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AIR BREA TH ING

EN GI NE S

SCRAM-JET

1
“WE ARE ABO UT TO EN TER TH E
HY PER SO NIC ER A, AND HAV E BE FO RE
US SU CH DIVER SE PR OSPEC TS AS
PO RTA L TO PO RTA L AT LAN TI C
CROSSI NGS I N LI TTLE M OR E TH AN A N
HOU R AN D DUMPI NG OUR N UCLEA R
WAS TES INTO TH E SU N”

- MILLE R, R.H., P RO FE SSOR O F FLIGH T


[1 ]
TRAN SPORT ATION , MIT , U SA

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THE TRANSPORTATION ENGINEER
REGARDS SPEED NOT AS MUCH AS A
SALABLE ITEM IN ITSELF BUT RATHER AS
A MEANS OF DECREASING COST BY
VIRTUE OF A HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY
MEASURED IN PASSENGER MILES PER
HOUR
- MILLER, R.H., PROFESSOR OF FLIGHT
[1]
TRANSPORTATION, MIT, USA

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HI STORY OF FLI GHT

• PROPELLER-DRIVEN AIRCRAFT
DOMINATED THE FIRST 30 YEARS OF
COMMERCIAL AVIATION.
• THE INTRODUCTION OF JET AIRCRAFT
IN 1950S PROVIDED A DRAMATIC
INCREASE IN AIRCRAFT SPEED AND
TOTALLY REPLACED THE PISTON
ENGINE AIRCRAFTS.
• THE SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT ENTERED
INTO COMMERCIAL SERVICE.

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HIST ORY OF FLIGHT

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SC RAMJ ETS
• INTRODUCTION
• BACKGROUND
• LIMITATIONS OF RAMJETS
• SCRAMJET-CONSTRUCTION
• SCRAMJET-WORKING
• SCRAMJET-ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES
• RECENT ADVANCES IN SCRAMJET
TECHNOLOGY
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES

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BAC KGR OUN D
• LAUNCH SATELLITES FOR COMMUNICATION ,
EARTH RESOUCE SURVEY AND MILITARY
APPLICATION

• ONLY 2 % OF LAUNCH WEIGHT OF SPACE


SHUTTLE IS ITS PAYLOAD

• EFFORTS TO REDUCE THE LAUNCH WEIGHT


LEAD TO COMPOSITE PROPULSION SYSTEM

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BAC KGR OUN D
• IN THE EARLY HYPERSONIC ERA OF THE
1950S, INJECTING THE PAYLOADS INTO
LOW EARTH ORBITS WERE DONE BY
MULTISTAGING OF ROCKETS AS THE
SPECIFIC IMPULSE OF THE ROCKET
PROPELLANTS ARE LIMITED.

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BAC KGR OUN D
• IN THE PRESENT GENERATION,
CONVENTIONAL JET ENGINES WITH
SEPARATE DIFFUSER-COMPRESSOR,
COMBUSTOR TURBINE-JET NOZZLES
CAN SERVE ABOVE 15 KM ALTITUDES
AND PUSH THE VEHICLE TO MODERATE
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS.

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JET ENGINES

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BAC KGR OUN D

• THEN THE CONVENTIONAL RAMJET


POWER PLANT CAN TAKE OVER AND
FURTHER ACCELERATE THE VEHICLE TO
MACH NUMBERS OF THE ORDER OF 5-8.

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RAMJETS

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THERMODYNAMICS OF (SC)RAMJETS

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LI MI TATIO NS O F RAM JETS

• RAMJET DEVICES WITH SUBSONIC


COMBUSTION ARE SUITABLE ONLY FOR
VEHICLES FLYING AT M<8 IN THE
EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE.
• VERY HIGH RAM PRESSURE RATIO IN THE
DIFFUSER
• TEMPERATURE OF COMPRESSED AIR EXCEEDS
THE FLAME TEMPERATURE OF THE FUEL-AIR
MIXTURE DUE TO SHOCK HEATING.
• COMBUSTION PRODUCTS GETS DISSOCIATED
ON HEAT ADDITION.
• RELEASE OF ENERGY IS POSSIBLE ONLY IF THE
GASES ARE EXPANDED TO LOWER
TEMPERATURE WITH ATTENDANT DECREASE IN
PRESSURE AND HENCE DECREASE IN THRUST.

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LI MI TATIO NS OF RAMJETS

• AT MACH 5 SPEED THE STAGNATION TEMP


IS AROUND 2380 DEG KELVIN

• BEYOND MACH 5 IF THIS TEMP EXCEEDS 3000


DEG KELVIN, DISSOCIATION PROBLEMS BEGIN

• FUEL AIR MIXTURE CANNOT BE HELD INTACT


BEYOND THIS TEMP

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AIR BREATHING CORRIDOR

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OVERCOMING RAMJET LIMITATIONS

• LIMIT THE AIR TEMPERATURE


ENTERING THE COMBUSTION ZONES
FOR EFFICIENT HEAT ADDITION

• LIMIT THE DECELERATION OF THE


INCOMING HYPERSONIC STREAM TO
SOME REASONABLE SUPERSONIC
STATE AND ADD HEAT TO THE FLOW BY
COMBUSTION.

• CONCEPT OF SUPERSONIC
COMBUSTION RAMJET (SCRAMJET).

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RAMJET TO SCRAMJET

• AS SPEED INCREASES TO MACH 6,


THE INCOMING AIR NOT SLOWED
DOWN TO SUBSONIC SPEED

• AIR FLOWING INTO THE ENGINE


MADE TO PASS THROUGH A SERIES
OF OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES.

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RAMJET TO SCRAMJET

• BY NOT DECELERATING THE INCOMING AIR TO


SUBSONIC SPEED, THE PROBLEM OF SHOCK
FORMATION IS RESOLVED.

• BUT THE COMBUSTION OF FUEL AND AIR HAS


TO TAKE PLACE AT SUPERSONIC SPEEDS.

• HENCE TERMED SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION


RAMJET ENGINE OR SCRAMJET FOR SHORT.

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SCRAMJET ENGINE

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SCRA MJET-CO NSTRU CTI ON

• INLET
• ISOLATOR
• COMBUSTOR
• NOZZLE

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SCRAMJET-WORKING

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SCRAMJET-WORKING

• INLET
• FOREBODY & INTERNAL INLET
COMPRESSES AIR FOR PROCESSING
BY THE REMAINING COMPONENTS OF
THE ENGINE.

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SCRAMJET-WORKING

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SCRAMJET-WORKING

• ISOLATOR
• IT ALLOWS SUPERSONIC FLOW TO
ADJUST TO A STATIC BACK PRESSURE
HIGHER THAN ITS INLET STATIC
PRESSURE.

• ISOLATOR ISOLATES THE COMBUSTION


PROCESS FROM THE INLET
COMPRESSION PROCESS

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SCRAMJET-WORKING

• COMBUSTOR
• ACCEPTS INLET/ISOLATOR
AIRFLOW AND PROVIDES
EFFICIENT FUEL AIR MIXING.

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SCRAMJET-WORKING

• NOZZLE
• CONTROLS THE EXPANSION OF
HIGH PRESSURE AND
TEMPERATURE GAS MIXTURE
TO PRODUCE THRUST.

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SCRAMJET WORKING

• IT'S OFFICIAL. X-43A RAISES THE BAR TO MACH


9.6
• GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS RECOGNIZED
NASA'S X-43A SCRAMJET WITH A NEW WORLD
SPEED RECORD FOR A JET-POWERED
AIRCRAFT - MACH 9.6, OR NEARLY 7,000 MPH.
• THE X-43A SET THE NEW MARK AND BROKE
ITS OWN WORLD RECORD ON ITS THIRD AND
FINAL FLIGHT ON NOV. 16, 2004.

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SCRAMJET WORKING

• IN MARCH 2004, THE X-43A SET THE


PREVIOUS RECORD OF MACH 6.8
(NEARLY 5,000 MPH).
• THE FASTEST AIR-BREATHING, MANNED
VEHICLE, THE U.S. AIR FORCE SR-71,
ACHIEVED SLIGHTLY MORE THAN MACH
3.2.
• THE X-43A MORE THAN DOUBLED, THEN
TRIPLED, THE TOP SPEED OF THE JET-
POWERED SR-71.

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SCRAMJET - WORKING

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SCRAMJET - WORKING

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TECHNOLOGY DRIVERS FOR AIR BREATHING
HYPERSONIC FLIGHT

HIGH SPEED
HIGHER PAYLOAD FRACTION
CHOICE OF DIFFERENT FLIGHT PATHS AT HYPERSONIC SPEED

MILITARY
CIVIL • CRUISE MISSILES SPACE
• AGAINST TIME CRITICAL •REUSABLE
• GLOBAL REACH TARGETS GLOBAL TARGETING / LAUNCH
IN SHORT TIME STRIKE VEHICLE
• RECONNAISSANCE
• SURVEILLANCE
• COUNTER MEASURES DIFFICULT

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HOT STRUCTURES /
TPS

HYPERSONIC
AERODYNAMICS /
AEROTHERMODYNAMICS

HIGH
TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS

HYDROCARBON ENDOTHERMIC
FUEL SCRAMJET FUEL
ENGINE DEVELOPMENT

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REC EN T AD VAN CES IN S CR AM JET
TEC HNOLO GY

• DEMONSTRATION OF SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION


IN A GROUND TEST.
• DEMONSTRATION OF NET THRUST IN A GROUND
TEST.
• DEMONSTRATION OF SUPERSONIC
COMBUSTION OR NET THRUST IN A GROUND TEST
WITH REALISTIC FUELS AND/OR REALISTIC
WIND TUNNEL FLOW CONDITIONS.
• DEMONSTRATION OF SUPERSONIC
COMBUSTION IN A FLIGHT TEST.
• DEMONSTRATION OF NET THRUST IN A FLIGHT
TEST.

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REC EN T AD VAN CES IN S CR AM JET
TEC HNOLO GY

• PROBLEM AREAS
• SELECTION OF FUEL
• FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
• ACTIVE COOLING REQD FOR MANAGING
HEAT GENERATION
• INTAKE DESIGN

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REC EN T AD VAN CES IN S CR AM JET
TECH NOLOG Y

• SELECTION OF FUEL
• BURNING FUEL INSIDE THE COMBUSTOR IS LIKE
LIGHTING A MATCH STICK IN A TORNADO & KEEPING
IT ALIGHT. HENCE REACTION TIME HAS TO BE HIGH.

• THE CHOICE OF FUEL GOVERNED BY THE HEAT SINK


REQUIREMENT AND VEHICLE SYSTEM REQUIREMENT.

• HYDROCARBON FUEL & HYDROGEN ARE THE FUELS


AVAILABLE.

• HYDROGEN TAKES PRIORITY OVER THE


HYDROCARBON FUEL.

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REC EN T AD VA NCE S I N SC RA MJET
TECH NOLOG Y

• FUEL INJECTION
• TRANVERSE INJECTION – PERPENDICULAR TO AIR
FLOW

• PRODUCES SHOCK WAVE ; LOSS OF TOTAL PRESSURE

• PARALLEL INJECTION

• IMPROPER MIXING

• OBLIQUE TYPE OF INJECTION IS UNDER RESEARCH

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REC EN T AD VA NCES IN S CR AM JET
TEC HN OLO GY

• INTAKE DESIGN
• FIXED GEOMETRY – HAS LIMITED
CONTRACTION RATIO

• VARIABLE GEOMETRY HAS BETTER


PERFORMANCE BUT COMES WITH
COMPLEXITY IN DESIGN

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CURRENT PROJECTS

• PROJECTS WORLDWIDE
• UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
• NASP (CLOSED)
• HYPER-X
• HyTECH
• FASST
• FALCON
• HyFLY
• AUSTRALIA
• HYSHOT

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CURRENT PROJECTS

• PROJECTS WORLDWIDE (CTD.)


• RUSSIA
• GLL Kholod,Igla (SA-5 MOUNTED)
• JAPAN
• CHINA
• UK
• HOTOL
• FRANCE
• PROMETHEE

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CURRENT PROJECTS

• PROJECTS INDIA
• ISRO
• CHANDRAYAN-RLV
• AVATAR
• DRDL
• HSTDV
• NAL

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CURRENT PROJECTS

• India has already


demonstrated the basic
technology of ramjets by the
development of
world's fastest cruise missile
Brahmos which outspeeds
famous US Tomahawk by three
times, and by ground tests of
scramjets

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CONCLUSION

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REF ERE NCES
• MILLER, H.R., “THINKING HYPERSONIC”,
ASTRONAUTICS & AERONAUTICS, PP. 40-44,
(1971).
• CHENG, I.S., “HYPERSONIC PROPULSION”,
PROGRESS IN ENERGY & COMBUSTION
SCIENCE, VOL. 15, PP. 183-202 (1989).
• JOHN J.BERTIN,RUSSEL M.CUMMINGS,”FIFTY
YEARS OF HYPERSONICS:WHERE WE’VE
BEEN,WHERE WE’RE GOING”,PROGRESS IN
AEROSPACE SCIENCES,PP.511-536(2003).

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REF ERE NCES
• TIMNAT, Y.M., “RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN
RAMJETS, DUCTED ROCKETS AND
SCRAMJETS”, PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE
SCIENCES, VOL. 27, PP. 201-235 (1990).

19 OCT 07 “SCRAMJETS” 46
REF ERE NCES
• DR.SATISHKUMAR,SC ‘F’,PROJECT
DIRECTOR,H.T.V.,DRDL,HYD,”PROBLEMS &
ISSUES RELATED TO SCRAMJET ENGINE
DEVELOPMENT”,PROC OF WORKSHOP ON
COMBUSTION IN AEROSPACE PROPULSION
SYSTEMS,NOV 17-18,2001
• S.PANNEERSELVAM,”DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
OF SCRAMJET ENGINE INTEGRATED VEHICLE FOR
AUTONOMOUS HYPERSONIC FLIGHT
DEMONSTRATION”,PROCEEDINGS OF 8TH
NATIONAL CONFERENCE AIR BREATHING
ENGINES &AEROSPACE PROPULSION(NCABE-
2006),DEC 12-14,2006

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REF ER ENCE S

• NASA websites
• WEBSITE www.wikipedia.com
• WEBSITE www.aerospaceweb.org

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