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Bernoulli equation

Daniel Bernoulli (1710-1782)

2

Bernoulli: preamble

Want to discuss the properties of a moving ﬂuid.

Will do this initially under the simplest possible

conditions, leading to Bernoulli’s equation. The

following restrictions apply.

• Flow is inviscid, there are no viscous drag forces

• Heat conduction is not possible for an inviscid

ﬂow

• The ﬂuid is incompressible .

• The ﬂow is steady (velocity pattern constant).

• The paths traveled by small sections of the ﬂuid

are well deﬁned.

• Will be implicitly using the Euler equations of

motion (discussed later)

3

Coordinates and streamlines

• Each piece of ﬂuid has velocity v .

• Steady ﬂow, nothing changes with time at given

location. All particles passing through (1) end

up at (2) with velocity v

• The trajectories followed by the particles are

called streamlines.

• Describe motion is terms of distance traveled

along streamline, s .

• Velocity given by |v| =

ds

dt

. Normal to velocity

is ˆ n .

• Stream-line can bend, R is radius of curvature.

4

Coordinates and streamlines

Using body ﬁxed coordinates. If the particles change

speed along stream-line, or if stream-line bends, then

accelerations must be present.

The tangential acceleration

a

s

=

dv

dt

=

∂v

∂s

ds

dt

= v

∂v

∂s

The normal acceleration

a

n

=

v

2

R

The radius of curvature R changes along the

streamline.

5

Streamline coordinates

It is convenient to use a coordinate system deﬁned in

terms of the ﬂow streamlines. The coordinate along

the streamline is s and the coordinate normal to the

streamline is n . The unit vectors for the streamline

coordinates are ˆs and ˆ n .

The direction of ˆs will be chosen to be in the same

direction as the velocity. So v = vˆs .

s

n

^

s

^

V

s = 0

s = s

1

s = s

2

n = n

2

n = n

1

n = 0

Streamlines

y

x

The ﬂow plane is covered with an orthogonal curved

net of coordinate lines and v = v(s, n)ˆs and

ˆs = ˆs(s, n) for steady ﬂow.

6

Forces on streamlines

Any particle travelling along the streamline will be

subjected to a number of forces.

The relevant Forces for Bernoulli’s equation are

gravity and pressure.

7

Streamlines F = ma

Will resolve forces in directions parallel ˆs and

perpendicular ˆ n to particles motions. y is out of

page, z is down, x is horizontal.

δF

s

= δm a

s

= δm v

∂v

∂s

= ρδV v

∂v

∂s

8

Streamlines F = ma

Resolve forces

δW

s

= δW sin θ = γδV sin θ

δW

s

would be zero for horizontal motion.

The pressure changes with height. Let p be pressure

in middle of ﬂuid slab. Let p + δp

s

be pressure in

front of slab and p −δp

s

be pressure behind slab.

From Taylors series

δp

s

=

∂p

∂s

δs

2

The net pressure force

δF

p

s

= (p −δp

s

)δnδy −(p + δp

s

)δnδy

= −2δp

s

δnδy = −

∂p

∂s

δsδnδy = −

∂p

∂s

δV

Net force

δF

s

= δW

s

+ δF

p

s

=

_

−γ sin θ −

∂p

∂s

_

δV

9

Bernoulli equation

Equate two expressions for δF

s

δF

s

=

_

−γ sin θ −

∂p

∂s

_

δV = ρδV v

∂v

∂s

⇒

_

−γ sin θ −

∂p

∂s

_

= ρ v

∂v

∂s

The change in ﬂuid particle speed along a streamline

is accomplished by a combination of pressure and

gravity forces.

• Now use sin θ =

dz

ds

• And v

dv

ds

=

1

2

dv

2

ds

• And dp =

∂p

∂s

ds +

∂p

∂n

dn

• Along streamline dn = 0

−γ

dz

ds

−

dp

ds

=

1

2

ρ

dv

2

ds

10

Bernoulli, compact expression

Now making the assumption that density is constant,

Bernoulli’s equation is obtained

γ

dz

ds

+

dp

ds

+

1

2

ρ

dv

2

ds

= 0

d

ds

_

γz + p +

1

2

ρv

2

_

= 0

γz + p +

1

2

ρv

2

= Constant

The constant density assumption (incompressible

ﬂow) is good for liquids (sometimes gases at low

speed). Bernoulli’s equation presented in 1738

monograph Hydrodynamics by Daniel Bernoulli.

If one has compressible ﬂuid

_

dp

ρ

+

1

2

v

2

+ gz = Constant

and knowledge of how ρ varies with p .

11

Forces normal to streamline

The acceleration normal to the streamline is a

n

=

v

2

R

where R is the local radius of curvature of the

streamline.

δF

n

=

(δm)v

2

R

=

ρ δV v

2

R

12

Forces normal to streamline

A change in stream direction occurs from pressure

and/or and gravity forces. Resolve forces

δW

n

= δW cos θ = γδV cos θ

δW

n

would be zero for vertical motion.

The pressure changes with height. Let p be pressure

in middle of ﬂuid slab, p + δp

n

is pressure at top of

slab and p −δp

n

be pressure at bottom of slab.

From Taylors series

δp

n

=

∂p

∂n

δn

2

The net pressure force, δF

p

n

δF

p

n

= (p −δp

n

)δs δy −(p + δp

n

)δs δy

= −2δp

n

δn δy = −

∂p

∂n

δn δs δy = −

∂p

∂n

δV

Need to combine pressure and weight forces to get

net Force

13

Forces normal to streamline

Combine weight and pressure forces

δF

n

= δW

n

+ δF

p

n

=

_

−γ cos θ −

∂p

∂n

_

δV =

ρδV v

2

R

Pressure and weight forces imbalance produces the

curvature. For gas ﬂows it is common to use

∂p

∂n

= −

ρv

2

R

The pressures increases

with distance away from

the center of curvature

(

∂p

∂n

is negative since

ρv

2

/R is positive).

For straight parallel streamlines (in gases),

∂p

∂n

= 0 .

No pressure change across streamlines

14

Forces normal to streamline

Will consider ﬂuid parameters normal to stream line

_

γ cos θ +

∂p

∂n

_

+

ρv

2

R

= 0

•

∂p

∂n

=

dp

dn

since s is constant.

• cos θ =

dz

dn

and so for incompressible ﬂows

dp

dn

+ γ

dz

dn

+

ρv

2

R

= 0

dp

dn

+ γ

dz

dn

+

ρv

2

R

= 0

d

dn

(p + γz) +

ρv

2

R

= 0

p + γz + ρ

_

v

2

R

dn = Constant

For a compressible substance, the best reduction is

_

dp

ρ

+

_

v

2

R

+ gz = Constant

15

Interpretation for incompressible ﬂows

Along the streamline

γz + p +

1

2

ρv

2

= Constant

Across the streamline

p + γz + ρ

_

v

2

R

dn = Constant

The units of Bernoulli’s equations are J m

−3

. This

is not surprising since both equations arose from an

integration of the equation of motion for the force

along the s and n directions.

The Bernoulli equation along the stream-line is a

statement of the work energy theorem. As the

particle moves, the pressure and gravitational forces

can do work, resulting in a change in the kinetic

energy.

16

Dynamic and static pressures

p +

1

2

ρv

2

+ ρgz = constant

Static pressure is the pressure as measured moving

with the ﬂuid. (e.g. static with ﬂuid). This is the p

term in Bernoulli’s equation. Imagine moving along

the ﬂuid with a pressure gauge.

Some times the ρgz term in Bernoulli’s equation is

called the hydrostatic pressure. (e.g. it is the change

in pressure due to change in elevation.)

Dynamic pressure is a pressure that occurs when

kinetic energy of the ﬂowing ﬂuid is converted into

pressure rise. This is the pressure associated with

the

1

2

ρv

2

term in Bernoulli’s equation.

17

Dynamic and static pressures

The static pressure at 1 can be estimated by the

height of the column.

p

1

= γh

3−1

+ p

3

= γh

3−1

+ γh

4−3

= γh

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

h

3-1

h

h

4-3

ρ

Open

H

V

V

1

= V V

2

= 0

The dynamic pressure at 2 is estimated by

p

2

= p

1

+

1

2

ρv

2

1

(v

2

= 0)

The additional pressure due to the dynamic pressure

will cause the ﬂuid to rise a height of H > h .

The point (2) is called a stagnation point.

18

The stagnation point

Stagnation point

(a)

Stagnation streamline

Stagnation point

(b)

When ﬂuid ﬂows around any stationary body, some

of the streamlines pass over and some pass under the

object. But there is always a stagnation point where

the stagnation streamline terminates. The

stagnation pressure is

p

stagnation

= p +

1

2

ρv

2

v is velocity at some point on stream-line away from

obstruction.

The total pressure, p

T

p

T

= p +

1

2

ρv

2

+ γz

is sum of static, dynamic and hydrostatic pressures.

19

The pitot tube

Knowledge of static and stagnation pressures makes

it possible to determine the ﬂuid velocity. Geometry

arranged so that elevation diﬀerences have little

impact. The free stream pressure is p .

Pressure measured at

points 3 and 4

Stagnation pressure

p

2

= p

3

= p +

1

2

ρv

2

V

p

(1)

(2)

(4)

(3)

Static pressure is just p

1

= p ≈ p

4

. Combining

equations

p = p

4

= p

3

−

1

2

ρv

2

Rearranging leads to

v =

¸

2(p

3

−p

4

)

ρ

20

The pitot tube: complications

The main question is de-

sign of pitot tubes is where

to place the oriﬁce to mea-

sure the static pressure.

V

American Blower company

National Physical laboratory (England)

American Society of Heating & Ventilating Engineers

The static pressure does

vary along the length of

the tube. More com-

plicated analysis than

Bernoulli required here.

Also make mouth of tube smooth.

21

The free jet

The free jet result was ﬁrst obtained in 1643 by

Evangelista Torricelli.

p

1

+

1

2

ρv

2

1

+ γz

1

= p

2

+

1

2

ρv

2

2

+ γz

2

γz

1

=

1

2

ρv

2

2

• p

1

= p

atm

= 0 ; gauge pressure

• v

1

≈ 0 ; large surface, so v

1

<< v

2

• p

2

≈ p

4

= p

atm

= 0 ; streamlines parallel

between (2) and (4) . Radius of curvature is

inﬁnite.

• z

1

= h . (z

2

= 0 )

22

The free jet

γz

1

=

1

2

ρv

2

2

v

2

=

¸

2γh

ρ

=

_

2gh

Outside nozzle, stream continues to fall and at (5)

v

2

=

_

2gh

v

5

=

_

2g(h + H)

Result v =

√

2gh is speed of freely falling body

starting from rest.

For the ﬂuid, all the potential energy is converted to

kinetic energy when jet leaves tank. (assume no

viscous forces).

23

Free jet, ﬁne details

Horizontal nozzle, veloc-

ity at center line v

2

is

slightly smaller than v

3

and slightly larger than

v

1

.

For d ≪ h , OK to use

v

2

as average velocity.

Streamlines cannot follow sharp corner exactly.

Would take an inﬁnite pressure gradient to achieve

zero radius of curvature

(i.e. R = 0 ). Uniform velocity only occurs at a-a line.

Vena Contracta eﬀect.

Jet diameter, d

j

is

slightly smaller than

hole diameter d

h

.

24

Free jet, Vena contracta eﬀect

The contraction coeﬃcient, C

d

= A

j

/A

h

is the ratio

of the jet area A

j

, and hole area A

h

.

25

Flow rates

How much water ﬂows down a channel or through a

pipe?

The volume ﬂow rate,

Q

1

is deﬁned as the vol-

ume of ﬂuid that ﬂows

past an imaginary (or

real) interface.

• Volume of ﬂuid leaving δV = v

1

δtA

1

• Rate of volume change

δV

δt

= v

1

A

1

• The volume ﬂow rate Q = v

1

A

1

• Mass of ﬂuid leaving δm = ρv

1

δtA

1

• Rate ﬂuid leaving ˙ m =

dm

dt

= ρv

1

A

1

26

Equation of continuity

For a steady state situation, the mass of ﬂuid going

into the tank must be the same as the mass of ﬂuid

leaving the tank.

Mass of water in = Mass of water out

ρ

1

A

1

v

1

= ρ

2

A

2

v

2

This is the continuity equation and for

incompressible ﬂow

A

1

v

1

= A

2

v

2

or Q

1

= Q

2

The equation of continuity and the Bernoulli’s

equation are used into conjunction to analyze many

ﬂow situations.

27

Flow rate: Example 1

Given the water velocity

at (2) is 8.0 m/s and

the pipe diameter is 0.10

m , what are the volume

and mass ﬂow rates?

Q = vA = vπ(d/2)

2

= 8.0 ×π0.050

2

= 0.06283 m

3

/s

The mass ﬂow is just Q×ρ so

dm

dt

= 1000 ×0.06283 = 62.83 kg/s

28

Flow rate: Example 2

A stream of water d =

0.10 m ﬂows steadily

from a tank of diameter

D = 1.0 m as shown

in the ﬁgure. What ﬂow-

rate is needed from the

inlet to maintain a con-

stant water volume in the

header tank depth? The

depth of water at the out-

let is 2.0 m .

Can regard outlet as a free jet (note water level at

(1) is not going down).

v

2

=

_

2gh =

√

2 ×9.8 ×2.0 = 6.26 m/s

⇒Q

2

= A

2

v

2

= π(0.050)

2

6.26 = 0.0492 m

3

/s

= Q

1

29

Flow rate measurement

One way to measure ﬂow-rate is to place a

constriction in a pipe. The resulting change in

velocity (continuity equation), leads to a pressure

diﬀerence. The absolute ﬂuid velocity can be

determined from pressure diﬀerence between (1) and

(2) .

The Oriﬁce, Nozzle and Venturi meters analysis here

ignores viscous, compressibility and other real-world

eﬀects.

30

Flow rate measurement: 2

Want to determine ﬂow rate, need v

2

v

1

A

1

= v

2

A

2

⇒v

1

=

A

2

A

1

v

2

p

2

+

1

2

ρv

2

2

= p

1

+

1

2

ρv

2

1

⇒

1

2

ρv

2

2

−

1

2

ρv

2

1

= p

1

−p

2

⇒

1

2

ρv

2

2

−

1

2

ρ

A

2

2

A

2

1

v

2

2

= p

1

−p

2

⇒v

2

2

=

2(p

1

−p

2

)

ρ

_

1 −

A

2

2

A

2

1

_

So the ﬂow rate is

Q = A

2

¸

¸

¸

_

2(p

2

−p

1

)

ρ

_

1 −

A

2

2

A

2

1

_

The pressure diﬀerences give the ﬂow rate. Real

world ﬂows are 1% to 40% smaller.

31

Bernoulli and Cavitation

The temperature at which water boils depends on

pressure.

T (

o

C) p

vap

(kPa)

10 1.23

20 2.34

30 4.24

40 7.34

Q

p

(Absolute

pressure)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Small Q

Moderate Q

Large Q Incipient cavitation

p

v

0

x

The process of cavitation involves

• Fluid velocity increases

• Pressure reduction

• If p < p

vap

, water boils

• Bubbles collapse when reach high pressure part

of ﬂuid

32

Bernoulli and Cavitation

Pressure transients exceeding 100 MPa can be

produced. These transients can produce structural

damage to surfaces.

33

Sluice gate ﬂow rate

The height of water in the channel can be used to

determine the ﬂow rate of water out the reservoir.

Q = z

2

b

¸

¸

¸

_

2g(z

1

−z

2

)

1 −

z

2

2

z

2

1

≈ z

2

b

_

2gz

1

(b) is the width of the reservoir.

34

Venturi meter problem

Determine ﬂow

rate as a function

of the diameter of

the tube.

0.2 m

Q

0.1 m D

Use venturi meter equation

Q = A

2

¸

¸

¸

_

2(p

2

−p

1

)

ρ

_

1 −

A

2

2

A

2

1

_

• A

2

= πD

2

/4 m

2

• p

2

−p

1

= −γ ×0.20 = −9800 ×0.20 = −1960 Pa

• ρ = 1000 kgm

−3

• 1 −A

2

2

/A

2

1

= 1 −D

2

/0.10

2

= 1 −100D

2

m

2

Q = π

D

2

4

¸

−3920

1000(1 −100D

2

)

= πD

2

¸

0.245

(100D

2

−1)

35

Sharp crested weir

• Between (1) and (2) pressure and gravitational

forces cause ﬂuid to accelerate from v

1

→v

2

.

• p

1

= γh and p

2

≈ 0 forces cause ﬂuid to

accelerate from v

1

→v

2

.

• Assume ﬂow is like free jet. Average velocity

across weir is C

1

√

2gH , C

1

= constant.

• Flow rate is

Q = (Hb) ×C

_

2gH = C

1

b

_

2gH

3

The parameter C

1

is determined empirically.

36

The energy line and hydraulic grade line

Consider Bernoulli equation divided by γ = ρg

p

γ

+

1

2

v

2

g

+ z = H = Constant on streamline

The dimensions of the equation are in length. There

is the pressure head, velocity head, and elevation

head. The sum, H is called the total head.

The energy line gives the total head available to a

ﬂuid. It can be measured by measuring the

stagnation pressure with a pitot tube.

The Hydraulic grade line is the line produced from

the pressure and elevation heads. It is measured with

a static pitot tube.

37

The energy line and hydraulic grade line

• The energy line will be horizontal along the

stream line as long as Bernoulli assumptions are

valid.

• The hydraulic grade line will not be horizontal if

the ﬂuid velocity changes along the stream line.

• If forces are present (this does occur in pipe

ﬂows), then there will be a loss in energy and

the energy line will not be constant.

38

Example: EL and HGL

A scale drawing can be used to depict the pressure in

the tank/pipe system.

• The energy line is horizontal

• The elevation head at (2) is converted into

increased pressure head p

2

/γ and velocity head

v

2

2

/(2g) . The HGL decreases.

• At (3) , pressure is atmospheric. So the HGL to

the level of the pipe and the elevation head has

been converted entirely into a velocity head

v

2

3

/(2g) .

39

EL and HGL

The EL and HGL can depict whether there is

positive pressure p > p

atm

or negative pressure

p < p

atm

.

• The water velocity will be constant in curved

pipe (equation of continuity).

• The pressure head will increase or decrease as

the elevation head changes. Useful to know for

leaking pipes.

40

Limitations on Bernoulli equation

A number of problems can invalidate the use of the

Bernoulli equation, these are compressibility eﬀects,

rotational eﬀects, unsteady eﬀects.

Compressibility eﬀects

When can compressibility eﬀects impact on gas

ﬂows? Consider stagnation point

• Stagnation pressure is greater than static

pressure by

1

2

ρv

2

(dynamic pressure), provided

ρ constant.

• ρ will not changes too much as long as dynamic

pressure is not too large when compared to

static pressure.

• So ﬂows at low v will be incompressible

• But dynamic pressure increases as v

2

, so

compressibility eﬀects most likely at high speed.

41

Compressibility eﬀects

The isothermal model for an ideal gas, p = ρR

∗

T

C =

_

dp

ρ

+

1

2

v

2

1

+ gz

1

C = RT

_

dp

p

+

1

2

v

2

1

+ gz

1

C = RT ln p

1

+

1

2

v

2

1

+ gz

1

This can be used to get

v

2

1

2g

+ z

1

+

RT

g

ln(p

1

/p

2

) =

v

2

2

2g

+ z

2

Now write as p

1

/p

2

= 1 + (p

1

−p

2

)/p

2

= 1 + ∆p/p

2

and use ln(1 + x) = x for x ≪1 .

v

2

1

2g

+ z

1

+

RT

g

ln(1 + ∆p/p

2

) =

v

2

2

2g

+ z

2

v

2

1

2g

+ z

1

+

RT

g

(∆p/p

2

) ≈

v

2

2

2g

+ z

2

This can be reduced to the standard Bernoulli

equation. Bernoulli recovered as long as pressure

diﬀerences are not large.

42

Compressibility eﬀects: Isentropic ﬂow

This is the situation that applies when there is no

heat transfer or friction during the ﬂow (reasonable

for many gases). This gas law is p = ρ

k

D where k

depends on speciﬁc heat capacities. Introduce the

Mach number, Ma = v/c (ratio of the ﬂow speed to

the speed of sound). Consideration of the pressure

ratio between free stream and stagnation points

leads to

p

2

−p

1

p

1

=

kMa

2

1

2

incompressible

p

2

−p

1

p

1

=

_

_

1 +

k −1

Ma

2

1

+

_

k

k−1

−1

_

compressible

The compressible and

incompressible expres-

sions agree to 2% for

Ma < 0.3 .

Compressible

(Eq. 3.25)

Incompressible

(Eq. 3.26)

k = 1.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Ma

1

p

2

–

p

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

p

1

43

Unsteady eﬀects

Implicit in the discussion was an assumption that

the ﬂuid ﬂows along steady state streamlines, so

v = v(s) is a function of position along the stream

and does not contain any explicit time dependence.

If v = v(s, t) then then it would be necessary to

include this when integrating along the streamline.

p

1

+

1

2

ρv

2

1

+ γz

1

= p

2

+

1

2

ρv

2

2

+ γz

2

+ ρ

_

t

2

t

1

∂p

∂s

ds

The additional term does complicate matters and

can only be easily handled under restricted

circumstances. There are quasi-steady ﬂows where

some time dependence exists, but Bernoulli’s

equations could be applied as if the ﬂow were steady

(e.g. the draining of a tank).

44

Rotational eﬀects

Model of wake behind insect

Y. D. Afanasyev, Memorial University of

Newfoundland

Bernoulli equation describes motion of ﬂuid particles

along streamline. If particles spin about the

streamline then Bernoulli is no longer valid.

Need to characterize irrotational and rotational ﬂows.

petroleum Engineering

petroleum Engineering

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