTST.P. A. 3wf5re aor OT^r'fr? ben. w$*rra-? or.) &4 perf. ^shtfat Aor - *y*% to cover. ^prfqcfT P. fut. Aor. Tuft tut Tfff to shine. <rr$ . H??rhr ben pre. WT^IH.DHA'TUKOBHA. fn inf. P fut. f%&% perf. ^v^QT-^v^ perf. l M^M^-fT aor. ^T^3rW. A. to glitter. ft. arerfro Aor. arofa^ to fall. mf^idr p. Oau. 5J^m% P'e. 1 Aor. 3ff^lT^-fT. Pa88. . y oifWT des. P*e. 1 91 A. w to perf. rf - g^fa pre. 3T^T3T^-rT pre. ^f%^ 1 arefa^ Aor. to put confidence in. ^T prf. aor. to collect. tJ. s^fVOIrT ben. swfir. to parch. 1U. anrffT^T^-fT aor. as above. fat . - V5TTJt-Sr pre. to be afraid: vrf KT-?T pre. arrs^r^T fut. p. perf WET. ^nft to shine. same 9 P. . fpHT to shine.T^I?f 1 pre. 3?^^ Aor A. WOT pre. ^T^THr^^T. *IST P.

mq fat 3TnRT Hnnfte ben. ^sftiufff-ff fut. to shinej fffTTT p. to he angry. 3Tflfs^ aor. to adore or. lifter p. perf. wftcTT P. 3Tlff5^r ^TR^T^ Aorc n. H%rTr p. H^ pre. fat. to start. fat. hold. 1 P. P. to begin. to cheat. fat. JTT^frrr ? 1 A. i A. wffrT p. 5T5> to sound. Jfrft to go. 9f|p am% aor. ^r^r c^ri% ^^Hf ^ to cheat. to go.fat- to boast. ifrft to go. ^nw to accumulate. uajrof^fr pre. 1 P. to pe'f- grow high. to move. to deoorate . to 3TWf 3.rT TT^ITC Aor. to P. VTFofT^iq^HH^ to to shine. HU^H to adorn. fat. 1 to speak. pre. fat.^- pre. R% perf. p- 10 U. to pound. quickly. . irj. ^ 1 imy perl. TTg&ft* pre. Pass. aor. HH% 3TRf%^T aor. pre. A. jr^-.f^ IP. 3T*Nfa. Pass. same as abo?e ). to shine. W OT 1 : > changing ^ to w. ITOTft P'e.92 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. A. fffft pre. to be wicked. m^cTT 3TRT^E 10 U. ^fr to grow. go. . Pass. ^rr^nit ^hft ^ to speak.-H^7>r A. aor. to creep. vrarr^ft 3TTT*^ ^c!% ^T to ifrref move perf.jr-j^T pre. aor. move. HRf perf. iTilrTr p. I pre. ( ITff inrs% to adorn. prf^rfTT P. jf^r^ fRlif^W-f^ des. vnr^T 1 P.-irfqft pre. 3Tftw^^-?T aor. \ to go. ITf " 1 P. fat. irSffifcfT P. JTRis perf. ( see n ^O- 3 TT A. PTRT^ perf. jm|r perf.

p. msar p. JTO^rft.p. . 511% remember with RHU4 1 perf. Rf^T ger. flfa^ajf^ fut. ^t. 3Tflfo^ Aor. 3TflTf^. Can. . f^iTT^ to distribute. to adorn iTO^^f^-a" pre. 3Tl?fa^^ aor. 3TRTT5T3. perf. 3Tforo aor. ^T^niTa-% pre. 93 jr?r 1 P. HnferTT P. to dwell. Paas. ^fT% to know. tfrST be n. nufld perf. mx pre. 3Tm^fT con. ben. r^r p. 3Tmtl^-tT aor. i^nfT p. des. to to grind. 4 A. ^ Oau. WR?Tflr des. fut. 3TvfmR^-(T freq. wm^iw% re. 3TRT1^ aor. fat. regret. arngr^ aor. amih( Aor. WT^I1%% to madden. 10 A. WT^ing% p RT^mrsr ben. to murmur. ^ req. Can.fat. aor. A. 8 A. pre. . nfu^HI p. R^U^.p. 1 A. ira^r^ ben. aoif. Pass.-RreKT pre. des. HWT- & Rr^ inf. to long for. P. R?T p. to go . 3TCTR^-<T aor. wra^f^T aor. } -R<r3TTfiT-?T pre. O. &^ perf. to esteem jyg^ pre. Hmm p. qffiraft to please RT^ff msfifSK* fufc . fut. ( R^fS fat. tmft TOP* 1 perf. ^mfato ine- aor . 3TR^ aor. WWm^qiW des. fat. Rn^r pre. Rfifcn p. Wtt ^t. WRay perf. ^qnjru[ to decorate oneself irtT^IH pre. ftR[int des. to churn 'e.perf. fut. fV^H^rRR^ n perf. sis to sound. STlTm^-fT 4 P.DHA'TTJKOSHA. . 3TJrofrer aor. . RftHTp. j^f p. P. U. ^rf^^ fat. A9t?^ to stir. *T<r^T pre. to be in a pitiable condition. perf. anfrffl^-rT aor.Can.p. 1 P. fnt. 5T5^TRifT: to be glad. pre. io think j n?^W pre. p. RU^^n^r^-^r?R &c. ^f^W Paae. f^t. F??T. 3Twmqf fnt. to consider. R^^rf^. 42. 3=WT^ aor. H. OTF? n$cffp. snfm^r aor. fat. 8. briate ) n^7jRr% pre. perf.

maor. flraOTSPft perf. >gmm^H<HlPdTia^ perf. to go. RTJH pre. u<M^m?T des. ifT^Jf pre. to torment. 3TfTT>*J aor. m^T**r ger. sjfftrforrenf to consult. ) mor. fat. p. aor. *<Ti:* above root. R^ft^fi^ ben. perf. ireft Rir^f perf. fat. Yrf^qilT P. Pft8s. to injure. Pass. & pre. . 3T% qfOt ^ to take. nf^sqiS Pass. RTTOW pre. wifo pre. to agit%te . **{ perf. m* pro. 9 ( (^rar^) fat. gr. Ri^ai to p.*T?OTf^-flf pre. P f?^f H^5r5nfr: m^IrTT to kill. jrrfta p. to laijqnisb.-yq|r pre. fanftr?r des. I%T p. to ( sometimes. *?%2I% pre. see the ing. ^f^cim fnt. to loiter.^riK &c. STIT^T^ aor. wfiwf P. RWfTr p. ben.p. RMftfo ben. arnftft 1. ufr to go. T^TH^^I% <^e. ) pre. 3RW*nT pre. 2nd sing. 10 A. A. move. fat. to be to shine. 1 - w?^ (1) !Tcr?J (9) pre. nr^ 1 P. 11 or irsq^. to move. 9 oonj.p. glad. Can. WTRf?rT f req.94 2nd SANSKRIT QBAKMAR* ing. pre. Rr^iqirr P. fat. fa*. HTRWT?*.) RIV^T perf. afsfcgn iaf. ben. troTT^ ben. P. to churn. to sound. perf.. traCT Impera. Vm% pre. 10 U. &c. 3TfTw^T aor. L WP^^qf^ fat. to praise or be praiied. ireirrsrcrr. 3^j^5T?T aor. Hraimsgfc perf. sm^iT aor. to ad vine. fat. 3TRT^^ aor. move. 1 snnfi aor A.p. 3?!??^ i?f?nf p. to sleep. to go. Cau. p. to 1 P. IO A. WIW perf. WTwrflf?T. pre. to be proud. . flr^afrf also fat. to go. speak.

STR^fT^T. JTfft. Rf^rTT p. to possess .-R3rq^ 3TRT^TH ) aor. 3T^TRf^-cT aor. perf. R^2JT?C ben. to destroy . fat. *TTTO to hold. *mf?Ntpre. to hold. 3rd dual pre.p. Oau. 1 P. perf. ^-^r to bathe. ftRf RffT p. fat. perf. & 10 U. R^^ pre. pre. fnft pre. JTSlfr pre.. Cau. con. 5Rf^I^ 3TW7TO P.fat. A. p. (RRfsHT. 1 1 A. to compare with.DHA'TUKOBHA. W|l"ydl p. wftrTT p. wrft pre. nf^TfTT p. RRT* 1 perf. ^^r fiforof ^ to fasten. 1 )-Rr^lf?r-ff. inft perf. fat. RTOT qr?Rm P. 3TR-RT-fr^ aor. fut. JT^T p. to delight. STHTCr^ aor. 10 A.-Rr^. 3TRCra. f^Rf%TTff. (conj. perf. JTf^fTT p. . 1 P. R^gr^ pre. to sink. R^ pre RR$ perf. 95 <jtfT to fill. fut. 1 to sound. Rgffl" pre. &c. R^fM pre. to weigh.p. Can. perf. ?f dea. to possess-. to be angry - . fut. ff^rgt 5T5^f ^ to hart. to increase. des. R*ft pre. to move. JT?T to honour. R^. to kill. fat. 4 P. P. Rjrf% perf. ) porf. RTWlft fat. RTOrft P. 1 am Rmg^ inf. ( aing. Rfi?r3a*K-^f per/. HmT p. & 10 U. ^nTTfl[. JTRJ^l 2nd fut. R<tqni% &c. &c. 3TRRf^ fT aor. Pass. same as above. Rfhr^ P". wilS pre. 3TRRf^[-?T aor. fat. 3TRTO aor. to show. &c. to purify . p. 3TR^t^. to limit. STRTt^firaL aor 1 P. to go. RT^T to measure. aor. to change from. ^HFITHto honour. fat. to form. 2 P. P. aor. to bind. 3TRtf^ Aor. RRTJ. A.p. 3TRf$fai.treirfft-ft pre. 3TS> ^ ^T to bu/z. fat. 3TRtff aor - ^T D8D - fw?f& des.

ben. p. TPTIfT^mm. Hnfftfre T% 6 U. forT p. lor other forms see the above RT. aor. ** P. Cau. RMT p. to understand. ft*rnn3<?m-it des. perf. . 3Tlfmir% aor. m*Wr pre. finrfd. Pass. srjreut to throw. ffirw. STW^ Aor. perf. 3TRTf Rrate m*T?f des .96 ? AN SKB IT GRAMMAR. HmR^tT aor. &c . p.-fT Pass. 3TRTPr aor. firftp. decorate. aor. wvnf^OTt: to pre. freq. Oau. WWT pre. U. to be proud. to *t> desire miff^r pre. p. irrrqf^ WrnRffT^T des. 10. ft. U.p. nqfTffren* eek knowledge. des. ^TCTT^to honour. froiH. ^t^rmr^ to wish. 3TfftfR3. Can . Rf^?TT P. irm. &o. aor. ftffift'perf. 10 & 1 P. tfRir^ pre. *rrfnT [ ^ ^r ^r to sound. pre. 10 A. to scatter. to wipe- m^Hr^ir-^%. irfr perf. pre. RTTOS-ff jffcTRr . &c. 1 A. ftft?rr.p. ben. unite. ffifRTmiff seek. pre. 3Tlfra<T^-<T aor. aor. to purify. fut. ^t. JTTRm?f p*e. jfta?r pre. *mfi^ ft ben. 3TlfriTfT%^ aor.-^tfmi^d. amrFcT aor. to worship.. m^mr. jrnri%r p. to measure. fat. ffrrr. p. Hg%yit to to chase. to seek for. aor. pre. m?Ff?H<r deg - RmnT pre. RpfrQ^r . pre. aTRHfi^ aor. P. 3 & 4 A. f ut. mftflT P *ut. mWcT fat. to measure. amif* aor. fflTRTfnfRf des. JTrfcrft-af pre. 10 U. TR^T peif. to hurt. des. fw^F ger. to go. to seize. Pass. jfTRT7%T p. to ^%. Aor RT5ffa^fTgr ben. P. %wff^ ben. ?rf^ to stop. 1 P. ?r pre. JRRT$T perf. . pre.

to sprinkle. ar!7f 3Tmrf^-rT aor. &c. ffttnri^-!r pre. . 3rfcfT aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. fflWoJ. 3TTf&3^-fT aor. Irafft pre.. .M^P: fat. Oau. 3TWf&^-rT aor. T?toffc*T ger. perf Rr%cTT P. ft^ des. to be angry. fut. pre. trf^fe ben. P. to be united. P. fat. 4 P. 3TR^ra[ look fR^fS pre. %-* U ( SwpT des. to melt. feftrarfHt f at. to honour. f^fcJ^T* *ri%f*r ger. perish. . fwftmm. fR^rmf^ 1 P. P. fftfrori. ^r% .-%55?iT?r% pre. mffPHT5^% to des. pre. fat. 3T^fi5^g. *rft?^T. fRifcr perf ftr^n p. fut.3TRl$s . perf w. ffir^fMt pre u. ^1* inf. ffirgr ger. P. Sr^rfiT P'e.3Tm^. ) m^f^.-^r^ri?T% pre. to wet. aT^r^aor. 1 97 A. en. aor. aor. TR^^m-?r des. pre. to mix.p. ttffi to be unctuous. ^T^ fn^ ^ to make a sound or noise. mife perf. & 10 ft^ 1 A. ft^fqrsnr P. ^TTK to wet. to melt. U. . .-R^f^-^ to die. 4 A. P. fof*r*T. perf. aor. S^t pre. ftl^%q^-^. ftrTf fi?*re srrarT^tiT: ) jft^ pre. to mingle. see the above 1 %^T to make R^nt ( water. fat. ftaft-it P^e. *j%cfr P.P. rifa p. Oau. to open the eyes. fftftf^T des.-rT oon. to sprinkle. &c. Wfc*T ger. fnt. 1 ( aee f*nOSr*f?T% eee p. 1 P.P. t*IR to join. f ut. to love. wsfff aor. p. root. 3T*mRf^-fT aor. fflf?^ pre. 10 U. pre. or 3TRT^ aor. p. P. ifrff^r ger. 6 U. *T?T p.p. mmcT at. Cau. f?lr^ perf. &c. 3TT%^^ ffT^f^ des.

loose. WTffre bep. to grind. to ( the eyes of flowers ). 55% ! P erf - WT^T p. lessen. cfegch^ to deceive. s^r. ger. pre. 557^ pre See the above root. & 10 U.-nnnil?r-?t pre. aor. be* to cause to shut. g$fte ben. AifltS^ft dei. Rnnin^R-^^. change. 1 P. 3Tg]%ar aor. to abandon. to sound. jflcf aor. f*5TO to close ( closed or shut as as the eyes ). fut. aor. & fronr. 3^^ iftr? 1 P. to set free. srrfrfftTO aor. 1 A. wT^rftcTT p. 3T5^ iutran. to bind. tfrefif pre. iSffrtfr-W des. mrfufc to des. 3TiJg^5-fT aor. *ff ^ U. Cu. ) des. fut. nnj<?r-^ P*e. RTTOfS-lt pre. fat. 3T*fm^-<T aor. tftenfir.p.98 OANSKRIT GBAHMAB ft^T per/. gRt perf P 3Tr$lMHJmfVR% to blame. to WffefT 6 *r$^ to crush. to understand. or 553^. mrfrT p. fat fc aor. to cheat. 3Tifow<r-?T aor. Cau. fiforaTflC to kill. 6 U. to P. 10 U. . to meet. 1 P.-^r 5rq%% pre. awrffr^ Pass. to crush. Oau. $T5^ to cleanse. to leave. ^?rr. fnt. 3^^ to aor. 3mufta aor - kill. **Jte^ to grow fat. iftdfl forfrw perf. g^n^. P. to move jfouft pre. g^f^F ger. fit. pre. jfrqr^. ffrgrot to p*e. iftsfft pre. p. p. to twinkle. &c. r?rr to be lost ft^ p*f. SparW fat. Rqf^. to purify. jfr^rr P. perf. 1 P. ^?ft to go. irift.

g^ pre.^o^f pre. Ssfo^fTff des. ^JT pre. pre. ?jr1jyrTTp. fnt. ^ g^^OTT^ des. to be glad. to break. g^ror gjfrq" perf. Rtf^TT P. gfoyfrgrbeD. gcorri^ pre. 3Tgra?re aor. 1 P. Pfcrf. 5$ to rejoice. fg^tf P er ^. p.3TSniro aor. %^rar% to pound. igv^ to shave. fat. *l^^TcT ben. 10 U. 3TmCra[ aor. perf. ^on^ pre. 3TOTTT? aor. ^f%?T. ^ttf^fc * P. q^fft P r . to tie . ararofra.-^x^tud-ff pre. flTforfTT p 1 A. 3^5^-^ g^T^ become 3%S^ to cover. to run away. fut.f^t. Htf^tT p. gfuadT pie. 3TSV?tct aor. senseless. Cau. gf^rf. f Qfc . gam - perf. 1 P. r* J^Ud perf. j<r<r% pre. Hlftf^a' des. Can. P-P.DHA'TUKOSHA. JTT^ P re 5ET P erf p. aor. to blend. . grnrff P* r ggOT psrf. to carry off.' to faint. srfjqTT^ to promise-. fut. fut. 2nd sing. to grind. P. <renR *T P. *o protect. Impera. perf. to grow. ^f to mix. 1 trra^r A. p. or. tfr^Q--^ aor. jJiOTffl'-a' pre to crash. gcr^t pre. to purify. rf\r> to bind. ^TTfTOT ben . to grind.fut. gajftf pre. aor. 3TJ^T$ aor.-gg^uj^-?f aor. . Pass. to Wf^g^T^nfT. RT^WrTT P. p. 6 P. 3Tgr^ aor. p. ^Tft^g^ fut. fat. ^ to steal. See 9 P. A. m$R wsft m to sink. to prevail. &l\$ gg perf gftfTT p. 10 U. to be match for.

aor. the two Futures. ger. lfg^^f aor. i|fjcTT p. 4 P. g^ perf. JTRfT r ?T Irf p. amtft'sq-gr^RY^nr con. ggfirofit des. 55% perf .. Rti^. fut. ^*fm^-?f q$ inf. gijr^fS des. - swoon. 318HW^-<T aor. *o or j?T^Rr ^t. Rh%gn. 10 U.-g^ pre. pert gprforTTP.to Pass. 1 P. 5UW P re 5Tf perf. |f%^. i&fa pre. the Conditional and the Desiderative. heap up. fut. to sprout. 3T5 aor. ^r% to fasten. 5?^ or. Cau. perf. * p. g*rq |W des. rff?rT. 1 P. *HPV per*. and the Desiderative. JJTJS^ to cleave.fifaft pre. aor. prm pre. Ht[ inf. Oau. g^rof^f pre. ar^gf^ff aor.p. ^fhj ben. * It is Parasmaipadi in the Perfect. pre. STTOTfUlifr to die. firm. to stand f ast- ^rf^ pre.p. gffa p. q$ p. to be foolish. Pass aor.-rm^% pre. to perish. to gather. ^r?^T ger. . ^t. to divide^fcrfi* co gwfif pre. $i&3 p. gftcWT. t RRm% fat.100 or. srmSTOn* to be aor. gijf^^r des.-JTK*rHT-fr pre. ffaft to plant. aor. ts tie. to plunder. *?r> to rob. g*tr 10 U. 3Ti|5fig. ^r^TT or tfrgT p. to err. p. ^fSK part w^ftrTr des. 3T5f9[ aor faint. T%*m pre. fut. P. ger. .p. to - 4 P. 1 or gg^rfS des. SANSKRIT GRAMMAS g^rac ben. 3?83]TCC-ff 6 A. A. to fall.

^T^T$yfT^t: to wipe ). FjfV to wipe off.. aor. mfj^T pre. *fW. nrfSr?TT or uref p. fat. ^cT p. ?mfif aor. aor. 3Tf nt aor. to rub off. STRlfif aor. perf. to destroy. to hunt. adorn. to pardon. to hurt. p. ^nn?r pre. 1 P. p. off^aor. to collect. to crush. Pass. 4 P. 3mrffa[ aor. to or wr?p5f?r fut. *TfT?T aor. fimf^rfir des. . fat. to beg. msft^n p. ^TH pre. to examine. amT^ or Pass. Pass. ? ^*ra?r pre. ^jrjn^ pre. hone ). ^^TcJp^T. 1 101 P. ^nrra: DeD . nn*fo*<<T% fat. *m*RT p. 3fj|f| aor. ^Rrna% perf. ^. RnfaffMr pre- WRrfS^ dea. aor. to strike. 3TM^*ld aor. ^1^ to press. 3F**oir to seek. nf!*^ fut. TO$ perf. 3TRT3r^TrT x con.. or aTRlT^-rT aor. p. to carry ( as a perf. 4J|ftujH fut. ^rar pre. ^Tsftrm^ p perf. jjfJpsrfir fat. perf. im^ perf. aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. ( See the root below 2 P. ^fifcTT P. etcj irriflH pre. &c. to Vedas ) to dieregard. jrffcrr p.ft^^Tff. ^jq^ pre. ( U. ^qi?r-ff pre. . HT3$t pre. 10 U. fjfanTTH to kill. 10 A. Hf^ p. HITTW perf . fat. ^WT ger. JTR^ or jr^ 1 in the perf. amtm^r^-amr^ con. <?T?snrrr to seek. aor. 6 P. *rfs pre. to kill. des. JITO 6 &^9 P. Oau. Can. ^nra pre.p. ^^IH to be gracious. and S^fTfa pro. 5|flt?T p. fut. 3733 ( fJffnTTf ^T ) to be moist. 3W*!T^ aor.' to wipe off &c. kill. to be delighted. xnrr to rule. Pass. fut. JTJTO? perf. 3T*mT^-?T 3TRT?3T^-?T. 9 P. mifq^Vg ben.

fm^TST^ aor. Oau. ( See the follow- aor. ^jfT^T^-cT. HPT perf. 1 m^$rfft des. to loose. %^% 1 P. ftlft perf. -^qar p ^jfT^^T^-cT or STRwr^-fT aor. 5^r^T. pre. q% perl. 3THTI^ aor. ^T%^T qft^T. Oau. 1 U. to sprinkle. ^Tf^r to bear. to attend upon. pre. RrTT p. RfafTT p. jrfoft% pre. to shake. to release. fut. q**ft pre. 3Wr% aor. *fh^l^fel*K~. P. or TT^q. ^r*?t pre. A. 3TRlTOC-rT aor. 6 P. 3TH^-r pre. ger. fut. p. *o suffer. 10 U. des.^TT^R^: 1 to know. . arerccT aor. ST ger. Pass. 3TOTflH aor. 1 ^ & ( ^fft ) to meet See the above root ) to go. 10 U. ^iVd ? perf .102 SANSKRIT GRAMMAK. RK^lS or RfrofiT ^t. to worship. ft^T-^lf perf. Pass. to bear. p. fut. pre. R^i perf. to move. to hurt. aor. ing root for the other forms ). P rf . fut. RT^fl^ ben- ffrr^ des.^oiri^ pre. fut. 3JTJT5i% to touch. ?rq% pre. to barter. jfni^ pre. Oau.perf. imT^i^TT-^. fc^-% P'e. P. P. RET or p. to be mad. to kiU. sjfor^TflT to exchange. U. 3Tfq^r aor. . *ut. I A. Pass. to suffer &c. p. or nrftHT p. jjqiH prt. to allow. ^^ft^ or a^rfff fut. ^^ aor. to pardon. to shedj pre. JT^fafiT-iT pre. 1 A. 9 P. ^naim% - pre. aor. Oau. OT?rfS% pre. anfmq* X rjf^. *ffar Ri^f^-?T *Qt. f ut. to consider. pre. qift pre. RTWf?T fut. TOT* perf. %^ to sprinkle. if*T<lT^to hurt. P. sr^TW ( U. 3TR^ or ffomf^ des. 1 ff^m aor. jrq^% 4 U.

R^ perf. fut. to praise ( in the Vedas ). *%qfr pre. $^RmT p. to mix. ^yjrr to be mad 9$zft : or J^rft pre 1 A. to go. 1 P. Int. 1 P. *^^ld. #ftjf^ && to speak indistinctly^ p. gfft^ pe'f. $f^i*rfft ***. P. mn$ perf. 3flTrB<l^-?T aor. g^g^i perf. Can. . 1 ^^^r ^ to heap. 5f%<^T> 5^^T P^e. perf. utatr perf. or fut. to serve. P. p. 103 IP. P. ^M-^ pre. <>'. W^fWfe ben. fRffft pre. ^*Vm. Pass. to anoint. a^R.wiY^fff pre.p. p- or i^jj 1 P. jraifar pre. *Wf to collect. 3TV3T% to repeat in the mind. to go.DHA'TUXOSHA. P. aor. fT 3T5RlT^^-?r aor.%^?r to worship. ger. W des. to strike. wtmr P. to go. wfmf?T% fT?r pre. 3Tsir% ^ ( 3WST^ 3TTOt 1^5 W ) tospeak indistinctly or barbarously. wf^an* fat. to cut. gf^j perf. to ^^ pre.p. 3pdfc aor. 3rorcfT3 &or. 3T 1 g*8t^ perf. ^rf?T pre. fffrg^ perr. fat. p. WsnTf^ pre. 3Wf^ 1 ftirf^?r de. ger. 473 or wUrr^b deb. *$< or. |TTf> p. ponnd. arerrsfT^ 10 U. to learn. *gsanr pre. fut. fe( )fir 10 U. ftrreriff ft. ir^f^ pro. 1 P. A. to remember. to be mad. & 10 U. ^Kf^Br^ aor. *ut. to divide. P. 3WNh^ aor. to go.

niftc ben. irqfift pre.^jrqirfif-ar pre. to grow weary. ?yRnr P. ^nra. *5TRmr pre. q-^irm-ff fat. ben. T5 ^ fat. to restrain. 8T*oJTi$r HftPoPHl-V aor. ^TWIfT fat.p. qrf?sr?r &c. fut. ^f^^^r Paas f^m pre. EtelfTMreUJft: to injure. ^ strive after. mr$r perf. to give. fat. xnr^ to attempt. . q-^rfiRTr P. to show. TCf P. srorBr aor. irnrafir-% pw. perf. p. to cohabit. 1 P. sad. *r?wrfr p. . 4^1^. perf. nfrrcair des. ft p. fat. *Tirfo ^mr I P> 3^Tr to check. aor. 8T<fara^rT aor.p. 10 A. ipwr p. 5 i|$r% to fade. ?TC 10 U. to pre. ftq*rm-*t des. da. ifrsrfarr p. fgrroft per. Oau. to move. to lift up. ^W 10 U. qfgrar p. &c . perf ?rSrm p. ^rf*nw ger. Pass. fut. . *$mfr ben.-fT aoi. ^nnrf^% pre. ^mi^ to perf. *ff. to be perf . Pa88. 3WW?T aor. to adore . ^ pre. i^nn^l^ 1 U. &qz con. *THnxfi!r-flr P rere. Oau. qflr^r^ f at.fut.p. sfitW. 3rt^ con. perf. ger. to stir. aor. 1 A. i^irrqrf^rfit-^ del. to encourage. Pass. ^flr fut. 3rq-rf5lr aor. des. tor. con. honour.p. labour. 3TO$fiat aor. 4^i^dl^*lMiUNq1H^IHl to sacntiee.104 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. &c . fat. Can. ft. 115^ to inf. WT53rft^T%-% des. Oau.). to associate with. aor. fimm^ de. anre^r^ anrrctfrS aor. 1 P. *fcR p. aor. TOt% . 4^41414 fT^ or J^TrTT p. 8Tgf?|Rr aor. to offer. to make an oblation to. 34 M 1*0 4 aor. rofiNt P*e.-q-??Tfr P*e. ?rrT fat. ^JT p. pre. *r$rt?r pre. to go.

pre. to invade. p. lunr pre. - mronfoRT ^e. ureifft ^t. qpnr^ pre. 3T^S5f^?T aor. ?nmT. strive.-?T aor. p. ****& ** nnite &0 > 'T3TTH r. pre.int 55i?r des. S?T p.. fut. pre. qr^WPI to beg. or. TOf?r. ben. qfi^fc to surroand. bea. arg^y aor. UW ger or 10 U. fnt. ^rm to concentrate the mind. 5^j|fS% des. Oen. to demand in marriage. 9 U. ?jn%?r p. P. iH^frsr ben. p. ^r^r to join. pre. q^ not preceded by a preposition except 31^ optionally belongs to the 1st conj.p. A. p. trffTCTT endeavour. Pass -*rwr?r pre. fot. msrdrtffarat join. armw aor. sjgtOTan^ to censnre.. fnt. Oau. **?*T ger P. qift^T ger.^Tq>T pre. 4 A. 3rfnm^-?T 4 P. ^T<R1W% 3rfR<T^. ^fif^fS fat. 5?r p. qtWT fat. PaM.DHATUKOSHA. pre. snftn^cT aor. *at. 3 mft perf. p. * . to separate. Pass. ^fiTT p. ^ to 3^^ ^r^ pre. ^frCT P. ^m or 5^1% prt>. siRfr pre. ( 5T^ lf?fs ) to do.^tt. 3TOT*S-ff or. ftqrafw de. srq^ to perf . 3T<fannfcflr aor. uiHT ? ^t. 3Wr^r?r con. 5^nr perf. 3WTft^r pre. npf p. ^NUjQ qffcrr perf. 53^ perf. 1 P. m<j^ inf. p- 10 A. des. 3T^T^. to ITT 2 P. (with3Tf A. to pass away. p.-uTsHqfd-fT pre. SHTHT ger. 2 P.*iwrtt pre. ^ ^m p. fnt. 105 -<T aor. aor. g>*rar pre. qinw or perf. *nrra-iraT% perf. qiftsqft-fr fat. qr^RTT p. ^m^-% P*e. vNr? ben. mIT^. or ft^mfS de. only) TOT p. ^TGiifS'% fot. Caa. 5^5 ben. to mix. 3TTO^ aor. arqHr^or srqr^ aor. UFplTii% perf. *wNr.

to join.106 7 U. *l*R to WTfite aor. 4144144 f. flow. 3Tfrf^ aor. pe. Htftofat or aor. to kill. 10 A. lfMHfd-% P' perl ijmfirrrr P. 3nftfW?T con. fftfqm P. 5^ p. to censure. H*m> to join. aor.--^^^ pre. iifciffo ^r pxe. 30^ perf. 4 A.KbOfll p.-g5<r% pre. unite. perf. 10 U. 1 P.^Qt.-tffanri^-rt *T pre. 3^ p. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR iftit appoint. n^53T^Hf aor. 3^5^ aor. to trouble. jpqrf pro. fat. *fte(*)ft pre 1 P. i^r pw. to or 3*1% ^jfnr 35^ parf. 5f fat. ir^r to move. iftgirnHt fat. 4 P. TT*q I *-^% perf. ifhnrifr pre. p. aor. *ut. Cau. Pass. 55% perf. to put to prepare. Wi to ***>'! aretfa. ben. 4f^in%-% pre. qjfii pte 1 srqr> to try. 1 A. in fight. to give. f^ft pre. qrot pre.-5rlr pre. ift^gif f"t. 1 r ufftnn^ A. to attempt. Pa93. to injure. ggffrit des. Oau. p. ifmf&^vf^-ff fat. S5$?T%-% des. &c or 5^ pro. together. iffajT p. 3Rg^ Oan. T^q^ perf. Also nr*^^ . &c. to get . 3Tg3T^. JTnfir taste. 3Tg^aor. to . to make smooth. p. ^rf perf. shine. ^fl^^Hy ao*. 10 U.fat. H5^ g$fre ben. ifrfasim fat. aor. fight. f^iftfW to blot out. to aor. *hrffr to to conqaer 3fljisn*-?r aor. ifr^T P. fat. to.

qfoTTW speak. *HJH pre. 3TTT^^-rf aor. 3TOrH^-fT (1) rnr^. 1 P. to go. to dig. pre.-rsifar ^n^. to gnaw. KTWm des. 3TC^ or anT^ aor. P. j^ 1 P. ^TUT^ (4) 1 P. 3*TTSTrTr<T aor. T3?f%%. perf. Paae. Oau. to doubt . f fecTT p. to shine. ^f^. aor. Tfn* perf. T^Tf?T% fat. t^^-k or 3TC^ aor. tnTrTT p. ^TOT 3TTOI^. aor. 10 U. &c. wn^ or ^^ 3Tr^r^-(T c des. P'e. to sbout with joy. to rejoice ( in the perf. aor. to go. Vedas ). wilh . r*Tirai$re-^ perf. ^ 1 qfn'q'r^ to arrange. to make. to direct. 3Tbfao 3T^W aor - T^ 10 U. aor - 1 U. pre. ben. RWT?T% Can. fat. ^pf^ pre. preStp. pre. fat. ^ ^ ^ i P. RT^ffS" . ^f^ P*e. to go. qT5OT to protect. to be f S*nTT-?T pie. p . devoted to be in love to. to move. P*e. ^^ perf. pre. fut. T^wf^-^ to hunt deer. ffff perf. 5H[T2r to shout. 1 & 4 U. IP. 3Tnfra. fiit. to adorn. to dye. to be pleased. 3TO?T^. tf^lfiT fat. to 107 avoid. fut. n^T perf . to move.-?$*rft pre. ffffff p. 3T^^^H-tT aor. 5r to sound. 3TT$fra. ^1* pe'f. ^fit to be coloured. T^ra'-W P'e.fat. ?ftm p. Oau. ^foRTT p. ^^r p.-*$rora-?f pro. ^^ pr0. p. to 1 ^pr pre. TSSnj ben. ?*pf perfj des.DHA'TUKOBHA. ft^% to split. to paint. P. 1 3Tf rent. to go quick . to call out. fcrgWTO-k ^f%n p. ^TJ perf. p. p. fut. STTffT^ 3TCT*fa ^r*r pet f . 3TWF^ aor. p. *f5?KTTO ^t. ^3T 1 P. smtiftl aor. Pa98. to write. ?%fo pre. p. S^njfa -^ pre. P. t^wxn des. to speak . p. ger. fat. .

ff^W srtWrT con. make a noise. ^^ perf. pre. to go. ( to to be completed. 3TT^r 3^^ ftf fifafR. f ftff p. ?rwfc-% pre. to praise ( in the Vedas). IP. ^n? perf . des. ftc^r^ des. to ). 1 P. ft^^tifl <ks. str^ffT^ tor. in the- Vedas ). des. otronrf *Tfir to speak distinctly. %^r perf. T?T^T * It is Parasm. aor. ^JTT p. 1 A. 3TT. Oau. to embrace. fat. ^m^ pre. TWf fut. ^c^n^ ben. aor. aor. subdue. 3T*ftifaj^3TC?^ con. to finish. Pass.108 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. to take rest. Pass. jrtnrf^% P*e. 1 A. fqrS pre. to movej ^j?r pre. rsilS P*e. aor. fat. Oau. ^[ to sound . aor. T?3T. rejoice at. ^r P p. qft and . pre. to destroy. ^r^f to roar. to accomplish. Int. T**1?T fat. ^ perf.p.^wnift-^ -^PKT pre. ^qfirpre. ^TYT^ to begin. 1 fjfcnrzit ^ ** to go. to hurt . to long for. <fttqft or TO^rer *u& aor. 3TTCT. when it is preceded by ft. to p. to praise peif. p. ^r<Tperf. fat. aor. to act rashly f 3TfHqK con. IP. aor. to sing. ^%rr p. aor. *f^ perf. ^<T p. with ft. A. Pass Cau. STfqraL^nfT^. 3TTC?T ger. p. ffifcTT P- ( in the Vedaa r^f?r pre. Tuifrpre. to play. arhcf. * ffol or ^ p. STCJr^-ar aor. :) to hurt. I P. r% pre. *fa*i?r fut. ^q^r pre. ^f p. fat. ^ perf. grrf>T aor.

10 tft*^ fat. 10 U. fat. 3*^ aor r%$Tfir defl. fat. m- ff/t pre. to abandon. amtfr^aor. ftriq- perf. fri%*Rf fut. 3ilim<!W&i1: to be dry. ^ to grow. TTW perf. ft ft 5 P. to keparate. to hart. able. 8Tf *f?5 aor. ^nrf?Ht perf. 31TTTC-H aor. to ( ). U. G. ger. to bestow. 3K<^-(T aor 1 P. ^T^r(2nd sing. go lurt.-nwfS-fr pre.-arfhreH:* aor. ^rr^ fut. to adorn. |^n% pre. U. ^ p - suffice. ?JT^[ to cry. n^T P". fnirf?H* pre. amr to leave. to be *TWfa P'e. wishes to kill ) des. ^ ^rf^qrfir-^ fut. 109 feel. H. iSfS^fl-ifr 'at. fTWT^ ben.to expel. ^|f5|fl p. to direct. arn^irac. ftffrtff ^es. Tfnmr P. to move. far<%q?t des. f?^n%qft-% des.p. Oau. *ffo?*T ger. with 3TT. pre. fiofrf^ pre. p. to ^m perf. 'cffc perf. . to kill. 8. nriit to quit. ^T. ^TWTW pre ^HT perf. appear. wm$ to be afnft to able. to ). 4 P. ^T3T. Tfuft-fr - pre. ^fliq-a aor. be at the h^ad. Sffwr^r^^fift: to taste.. p. to yell. P. n?Wf?T dual STTTrW^ con. 43 . to propitiate. in the V*dae ftorr^. aor. aor. to drive oat. Pre. ^ perf. ( Vedic 9 U. ficTT P. to 1 A. Cau. to desert. fut. to sound. 2 P. ftofi^ pre. ft 6 P. ) prosper. grnftrc aor. ^r% to give.DHA'TUKOSHA. Hfn%r aor. f?fr?^f& des ^rmt ^ to accomplish. nfif pre. *reg 1 A. flRltfte ben. to fat. *fff *t?KT p. to emit. to glitter. to p***- 1 shine. p. to go. fit. to HI'dHfrU^fr perf .

to take. ftf?^T?T-?r des. to break to pieces (in the . ftftf or fifi^ perf. 3Tfrft^^-cT aor. ^yr p. ft^ perf. to hurt. af*^ aor. af^r^ aor. BTTT?^ ( 4th cl. arft^*. *rfaftTO$r: to go. or ft w 1 P. P^ 6 P. a^f 9 P. ). aor. fnT^" Prf. aftsft^ 3riTr|> aor. srfc^ifr^ ao *- 7 U. 1 RrF p. ta cover. to clear. to chatter. f^5T perf . to fight. foft pre. U. - f^FTHr pre. or frig pre. to boa^t. n*r to go.p. fi^r perf. to speak. T*Tft fu t. ^fif pre. A. to fail. PfiTff P. to kill. a rough grafing sound. to leave. |JHr<iMC to tear. ^q7j-?r COD. 3. pre. Creft-ft pre. Jififrvinft: to go. to utter perf. ?^r?T. ^rr p. ftirrft pre. pre.110 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR l P. fut.p. 1 1 3T<:^ aor. A . to be Wf. frr*. injured. fTT?^ffr ft^Tliq^lft-jf des. to come tog-ther.. ^|^ or ^gr P fot. fqpft or f?Wfar pre. f^rfa P re. to perish. to give up. f a* . 1 & 4 P.>*rfcT pre.^^rqraj^rr perf. to trickle. to Injure. ft^HrT pre. ?f$r**fr fat. ( also written a* ftg 1 ftRf^TT^ ). f^rnn^to kill. fi^r or fJR%. ftR^ir perf. & 10 P f^iM^H^^M^HiTi: to divide. mV to crawl. 3|ft^^ aor. aft^T^con. to murmur. to give fNnw Vr%rfTp. fat. to howl. fitfW& dee. Pass. to creep. fnfc. to hurt. 4 A. H^?fT ger. 1 to deprive of. T^Tim. ( 1st cl. ) aor.perf. ftf^ni des. pre. f^nS fat. to crackle. arfrffcr .p. aor. P. f?T^T7 to empty. to injure. to go slowly. f^qfr pr*. m^HfT 3<R*q>H aor P. ^r^ int. Vf%?T p. i? ben. f^r p.>^ des. 3T>f% aor . fi% perf. to flow. KK^Tlff dea. 3T>$ft^. perf. to ooze.

p. $75^ to cry.*ra>r P. fJTiS^^-^ 1 perf. perf. ^ perf. to oppose. Ill pre. ^m n^rf?r% 1 pre. *TTTWt ^rf ^ to speak. ?f^r perf. 3T^fa? aor.DHATUKOBHA. fat. fr?ff pre. to steal. to weep. &? p. also written as 2 P. to roar. frsrafff-FT pre. 10 U. q-Krerar to strike dosm-. rffcrf p. Tfferlr pre . ^J perf. pre. aor. fat. to speak* fl?qi*xr^fT-^% P9' f ^^i^-cT g-<nrrar to strike.fut . I A. 3T^T3Ta:-?T aor. ^F^T ger. to sufiSr pain. 2 P. P. **TW perf. Tt3ffir?Tr P. A. to be pleased fpOT pre. .- des. aor. *ror p. aWT*^-?! pre. 10 U. A. ^7f^ ben. ^^ s^ft? wr. pro. 3TS^> 3Trrf^ 3T^$^T aor. to afflict. TO* Tr*Tfft% P*e. fut.p. to shine. ffer*flr% 3T^^qcT aor. frsnrft-^ perf. Oau. P. to pain.*i$*fit ^t. to pre. frff or ham as bses. ^ir^Rf pre. steal. dual ). ^O7 perf. -Ttxrq^ pre. ^ to shine. R|^ f STTFnft des. flr^f?r pre. to shine. Oau. with ^TTgrpTjfTrfr ( a person ). 1 ^r<raw pre. to sound in gene* 5*rrf r^ aor. frf^lUr fut. T^TORf fut. to yell. Pass. to resist. to oppose. 1 resist. srftgfr pre.p. Oao. 10 U. sftar P drf . ir&ftlifr^ to cry. ft^fq-r^ to hurt. This is the same as the above root. ^frm pre. 3T^^T^-?f aor. pre. ^ujfff pr<. to tame. aor. sr^JTT^ Aor Pas?. to kill. fut. I ^^r P. rrf%- T^r fat. ^nf p. to go. ^sxft des. Oau. to rob. ^^r P- frt. ^^% perf. to torment. to obstruct. 55% perf. Vedas ). to ral. ^rirfrr 6 P. to look beautiful. qrjp to break to pieces. ftl%fTT p.

1 P. 7 U. aT*$W$-ff aor. ^f^M ) des. fa **%& des. ^q-f9Rtn*rra[ to find oat. to diiturb.^ atttafiigj 3H^5[ ^far or ^^ perf. violate. TTFrfa-fc pre. armii ^tiWar 4 P. f^rnn^ to hurt. Tflrnrof fmV ^ to fat. TO$ri9 des. a^^^qqcT aor. fgepTT^ to to hurt. to pre. fiflS pre. f|%^. perf.p. ^flr^ft kill. the other forms see the above root ). ?ro1?r pre. ^^ p. fHirft-it pre. perf. ar^^q^aor. 1 P. fat. For 10 U. ^qir?cT-Sr pre fat. to suffer. aTC^srerlf aor - 10 U. ( ^[T P. Oau. to p. ^^ft^ft.-rt^rft-^ pw. ( kill.p. *T?sre fat. to vex. OTfr to dasire. to ihine. 31^r^MliC clal aor. to destroy. to oppose. ^ to besiege.112 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. fat. frffoT. dea. ^riy perf. 3T^f^-?f aor. to rise. Tfr$rS fu^. 3?^ or 3^lf^ aor. ^[ p. tf%r P. 1 P. ^MsHrUK m&fo ** to reach. to des. ^^ftr pre. to oppress. ^^TO ^^TO or. STCSTfT aor. fut. ^jfWar 6 P. 4 A. to be unkind. ^sqft pre. frf%?fT or TOT p.-^cq^r pre. tffcf p. to be annoyed. 5^ 9^fT^ 10 U. to hold up. to hurt. vmft inf. ftj^ inf. to in the Vedas ). aor. to form. 10 U. d^A% ) ST^sSiTH. grow. f^WT5^ to confound. dry. Pass. ^^ perf. to x pain Omu. ben. ^cq^ pre. fng^ ( 4 P. rough. ^rWl?l% 3TC$^cT aor. pre. BT^T?? . to consider. a^i^aor. ^fffWT. srar aor. P'e. ww^ ( ben. speak. to to appoint. ?5*Rf P*e. ^r ger. Imperf ^ct^ . . qr^^ ) to be mak* pert. ( in the Vedas ^r^ffi-^ *$raT3rerc ^T9 ^n%lT Pfiz> fat. dee. fi% to be angry. Pass. ben. aor.. to obey. ^r^itS. wrre^fir-ft des. with 3t5 ^^ 55% perf. 9T^!f^ aor. 3*mut *Uft% or fut. fa TinfrtSr fat. Can. pre. to increase.p. fc perf. ^^^n%-?r des.

^r% pre. to obtain. 1 <rftirnrir to apeak. fir^^^r%-* de . f^t. fife perf. 1 P. fljifft pre. aftfissr A.p. perf. ^j^f pre. P. to go. to decorate. to observe. ^^riT perf. A. ffefir. p. 1 P. (Also written as 1 ^). to touch. aor. %f*% to sound. to bark at. srnft 10 U. to ask. ^ to taste. aftftfc aor. fat. to attach oneself to. 3TSJfi$$>9t"<T aor. 5^rr%4T pre. ^r9*q^ fut. n*Rr pre. BT3H% pre. SRTf* ^?WI^ ^T to despise. ^^nTT^i^K-^flff &o. to inspeotj ^sft aor* 1 f^% perf fut. P. to go. fat. ^^Ndl P. STCTfcfr pre. fut. . 10 U. 3TR*T5% sTT^ir - forTf pre. ^Rmr to p. to low. ^rf^tHdrcT aor pp. to shake. obtain. 3T^9<f^-fT aor. jfrfc pre. Pmft des. 1 1 A. to sound.DHJL'TUKOBHA. . srofir or 1 P. &qfa 5J%tTt P. to meet. ^y^r perf.. fat. an^Jt^ to perceive. p. f$% perf. to U. pre. A. fat. 1 A. p. ?^ to ntter an indistinct sound. 3^fTO aor. fj^snnrffr% pre.P. & perf. aor. ^ ^jft pre. ^t^ aor. 3mfffe *or perf. 3J$rfirfte ben.p. & 10 U.^RTfsnffi to notice. to despise. to regard. ( ^ also ) 1 P. ^r pre. A. 8TTC*T^T ^ to taste. iffin p. shine. CTft P re . ^sft pre. sfararr p. 113 5^ pe'f. to anoint. fat. unsfa. 551T P. %% p. aftfar aor. gifiq} to donbt. ^^ifi^ aor. to neigh. to follow closely. ^ft pre. 1 1 ^JFTR to adorn. to define.

to take. ^^^3T perf. STcJtofeq^cT aor.perf. *ft<^. v&ifa 10 U. jgjojm to lament* {$<r|rT perf. 3T9^ftI aor. to prattle. ^st perf. P. U. to shine. s^rhrur VTT% to talk in genera). 1 P. i^HT3^?Rf%%rRS perf. to caress. to transgress. cjnfc .fnt. A. ^jpfar p. 5J$Tflf to 1 mark. ^yf^TtTT P. ejfrlrl pre. " 1 P.p. to be able. 33?]^ pre. ST^T^r^ to appear. fut. <?<(< 1 perf. 10 U. ^IcfldMtt-Q aor 'A. to shine. ( vrr^rTt ^TRT ^T to kill. pre. 1 P. &c. flaflT to play. ^i*TWjfff% fut. ^ITini^Tf-^r^ & 1 P. ( Also written as &** ). i%^rf^^ des. 3TO3fhl aor.p. to fast. [^5 perf. to go. 5J5TUT per. -<>jmt|fii-?t pre. to dwell. cZ^nrfft-% pre. to conceal. ctosrm-fr pie. p. 1 P. *rr 3tJ- 6 A. c^^f^cir P. <j5xuf% p*e. pre. <gfraf3-^. 51 to take. (iftqraf 5l*ft *fllTTra*fiW ^r ) to speak. ^yiTSJnreT^ISRTT ^99 10 U. see the above root ) to give also. to cry. ^ifff 3" 3TWn^t p f e. srnft to get. 3q%3T3T to fondle. ireret Ht3Trrf*^Tft ^ to go. to sport.114 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. ^^ P re . 3 H aor. 5Ji^<TT P. a^FST perf. to speak. 55r*jfd-% pre. fat. . ^1T-^% perf. 1 P. p. ^r^q. be ashamed. to whisper. to go lame. to wail. to fry. . 3?<?nre aor. fat. to be powerful. 5rt*Ffr to dry. sfi5% to ^nr^ P*e. 3T5yf^^ aor. Oau. SJI^RT p.to be or act like a child. gsffi pre. STcJl^fT^ aor. to speak. 555. to shine-. to have.

Oau. fut. to be ashamed. ]>. T%9To5ftqrr & 10 A. 55^ P. Cau.P- T93--?T aoi. to obtain.DHA'TU KOSH A. for 5*3. 1 P. to embrace. 3T*RT%-*T P'e. 5jg^ perf. re. 10U. ^rafqfrr p. anfr pre. 3rr?T^ ^T% ^ to take. Pass. 3T#r97gt-*r aor. aor. lt. to 55^ pre. P. ^5171^-^ pre. $Rft to wish. p. cS^TfT perf. 3T55^iq[ aor. anrefiW*. ^STSgrf aor. S3?qft pre. to move about. 1 sferT move. oroq?r fut. P- P.. iut. $JT3TO^ P re . ***. =gfo perf. H33*^. fc^rqt to desire.^t. 1. cjRlcf P. s0quT5RT^^qr: to appear. 3???% aor. 55^ pre. to long for. 3Tc5c5^^rf aor. 3T5MT aor. 5JW7M-^ pre. to eii k. fut. 3T9Til^ 9?9m ft or. p. aor. 555^ p. grr^r p.f^?q*n<t See 55^ above. 5y^^ perf. fut. Oau. 2 P. p.perf. to fondle. $j5\n p. fut. to play. $3wrqj?r-?r pro. 5T3f?T pre.3T9ft^. Cau. 3T5J1TO aor. 3J9T9^rcT aor.cT des. 4 U. 3T$Ji^5i^ 1 a V. 5555^ perf. P.- pre. *T$5if aor. to go. gfa% P. RoJl^T to play. 3T$JT*ftgt aor. > & ^tofrrid d ^ s 9i%?r . ^T97w% ( to cauay to melt ) pre. to hang down. afq^T P. $rofff aor. ^q. to blush. perf. 1 A. grf^r p. 1 1 P. aor. Oau 9?T 321%% P. . ^jf^ cJ^rsr P er *. 9^m-^. 8?5Ji^^ aor. to go. to shine. f55oJRim des. l%9Tfrfir de. sfl% . f&c^ff 115 perf. f^qiJjr to use any art. &c. 10 U. 3T$5TOTSrcT. 99TT or g% perf. 3*3^% ^ to sound. Oau. 3^^ pre. ^Rfcft P. ft.j aor. to move. 3T9f*3* aor. A. e. afttRTT p. A. p. des. Pass.

perf. des. 3nm^ to lick. 3l1HUItfHv5<ft. perf. 3rf^f^-?r.fat. SSTOt to mark. Cau. ^^ ^ to fry> blame* araiffr or pre. gf^ p. fitaiift pre. perf. to be dry. TO^wf?f) 4 A. feff* P*e. aor. 1 P. gq%^ /&Sl%mt des. Oau. P. f^ p. to adorn. %ro to stick. to stain. Ufa. 6 P. bird. pre. peck af a aor. \&yft P. IOT aor. Oau -^nS% pre. aor. Vfift* aor. perf. ftft^f^ des. $r%. . WJlJl^ aor. A. %r%<TF p. to P. f^J% fat. p. ar&refftf . aor. to MI<flUft%P*e. p. A.^rr%% fut. fJ?%^ des. T%%^-W des. to go. Q$r perf. to diesolve. p. to taste. or f^gr perf. i%f^p perf. &i*fr pre. r %|%?TT p. P. P. f^ p. to lie on . gflerik to melt.SANSKRIT GBAMKJLB. ^[| ( gq^ft ff^[: ) to anoint. to move. ^fr 1 P. 3R!^d. 3^fn?|% to be email or reduced. ^r P. %^ fut. to rub. ^m? to b *(% eqnal to or able-. i%^nr annnwJTT-^rfc 10 U. few% pre. Den. Can. to or afa$ 1 P. &c. 6 U. 3TofTl%^-ff aor.-?fc$nnfS% pre. to go. ftciMN^ffi-^ & pre. &HT p. to go. 1 suffice. ararftre aor. des. 1 P. p. JT5^ pre. T^Tf^rr& to write. &c^ri^% %qqf&-^ pre. <t to cover. STcJTsftq^Aor. to move. 5^* pre. fnt. *nt. fut. 3Ti%5^T aor. aor. 2 U. ^WKSMO. aor. to touch. aor- ^%r inflect (noun).

p. Id of 1 H Iff des. to pull. 3?g^q^. ^yrg" perf. $IHJ<1 fut. 3TfiffT p. |%cfrq% des.to pluck. 55KTT ?. JfFTnif ?Tfft ^ to 5t^n^^TT-^K 1 P. arg argg^rS aor- ^. Can. ^t. 3T^S^^-fT. perf. 5331% pre. 5Jte perf. 'nt. 1 fSqNtfT$MM&TiT5 WTTqt ^inV ^T to kill. to roll. to oppose- tHW pre. g. jrfenrra A. 117 p. to perf. g-q^rf^ to strike. - P. fut. g^rfff pre. fo^TlS P'e. fut. &IT. H^fr^ aor. 3JT*fa[ aor. 5^^ . or g<0iQqifl *** 3Ts55Jte^-?T ^ftn. des. ^tfi^TT P. sgro to adhere. ^*jft. roll. aor. te*nfT-fr pre. to churn ?yt^T^ pre. ^gftcU p. (fsrf^: ^sg^t see g^ below. JBJ^ot (f*ri%:) aor . fu^. ) ) g^ 6 P. OTWfiT 3^5. ^ffer 4P.p. wzfy pre. to shine. dUjqfl-fr pre. ^t?^l%% p. Oau. g^im^r pre.DHA'TUKOSHA. P'e3Tc5S?T^-cT. fsh?jte% to roll. P. g^ftj perf. fat. Oau. to ^-ff 1 aor. 5 & 10 U. - p. 3n?<U P. ^lf%cTr p. 5531 perf. 1 P. fat. o&tutr. qfrt^T . d . Stf^rTT p. perf. See the above root for the other forme. des. 53% perf. to tear off. fut. B55> perf . 571% ft des .%<TT P. ft. P. be strong &c. eft 9 P. &c. wallow on the ground 3T^r#T^ aor. A. knock down-. f%S5t3^r to stir. P. speak. &c. 3fcnri&% P'e. 3T5JT5^-aor. ^IcJl'Qe a<> r 6P. fut. gr%f p. &i* p. 10 TJ. f&5JPT. to oppose.. Cau. ( ^^^d. 1 tc wallow. - &\tt P^- 33* P rf . g"^ft^ to 1 P. to ^^f^. ftt. ^l^dd 3T$yf l^8T aor. gfgfwm dea. to melt . 3T^nrT^aor. ^fd P'e. 3Tg<r. ben.

) . aor. 3T^pET ^WTT^-% aor. ) to cover. ^infanr> to seize. pre. pn>. ggfu^fifr des. g^ytr perf. gf?^Qm 3^?aft^ aor.below. P. guafa pre. des. fat. p. 5<?r<T> to suppress. gsr P. Pass. to confound ^5Tr*fr^ aor. ^o^(j|^^K-^^ perf. 3r^p(0q ( 1 ) 3?$^ ^vqr?^ pre. ^gr% to divide. perf. ( ^rrf: to fat. . to ^-^ break. 3T^yiT^-cT aor. c^TT ^twn?T% pre. ^r> rob. to adhere ) . ^far p. gfSawm cT ft. 3jg*fl^ Aor. fut. to rob. p. TH^rfff des. P. fat. 4 P. p gccr> P'e.SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 3^tiqp aor. perf. 3T5^7^-rT as g0S. ^ytRT P- *IQV^. guaft pre. to be perplexed ^mm. mS to covet. f%Rrf% to be bewildered. 1 P. cfn^f^T ger. gusnrfff-a pre. gguff perf Sfo^wift 3fgOdY3 gu^ 10 U. to take away. argusrg. to plunder aor. ^fT. 6 P. fut. Can. ff^rfe^T^fr: perf. fat. 4) ( 3T5j5j^-cT aor. P. gU^fS-l* pre. f%f|t5% to confound. aor. 5^?% pre. 3*^^ aor. Oau. 10 ( U: Same to plunder gg^rrS% to strike. ^rrqrfr-^ pre. P. gff p. 3^ to torment. ^05 ) to kill. 5 . aor. to agitate. 1 P. SN^r. *?rq- 10 U. STI^qr srifnrnt^T to be idle. gcqr^. $5$^ ben. 6 P. ff ^5^1%. Cau. to be destroyed j ^cq-r^ pre. See the above root & 4 P. Oau. to be lazy aor. ( See gy above for the other forms. see ^03. off j 9 U. g^fa pre. p. 1 ^c^ ( g^^rm-^ des. to cut . 6 tJ. cfif^tir p. 5^mtTT. .

grf m P'e. 3Tf^Tr^-?r aor. . 10 U. P. 3^5^ aor. P. &}<&< pre. 5Jif%ff p. 10 above). to rob. A. fut. 10 U. 3T^^fr?l aor. ^orffT pre. sft-Etrf^FTT-^ des. ^^f?f. to grow *$rf& . ^^1%^ des. to perceive. 1 P. 1 1 P. 5Jrf5i<T p. <jnroilT-?r pre. cJittTT p. to go. aor. to go. to go. p. peif. perf. >I5PTti ^f^ aor. 3T<5TO-rT aor. 3T5Tni^ aor. 55^1% . 5fTT%HT 8*r$!rnT-. ST^ofriT aor.peif. jgff% perf. ^T *$% pre. ^ft^rR pre. aor. $yi^niTff-?r pre. ffflrot *tt JFJ to injure. 3T^frg. 3Tatl%5 aor. to seek. (See #r^ pre. fut. to go. ^r^rgqr^-^ 8e 1 . to send. BTi'%rTT p. same as ^5 . p. to speak. ^"ig. 3?gmfhr. 1 1 1 f^5T t' stumble . 1 P.DHA'TUKOSHA. 10 U. to shine. ?npf^ pre. p. 119 g35Tff-?t des. P r *. 3TsfreK aor A. to embrace. to shine. Can. to know. ^rf?^T I^T ^ to be crooked. ?ft H^ t. 3Tg-" aor. aor. cJt^^nSI^TT ^T^- afra%r P. A. sftseftrU P- pre. ^T% perf. 4 P. ^r^r to see.^^ n^-r^ 1 to . to move.t pre. ^*. 5ji^ pre. fut. fut. 3T$5pre aor. P'e. *t?3 tfvf* ^& ^ - to deceive. A. Can. P*e. perf. ^T to be angry. Sfar^T perf. 3T3^rfv?T-?r aor. $5 p. fhrfar to heap up. <*!% pre. to precede- sfeft > perf. to worship &*fc pre. 1 P. ^wft-flr perf. 53^ perf. *?nnrt ^-gr ?r ^ to behold. p. to go .

120

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.
2 P. qftwtfT to speak, to relate, *frF pre. ^rpET perf.
P. fat.
*r$*rft
fat.

aret^a; aor.

7*qr5
aor.

ben. ft^rfft des.

Oau.
1 P.

srnEnrfer-% pre.

g^fhr^-W

&

10

U

r

to

^TT-'Sfsfc',

peak, to read, ref?*, *rxnrfiir% p*e. &0- perf. *rET> Jl^fftdT P. fat.

aor. ^rw, 'srrTcf p. P.
1 P. to go,
fet.

to

roam about, *3ff^

pre.

^rnr

perf. ?fTfir p.

^R^[,

arenft^ aor.

10 U. to trim, to go;
aor.

^r^^-%

pre.

e(Mm*THH &o.

P. to go> to arrive at, srarlf pre.
aor.

^^

perf. ^i%?fTp. fut.

fi-^i^f^
to cheat

des.

^T%cf p. p. Pass.

q^q^

pre.

10 A.

33mft

;

^^q^ pre. ywiqiK
;

&o. perf.

aor.
1

P. ^^ft to surround

,

to cover

izft P'e. w^RT perf

.

10 U. gff^r, f%*TT3T% to stfing, to divide, to surround, *Tm-% pre. ^iTT^^-^rlj perf. 3T3ftaS3-tT aor
des.

10 P.

^vflyfr

to be strong or fat

;

^fflT pre. <*crra perf.

3Tn<fi^ aor.
.1

P. ^is^ to sound

;

^nn%

pre. 3TW<lfi^, 3T^Tofta[ aor.

i P.

&. 10 U. fwrsr;* to divide ^rjfir, OTCTft-% pw.
gwrsra;, amnvd^-iT aor.
to lay say, to tell,

rtS, ^nsfi^rfJr fat.

1 P.

oU^iql ^Ti% to
P^f.

^n

P.

^

down

;

g^

P'e.

gwrfr^aor.
p. p.

firtf^lft 4es. Pass.

pre. arerf^ aor.
1

^f^T

&

10 U. ^>^STT|> to inform ; ^ft%, ?T^rf^ % pre. ^r^, ^TT &c. perf. apRT^K) 3f*ft^T, arft^t^-W aor.

DHA'TUKOBHA.
1 P. 3T3%

121

*rwnf
.

^ to sound,

to honour, to aid;
-

*Rf&

pre.

r?r* perf
pre.

*froi% fut. awfts, awRTg; aor Cau.
) to

?rorft-7

ft*ft*l% des.
(

8

A.

P. according to ^73;

beg, to seek for. 333- pre.
dee.

%^

perf.

3mTO,

3lWcT aor.

f%3TWlr

1 P.

&

10

U

to favour, to injure, to sound,

*

pre.
1

A. arfvrei4H44*4T:

to

talute, to adore, to praise;

pre.

m?%

perf. ^f^frTT p. fut.

arefag

aor. f

pre.
1

?&<& p.

p.

U.

FnW?dH

^^ ^ to sow, to
^cq^

scatter, to

weave, to cut,

to shave-, 5T<n%-?f pre. s^rnr, 3T> perf. p. fut. ben. Cau.-?rrqTn%-% pre. aor. 3TW5T ^wrrg[, gr^n^
aor. f%^c^iff^ des. Pass.
1 P. to go$ **fff P'e.
1

^n

pre. 3T^rft aor.

3T^^ aor.

P. ^f^TOt to vomit, to pour out;
8?TOTrai aor.
)

^W

pre.
^TinTft-?t ( with

^WcTT P ^t. a prep, grrcrm-^ only
according to
1

Cao.^irm^-^r,
P re
.

^fl*t*4d;rT aor. ^m?r, (

some

)

p. p.

A.

to go; snrir pre.

*fiix&

fut.

<^TTO

aor.

10

U

i^PfT^t to ask for, to get; sr^rfff-% pre.

perf. ^rfqcTT p. fut.
1

3Ter^-gr aor.
be bright;

A.

srnfr to shine, to

^fr pre. ^^

perf.

aor.

10 U.

to extol, to send, *o grii)d;

^T^TfTOTS^^r^^^nC^rto
^ohrfa%
perf.
sroiftrcTT P.

colour, to explain,
cnriq-f'^Rf- ^^1

pre.

3TTH-W^^
10 U.

fat.

3T^ro?^-cT aor.

r^OTi^TI%

ft

des. sfofa p. p.

^T^fn^t:
irfqr

to cut, to

fill;

^v|qfff-?r pre.

aw^iT aor.

1

A.

o

love-,

^

pre.

Bf^fq^ aor.

122

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.
1

A. 3rrat> *T2J r$r 'Br to cover, to move about; W%-*ra ^t. 3T*i%s aor. |%ffTTf?r-?f des. 10 U. gftvrTTO to speak; 9?59TcT-?t pr
perf.
1

3T5T^^-?r aor.
to go, to dance,

U.

wt

to be pleased, to
p.
fut.

eat;

q^irnr-ff

pre.

perf.

*firm

3w*ro,

^nrfcire aor.

p. p.

1.

1

A. wnr* to eat; *vfa pre. 3T*f?ire aor. A. H3T3T to cover or be covered; *gy?r pre. ^^% perf. A. qfyymrrfWT^ f W g; to sppak, to Jbe prominent, to

kill,

to give;

mfr

pre.

?R%

perf.

ST^f?

ao"".

2 P. ^RJ?r to wish, to shine; *T% pre. 741^1 perf. 3T5THT Pfnt. 3TW5fr^, BT^hr aor - ^^T^ ben. f^rf5TTT% ^ea. Pass.
5r^T?r p r e. 3T^rr5T aor. gflirr p. p.
1 P. ff^TJqrt to injure, to kill;

^r?r

pre. *arr* perf.

3T^m5
1

aor.

P. ftg-m to dwell, to be, to spend (time).
p.

?m1v p
f^^mfrT dei,

perf. srf?ir

f ut. 3TqT?JTrcI

aor. 3^qTtJ ben.

Pass.
?T

T*rar pre. 3T^rRT aor.

Cu.

?mTr

aor. gr^JT P. p. SlV^T, sft^ ger.

2

A.

3TT^r^

to wear > to P ut on

'% P re

-

^T^ra^ aor. Cau.crr^nim-?r N^fHIff des. *HTC p. p.
4

p. fat.

pre. 3T^T^^^-?T

aor.

P.frW

sq-(?r fut.

WW*7T

to be straight, to be firm, to fix; 7*>nft pre. aor. ^^T p. p. ^ftf^T, gTfRTT gr. to love, to cut, to take away. STfr^FT^-rT aor. ^^qTrJ ,

10 U.
^f pre.

^fx^rrjf^
q-f^fWm-ff

fut.

ben.

10 U. far*r% to dwell;
aor.
1

^^Hff%
^Tf^^tT
kill,
(

pre. sr^nKTr P fut

A.

to go- ^r^?ff pre.

lat.

3T-Tf?? aor.
to

10 A. 3T^3r to hurt,

to

to

ask,

go;

perf. ^^Tf^TcT aor.

Also written as

DHA'TTTKOSHA.

123

tJ.

SHW
s^

(

with

along, to carry, to fl>w, to marry &c. **f5H* pre. g^ry, 3Tf perf. *t*r P. ft. fut. 3T*T*fr^ ifTTRT aor ^JRT, *$TTC ben.
)
,

*o bear

3f

dea.

Cau.-qrT^JKf%

pro.

3T*r*5<*T

or.

3^" p.p.

2 P. ufa'n^VRifr: to blow, to go, to strik?, to kill; to snft perf. ^rar p. 'nt. ararrtfhr aor . ^nn^ ben - Oaa. cause to blow, *nnn%%; to shake, *nr7T?Ht pre. f^^T^rm
des. 3t?T p.p. ( with |%(~^rffor subject; as R^trfT ).

when

^r?f <wind'

is

not the

g^TT^r

1

P. ^f^TT^t to wish,

to desire,

^hTO

pre.

*tf$tofff fat.

?l>^tqr^ to wish, to desire, to seek for. ^^- perf. srfcsraT p. fa f . BT^r^rf^ aor. Pass. y|^^ff pre. ^<||^ aor.
1

P.

1

A.

to bathe, to dive; ST3ft pre.

<m j

perf.

10 U. ^^Ir^^tit: to be happy, to serve; firof^-?* fut. sT^rm^-rT aor. f%^TrTRrqia% des. 4 A.
fut.

5T^ to amfsTC

roar, to hum; ^r^qft pre. or. wTf^TfT p.p.

**rr

pre.

10
pre. aor.
1

U

3-ir^nrf

to

scent,

to

make

fragrant;
p.

grmq-nEre'T-^ &o.

perf.

TmT^ffT

fnt.

f^m^ft^ des.
effort;

A. q-^?% to try, to make an

sry^ pre. **!%

perf.

7 U.

to separate &c.; R^rr%, fir^ pre. . perf. \Trpr P. 3Tlr^, 3?^^^, 3Tf^TF aor.

7^T*n^

fu f

ben.

T>lr^Tm%
to

des fifF P-P-

6 r.

go ;

Hx^r^fR

P r e.

fgrrt^r,

ft^rni^TT &c.

perf.

P. fat
-^r

arfir^rq; 3Tf^^TcTTcT aor. Cau.
pre.

arRr^r^ w, sn^fN^nm-ir
des.

aor.

j%i^r%?n^, ftfV^rrftw
pre.

Pass.-f^s^HT,

124

SANSKRIT GP.AMMAB.
3JTRV^to apeak, to 7 p rf ^Rfl-^d-ff
.

shine;
aor.

fHduft-fr pro.

3 U.

rniTV to *pearate to distinguish; %%f?fr,
perf.

%^rr%-% fat. arfl^,

srlgfrg;,

%ft$ pre. srt^ aor.

6 A. nq-^SFTOf: *o fear, to tremble;
P. fut.

f|*i% pre.

Qft^ pert

arfjfire a <> r . Oau.

%*rafft pre. 3T^TT^5Tg; aor.

7 P. to shake, to fear t ft^ri% pre. fi^ST perf.
aor.
1

P. 3TF5RHt
perf.

5TT ^T

to curse, to sound, to rail at;

tsfS

pre.

WefVg: aor.

same as
10 U.

fi^^f to
aor.

mock, to deceive;

ftM^fd-%

pre.

T^W^-rl
1

A. qr^T

2 P.

^

to bf g;

%^ pre. %f^T^
-

fat.

to

perf. gf5Jlft

pre. know, to regard; %fo fut. 3T?CT^ aor l^<n^ b611 f^?T

^

P.p.

Oau.

%5*ria-ft pre.

3Tfft^r?T

aor.

^f|R[nS%

des.

4

A.. fTTfnrt to

happen, lo be; f^jr^ pre. ftftf^ perf.

fut.

%f^ff

fat. 3T(^rT aor. frctfte; ben.

^p p. T%%^ dee. ftw P-P3T%T%
aor.

6 U.

to feel; 5J fir to get, to find,

ft?rfr% P r e. fi^,
3H?TT.

perf. %f^rTT,

%rH

p. *at.

arf^,

)

P.P.

7

A. fi^TT^t

ffiw or

fag

p. p.

to discues, to consider; {%?% pre. For other forma aee ftgr 4 A.

ftl^

perf.

10 A.

%cT^T^R^^T%^ to
perf.

feel, to tell, to dwell;

?$\fa[

p.

fat.

arfAqff aor

.

%^r% pre. fi^Tft^ P 8 ,

pre. 3T%I^ aor.

DHA'TUKOSHA.
6 p. ftvft to pierce: forfa- pre.

*fo*mr

*a*.

s^ft^

aor.

Can.
P.
perf.
1

%W?T% pre. 3^%^-^ aor.
u%5i% to
enter, to fall to the share of;

%OT

P. fut. 3Tfir$T<t-<T aor. fo8r$TI^ des.

f^ffa pre. fi%$r f%^ p. p.
pre.

P.

%^T to
f nt.
sqrrffr

sprinkle, to pour
aor.

oat;

^rm

fi^

perf.

%OTff
3

srf*^

T^ p.p.
f^r,

to pervade, to surround, %qr%. %i>t pre. ftf^T perf. TOT P- ft. 3rfi^?^, ZWn&t aor.

U.

M^^.?t dea.
arf^^ aor.

9 P.

%nrtt

to separate;

f^mrrA
aor.

P'e. fif%<? perf.

10

A

fsfanit to kill;

U. <ro% to

eee; firs^l^, ftwifft-fr pre.

2 P. i||doMlfSr^nr?R^T^r^RWr^% to go, to pervade, to conceive, to be born, to shine, to botain, to throw, to be
beautiful, to desire, to eat; tfff pre.
or.

rawr

perf.

%m

p. fnt.
(

sffarOen.

f|?fi^fS des. Can.

fm^-lt,

*TT-

pre. ^r?T p.p.

10 U. 5*nf5T to fan;
3Tfir^r^cf aor.

sfhw^^

pre. 3T5fTl%3T5-<T aor.
*?c*nfr pre. tftrfitrft fut.

to display valour; ICKA^ Qda|rd>
1

U.

3TF*TTFfr

to cover, to surround: 9Tiff-ft pre. (Seethe
).

following root
5 U.

*^

to choose, &c.;
.fut.

^intf^,

^r
pre.

pre. *3rfr,

^
as

perf.

3iqmd, ^iift,
Oau.-rTT<T^%

STTfr^T, 3T^rT aor.

ben.

3T^Tg;-?f aor.

9 A. to choose &c. ;

^ofrk pre, V2t perf.

(

Same

the

above A.
1

).

A. 3TT5T^ fot.3wf%^
A.

to take, to accept;
aor. ft*&qfr.des.

*g&

pre.

^%
perf.

perf.

1

aRR^ to cover; ^cr^
*^%
to choose;
p.p.

pre.

*%&

perf.

3??%^

aor.

7 P.

^nn%

pre. v*4f

3T^ff^aor. f^j H. 8. G. 44.

126

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

2

A. q-^

to avoid, to shunj

^>

pre.

fT^T

perf. 3fT<ar?r fat.

3T*T3re aor. Qcn'Snfr des.
7 P. STH% to avoid, to choose, to turn
hurt- ^TfTT% pre.

away, to move, to

^*T

perf.

^Mdl

P- fat.

1

P.

&

10 U. to shun, to abandon, to exclude &c.;

*3nrra% P fe- ^*T> W^I'iSi^W-^fe &c. perf. p. fut. 3^^fr^ , 3^ff 3T^-fT, 3^^^-cT aor.

A. wzfo

to avoid;

^

pre.

^T^Tff

fat.

6 P. sfror> to give pleasure; ^jfir pre.
1

^or

perf.

A.

^t

happen, to live on, to occupy &c.; perf. ^fS^r P- fat ^m^qr^, ^?rff?l fat. 3T^cT^, pre. r aor. srffnfre ben. f%WOT^, r%^?fm dee. Can.
3-jfo

^

to exist, to

-ff

P'e. 3T^rf?Tg[-cT, 3T^cf5riT aor.

^j p. p.
(

4 A.

3W

to choose, to divide; fftfft pre.

See the above

root. )
1 P.

&'10 U. HFTnri ^vSt
pre. ^^ff,

^r to speak, to shine;

ITO^
T,

^fam'W-^%

&c. perf. 3T^cTfg

3T^rS^-cT aor.

1

A. f^r to grow;

^^ pre. ^^ perf. ^fT(fT p. fut.
^5 p.p.

ff^ fut. 3ff^g;, tarafvre aor. srfWirep ben.

1 P.

&

^r% pre.

10 U. irprnrf fwt above See (

^

^
).

to speak,

to shine;

4 P. ^T$r to choose; ^^rfff pre. srTO
1 P.

perf. <rf%*iif?ir fat. grf-

3%

%^TTf Hrl^^T^ to rain, to pour snrm pre ^<f perf. ^ft?IT p. fat. H^r?l

^

forth, to tormentaor. f^ffaffT des,

P. P-

* It

is also

Parasmaipadi in the 2nd future, conditional, aorist,

and desiderative.

DHA'TUKOBHA.
10 A. $r%*9V|^ to have virile power;
fut.

127

j^q^
).

pre

?^snf, 3ppnfo

aor.

* P.
<|

SW% to exist, to
P. fat.

work;

(

see

vg

9

U,

**or to choose; furrft,

jofw

pre.

*fR, **>
aor.

perf.

awns;, 3**fre awrro, 3?f

1

U. ay^fr^fJT to weave, to cover;

**rft-ft pre.

3^

W^, *>
n.
.

perf. cTRTT

P. fit. 3T*ref(5,

3WW aor.
pre.

rl^r*rfar-% des. Cau.

^Pl^-?t

Pass.

3T^rW aor. Tff

P.p. ^?^f, ST^T^ ger.

U. irf^rRf^fTrR^rrRH^rRsui 5 ui 5 to go, to know, to contemplate &c. rofiMT P'e. fir>OT, fSWr per
1
;

fut.
1

3^011^, 3T%fore aor.
to b9g, to solicit;

A. qr^JT

^JH

pre.

^T>Rl^

aor.

Same
1

as %ur

which

see.

A. ^pr>
fat.

to tremble, to quake;

%q^

pre. P^e.

f%>^

perf.

p.

3r%f^r aor. Oaa.

^wr%-?r
wanton;

3fWhT^-f

aor.

1 P. ^r$y> to shake, to be %f%ffT p. fut. 3T%5*X aor .

%$rffr pre.

10 U. q?r^qRf5t to count the time.
^rlfr perf.

%^(Tl9^
aor.

pre.

%5y&<TT P- fut.

3?^%^-^

1

P. ^ra^ to go, to shake. %$far pre.

f%% perf. H^ft^ aor.

to ODt ain, to be pregnant, to %cfr 2 A. irffrs^T^nf^ to 8 to to to shine; %sfRT pre. ar^firs aor. pervade, wish, eat,
(

Vedic

).

%

1

A. %7>r

to surround,

to

wind round, to
3T%fesaor. Can.

dress;

%^

pre. pre.

fCTT P.
des.

fat.

Tffirf^.^

1

A.

to endeavour;

^ft

pre.

ft^% perf

.

Rfie

aor.
perf.

%

1 P.

^fm^t to dry, to oe weary; *T*H% pre.
aor -

*$

1 28

S ANSKBIT OBAHHAB

.

6 P. m|gftnu| to cheat, to surround, to pervade; p*e. ft&n^ perf. VJl^dl P- fot. anHRfttJC, 3T3qTTft^ aor. fS'STRt ben Pass.-f^r?f pre. ftm.fimft des. Oau.-sqrorfif-

pre.
1

t%%T
.

P-p.

A. utMgHqt
f$zq
to

to fear, to be vexed or afflicted, to tremble; perf. 5*n*J<fT P. *ut
des. 5gfir?T P.p.

hurt, to pierce;

f%OTT?T

pre.

f^mr

perf.

p. fut. 3*wrflSrg; aor.

firWT^ beD^t%^?^Tff

des. Pass.-

^

1

ronTlS-*T pre. 3Ti%H^g;?T aor. p.p. O. to go; 5imfeT% pre. ^sjrq-, ^si?% perf. otipimm-fr fut. a r.

{^

U. ft^^H^f^^f to expend, to bestow- snrqnfr?t c. perf. ^firn1f-% fat. STSoS^-?!
dea.

pre.

aor.

4 P. 51% ftsn'f
perf.
1

^ to burn, to

separate;

eg*n% P re
separate

-

siftf^Tm

fnt.. STBift^ftg;, (

STc^^to
gfiqT5[,

) aor.

U.

tf**ufr to cover, to

sew; sqtmr-?* Pe. f%sqTT, ft^T perf.
SUTtTl^ ben.

sirnTT p. fnt. 9Toq7tfirat,

^r^rer aor.

frrei-% des.
ar

Pat*.
p. p.

sffa^ pre. Oan.-sgnrm%-?r pre.
as time

aor.

jfa

1 P. to proceed, to pass
perf.

away

(

);

THlcT pre.
P-P.

sfirm p. fat. 3*srr5fHaor. NdM^f^ des srf^r 10 U. m*rar*CT?T3fr to sweep the way, to go;

pre. ariiar^^-tT aor.

6 P.

OT^T ( $srt?

)

to cover, to be gathered, to sink;

pre. ^f%^rm ft. 3T3^}^aor. 1 P. to sound; r0nn?? pre.

^

nor perf.

10 U.
perf.

UTari^&H
cut,

to wound;

9UFD^%

pre.

H^^m^-tf

aor.

6 P.

%^ to

to tear, to

wound;

&xft

pre.

*aw pert

DHA'TTJKOSHA.

129

4 A. *rot to

select;

rfhnt pr. ftfifr perf.

H*H*

tot.

aor. sffor p.p.

9 P. to choose? ftornft, rfforrft pre. fcwrft fut. 3Tifcfa[ aor,

4 P.

%^ SJWnrt ^
perf.
to' select,

to throw, to be ashamed; jftanft

P re -

/Wte
aor.

anfaft* aor.
to go; f^RTift pre.

9 P. *tft

sgwfi^

fit.

Oau

1

Sfafir pre.

P. tjpft ^^ir ^T to relate, to suggest, to praise, to hurt; ^T5T^ perf. stfiRTT p. fut. 3T5ffft^ aor.
f$r^rftr^f?r des.

ben.

ger.

^nfT P.p.

P f e.

Pass.-s^T^ pre. Sfltfm aor. with grf A. f^7?rt to hope, to bless; 3TT^fr%^^ fot. ^(^f|^^ aor. ^i^if^^TlVi ben.
5

4 U. n$or to endure, to be
perf. ^T%cfT,

able-

5T^qr?fr%

pre.

^rRT

P. f^t. srf%*irr%%,

^^'^
des.

3T^Tf%^, 3T5nf> aor.

T%5T^rit%
ar^rq^

des.

o P. ^iT^r to be able, to endure, to be powerful; ^igfclfi pre.
perf.

^nFT
pre.

P. fut.

aor.

^|^|^ ben. T%^TT%

Catt.

^ll^Ulff-% pre.

3T^n^-T
pre.

aor.

1

A.

^ruf

to doubfc, to be

afraid; 51

J%

^^

perf.

^Tf^Hl
1

p. fut. 3T5Tf|pS aor.

%^rf|^^
tell;

des.

^f^ p.p.
^f% perf
to pain;
suffer;

A. sqifjnn ^Tf% to speak, to
aor.

srgft pre.
to

3^rf%^
1

P. %?T% to deceive, to hurt,

to

kill,

5raf?r pre. srsrre perf.

srretir p. fat.

3^ryr^
fut.

10 U. ^pqir^^TTW to speak well or
ff

ill,

, ar^n^ra: aor to deceive; $|gqf8~

pre. ^T^rngrg^TT &c. perf. ^ryrq^T P.

3T3T$ra^-cT aor.

^iTirT p.p.

10 U. 3Wfrprc*Tc*fr: to leave unfinished, to go;
pre.

?TTTfirqtS%

fit.

ar^idd-a" Aor

-

W^W p.p.

130
10

SANSKBIT GBAMMAB.

A.

sgremMo
aor -

flatter;

OT3TO*

pre.

$l<f
^T

P.p.

1 P.

^T% nfr

to

give,

to

go; ^rnrfS pre.

STSTTOT

perf.

^rfiiiwria* fut.

3T$nj?h;, arsnoft^ aor.

1 P. ( but

Atm.

in conjugational tenses-

)

^TfHK to perish, to

decay; qfarn* pre. ^^n^ perf. snu p. fut. 3T^I^ aor. ben. %5rfFf% des. Cau.-^T?nn?r-W, ( alao ^T^n?T-^) pre.
1

51^

&

4 U. arr^r^- to

curse, to wear, to blame;

P erf
aor.

-

^TKT p^

fut.

3T^TTCBnr-3T^Tff aor.

ben. Pass.

^rtqTT P'e. Oau.
*rff p. p.

{jTN^fff-^ P*e.

%?n^^% des.
^5^fir?TT P. fut.

10 U. to sound, to call out, to speak;

ini^R-'^ perf.
4 P.
g-qr^TR to

srssmff-ar pre. 31*^3T^^T5^-fT aoi vi^?T p.p.
.

grow calm, to put an end
^TT%t!T
P. fut.

to, to stop; ^n^fff"

perf.

3T5UT^aor. ^l^ld ben.

pre. Cau-5Tirof5f.%,

^^^-^ pre.
pre.

^TPff P. P.

10 A.

3Tr^T^

to look at, to

show- ^mnrfr

^imm^^
des.

&c. perf. srmfoar P- **. 3T5fT^TH?T aor.

f%5Tmf^^

U. 9*3?q% to accumulate, to
pre.

collect together; 5T*-^qra%

^P^n^^FTTT-^% &c.
to go, to

perf.

a^T^T^^-cT Aor.
qrfft pre.
^t^nJ perf.

1 P.

injure, to

kill;

ftfrnn^ to kill; A. ^dH^K<Mft: to shake, to ^ifddr p. fut. g^rfirar Aor.
i P.
1

agitate;

*$&%

pre.

^& perf,

1 P. to go, to run; ^^yfar pre.

^U<g

perf.

A. *cU|%
1 P. to go,

to praise, to boast; $\<*Vft pre.
to

^r^r^
pre.

perf.

approach, to utter;

^^
P'e.

^r^rgr perf.

1

P.

jancft

to leap, to jump;

^rfS

^TRRT

perf.

3*5U ^n^ aor. p. fut. 3T$T3ftcT N ,

DHA'TUKOSHA.
hUrt'
*

131

kil

Aor.
)

cut up, to destroy;

5^
Aor

pre.

^n^T

perf.

p. fut;

ar^I^,

arSTRfta; aor. ST^T p. p.

1

pervade; STTWHT pre. a^rr^T^ Aor. U. f*H> to sharpen, to whet; sfrcrtaf^ pre
fut.

to

.

^rtf%^r**^
dee.

3fTrm'h,
^rrfj^^

aifrTire

1

A. ^n^rqf
perf.

^fnfV XT to tell,

to praise, to shine,

pre.

fut.

a^rrfOT Aor. l%^TTf&^

advise;

P. 3j|f$l^1 to teach, to inform, to govern, to correct, to 517% pre. 51317^ perf. 5rrT%cTr p. fut. 3tri$m. aor.
ben.

m%<TW

des.

Pass.

fsimft pre. f^re p. p.
to blese;

with

^n 2 A.

$^m\

to expect,

3TT5TI^ pre.

Aor.
5 U.

R^W,

to whet, to sharpen, to excite;

fir^perf. ^qi?r%
des

fut.

3T^fr^, 3T$^ Aor.

A,

QO>WIM
3if|r%^

to learn; aor.

f^T^

pre.

%Tff^
f?rrf^nt

perf.

p. fut.
1

f5TT%^^
%T%g:

des. f5T%?T p. p.
fct.

P. to go; T %ff?T pre.

perf.

aor.

P. STTSTTOt to smell; ftnTT^ pre.
^ivfl^

f%f3N

perf.

%fV?TT

p. fat.

Aor.

2

A.

srsinfr

?T^

to tinkle, to jingle;

f%%

pre.

3Tr?TT%^

Aor.
P. ar^T2T> to disregard, sfcft pre. fir^ perf. ar^ftcl Aor. P. fiNrwt to hurt, to' kill; ^Tft pre. Prf.

1

Aor.

(

According to some

this

f^T is

Set;

1

P.

&

10 U. to leave a residue (with

ft

to excel;

182

SANSKRIT GBAMMAB.

&o.
Aor.
7 P. ft^ptft to leave,
pre.

perf.

to

f^T^ta

perf.

$^r

distinguish from others; p. fit. srffcre^ aor - fil^
p. p.

%%$rf?T
fat

des. Cau.
lie

$W%% pre. f$&
sleep; jrer pre.

2 A. ^5r to

down, to

3T$rfSre aor.

^fqifr? ben.

f|n^ perf. SfftcfT P%^rRrq^ <^es. Pass.
gently;

pre. srsrrio- aor.
1

Cau.-^rnTq-r8% pre. ^rffiw p. p.

A.%^^
P.

to sprinkle, to

move

sffa^ pre.

perf. 8T5nr%^r
1

Aor.

&

10 U.

STHWr

to be angry;

(

10 U.

to speak, to shine;

sfrarffif,

^Tr^ri^-^r pre.

^TT-^
l

perf.

A.

gj?qft to speak, to

communicate,

^ft^

pre.

perf. aT^ftnr^
1

Aor.

P. *rJW?r to contemplate; ^(^yfS pre. f$|^i1^ perf.

p. fut. a^fi^rg; aor.

U.

gftrqrf ot to study,

to exercise,

to honour,

to

visit;

pre.

sfr^n^snT-^fr

perf.

^ugflfaT p.

fat

des. 1 P. to go, to

move; ^fr^T%

P'e.

^TT^

perf. ^ft%tfT p. fat.

aor.
1 P.

sft% to bewail, to grieve for, to regret; $ffafff pre.
perf
des.
.

^t^cTT

p. fat.
P- P.

gf%T, ^flMrf
(

4 U. ^fTJTTV
aor.
.

f^ )
P er ^-

to be wet, to be afflicted.
^fft%fnr
p. p.

^n?Mfr

pre.

^r

p.

fat.

sr^j^^,

ar^fl-nfi^,

^T%rf

HIHMi4H&<H-l-m3%
;

to bathe, to distil,

to

churn to

press

5qffT pre.

QQ^

perf.

3T^grg[ Aor.

DHA'TUKOSHA.
1 P. to resist, to be lame, to be

133

impeded;

tftjft pre.

perf. sftfOTT P. *at. *TOtrffc aor.

10

U

-

*TOf^

to be idle, to be lazy;

srt^fiHT

P.

WC-xTfc

perf. g<3iJddl:3

Aor.
Aor.

P. (see

^

above).

^ufl^.
perf.

P.& 10 U.

srreuf to dry, to purify;

SJUOT*

SJTOtlfilHt pre.

u^r^FK-^JIj
perf.
aor. Oau.
p. p.

4 P. $ft% to be pure, to have the doubts removed*

s^T P-

^t. S^ST^aor. Pass.

^ig^

pre.

^ftvrqf^^ pre. m^qra-cT aor.

^j^Q
Aor

6 P. to go, to move, ^rfq- pw. g^fhr perf. arsfoft^

P. $re>

&

10 U.

^^nrf&%
1

pre.
-

^^^wfui g^TT, grVpn^r^TT-^
^f^Trr
P. P.

to

purify, to clear;
per*.

^^S 5^-?T Aor
A.
p- *^t.
l

?fhfV to shine, to be

ST^^T^,

^^DRr?

happy; aor -

^^
perf.

pre.

^g^r

perf.

p

-

*rr^,

HRR

fiNnri ^r to speak, to shine, to hurt.

fut.

9i^Un^ ^(Si^tl Aor.
pre. p. ( also

grjvrcT? ^TtnTff,

^W?T P. p.
pre. g-ftcf p. p.

6 P. ^fn^nrf to shine, to be splendid;

^^
pre.

gsmf

gwr )
gain, to

lO U.

<qfd^H

to
:

pay, to forsake;

^^rf^-%

J<<|m|chK- 5r% per/. ST^^^d.-cT aor. ( 3^) 10 U. ITT^ to measure, to produce; gr^(5*)qrf?T% pre.

4 P.

3HW to dry up,
^ftw
Aor.

to be
P.

dried,
des.

to

be

afflicted;

pre. gr^rft perf.

ft.

pre.

3TB^^T

g^rft

3?^^ &SG p. p.

aor, Oau.

4 A.

I^IHiVMH^:

to strike, to be firm;

^j^r

pre.

5^

perf.

Aor. tgqr p. p.

aorist & P re 1 ^r^ P erf. to cook. T%?f P. . ^Tr?f^. . $rrfcr?r. 10 A. to make great exertions.p. to perf. p. fut. ^jjriR pre. to p 'at. IP. 1 P. ^fnmS Aor. thin. Pr . perf a^fig. $^ > pre. sim p. reflRFcft to act as the hero. ( See pre. ?nvftS% 10 U. xr^t mock at. fat. TuST^ts to become red. to collect. 4 P. 1 A. ^W^ p. pre. gr^ro aor. * ^n^^TT-^T% perf. ^rsriSf ^f^ pre. sreft to produce. ^jfanH* pre.^nfen p. Aor. to ridicule- pre. fat. ar^nffg. to hurt. 3T^r^r Aor. ^f^dF p. P.Aor. future.134 SANSKRIT GBASIMAB. P re - 31**^% p<*f. 319 id. srma p. 5^[ p U. ^mr. make ^i> perf. ff^RoT to sharpen. . Qfigfoft dea. 10 U. snnr^ft^ aor .. ?r^ to ooze to trickle tmf^ pre. ^53% to be wet or moist. $ffl$ peri A. to pre. P.^r^TRnS dee. ^f^f. <n% $inrr ^mrf^ ^TTWW 3T5mff^ Aor. JTT> to measure-. ^ffe(^)fS pre. 1 P. P. ^qfjr pre. tf4 P. to go. to go. S^rnrf ^TRfr ^r to be ill.. fat. 1%^ pe'f fnt. if? to be proud or haughty. to tremble. ^r^froT perf. Pass 1 P. 3T^fT5|vraL-<T Aor kill: - 9 P. des. it is also Parasmaipadi in the 2nd qifrjffcKUTT^ ( but conditional ) to break wind downwards. fut. ^rft^r. sn^jW^ aor. srorrf^ pre. BT^T^I^-JT. Ppre. to bring forth. 1 P. Oau. ^'m p. ^rnn7ft% P'e. %sft to serve. 3T^llfl^ aor des. fj^rnrt to tear to Dieoes. 1 ^j^f pre.

a 1 A. to be loose. to 3wf?*re aor. sryqf pre. arrange. pre.srr^f p. nf ft pre. fut. ^ffa P. 1 move ( . smwfft-ft Pre. gTVMlfi aor. *rfur p. ^rroror^i^n:-^^ perf. Cau. to creep P. fut. srWfTr P. STTcTT p. sntrnr perf. perf. ^r perf. ^jfojfft pre. 1 P. 1 135 P. 3*nrit A. & 10 U. to be fatigued. to go. rm. <rr% to cook. ^FtTT p. to 9TnH. jtmgq P. 5i5f generally with fir ) to give. to scatter gaftafd pre. Aor. to f^wt^rqm^qr: pre. ^rsv^ p. ^rsnor. -STSTRfr^ Aor. WSF% perf. ( See the . <rrr ^ ^T to take 'pains. & kill. Aor. ^r|: $rrf perf. to ooze. p. rtr 1 P. te bestow . nfcrnrt to injure. to go.^r aor. fut. 2 P. 3F*lfr pre. ypnfe pre. des. delight. HTSro l^rnrf f?^% to liberate. ^fpr. f^nprfte perf . r^ft^dt to wink. to err. pre. fat. 5^^ perf. srrfSr pre. pre* perf. 3T*WTcT. T?!^r^l^m P. P. STOTfif-fc pre. p. rfeq-to be weak. 9rrqtrfft-% pre. to gram P'e. aor. or 1 P. ^Tr^r. to dry np. to release. P- A. fat. g-^i^F^S to conipose a work. snriirftf p. STnTrnS^TT-^r^ perf . ^reft perf . ^rnT. ^T'HnT. above root). srpTcTT p. uwtud. r . perf. 4 P. A. 9WT*fa( aor. 1 3T5*mT . *ir 1 to contract the eyelids ST^TT^ Aor. . to congratulate. ^TVTTTT perf. snn% to be careless. & 10 U. p. 3wf|pE Aor. ?rf^mT p. to dressfat.DHA'TUKOSHA. arsrfvTir^ aor. to rjF?t pre. kill. to mortify. to go. to loosen. 3T5ranjg. 10 U. *HJ 10 U.

depend upon. ^rj^raT p. afa p. A. ^TSTT perf .P- 10 TJ f^taor to embrace arffrRdT^-cT aor. aor. ^yf% ^r^ip Prf. to cook SfTdfir pre. . Pass 53^ pre. perf. IP. s^TT^to pervade. aor. p. ( in p. ^t. STTOT^J OTf^. srgft-% pre. to flatter. 9U. ^|V|^ pre. 3$ftw. fofr perf. f^reffrfff-fr. collect. snrTT p. ?&?!% perf. ^JT^fSr pre. fnt. vftft pre. P. ^55TT petf. f^^ p. ^r^T^-W pro. P. to boil. raftfi* pre. to be loose. ST^afjpa pre. to move . Slijtft^. todresa. f33*riw pre. ^[qr^ben. %^r perf. . qi% P. p. ben. ^srrar perf. ^ P to burn 5 ^OTT% pre %?^ perf. fat. ^T^ Aor. 3rf$rsr<r^-?c aor. to go. ^pr pre. ffos P. m&m 3T555T- Aor.sfrq^ pre. r%R5WR des. to cling to.Pass. 1 . ?TTOif& ^nfr to P^. ^TOT perf. afan^. P. ItJ. srr^fS-^ pre. ) arfom oy other sense Aor. - to obey. TSSTOt^ Aor.186 SANSKRIT QBAMMAE. fut. Aor. to to go. fifa p. P. jN'wt to cling to to. ^f^% pert. qr% to cook. fi^Plc^r. ben. 3T07 aor. ^rfsnfr P er^. des. to-praise. p. A. srf^T^-rT aor. 1 P. srrorarifr% pre. p. aor. ^"^T ? ^ u t. ^^flft^aor. T^dt to hear. to be collected. sn^^-lf aor. to boast of . f^5^r ger - grr%f% firSOT perf. A. 3rfoj$T^ ( to embrace ). Oau. 3psjq?r des. ^ffr to burn . 3$rarX P'e. *rftwT P. 3?srf <rT. fat. ^^T to embrace. P. j^PMl P. Can. to join. ^^rf^ff aor. 1 move. f^TSnfarfiHt des . fifaprt to hurt.

>^fimT P. to move. mijim% 9*&fa pre. U. 5n\q perf. to go. *qpt opened. hiss. *qin^ pre. 1 A. 3*lfit to heap together. 3T^T^-n aor. ^?TT pre. 3^*1%^ Aor. I>e rf - 10 U. Tf^a[^: to go. ^frnf?T to perf. qft>TTTnt pref. . to tell. $nft Aor. or f^rqpr perf. ^^ perf. ^P^TCT 3T^^ aor. ^I%?TT p. 3T^n9 aor. sjsgtre^ <*es. ^T%?r ( but 3TF^ff ) P. hole. ^^n^n:-5f> & e ( - ^Wfu^M-% f^t. T%5^T%TT% dee. 5V^v*gC:?f Aor. ^^T^ Prf . . Aor. srroi^ to breathe. to acquire. pre. T%^ft^Tff ^pr^ pre. des. Aor I U. >q*3CTl5-?ir pre. 3^^TT<Trift: to leave unfinished. to perf.Pass. pre. 3T^T%5*. 1 P. pre. Pi 1 P. P. Also well or ill. &o. q$ p. s^torfff pre. 10 U. 3Tf$p^^. to make a to run. erwf^ P re - W*& P erf 3?^^ Aor. to go. to increase. f%^>r perf. fut- qr%W pre.fut. 2 P. to go. 3Tsgri%fc compose in verse. A. Aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. 34!&<m^ to run. bee. *p*nrq-*rnjot to speak *q^nef-?t pre. Oau. ^d{ become white. P. P. to be t&ft. to sigh. aq?^in?i^T^-^r%. to go. OTirfS^ ^5^IT to ^ftpq^-rr. ilffiTWT. perf. 1 1 A. to swell. 1 137 A. p. wri&-?r P r . ger..<T Aor. -p.

p. Pass P. Aor. 10 U. to cling pre. 1 A. ^rafff pre. fjftrrat to ^rf^ pre. ^i%?ff p. STjfa pre. sr^f^ aor. frf^^ffT fat. to 1 become white} fa?^ pre. ^t. ^rff^fTF P. r^^ 1 *rg^r p. #nqT<5[ ben. . to move. qc^c% aor perf. x& to pre. ^ ^ pre. <x*X$*l: X aor. ^rryqrff pre. to serve. to aor. 5 P. 1 P. jfiraT p. 1 %^ ^> ^ to sprinkle. ^Tfqrr^^rc-^% perf. to go. ^mfsfra. 3TefrTO^-ff aor. 3^ p. to adorn.^. fasten. U.138 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. A. TCT3r perf.^p. 10 U. %-^g|ff% pre. to dwell. 1 & 4 P. fit. to sputter: ST*. stf^ Aor. ^|f to embrace. 3TFT%^ Aor. fffTT^t to kill. 10 U. 1 ar^rl ^^-^ Aor. 3*%ifrxaor. 1 P. to give. to go. fat. ^nf? p. f*TH* to spit. . to. ^TfTif des. perf. 10 A. 3T^^T to be a limb or part of. srcnfi^ 3TrniT^ Aor. fight. Cau. 3?^nf^ Aor. fnsffa pre *T5*n5 beo. s^s^ff pre. ^ff^m-ar HinpRiff pre. to be strong. fut. *rjrer% to be collected. to leave unfinished. ^Wt to cover. 1 A. ^rrm^s^ fut. kill. to finish. *T5*TT23sr*-^ P er ^- ^ryfir^TT P. |%t%% perf. srm^at to invite. *nri?T pre.fat.

10 A. to mild. to be languid. aTHT^^-ff aor. 3TO 6 P. fut. wmr^%K-^RK perf. ^ROIT^ to be transformed. tft^lft pre. to move ^qfr . p. fmr perf. ^t. to go. qHM% to connect. WXift & 8 U. 139 fnnm pre. P. pre. . 1 to collect. to sink down. 8 ( 1 ) *T?T ( 1 P. Aor. iMftmft **t. 3^*7^ aor. wrfiT pre. 10 U. p. aor. ^ Pais ^^ pre. pert ffMHT . fTOiT perf. 1 earn by labour. *ut. - to serve. to divide P. ^r^ 1 P. arcvCTct aor. des. ^TRrTI^% pre. to go. perf. ^ft pre. ft^T^ perf. fq3Km*lfUmHI3^J to break. 4 P. ben. ar^^ffg: Aor. to honour. decay. Aor. (8) Pass. ) p. ^niT p. ^f to give.^nrf?r pre. 1 P. 3r^^-<T A. 'ETlfo to gain. Aor 1 P. to frfir?TT P. Hn% pre. lOU.DHA'TUEOSHA. to move. m^rm des. ^ftsufff it. to go. ^renT perf. mm perf. r%*rft<TKT f^a^. to gratify Aor. 1 OT^lfN* P^. *wft pre. qrftMfforret to extend. ^fft pre. %^ to be confused. *T*^MT> to be connected-. p. . to go. SFfHT P re. Oau. p. Htfta^T Aor. ^^7^ perf. pre. to worship} p.

?^T des. P. ^fl-to be pleased. 3Ttfi^-?T aor.140 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. to water. 5 & 9 U.. ^rf^-W pre. to forbear . p. . fir ^fc^ to be weak. CT^ft. g^T^ 4P. P. ^rS. ^T^WTT^^TT-^% &c. tot. **& to bind. af^raTT^-T Aor. to soothe. ^ri^ff ^TT^ 10 U. ^Tft<T p. p. Can. U. Pass 6 U. Aor. aR^rafat Aor. ^rat perf. ?JT^n?T-W pre. f^RT/S.fut . Aor. %Tf5T p. 1 P. to pour in. 2 P. t%*rf|tt% des. ^TPWI^'t to conciliate. tfr%|?r to finish. to endure. P. *pfft pre. aor. ( Vedic U. tot. 1 A. . 3i^f?^ aor. fin* p. to go. ^r^ pre. p. *fj*Tft fnt. p. fut. ff% p. Aor. des.-cf perf. pre. perf *rf|far. to tffoft pre. ^rpr^^T p. to become ready. int. . nft to go. ben. ^rfrr^ perf. ^TFST perf. Rrg?r. p. P. to suffer. tie. grcft to sprinkle. 10 U. ^rT??T pro. to 7%^ perf. ^raff perf. ^rfn% pre. ^rnT perf . Oau. to hurt. n4ft . r%*ft<?fr des. ben. *& p. to impregnate- PW. p. to comfort. *ffft to forbear. f$TO) fflnft% perf. ^ ).^T^tS fnt. P. to kill. p. CTtrafff-ft P'. ^rmsnnif to appease. %wr fM^fif-* ftRtft. to ^ETSmrpre. des. to go. ^fjt to 1 sleep. -tf^lo-ft tot. f%wr. to accomplish. w. perf . fet. 1 t P - nft S^TOt ^ move. i^^r. *T5fT?r-% pre. ffiWTfTfitam% 10 U. ^fTTf^aor. frrefinr pre. to allow. ^R^rfir-^ pre. des. RtWtrqft*n3% des.

T%l%cTT p. bathe. to prosper. anftf$V aor. ftr^r pe'f. 5 5 2 P. srerVwst: to allow. ^5T aor. fifaim P. m^T perf. |%$fTF ben. disregard. fat. fut. P- %ft?*T> ^^r A. ^^fi^^R^r^?^n^5 p. T%^Tm pre. fut. ^qrw. <T^^rfT% to sew. to succeed. to drive off. fi^r ( T%%n**T.fut. ^ft^r pra. fitrfj Pass. TOT p. aor. aretfni. 141 aor. 3Tfiro^ aor. fij<wj|^. ^mfl-fr pre. *fjoqfi pre. 3T^f% aor. 1 P. fut. Q^Tgf. pre. 4 P. P. p*e. to press out juice. to distil. ^fti%?TT P. T%T%?^ ascertain Oau. p. perf. fJfti%. to possess power or supremacy} *ftffr pre. perf. iBfaT p. nffle. *nrfR pre. BT^'fig: aor. to write. anHrac aor. to despise. p.p. ^f?T P re - P. ). 1 3T^t^ aor. f%f%^ perf. to go.DHA'TUKOSHA. to go. pre. ?ft4hr ben. 3^4^ aor - to sprinkle. to join. g^T perf . des. to attain one's end. %-\anrf^-?T aor. out auspiciously. IRJiT pre. Pass. T%%^[ 2nd sing. to accomplish. 3T%^VcT 3T&tfh* ( H'Rf^W. to pour out. ^[T P. ftftTTO ben. fut. to move. pre. command. %ftf!T P. 45 . fut. 3T^<T^ $f%TT. *ft?TT p. aRTT<t^.. ftftffinft. fat. 3RT^ to Aor. ^jit Oau. S. fut. ger. ^ffar p. 3^ perf. ^n?rr H. f%ir^ des. p. fiftftwt *** %^[ to P. ^ftsqi^ ben. ^TT^innfr^ ( ^rvnn?r-^ to cause one to to wet.aor. 351$% des. sr^r^'q^: to permit. Q. Oau. to 5 U. ^TT^V *o reach. 4N* to sprinkle. ) to turn perf. $n% m^-r^l ^r to ordain. IP. ^^T^ Perf. dual ) 4 P.

to plan. $r$tr% fut. 3TOT^-<f aor. ^7? to point out. to deposit. to destroy. P. P. 3T^TT<3[ ( runs pre. 3WT^ Aor. to go. p. a^TS. ^r?it to incite. 3^r^> to respect. to pour out. ^Q^r% des. (IP. to send forth. Cn. to promise. P. fat. des. to impel-. 3?35*<I-?T aor. perf. & 4 A. to disregard. f%tfpmf des. 3TQ&^3-rr aor .i%*r perf. *rfo<TT p. S^f^qT^rt to 10 U. $rrdr strike. qfaf p. p. 3T*Wfat Aor. to betray. 10 U. TOqTSTOTC-^fc per/. beu. fut. fat. 3RR[> to despise. to trace out. aor. ^n^rff. f%?T des . p-. pre. fat. perf.142 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. p. s^nff-% 1 pre. Pass. >*dt to excite. 10 U. fco 1 ggf^ 10 U. Aor. ^rirm-W pre. bring forth. to produce. to run. g^rT%% pre. to indicate by gesture. to pour out. ^gfr^ pre. ffmr. Also 3p>r 2 & to 6 P. 1 Vedic ) & P. %^?f to string. *?fr p. irrerfgflrer: to speak. s^*n%-?T pre. to strike. fq-^if to let loose. aor. 6. ^Rar 1 P.?r aor. 10 U. to dress. Q^rAwRir-ll p. des. aor. Oau. P re ' hurt. 3T^g^. to write in the form of a concise rule. frr^qi^% pre. to cook. Pass. A. fut. ^STT 3 P. ^r^fS perf. 3*^ pre. srmi^ ). f|?7ar pre. *ut. 1 make happy. Can. %grg^ ben. 3mffcr qifc pre. fut.^%<T p. ^. ^JT ( 2 ^ ( 4 ) p. 35?* P re. & 6 P. 5^ ). to pre.cT aor. 3dgj^j aor. ^fHT 3 ( p. *Hq&33. arg^^^-cT aor. S^f perf. ) ayqgfig Aor. aor. -?T pre.^r pre. ^ft^rft fut.) 4 A. Oau. to unbindj q^rqi%-% pre. q. ^pm&&K-^ ^es.

to cover. H*T$ or. f%^ir to create. *K$rS ^^T ^ft^ des. to decline. ^ff pre. to move. ^r^^ perf. fat. to approach.p. 143 pre. ^?^<IT^I^rT-^ft perf.go. ' P. ^^rr^fTa aor. *nrf. ben.. 3T^ffreaor. to go. Oau. Sffff^ ^TO^f?T-?r pre. r%%Rq^ des. fut. to let loose. r%^y perf. aor. ^rOTT p. P. ^cirirj. f^mWp'e. to restrain} P. to enjoy. to be dried. to she4i Q3Tfa perf . to 5cr^r ben. Oau. ^TTO pr. to . r%^fperf. *$*ft* P re 3^TT. faff p. perf. perf. 3T*r*r<nj s?mfT^-<T ^g p. ^R^Tperf. to move. U. des. 9. ^rf%?n p. ^r$yf^ pre. to injure. perf. ^rrwr% fat 4 P. 9Trrf^Tfr% to destroy. 6 P. ^ to waste away. to per(. to pre. to pursue. hinder. Cau. *^i% aor *^5T P-P. 1 A. f^^nrr to kill. arorefh* Mr. to collect. U. %$ft 3T%f%^ aor. ff. ^TrU p.p. jump. $T 1 P. to lift. SOT fut. fift% perf. to bring to an ena. Pass. f%% 1 P. aor. H*15WK. $rer P. %^r to ierve. *rpn% p*e. to perishj. f^ftraT p. ^s^r p. *ut. . *f 5^> go by leaps.~%W*fif-?f P. fut. Oau. pre. pre. %*rrs ben. *^?WT P. *nr ^um fut. %^p. p. siffar?^ to stop. *$5ftfil. fat 1 A.DHA'TUKOSHA. 5*^ ben. ansRot p. 1 P irfn^frvoi^r: to go. ffngcffft des. Pass. or. 5 & 9. &ifa pre. to go. f$?OTt%-(t P'e.^fnr^ pre.p. ^<rqr aor. ^^T^.p. HHRT ^rRf pre. ^ inf. A. T%^rf^ des. Sffft des. fnCTKfHRtft: to create. srowa.iraY to creep. 3^ p. pre.^a ^^rr^ ben. .

31^. ^rlf5t^TI% ^at. to err. 5 lift up. fiftfT?<fa% des. 3T**3T5?T^aor. 10 U. 1 1 P. ^cTRcTT p. <TCcTTOt perf. P" ^rai^T to move. iff?R7^r to make immovable. 3^rtT^ff^ aor.^SJT^. 1 P. 4^*4^ pre. f^^f^RIW des. snq^ijf to jump. 3TWT5TT3[ *o r f^JWH^RT des. to destroy. fat. ft^R ^Rot ^ to stop. to hold} ^$Hi(fr. & 9 P. ^T55T% pre. pre. p. ^aTff 1 P'e. ^*^IT3[ ben. pre. to fix firmly. 1 P. 3TTBrtt% to become wet. to support. aq&fgoqr not to be confused or weak. ^forf p. 3{^f%? aor. to support. *W<\ pre.144 1 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.to sound. ^n^^^iff-^T pre. rfWT^P . 3T^T*^% Aor. . to thunder. to stop. ft^^r STKOT r- ^ to stop. perf fcTHspiT p. Can. ^T^w^ ger. to perf. to totter. faiH^ perf. ^H. ^nf^Hr^T. perf. ffc^oir to cover. 3)^cTift^ 1 Aor. ^ P. s^^ftrft fiit. to sigh. & 9 P. perf. or ^r^dt to drip.p. to become fixed. fut. ^TT^r pre. nTOTffaH. frT^ft pre. to cut. aftrfh Aor. ^3rfcTT P. 3Utfu1f^ Aor. fat. ^W**fidL aor. pre. Mi^^THT p. A. WWT A. ^cT^r p. *ftq?rr3-% pre. Oau. Pass. to drop. ftH^fS^ld des. 3Tft4Eft*T3rcT aor. . A . SftcTiftc^. to strike against. y Id VIM to resist. 1 3T^*HT^ao A Hsrr^nt to rout. perf.to thunder* ^nfmrT% pre.fat. STWI^TH' aor. P. ff^TTT perf. ^rra pre.

3T*frfr aor. pre. to collect into a heap. g^H perf. ^Ffr MTTOt pre. Cau. fffdn?r pre ^T^tfTr p. to move. fat. *m* arSWTH 1 . to put perf. to spread . <RX% p. 145 dei. ^T^-rT 1 aor. ger. P. to kill. f cfrrn t ben. STfrTf?^. f^ aor. 3TT^rn^ to cover. *%qtf pre. to oover .p. 3Uf?TT<Tr to spread.~fcf^r pre . mt<fte b .. S$rf?r pre. perf. g^r porf tifcn p. ffTCT perf. ^jf^ pre. ?CT<rfff P'e. g^nr. 4 & 10 U. *&-*$tib p. - fifaHW to strike. fatW pre. frgtfTZ. ben. to extol. ^rgfar-^ pre. A. P. to worship by hymns. 3T*7tttrT<T<fr: to sound. fat. 1 on. aor. 5Frgf r^ to heap up. Pd39. A. to stupify. ^^r 5 & P. TC*r to cover. STfflre aor. 3^1^ aor perf. P. #T*'> to stop. (^rjf?'?i7i. to adorn. 1 3TtfttI% a<<r. Pass. - &e U. 2 U. wfrft. ?r^j^r parf. '<Tfot *%fWT p. W?J%T^aor. to erect. ft. IH?T AC* ^Pr?^r. 10 U. *r*rtnfh(.-sjire pre. HSTT*ft^ aor. to expel. ?3?f p. 9 P. to suppress. 3TfgTirt<r Aor.DHA'TUKOSHA. Aor U. to go. 1 '6 m^ffTO-ff des. ^RcTF. ^^^T^r^TT-^r% perf . fat. -% fut. perf. gH ^ to stop. ^Tff to steal. to ooze. (TR^ 3?^JcT aor. ^jft to praise. 1 P. ^jairf^.

griinr perf or stout. 3TWT^ aor. farmr p. ff^ft perf. . P. ) P. fat. romi P. P. 2 P. ^rerrer perf. pre. Pass.%^rf?f-% pre. ^q*n?T. es. .p. ^prm pre. ^jirf?T pre. 3?%q^-<f %RT P-P. ^rTT^ ben. raft^T p. 3T^TT^r aor . aor. ^RT^. ^srfdr to cover. to flow. irfffftfrff to stand. ^fr% to bathe. 3?ftrf&r*3-rT Aor. des. . :3mnn^aor. flwra Prf. ^paT ^iff pre. fat. to wait. to become big ^?iuidl pre. to perform an ablution. pre. rawfitalr des. fut.^^uttovomit-^55rrapre. Pass. ?r*aft perf . ^tf|czn% ^t^ri% fat. to distil. ?^% pre. p. ^TT^ Pass. aor.-**nnrf?l-ffr pre. **fcm pre.fnt. p. to be. 2 P. BTOnft^ Aor. perf. P ^?r p. ^t to love. ^on^ perf. 1 aor. . 3T%f^ aor. 3^OT5r^-tT aor. falrZl ger. rraw pre. 3HP'Q&^ 4 P. %3TiW pre. 1 P. sm^rfa pre. pre. ^rf^ pre. 1%^ to object. Bf^rrtl^ aor. to be kind to. about. ben. srmt P. p. ^% to have affection for. sfh?f pre. Cau. ( but ft^^rm profi- ^Tn cient in ) p.. Oau. fit. ^Rift to cover. Cau. aroTT perf. ^r?T. aor. or 10 U. *^w ( Derom. fat. ^T p. ^oiTf perf. P.p. Can. 4 P. . fot. ^^Nl^ aor. 4 P. p. ^Tq^fS pre.146 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. awg^g. to be at hand &* ben. WT* to stand firm* WcriS pre.

fq^rRr?^ des.DHA'TUKOSHA. ^* >**&* 10 U. P. fq^ffqTcfT p. P. &c. pre. fut.r to love. sreqf?^ aor. nforem* to ftl^fff-ff p*e. %sfr |HjR I ( srtwnrarr SU^ ^r^ ) to dress. ^TqR*<T^r. wratl P'e. 3*<TC<F^ aor. ben. *<TOm?f pre. ^rf^ pre A. pw. to hurt. STprpfor aor.P- ^n^gf?r-ar pre aor. 1 perf.p. A. . inf . to go. to take. ^cT 10 U. to throb. 10 U. f3T3^% to blow. CRCTTT perf - ( Vedic ) T^R" to ^OUCDJ to perf. 3?fqrr%T^-fT *qfT*riff-3r pre Aor. *ut. &c.. <T*T5f perf. jrfOT^quT^r: to take. q^r^ fqf?5rTT p. to challenge. *ut. to grow aor.perf. *<jf5?TT P. ^ftfTT p. 3TT?f^T|^-rr Aor. ^roq A.ror: to obstruct. A. 3T^rT^fT des. to 6 P. f?*q7rfa*?ir dea. *sf|?T p. ttenm* to desire. P. A. ft^^TT% Cau. ^Tf . *q?^% pre. 10 A. 10 to touch.P. P. ^r^^T^ Cau. to touch. 1 STq^WT a or. perf. P'e. fwf^TTff des. to contend with. to protect. M^Rn^ Aor. to spy. 5 U. P. to ^R3% tremble. T%nt^5^T to throb. fut. ^iiar pre. to burst open. ^^ perf. qfTT5T. *oum pre. *<if^?T P. 3?^^. pelf. <T^TTT per. ^qro-ir pre. Aor. 5T^^T% Aor. kill- to envy. to embrace. 147 IP. aor. %^-f to increase. ^r^fqr^-ff P. to gratify. 3Tn^f^-<T aor. kill. ft. come in contact with. ^q^r. U. *3nni. fut. 3^7^. ( ^217?: ) 1 des. to envelop? pre. ^T^T p. Pass. fr^^fq^m-rr 9 P. perf. to embrace. R^Rnt to split open. fat.

to kill . Oau. to joke. VKf?mff-?t pro. aor. ^isn!. 1 P. p.^^rfef p. 3TS*S5*ra[-jfT aor. *$-o<iid pro. tolaughat. *jrq-> pre. 5?qft7. p. &c. aor. ^rfa^CTlS . SFSTTSTO 2nd sing. sgrftfTT p. to flash. 3T5^5T?g[-fT Aor. aor. A or. Can. P. to glitter. game as ) ^07 . tolT^^TT-^% perf. fat. 10 0.) pert. p. *r^5aft ^?n%: to tremble. p. perf. perf. 1 ^f^r. ?$*% p. q^3r p. Oau.. ^x^fff pre. to go . f^cfir to spread. attgrsfrci: Aor. qff5T> to joke. to jest. 6 P - ( f <n^ : ) fel&ft to to blossom. SHTR^fa to thunder. ftmm^ to love. perf. ^f&lT2^-fT 1 P. fat. r%wte peri . SWId^ des. 'WnT^m pre. ^gr^nr pre.) pre. to bloom. to break Aor. ^^Ug^-yf Aor. s*qfrc* 1 P. A.148 SANSKRIT OBAMMAB. ft^'Tot to wink. to collect. 1 ) perf. 10 H^pr to break open. pre. to blink. des. f^or p. ^rfrg^ to despise. 2nd sing. 3T*5^r^ Aor. ^ 1 pie. (S^f?** 2 sing-. 3)3f$kdci. fti^flW perf. S^ftlllT. pre. 10 U. 5^5^ perf. TOTT^Iff. p. tfi&ft. SrFfcTT p. 3T^l?Tg. Aor. P. P. ^t. Sf^fOTTrt des. P. t ut. ^^{ar pre. Si 10 U. split t^Tea? ^rfer open. Aor. ( ^?n%: s*<rr to tremble. U 6 p ^^^t ( f^n%: ) to cover. SR?f<rar p. ( ( ^TOT p p. 31^5 aor. fgrfefr 3?$77*ra des. ) P. fat ^^^ffc^ to smile.-cT U^fe^. p*e. pre. fut. 3K$rO<i a <>r. to throb. 3^U?r perf. ^Td^qfar-ff P^. to shine.

to confide. to live. ftr^TT ger. ^qmqra^ &c. rememl>er. ^S*?e to aor. *q?^qm-ir pre. aor. p. 3T^-<q. 1 ben. ^ftm 3Tf^ Aor. Cuu. iut. S|^|c<0| to ooze. ^qi^QB.nfiuJmrq*!: perf. ^^ perf. aor. ^^ ^qp^ie. to go. 3TS? to sound. fut.fut ^1?^ ^^T pi e perf. to trust. *qjflq^ pre. *H<f| p. to contide. s^?f pre.. to po. ftdf^m. flRdrf pre. ^TCTJT% to think upon or long flWIT perf. . down. pre.DHA'TOKOBHI. to trickle. A. ger. ^^p% perf. ^^ perf. 913*11% SKflft Aor. 5 P. 3^3^ Aor. S^l% qi&ft pre. 1 A. && pi'e. ^sfe perf. fut. . 3rftr^qRrT aor.a^TlTR^ aor gfijwqfa pre. Pass. to go. to hftng down. rrofl:0<TO des. consider. ^f^rlT. fut. q^-tf aor. pre. A. f*^c^T. perf jEqm^ p. des. ^Fm p. froftTT^ des. <t& des. ^FVT pp. STCR^. ^q'?^T ger. 31^^ f^^Tf^rqf?r des. A. become dry. to be pleased. to flow out. 3T^5rT des. ^^^. f ut. ^f?f pp. ^r^ pre. fayfliqi to 149 lor. I nm to go. aor. ft^qf^^. or. to P. 3TO5**TqT?T-iT pre. ^qttHT pre. ^^f^H gflifr A. tffMdl p. ^wof^f pre. fwi^r to entrust. ^?T pp. ^qi% fi*qft fut. ^mftK 3^fl% aor. Caa. to fall ^^^ ^5R^aor. P. *qp/T pp 10 A. to please. &*qf?!-?T pro. fut. Cau. ?& pre. SR^fo-% (3?pa^ *ijfl pj> Pass. CTR- qfiHT 1 ( Vedic ). l%^PcWT-% Cau. 1 reflect. foj&k to *qr*ri*tai p. perf. 1 *q^ pp. fq^fU^ ejf^icWT ben. 1 P.. Aor. wq?T pre. Pass. Pass. 4 P. to run. fnt. SWTT P?rf. Cau. tnrcqft-ft. to sink. .

to flow. df^K? aor. pre. to move. to embrace. to repose ^fqfir P. ^f^fT p. 10 U. &&% ^ef^ ^fl^ fnt 1 P. Pass. *f?q% pre. 3??^^. See %. 3TI^T^% to eat. g^TO SfRqft perf. perf. to boil. imperf. p. ^|?T pre. S^Fl des. 1 P. to . ^VT^n97f^-^lc to ^IR[fqRn p. 9T^I> aor. be pleasant the to please to aor. eU?f pre. perf. ^^f^r^-ff aor. away. pro. ^^Tq perf. 318^^ perf. ^iqqm-S' 3Tl%^q^aor. ben. ^51^ | u t. pre. pre. 38 pp. ben. to adorn. to sweat. taste. sing. feRqfa-fr pre. 3?l%^3-fl aor. Pass. find fault 10U. pre. des. 9T?We% to decorate. 3T^cfR^. Cau. ST^tH. ^F^ to sound. ^fc^F to 1 A. n%^to with. 3Tl%^^-?T aor. . 1 A. to trickle p.f ut. to go. ^i^rf pp. A. fut. pre. ^f3fqi%-W pre. perf. ) ^ P. gflf pp. aor. ^^c^TT. 37(^Tej% to taste. 1 1. qKStft p. are^-?f aop. ^IWT ben perf. ^5[% pre. sweeten. S^A &^(V ger. ( See the above root Can. ^iq^ to sleep. ?3f^T ( the mind ) 1 P. ftR^K^^ des. ^Tiq?Tr p. aor. fut. &fal\ pp. 3Tm*cR3:cl aor. qftfa beii. ^ff^qf^-W pre. Sf^-d Aor. to go. Pass. &*t% pre. to go. fut. 1 P. aor. ^^ to pre. pre. fut. SliqfiT pre.fut. Cau. blame. fiTEsrcftqm-H des.150 SANSKRT GRAMMAR. ^TffiT pre. *^f fut. Cau. ^T"fte. T%^ 3*&fer Aor *f$ft P. pre. fl^ Cau. ftR^ft^^ perf. T-^RR perf. ^qfe P- 1 A. *^R pp. 3??F^T^ aor. &%& ^S3?T 3^^ 3T^f^ ft^g^ des. fat. ^HT 3?^jc^ pre. Cau. l%^f%Tff des. to make a noise. ^Rf*lfrf-?f 3^^ des. perf.

to hurt. fafa* perf. *ifcqfif-?f pre.' go. *|*% pre. e?^?: perf. 3*Tqfa[ ben. to ( pi. fnt. f|J^3fn^aor. Pass aor. * to sweat. aor. perf 3^f(^. Sm% pre. kill. aor. f^TftcT FP1 A. to oppress. 3fRTO(% see ^ to taste. ft^T pp. "fl^% perf ) 1 A. ( greasy.-^r. 3T^tarTI*p}t. to discharge faces. fut. to be pained. 3^=[^ spread. S^HlcOT to void excrement. fi^^fc^. v3T$I fRcf pp. to go. &%*!& fut. fi^ft pre.p. ^31% pre. ^T?nil% ^ pre. fut. -pre. to eouud. to IP. Can. fnt. 3TOT* to boat. if^TT perf. Can. ^??n p. ^fnl perf. Sffe^^-W 1 A. 1 151 . 3ifasi^-?T Aor. *5(Tft*qii fut. des. fut pre. des. snjft pre. I P. to forget ^J^Sjfif pro. pp. 3T^ perf. ^Rr^c^'Jt: to leap. to conquer &c. ^5f fll^sT^fr: WTOfaftftfttWO to be aunoiuted.DHA'TUICOSHA. 5?r pp. Cau. aor. to be pleasant. bind to a post. aor . cffojl to shine. kill. n?m^^ p. to be bright. to 1 P. ^ft?f|. $arfrT pre. 9 P. perf. 3?*rr aor. flfofl p. Sf^tftfc aor. A. f^nn^Rf des. . to taste. . 2 P. 6N-17?fr ( pre. SHTRftl. f^ pre freq. ft^% prf . \ A. ftn^j^M?! ftl^ft^ des. fagc^ des. to go. ^^IfiT *%$ pp. to praise. to jump. STviTm'T^-rf aor. 3?WrC ) imperf. to *fartft P re - ^^Jt pre. ^tfJI^beii. to beat. to be ^fef 4 P. aor. f*TOTft<Ht des. f c^I ger. to perspire. **mim-i* pre. ^rl? p. %* pp. aor.. vjfr?!? perf.

Aor. fnt. ^hlWL ln. SANSKKT GRAMMAR. fpfil pre. STflft afHj^ aor. Sffi^ft^ aor. ffftRH aor. to get/ fftqft fnt. i%%^% II? ^1 to plough. ffcsff ger. f aor. Sffl perf.. ^Rf pre. pre. to take.. ff ^ 1 P. p. a^ffo pH^RJMfd des. tq kill Ac. f*Wiq perf. f I*fl*qfif fut. to injure. f nt. ffcfft pre. to excel. Pass. to lt fall. IP.. $ft\ p. to hit. fut. ^ pre. 3^1^-^ imperf ft* 2nd sing. perf.. to go. to worship. flT{fl%?l% des. *r^fif^-?f aor. 10 u. if ?f pp.fl^jllr-^ pre. perf. dsrf^f r re. fg^n%-?i:^pre. *W&1 aor. perf. SRftf^-?! fI 3 A. fut. Pass. $f 3 P. ^TH abandon. fi[^ pre. ^finn p. to sound. to go. to p. des. to bloom &c. fut. to worship. 5^W| perf. kill. ^pf pp. Cau. ffft to smile. . fl^tf^ pre. to promote. fsfftfT pre. 3fflfi| aor. rWC:^ aor. ^ omit. afgT^H aor des. ^faff p. &c. *T*lft. f^)^rfit des.. Pass. 1 P. pre. ftrn^ des. to be weary. 9f|TAf aor. f^rfTf pre. to go. fftfl pp. fut. n?fi ^ to go. FTOi?T% pre. fl%?| pp. torment. 7 P. 3Tg<ft^ aor.f^RT pre.fiqqf^-^ s aor. p. Pass. 3TT3 pnrf. 5fJ ff?n fl^K to ben. (See the above root for the other forms ). ft 5 P. &fa pre. fi[?=nqf to kill. iflft to go. Aor. ft*T pp. to laugh at. Sflns perf. fogfaMId des. fmft pre. impera. YE 1 pre. fgwng aor - ^^fR?!T 3?f3rf?99L-?f . to pre. Pass. t^T Oau. P. to attain. to resign. fut.152 1 P. to perf. to send. to shoot. perf. f|ftT?f pp. to go. 8?$^' aor. p. Cau.

ftfc perf. ft^rt pre. gssit 1 P. Aor 9 P. Aor. W away. to swear. sg^fa P er ^- P. fjfflpri to hurt. Aor. pp. pre. to go. tut. f ut. 3?!^^^ Aor. s?sq% jra^ to make an Ot(3$ pp. to indicate ftT% pre. g^fff p-e. T5^R% pre. to go. sjfte perf. ^^P^-^ ar. rf|?^ aor. 3T5Tl?l Aor. 1 P. $f}ft 2nd sing. to deceive.DHA'TUKOSHA. ?{mn5tft to reappear. aor. ftvqT3^ &c. fjri%$?f . p. sft^RL ^-or ofiEer. *gg perf. to eat. flTrf^-& . ^Tsn^rtitz to to perform a sacrifice. to cover. (Jao. ft^l% pre. 1 P. JlcmKiqV' to go. to kill. gx^sft pre. perf. perf. filft^ perf. ^<4I*I^^ P er ^. pre.-fl^li%-^ pre. ft^rift pre. f*f$T perf. 31-fr pre. 5j5ra. 31fHH aor f 1^1 ben. fnt. ^5perf Cau. pre. ftftf?f ftfoflf fut. 3|[*frf des. 3^1^ Aor. . - 1 P. 9T^ft^ Aor. to disregard. fi^fif pre. fT^^ ^ut. indistinct perf. to choose. ( 5*<ft 1 A. perf. Aor. ftfrRTT p. 6 P. ^1% ^IW ^ to f^^-?f collect. to kill. 1 p - *?!3jft to curse. P erf IjP^ aor. f^f^5 perf. 1 A. ^5^1^ impera. to go. !to U. pi pp.ffaTT p. JIFT^ to please. to wander. *n3^T<fr desire. ftfj** pp. |T%m p. 1 163 sound. sjfp'i' to |cq% ) to collect. faftsR. 3 P. amorous 6 P. to take ^l?F^ bo crooKed. jftelft pre. hiccough 3?ftsft^. 1 A. pre. f ut a^^iei aor. fcft pre. to sport amorouslj.

jJiJT ^^^-?r. SRI^ io disregard. to draw to a distance. 3T53rTRl2 aor. s?5tft aor. to obtaiu. to disregard. TO^ to go.'n|fze. fl^JT *T3J?T?tt xf to be angry. to disregard. to deprive frft-^ pre.-aiWta. $?|f p. fut. ^?^ pre. 1-A. ( r|f|^ Aor.qfir-3 fut. ^q^T^H fS?f| p. same as f^ ). 3Tf*ffa Aor. . 3T5?e[ aor. srsrfH. 5^ PPto 1 A. Pass. *frm. <f snft^-a aor. 1 A. flfiJS' perf A. to win. fefa IHrota fut. 1 P. 5^^ ^ 5j^ pp. tfflS ben. ^TfrfT p. fteqfa % pre. 5ft<. to attire. ^ des. U. to be born. to roar. goftftcqir fut. Aor. ftarfil pre. ^ifje beu. A. pp. pre. shake. f^TO. to strike. 4 P. 2 A. fi?^ pre. aor. pre. ft|t perf.Aop. to go. come. 5f$K. parf. deB - Ca11 - f TOft-& pre. to porii V?-^ p. 3^15^-?! aor. tfpsft pro. to go. 5Tf qr be delighted. fut. |^if pre. 1 P. fift^ perf. I P. des. 1 1 pre. Ac. of. ) pre.154 1 SANSKRT GRAMMAR. perf. to 1 P. ^5% pre.re. fut. ^ft% perf. 3f3fc to tell a lie. p. OTfl. Cau. ffrm-ft pre. 9?|f^H. ( as hair. 3?^fe aor. to lead. ^5115? perf.. 5|f^ perf. ^ to take a^ay to conceal. flm^rmt to be wicked. cau. A. fut. s?53 aor. ^t< perf. perf. pre. nrtr%Ti% des. g pp. to stand erect. 3^511^4 Aor. SftTC to disregard. 3!^ perf. si^jflC^T Aor. ^2% to surround. sjsqxR^ to neigh. ^qfil pre. fnt. ^Rf pre. f *UT to take. 91f{qg aor. 1 P. to be ashamed. ^?KI pp.

|rTF P. shame. ^irfa pre fat. Aor. to sound. (S 1 P. . 1 P. to" sound. |fa?iT per. ^mqirT-^ pre. hen. fut. 1 A. A. to go. to lesson. jptfT pre. *%[& pre. ifjor pp. ^UU% pre. ajfarjTf^-fl aor. fat. sqxivRl c. 3T|gTfl perf. 555^1} f to blush. fjf^^ perf. j|<T^ pre. Renut. prf. firl^m perf. to cover. 10 JJ. 10 U. 1 P. ^q^pre. -to cover. 3^ff3 aor. to be ashamed. Pass ^iqrf pre. Aor. 313^ to Bound. fut. to contract. to go. &c. <?f?t?T{ p fnt* aor. si^l tffo p-e. ^l^f or g^m pre. des. to disappear. 3*if| . 1 P. aor des. ssrprf to blush. to go. A. 155 HJ Sf^flt perf.. P. (gWn pre.fut. fsT^Trf pre. aor. j|(%?TT p. g[Jl% to 3T^q^ 1 P. speak.DHA/TUKOBHA.lut 3 P. fj^ror to hide. Hj^f perl TflT P. |f(^y?f or 1 %% I P. j|T%?r pp. ?^|q perf. 3loq% ^ - lo sound. pre. trf. ^Hi^T%-^ fut. ssHTiTZff 3lf% to speak. to go. 1 3^q% ^ to neigh. to roar. 3-T^Tiq f. 5R? <ZW3 *3 to sound. 1 P. fHTJllr-^ pre.feel perf. to.^i^ Cau. If^T^ perf. srl^HI perf. ^kl% pre. aor.

Can. *n%-?T pre. ben. Pass. perf. *3 fut. pre. Q&. ^^1%-?r des.156 1 A. pro. to pound. 1{A pre. pp. rf^g<5^ ufeT g IP. ^ to vie with. aftfeF^ to be crooked. to-call by name. Can. call opon. 5T*qft-!t $* 1 P. fnt. S?sq4fc ST*^ ^ to he glad. perf. 515K perf. . ?f ben. to p. gcsfo pre aor. Can. |^HT p. - ^ atl S^?^-^ - pre. 3?gT^I^ aor only ) fc4jjrl-?fr pp. sggFf. 9?gl(q aor pp. ^^ inf. t* 1 U. g} p. SANSKRT GRAMMAR. to ask. des. sigflfc aor.f^n^. fn - ST^ pre. $Tnn^-fr P re- S^ PPto bvoke. f ut. to go. with a pre. to be atflicted. 555% perf. shake. to deceive. gccfT ger. ( gl&m des. STtfte aor. $5^ to be afflicted. ^5irf W^l^T des. FINIS. aor. gli^lrl fut. $Tft<n p.

.

.

Moreshvar Ramchandra A higher Sanskrit grammar PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY . 2 Kale.PK 663 K3 1961 cop.