FISHING IN PAKISTAN

Marium Mustafa X O-levels

Introduction
Fishing is one of the oldest occupations for people who live near lakes, rivers and seas; with the progress of civilization, fishing communities started breeding fishes on farms this is also known as aquaculture. The fishing industry of Pakistan has the potential for further developments. Although its share of the GDP currently is 0.9%, Pakistan earns 6% of its total foreign exchange earnings by exporting fishes, shrimps and other fish products. The total number of employed in fishing

FISHING AREAS & METHODS

Marine Fishing
Pakistan has a coastline divided into the Sindh (30%) and the Mekran (70%) coasts. Karachi and Mekran are the most important fishing ports and are being developed by the Govtt of Pakistan as a fishing centre by providing improved facilities such as an ice-factory, refrigeration plants

There are two types of marine fishing:
• SUBSISTENCE FISHING is when the fisherman & his family consume the fish they catch . Subsistence fishermen use conventional techniques like a traditional net and a small wooden sail boat. 2. COMMERCIAL FISHING is when the fishermen sell their catch to earn money and is their sole source to earn income. Here fishermen use gillnetters and mechanized boats.

Types of marine fish catch
• Sharks • Drums • Croakers • Cat fish • Skates • Rays

Inland Fishing
Inland fishing is practiced on almost all the rivers and lakes in the country. In addition the large reservoirs behind dams, or abandoned river or irrigational channels. The main fishing centers are: Manchar lake. Kairi (Keenjhar) lake Haleji lake. Reservoirs of Mangla and Tarbela dams. River Indus at Sukkur, Kotri and Thatta.

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Types of Inland or Fresh Water Fish
• Manaseer • Rahu • Palla • Trout • Thalla • Grass and Silver (bred Chinese species)

FISH MARKETING

Fish Marketing
Pakistan has a domestic and an international market for fish, shrimps and fish products. At the domestic level the catch from marine fisheries is supplied to the local fish markets, frozen or processed fish is supplied to only a few large departmental stores in some cities. The per capita consumption is only 1.6 kg p.a. On the international level Pakistan has a market for fish and fish products. About 30% of the total fish catch is exported to 30 countries of the world, Japan is our main market with USA, France and Germany following. About 80% of the total fish catch of Mekran Coast is dried for export to the Middle East. Pakistan earns more then 6% of its foreign exchange by exporting fish and fish products.

Problems of the Fishing Industry.
• WATER POLLUTION The main fishing harbor of Pakistan, Karachi is severely affected by a variety of pollutants. Spillage of oil from huge tankers and domestic and industrial waste are causing great harm to our fishing industry. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture is another source of water pollution. SOLUTION:

• OVER FISHING Another problem associated to the fishing industry is the over fishing of shrimps throughout the year even in the breeding season. This limits the production of fishes and shrimps. SOLUTION: The local government should restrict fishing activities during breeding seasons.

• THREAT TO MANGROVES Mangroves act as a barrier and protect the coastlines from high and low tide. The mangroves that are a breeding grounds for fishes and shrimps cannot thrive well in polluted water. SOLUTION: To control pollution, an efficient disposal mechanism needs to be enforced. In this matter

STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT
Rs1.3 billion for uplift of fishing industry By SHAFI BALOCH July 16, 2008 KARACHI - Sindh government has taken initiatives to launch fifteen development schemes for growth of shrimp, prawns and other projects for the welfare of local fishermen worth Rs 1.3 billion. The progress on five schemes is underway and these would be completed within three to five years, said Anwarul Islam, Director Fisheries Sindh (Research and Development), at a press conference held here on Tuesday. He said the fishing industry had been neglected by the previous government while for the first time the present regime has initiated to upgrade the fishing sector and to encourage the local fishermen and also to provide them required facilities. Providing the details about the projects he said that, the provincial government is financing in thirteen schemes while the federal government is providing financial assistance in one project called ‘Master Plan development Aquaculture and Shrimp Farming Project, cost Rs 2.00 billion, similarly

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