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Conceptual Cost Estimating Manual

Conceptual Cost Estimating Manual

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CONCEPTUAL COST ESTIMATING MANUAL

SECOND EDITION

JOHN

S. PAGE

An Imprint ofElsevier

Conceptual Cost Estimating Manual
2nd Edition

Copyright © 1984, 1996 by Elsevier. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.
Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science and Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK. Phone: (44) 1865 843830, Fax: (44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage: http://www.elsevier.com by selecting "Customer Support" and then "Obtaining Permissions".

Originally published by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX. For information, please contact: Manager of Special Sales Elsevier 200 Wheeler Road Burlington, MA 01803-2041 Tel: 781-313-4700 Fax:781-313-4882 For information on all Gulf Professional Publishing titles available, contact our World Wide Web home page at: http://www.bh.com/gulf
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Gulf Professional Publishing
An Imprint of Elsevier

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10 9 8 7 6 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Page, John S. Conceptual cost estimating manual / John S. Page. — 2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 0-88415-267-7 1. Chemical plants—Design and construction— Estimates—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. TH4524.P34 1996 690'.54—dc20 95-52313 CIP Printed in the United States of America. Printed on acid-free paper (oo).

PREFACE

Long has been the need for a manual on conceptual cost estimating that allows the construction industry and the engineering/management staff of chemical, refinery, and industrial plants to arrive at a reasonable cost for a specified facility. Simply to rely on past records and say that a certain type plant will cost ten dollars per pound produced, and the product can be sold for fifteen dollars per pound, by no means justifies the construction cost of the plant. Management of all organizations concerned demands more reasoning and is certainly within its rights to do so. When a project is in its planning and evaluating stages, the cost of a complete design and definitive estimate would be, in most cases, too great to justify the design and estimate. Therefore, it becomes apparent that a less expensive method is needed to determine the feasibility of the plant in mind. By using a very moderate flow sheet design, specifications, and/or equipment lists, by properly applying man-hours, dollars, percentage values (as are shown throughout this manual in graph and table form), and construction indexes, and by considering other items outlined in the Introduction, a total cost very close to the as-built cost of a complete plant should be obtainable for any location in the world.

The Human Factor in Estimating
In this high-tech world of sophisticated software packages, including several for labor and cost estimating, you might wonder what an estimating manual offers that a computer program does not. The answer is the human factor. In preparing a complete estimate for a refinery, petrochemical, or other heavy industrial project one often confronts 12-18 major accounts, and each account has 5-100 or more subaccounts, depending on the project and its engineering design. While it would seem that such numerous variables provide the perfect opportunity for computerized algorithmic solution, accurate, cost-effective, realistic estimating is still largely a function of human insight and expertise. Each project has unique aspects that still require the seasoned consideration of an experienced professional, such as general economy, projects supervision, labor relations, job conditions, construction equipment, and weather, to name a few. Computers are wonderful tools. They can solve problems as no human can, but I do not believe construction estimating is their forte. I have reviewed several construction estimating software packages and have yet to find one that I would completely rely on. Construction estimating is an art, a science, and a craft, and I recommend that it be done by those who understand and appreciate all three of these facets. This manual is intended for those individuals. John S. Page

INTRODUCTION
This manual contains two methods of conceptual estimating for determining the budget amount or estimated cost to design and construct refineries, chemical/petrochemical, and some other types of industrial plants. Method one, when properly applied, produces a semi-definitive conceptual estimate with an accuracy of ±10%. Method two uses conceptual ratio estimating, and based on the known equipment material dollar value and the application of weighted percentage costs for all other items, it produces an estimate with an accuracy of ±30%. The information required and procedures to follow for using these two methods of estimating are defined later in this introduction. All equipment and material dollar graph and tables throughout this manual are based on average cost as of January 1,1996. Due to the ever-changing economic conditions, the use of what is known throughout the industry as indices must be considered and applied against all equipment and material graphs and tables. This will result in a more realistic equipment and material value for a project to be designed and constructed at some future date. Indices are simply numbers for a time frame indicating a percentage of change in regard to a relative cost of a base time frame. There have been many pro and con discussions as to the use of indices; however, they are still the only means for achieving an acceptable estimate where limited information and time are available. There are several indices from which one might choose. I favor the Nelson Refinery (Inflation) Index, which appears in the first weekly edition of each month in the Oil and Gas Journal. The engineer/estimator may wish to use other indices that he is more familiar with and has more confidence in. Should this be the case, it is to be recognized that as far as this manual is concerned January 1, 1996 is equal to 100. All labor manhour graphs and tables are based on an average productivity of 70%. The engineer/estimator must determine the labor productivity he feels he can achieve for each project and may acjjust the graph and table manhours as may be required. Major items that one should consider in determining productivity are: 1. General Economy 2. Project Supervision 3. Labor Relations 4. Job Conditions 5. Construction Equipment 6. Weather In determining the dollar rate to apply against the estimated manhours the engineer/estimator should first establish weighted composite crew rates. This is simply the listing by craft of the various personnel required for a crew—such as general foreman, foreman, craftsmen, and apprentices/helpers—and the weighted percentage of their time that will be devoted to the crew. The weighted percentage of each classification multiplied by the hourly rate for that classification will result in the weighted hourly rate for each. The sum of all weighted rates will equal the composite crew hourly rate. The total percent of all crew personnel is to equal 100. Using the composite crews and rates, activity crews and rates are to be formed. List the composite crew rates and the weighted percent of time each crew will be devoted to the activity. The weighted percent of each composite crew multiplied by the weighted composite crew rate will result in the weighted hourly activity rate for that crew. The sum of all weighted crew rates for the activity will equal the hourly weighted activity rate. The total percent of all composite crew personnel is to equal 100. See Section One for description of disciplines of work to determine activity crew personnel needed.

All manhour tables and graphs include the total manhours, based on 70% productivity, to complete the unit of work as listed. All equipment and material dollar graphs and tables are based on cost as of January 1, 1996, and include the total unit equipment or material cost as outlined. All graphs and tables that reflect shop fabrication, packaged units, and subcontracted items include the total cost of labor, material, overhead and profit of the supplier, and vendor or subcontractor. If the project under consideration is to be located in an area outside the continental forty-eight states, the engineer/estimator must consider other items not covered in this manual. Additives for any or all of the following items may be required and since their costs vary widely for different parts of the world, they must be researched individually for each foreign project. 1. Mobilization and demobilization of personnel and equipment 2. Foreign differential labor pay 3. Permits, licenses, fees, duties 4. Load out, tie down and material handling 5. Transportation and ocean or air freight 6. Camp, family quarters,fieldoffice, and storage facilities 7. Rest and recreation for personnel

Method One—Accuracy Level of ±10%
A method one, semi-definitive conceptual estimate is defined as one that will produce major discipline quantities, manhours and labor, material, subcontract and total dollars for their cost. As an example, using concrete as a major discipline of work, and applying this method, the total cubic yards of concrete for equipment foundations would be the result. Based on the total cubic yards of concrete, all inclusive of foundation earthwork, forms, reinforcing steel, embedments,finishing,etc., the total manhours and cost would be achieved. With the overall results of all major disciplines of work the project can be scheduled and fast-track cost-controlled until such time as a total definitive estimate is available. To achieve a degree of accuracy of ±10% the following information will be required. 1. Plant capacity, product form, basic process, and raw material 2. Total general specifications 3. Plant location (site conditions) 4. Preliminary soils report with foundation recommendations 5. Plot plan and equipment arrangements. 6. P. & I.D.'s. (mechanical flow sheets) 7. Equipment list 8. Buildings listing type, size, and description This same type estimate can be assembled with far less information than that listed above but the degree of accuracy, in all probability would be less than that stated.

Method Two—Accuracy Level of ±30%
A method two, ratio conceptual estimate is defined as one that is based on the known total process equipment material cost and that applies weighted percentages against that cost to achieve the cost of all other major disciplines of work. Once the cost of all major disciplines of work has been established, quantities and manhours can be achieved by dividing the material dollars by the pre-established unit dollar rate, as outlined in the graphs and tables, and the labor dollars by a pre-established composite activity rate.

With the established quantities and manhours the project can be scheduled and fasttrack cost-controlled until such time as a more definitive type estimate is available. To achieve a degree of accuracy of ±30%, the following information will be required. 1. Plant capacity, product form, basic process, and raw material 2. Knowledge of general specifications 3. Plant location (site conditions) 4. Equipment list (priced out) In assembling a method one or two estimate it should be recognized that in the rounding off and averaging of material and labor cost and the application of average indices, a certain degree of accuracy is lost insofar as the individual item costs are concerned. However, it is believed that the overall estimate is not seriously affected by this because the items tend to average each other out. I sincerely hope the foregoing will enable the engineer/estimator engaged in this type work to turn out more realistic conceptual estimates and assist in the elimination of much guesswork.

Contents

Preface .................................................................................... xv
The Human Factor in Estimating .................................................. xv

Introduction .............................................................................. xvi Section 1. Disciplines of Work .......................................... 1
1 1 3 3

Section Introduction ....................................................................... Direct Cost Items ........................................................................... Construction Equipment ................................................................ Overhead and Indirects .................................................................

Home Office Cost .......................................................................... 10

Section 2.

Process Equipment ......................................... 11

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 11 Acid Coolers with Pump and Motor .............................................. 12 Equipment Cost ............................................................... 12 Erection Manhours .......................................................... 13 Activators – Vibrating Bin .............................................................. 14 Equipment Cost ............................................................... 14 Erection Manhours .......................................................... 15 Aerators – Mechanical .................................................................. 16 High-speed – Equipment Cost ......................................... 16 High-speed – Erection Manhours .................................... 17 Low-speed – Equipment Cost .......................................... 18 Low-speed – Erection Manhours ..................................... 19
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Compressors ................................................................................. 20 Air Power – Synchronous Motor Driven – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 20 Air Power – Induction Motor Driven – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 21 Air Power – Synchronous and Induction Motor Driven – Erection Manhours ............................................... 22 Automotive and Industrial Service Air – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 23 Automotive and Industrial Service Air – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 24 Centrifugal Air – Plant and High-pressure – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 25 Centrifugal Air – Plant and High-pressure – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 26 Industrial Air – Air-cooled, Two-stage – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 27 Industrial Air – Air-cooled, Two-stage – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 28 Integral Gas Engine – Four Cylinder – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 29 Integral Gas Engine – Four Cylinder – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 30 Packaged Air – Single-stage, Water-cooled – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 31 Packaged Air – Single-stage, Water-cooled – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 32 Reciprocating – Electric Motor Driven – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 33 Reciprocating – Electric Motor Driven – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 34
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Two-stage, Two-cylinder, Water-cooled – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 35 Two-stage, Two-cylinder, Water-cooled – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 36 Two-stage, Two-cylinder, Water-cooled – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 37 Dryers – Air .................................................................................... 38 Automatic, Refrigerated – Equipment Cost ...................... 38 Automatic, Refrigerated – Equipment Cost ...................... 39 Automatic, Refrigerated – Erection Manhours ................. 40 Automatic, Refrigerated – Erection Manhours ................. 41 Chiller – Equipment Cost ................................................. 42 Chiller – Erection Manhours ............................................ 43 Surge Arresters ............................................................................. 44 Hydrocarbon and Water Service – Equipment Cost ......... 44 Hydrocarbon, Water, and Sewage Service – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 45 Hydrocarbon, Water, and Sewage Service – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 46 Blenders, Mixers, Packers, and Feeders ...................................... 47 Dry Material Auger and Rotary Drum Blenders – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 47 Dry Material Auger and Rotary Drum Blenders – Erection Manhours .................................................. 48 Fixed Side Mounted Mixers with Top Motors – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 49 Fixed Side Mounted Mixers with Top Motors – Erection Manhours .................................................. 50 Plate Mounted Open Tank Mixers – Equipment Cost ...... 51

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Portable Clamp and Flanged Mounted Mixers – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 52 Flanged Top Tank Mounted and Plate Mounted Open Tank Mixers – Erection Manhours ........................... 53 Gearmotor Mixers – Equipment Cost ............................... 54 Gearmotor Mixers – Erection Manhours .......................... 55 Batch and Pipeline Homogenizer Mixers – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 56 Batch and Pipeline Homogenizer Mixers – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 57 High-intensity Mixers – Equipment Cost .......................... 58 High-intensity Mixers – Erection Manhours ...................... 59 Bag and Rigid Container Vibrating Packers – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 60 Bag and Rigid Container Vibrating Packers – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 61 Boilers ............................................................................................ 62 Package Type – Equipment Cost .................................... 62 Package Type – Erection Manhours ................................ 63 Boiler Stacks – Equipment Cost ...................................... 64 Boiler Stacks – Erection Manhours .................................. 66 Classification Equipment ............................................................... 67 Cone Pelletizers – Equipment Cost ................................. 67 Cone Pelletizers – Erection Manhours ............................. 68 Turbo-screen Cyclone and Pressure Sifter – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 69 Turbo-screen Cyclone and Pressure Sifter – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 70 Rotary Screens – Equipment Cost ................................... 71 Rotary Screens – Erection Manhours .............................. 72
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Condensers and Receivers ........................................................... 73 Vertical Tube Surface – Equipment Cost ......................... 73 Vertical Tube Surface – Erection Manhours .................... 74 Conveying Equipment ................................................................... 75 Conveyors – Open Belt – Equipment Cost ...................... 75 Conveyors – Open Belt – Erection Manhours .................. 76 Conveyors – Belt Enclosed with Walkway – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 77 Conveyors – Belt Enclosed with Walkway – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 78 Conveyors – Spaced, Bucket Elevators, Belt-driven – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 79 Conveyors – Spaced, Bucket Elevators, Chain Driven – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 80 Conveyors – Spaced, Bucket Elevators, Chain- or Belt-driven – Erection Manhours ............................. 81 Conveyors – Continuous, Bucket Elevators, Beltdriven – Equipment Cost ......................................... 82 Conveyors – Continuous, Bucket Elevators, Chaindriven – Equipment Cost ......................................... 83 Conveyors – Continuous, Bucket Elevators, Belt- or Chain-driven – Erection Manhours .......................... 84 Screw Conveyors – Equipment Cost ............................... 85 Screw Conveyors – Erection Manhours ........................... 86 Dryers – Drum ............................................................................... 87 Atmospheric Single Drum Type – Equipment Cost .......... 87 Atmospheric Double and Twin Drum Types – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 88 Atmospheric Single, Double, and Twin Drum Types – Erection Manhours .................................................. 89
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Dryers – Vacuum ........................................................................... 90 Conical Rotating – Equipment Cost ................................. 90 Double Drum and Rotary – Equipment Cost .................... 91 Conical Rotating and Double Drum – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 92 Rotary – Carbon and Stainless Steel – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 93 Dust Collectors .............................................................................. 94 Centrifugal Scrubbers – High Capacity, Hot-rolled Steel – Equipment Cost .......................................... 94 Centrifugal Scrubbers – Medium Capacity, Hot-rolled Steel – Equipment Cost .......................................... 95 Centrifugal Scrubbers – High Capacity, Stainless Steel – Equipment Cost .......................................... 96 Centrifugal Scrubbers – Medium Capacity, Stainless Steel – Equipment Cost .......................................... 97 Centrifugal Scrubbers – High- and Medium-capacity, Hot-rolled and Stainless Steel – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 98 Cyclones – Hot-rolled Steel – Equipment Cost ................ 99 Cyclones – Stainless Steel – Equipment Cost ................. 100 Cyclones – Hot-rolled and Stainless Steel – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 101 Filter Cartridge or Tube House Filters – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 102 Filter Cartridge or Tube House Filters – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 103 Packaged Motor Operated Blowers – Equipment Cost .... 104 Packaged Motor Operated Blowers – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 105

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Fans and Blowers .......................................................................... 106 Blowers – Rotary – Equipment Cost ................................ 106 Blowers – Rotary – Erection Manhours ........................... 107 Centrifugal Fans – Equipment Cost ................................. 108 Centrifugal Fans – Erection Manhours ............................ 109 Cast Iron Industrial Fans – Equipment Cost .................... 110 Cast Iron Industrial Fans – Erection Manhours ................ 111 Heavy Sheet Steel Industrial Fans – Equipment Cost ...... 112 Heavy Sheet Steel Industrial Fans – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 113 Feeders ......................................................................................... 114 Heavy Duty Belt – Equipment Cost .................................. 114 Heavy Duty Belt – Erection Manhours ............................. 115 Pre-wetting Dry Chemical – Equipment Cost ................... 116 Pre-wetting Dry Chemical – Erection Manhours .............. 117 Pre-wetting Dry Chemical, Package Units – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 118 Pre-wetting Dry Chemical, Package Units – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 119 Dry Material, Vibrating – Equipment Cost ........................ 120 Dry Material, Vibrating – Erection Manhours ................... 121 Dry Material, Volumetric and Gravimetric – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 122 Dry Material, Volumetric and Gravimetric – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 123 Dry Material, Wing and Conveyor – Equipment Cost ....... 124 Dry Material, Wing and Conveyor – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 125 Filters ............................................................................................. 126 Gravity Filtration Units – Total Material Cost .................... 126
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Gravity Filtration Units – Total Unit Installation Manhours ................................................................ 127 Pressure Type – Equipment Cost .................................... 128 Pressure Type – Erection Manhours ............................... 129 Rubber-lined – Equipment Cost ....................................... 130 Rubber-lined – Erection Manhours .................................. 131 Vibrating Screens – Equipment Cost ............................... 132 Vibrating Screens – Erection Manhours ........................... 133 Flakers ........................................................................................... 134 Cooling Drum – Equipment Cost ..................................... 134 Cooling Drum – Erection Manhours ................................. 135 Generators ..................................................................................... 136 Inert Gas – Equipment Cost ............................................ 136 Inert Gas – Erection Manhours ........................................ 137 Gas Pulsation Dampers ................................................................ 138 Dampers – Equipment Cost ............................................. 138 Dampers – Erection Manhours ........................................ 139 Heaters .......................................................................................... 140 Deaerating Feedwater – Equipment Cost ........................ 140 Deaerating Feedwater – Erection Manhours ................... 141 Gas-, Oil-, and Dual-fired – Equipment Cost .................... 142 Gas-, Oil-, and Dual-fired – Erection Manhours ............... 143 Heat Exchangers ........................................................................... 144 Hairpin Type – Equipment Cost ....................................... 144 Hairpin Type – Erection Manhours .................................. 145 Shell and Tube, Fixed Tube, and U-tube – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 146 Shell and Tube, Fixed Tube, and U-tube – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 147

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For Heating Water – Equipment Cost .............................. 148 For Heating Water – Equipment Cost .............................. 149 For Heating Water – Erection Manhours .......................... 150 Pumps ........................................................................................... 151 Centrifugal – Single-stage, Vertical Split Case – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 151 Centrifugal – Single-stage, Horizontal Split Case – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 152 Centrifugal – Single-stage, ANSI and API 610 – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 153 Centrifugal – Two-stage and Multi-stage – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 154 Centrifugal – Single-stage, in-line – Equipment Cost ....... 155 Gear – Light and Heavy Duty – Equipment Cost ............. 156 Sewage – Horizontal and Vertical, 1,750 rpm – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 157 Sewage – Horizontal, 1,750 rpm – Equipment Cost ......... 158 Sewage – Horizontal and Vertical, 1,150 rpm – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 159 Sump and Plunger – Equipment Cost .............................. 160 Vertical Turbine – Single and Multi-stage – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 161 Centrifugal – Single, Two, Multi, and in-line Single Stage – Erection Manhours ..................................... 162 Gear – Light and Heavy Duty – Erection Manhours ......... 163 Sewage – Horizontal and Vertical – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 164 Sump and Plunger – Erection Manhours ......................... 165 Vertical Turbine – Single and Multi-stage – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 166
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Reactors ........................................................................................ 167 Glass-lined, Agitated, Jacketed – Equipment Cost .......... 167 Glass-lined, Agitated, Jacketed – Erection Manhours ...... 168 Steam Jet Ejectors ........................................................................ 169 Single-stage – Equipment Cost ....................................... 169 Single-stage – Erection Manhours ................................... 170 Gas Scrubbers .............................................................................. 171 High-energy Venturi Type – Equipment Cost ................... 171 High-energy Venturi Type – Erection Manhours .............. 172 Separators ..................................................................................... 173 Vane Type – Equipment Cost .......................................... 173 Vane Type – Equipment Cost .......................................... 174 Vane Type – Erection Manhours ..................................... 175 Vibrating – Equipment Cost ............................................. 176 Vibrating – Erection Manhours ........................................ 177 API Type Oil/Water – Equipment Cost ............................. 178 API Type Oil/Water– Erection Manhours ......................... 179 Size Reduction Equipment ............................................................ 180 Crushers – Equipment Cost ............................................. 180 Crushers – Erection Manhours ........................................ 181 Impact Breakers – Equipment Cost ................................. 182 Impact Breakers – Erection Manhours ............................. 183 Reversible and Non-reversible Hammermills – Equipment Cost ...................................................... 184 Reversible and Non-reversible Hammermills – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 185 Ring Type Granulators – Equipment Cost ....................... 186 Ring Type Granulators – Erection Manhours ................... 187

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Water Softener System ................................................................. 188 Hot Process Water – Total Process Material and Equipment Cost ...................................................... 188 Hot Process Water – Total System Installation Manhours ................................................................ 189 Tanks ............................................................................................. 190 API Cone Roof Storage – Subcontract Installed Price ..... 190 API Cone Roof Storage – Subcontract Installed Price ..... 191 API Floating Roof Storage – Subcontract Installed Price ....................................................................... 192 ASME Spheres – Subcontract Installed Price .................. 193 Fintube Heating Coils – Equipment Cost ......................... 194 Fintube Heating Coils – Erection Manhours ..................... 195 Fired Heaters, Fintube Type – Equipment Cost ............... 196 Fired Heaters, Fintube Type – Erection Manhours .......... 197 Suction and Line Type Fuel Oil Heaters – Equipment Cost ........................................................................ 198 Suction and Line Type Fuel Oil Heaters – Erection Manhours ................................................................ 199 Propane Storage – Equipment Cost ................................ 200 Propane Storage – Erection Manhours ............................ 201 Vessels .......................................................................................... 202 Shop Fabricated – Average Weight, Pounds per Linear Foot .............................................................. 202 Horizontal, Shop Fabricated – Cost per Ton .................... 203 Vertical with Angle Legs, Shop Fabricated – Cost per Ton ......................................................................... 204 Vertical with Anchor Ring and Skirts, Shop Fabricated – Cost per Ton ........................................................ 205 Tray Rings, Shop Fabricated – Cost Each ....................... 206
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Column Trays, Shop Installation – Cost Each .................. 207 Demisting Pads, Shop Installation – Cost Each ............... 208 Shop Stress Relief – Cost per Ton .................................. 209 Removable Type Trays – Material Cost Each .................. 210 Removable Type Trays – Material Cost Each .................. 211 Demisting Pads – Material Cost Each ............................. 212 Demisting Pads – Material Cost Each ............................. 213 Vessels – Field Erection Manhours per Ton .................... 214 Tray Installation – Field Erection Manhours Each ............ 215 Demisting Pads – Field Erection Manhours Each ............ 216

Section 3.

Site Preparation ............................................... 217

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 217 Area Clear and Grub – Manhours per Acre .................................. 217 Area Cuts and Fills – Manhours and Material Cost per Acre ....... 218

Section 4.

Site Improvements ........................................... 219

Security Fencing ............................................................................ 219 Railroad and Spurs ........................................................................ 219 Tank Dikes ..................................................................................... 220 Concrete Trenches ........................................................................ 220 Drainage ........................................................................................ 221 Catch Basins and Manholes ......................................................... 221 Road Culverts ................................................................................ 221

Section 5.

Concrete ........................................................... 222

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 222 Earth Backfill Materials – Cubic Yards .......................................... 223 Excavation and Backfill – Labor Manhours .................................. 224

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Earthwork for Equipment Structures, Pipe Racks, and Sleepers – Labor Manhours ................................................ 225 Concrete Required for Equipment, Equipment Structures, Pipe Racks and Sleepers – Cubic Yards ............................ 226 Forms, Reinforcing, Embedments and Concrete – Material Cost ...................................................................................... 227 Forms, Reinforcing, Embedments and Concrete – Installation Manhours ............................................................................. 228 Nonshrink, Nonmetallic Grout – Average Square Feet ................ 229 Nonshrink, Nonmetallic Grout – Material Cost ............................. 230 Nonshrink, Nonmetallic Grout – Installation Manhours ................ 231 Fireproofing Structural Steel – Total Material Cost ....................... 232 Fireproofing Structural Steel – Installation Manhours .................. 233 Fireproofing Vessel Skirts – Material Cost .................................... 234 Fireproofing Vessel Skirts – Erection Manhours .......................... 235

Section 6.

Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Iron ........ 236

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 236 Structural Steel – Tons Required .................................................. 237 Miscellaneous Iron – Tons Required ........................................... 238 Pipe Rack Steel – Tons Required ................................................. 239 Structural Steel – Equipment Supports and Structures – Material Cost ........................................................................ 240 Structural Steel for Pipe Racks – Miscellaneous Iron for Equipment – Material Cost ................................................... 241 Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Iron – Equipment, Equipment Supports and Structures, and Pipe Racks – Erection Manhours ............................................................... 242

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Contents Buildings ........................................................... 243

Section 7.

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 243 Building Types and Descriptions ................................................... 243 Building Materials – Cost per Square Foot ................................... 245 Building Erection – Manhours per Square Foot ............................ 246

Section 8.

Piping ................................................................ 247

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 247 Shop Furnish and Fabricate Pipe and Fittings ............................. 248 Quantities Required for Pieces of Equipment .................. 248 Cost for Pieces of Equipment .......................................... 249 Field Furnish, Fabricate and Erect Pipe, Fittings and Valves ...... 251 Quantities Required for Pieces of Equipment .................. 251 Material Cost for Pieces of Equipment ............................. 252 Field Erect Shop Fabricated Spools – Manhours for Pieces of Equipment ............................................................................ 256 Field Furnish, Fabricate and Erect Pipe, Fittings, and Valves – Labor Manhours for Pieces of Equipment ........................ 257 Miscellaneous Pipe Items – Material Cost for Pieces of Equipment ............................................................................ 259 Miscellaneous Pipe Items – Total Manhours for Pieces of Equipment ............................................................................ 260 X-ray and Stress Relieving – Total Subcontract Cost for Pieces of Equipment ............................................................ 261

Section 9.

Electrical ........................................................... 262

Section Introduction ....................................................................... 262 Electrical Power – Material Cost ................................................... 263 Electrical Power – Installation Manhours ...................................... 264 Electrical Lighting – Material Cost ................................................. 265
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Electrical Lighting – Installation Manhours ................................... 266 Miscellaneous Instrumentation – Material Cost ............................ 267 Miscellaneous Instrumentation – Installation Manhours .............. 268

Section 10. Instrumentation ................................................ 269
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 269 Instruments – Total Number of Instruments Required ................. 270 Instruments – Total Material Cost ................................................. 271 Instruments – Total Instrument Installation Manhours ................. 272 Control Valves – Total Material Cost ............................................ 273 Standards, Tray Supports, Trays, Tubes, and Tube Bundles – Total Material Cost ............................................................ 274 Standards, Tray Supports, Trays, Tubes, and Tube Bundles – Total Installation Manhours ............................................... 275

Section 11. Insulation .......................................................... 276
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 276 Insulating Material – Total Square Feet ........................................ 277 Insulating Material for Equipment – Total Material Cost ............... 278 Insulating Material for Piping – Total Material Cost ..................... 279 Insulating Labor for Piping and Equipment – Total Manhours ............................................................................. 280

Section 12. Painting ............................................................. 281
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 281 Painting – Equipment – Square Feet Area ................................... 282 Painting – Structural Steel and Piping – Square Feet Area ......... 283 Painting – Miscellaneous and Pipe Rack Steel – Square Feet Area ...................................................................................... 284 Painting – Equipment – Total Material Cost ................................. 285

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Painting – Equipment – Total Manhours ...................................... 286 Painting – Structural Steel – Total Material Cost .......................... 287 Painting – Structural Steel – Total Manhours ............................... 288 Painting – Piping – Total Material Cost ......................................... 289 Painting – Piping – Total Manhours .............................................. 290 Painting – Miscellaneous and Pipe Rack Steel – Total Material Cost ........................................................................ 291 Painting – Miscellaneous and Pipe Rack Steel – Total Manhours ............................................................................. 292

Section 13. Paving ............................................................... 293
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 293 Asphalt Pavement – Total Subcontract Price ............................... 294 Concrete and Gravel Pavements – Total Material Cost ............... 295 Concrete and Gravel Pavements – Total Manhours .................... 296

Section 14. Proratables ....................................................... 297
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 297 Proratable Materials – Total Material Cost ................................... 298 Proratable Labor – Total Manhours .............................................. 299

Section 15. Construction Equipment ................................. 300
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 300 Equipment Base Rental or Purchase Cost Fuel, Oil, Grease and Supplies Cost ................................................................ 301 Equipment Service Labor – Total Manhours ................................ 302

Section 16. Overhead and Indirects ................................... 303
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 303 Engineering and Supervision Personnel – Total Manhours ......... 304

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Office Personnel – Total Manhours .............................................. 305 Other Indirect and Temporary Construction Labor – Total Manhours ............................................................................. 306 Temporary Construction Materials – Total Cost ........................... 307 Payroll Burdens and Benefits and Other Indirect Materials – Total Cost ............................................................................. 308

Section 17. Home Office Cost ............................................. 309
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 309 Engineering Design – Manhour Range Allowance per Piece of Equipment ........................................................................ 310 Engineering Design – Other Cost as a Percent of Engineering Labor Dollars ................................................... 314 Engineering Design – Manhour Spread Percentages .................. 315

Section 18. Ratio Estimating Factors ................................. 316
Section Introduction ....................................................................... 316 Refinery Process Systems – Direct Cost Percentages ................ 318 Liquid Type Chemical Plant – Direct Cost Percentages .............. 319 Solid Type Chemical Plants – Direct Cost Percentages .............. 320 Liquid/Solid Type Chemical Plants – Direct Cost Percentages ......................................................................... 321 Liquid High-pressure Chemical Plants – Direct Cost Percentages ......................................................................... 322 Liquid High-alloy Chemical Plants – Direct Cost Percentages ......................................................................... 323 Construction Equipment as a Percent of Direct Field Labor ........ 324 Overhead and Indirects as a Percent of Direct Field Labor ......... 324 Home Office Services as a Percent of Total Cost and Indirect Cost ...................................................................................... 324

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xxii

Contents

Section 19. Estimate Adjustments ..................................... 325
Design Allowance .......................................................................... 325 Quantity Allowance ........................................................................ 325 Escalation ...................................................................................... 325 Contingencies ................................................................................ 326 Risk ................................................................................................ 326 Fees ............................................................................................... 326

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Section 1 DISCIPLINES OF WORK

The following is a broad description of the major items included in the various disciplines of work as outlined within this manual. It should be recognized that all items listed will not necessarily be required for a given project. There may also be other items for a specific project that are not included. Should this occur, the estimator should give consideration to these items and add or deduct accordingly.

Direct Cost Items 1. Process Equipment—The equipment cost, labor, material and subcontracts necessary to set and erect or install the process equipment in the final position and condition for mechanical operation. 2. Site Preparation—AU general preparation of the plant site for construction including, but not necessarily limited to, clearing, rough grading, cut, fill, borrow, disposal, soil stabilization and finish grading. 3. Site Improvements—Includes items of work that provide permanent improvements to the plant site, such as drainage ditches, culverts, storm drain pipe, canals, dikes, all base materials for roads, parking lots, and railroads including ballast, railroads, and fencing. Pavements for roads, process areas and parking areas are included under "Discipline, Paving." 4. Concrete—All earthwork, forms, reinforcing steel, miscellaneous embedded items and placing, finishing and curing of concrete for equipment foundations and equipment structures are included here. All building concrete including foundations is included under "Discipline, Buildings." 5. Structural Steel—All cost of procuring, fabricating, and erecting structural and miscellaneous steel, not embedded, for framed structures, equipment supports, equipment platforms, walkways, ladders,

handrails and pipe supports. Steel for buildings is included under "Discipline, Buildings" 6. Buildings—AU cost of buildings including earthwork, foundations and other concrete, total superstructure, HVAC, plumbing and utility piping to five feet outside of building, insulation, electrical, painting, and all architectual finishes. 7. Underground Piping—AU project underground piping serving the project including fire water loops and their components, water lines and special process lines. 8. Above Ground Piping—Includes the fabrication and erection of all above ground process pipe, valves and fittings required for plant operation. Installation only of relief valves, control valves, and orifice fittings for instrumentation are also included. The material cost of these items is included under "Discipline, Instrumentation." 9. Underground Electrical—All labor and material for underground power and lighting, ducts, conduit, wire, cable, etc. Also includes earthwork and concrete for embedments. 10. Above Ground Electrical—AU items required for the complete above ground power and lighting systems for the total project, excluding buildings. Also includes the installation of all electrical instruments and their hook-up. 11. Instrumentation—Includes material and labor cost of instrumentation work delineated as follows: • Material cost includes instruments, control valves, relief valves, control panels, meter runs, orifice fittings and all other instrument items plus the tubing, tube bundles, and tray materials required to install these items. • Labor cost includes the installation of the above except as noted. • Labor cost to install relief and control valves and orifice fittings is included under Above Ground Piping. Labor cost to install electrical hook-up is included under "Above Ground Electrical." • All header piping labor and material costs are included under "Above Ground Piping." 12. Insulation—AU labor and material cost of insulation, refractories, and linings for process equipment and piping. Building insulation is included with buildings. 13. Painting—Includes all preparation and protective coating of surfaces with paint and/or epoxy for the total project excluding buildings. 14. Paving—Includes the furnishing and placing of concrete, asphalt, or gravel used for the final surfacing of roads, sidewalks, parking areas, and process work areas as required.

15. Proratables—Includes the labor and material cost for daily area clean up, all required scaffolding and final test, startup, and pre-commissioning assistance. Construction Equipment 1. Rental or Purchase—Cost of rental or purchase of construction equipment required to construct the project. Does not include small tools. 2. Service Labor—AU labor required to service and maintain the construction equipment. Does not include the operation of the equipment when working. Operators are included in the Direct Account Labor. 3. Fuel, Oil, Grease, Supplies—Includes the cost of all fuels, lubricants, and supplies required to operate and maintain the construction equipment.

Overhead and Indirects
The following is a comprehensive list of inclusions, and the scope of the individual project will dictate the actual item requirements.

Indirect Labor (Except for Temporary Facilities Labor)
AU or part of the items described below are used to establish costs for: Salaried indirect Office hourly indirects Field hourly indirects The distribution will vary depending upon the type of project, local labor practices, and contractor preferences. Description Engineering salariesestimating Engineering salariesfield technical support To Include Civil, cost, electrical, general, mechanical and structural estimating salaries. Project chief engineer; assistant project chief engineer; chief field engineer; civil, electrical, mechanical, structural, field, staff, office, piping, instrument engineers; coordinators; engineering draftsmen; party chiefs, instrument men,

Watchmen and Janitors—labor

Holiday pay

Salaries—office clerical Quality assurance—labor

Salaries—subcontract administration Salaries—cost engineering

chainmen, rodmen, and laborers temporarily assigned to a field party performing general layout work. Security supervisor, security coordinator, guards, watchmen, janitors, labor for supplying drinking water. Note: Does not include contract security personnel. Pay for holidays not worked. Personnel covered by overhead and indirect estimate only. Administrative clerks, office clerks, and secretaries. Chief construction inspector, construction inspectors, welding inspector, piping inspector, electrical inspector, boiler inspector and civil inspector. Salaries for subcontract coordinators. Salaries for cost/schedule supervisor, chief field cost engineer and cost engineers. Salaries for chief field scheduler and planner/schedulers. Salaries for technical clerical personnel. Material control coordinators and material control personnel assigned to implement and follow-up the material control program. Job payroll labor for loading, unloading, and transporting from facilities to project construction area tools and construction equipment, temporary facilities, etc. Move-in is defined as assembly of tools and construction equipment at jobsite. Move-out is the return of tools and construction equipment to other approved destination, in the immediate area of the project. Wages paid to hourly employees during a temporary period when work is stopped. Also wages paid to craftsmen for voting

Salaries—scheduling and planning Salaries—technical clerks Material control labor

Move in/out—labor

Non-productive labor

Safety and medical expense—labor Salaries—office

Salaries—supervision

Sick pay

Warehouse salaries

in accordance with union or government regulations. Welding test labor and jury pay differential. Note: Work stoppage due to weather and show-up time are considered in productivity factors used elsewhere. Safety supervisor, safety inspectors, and medics. Chief accountant, accountants, bookkeepers, invoice auditors, expeditors, chief timekeeper, timekeepers, personnel manager, assistant personnel manager, personnel interviewer, data controllers, data entry operators, purchasing agents, and buyers. Project manager, general superintendent, craft superintendents, area superintendents, assistant project manager, assistant superintendents, administrative manager, office manager, area coordinators and master mechanic. Wages paid overhead and indirect employees only for authorized absence due to personal illness, as approved by project construction manager. Warehouse supervisor, assistant warehouse supervisor, warehousemen, toolroom attendants, warehouse laborersassigned full time to warehouse operation. Note: Must be on job payroll only.

Temporary Construction Facilities (Labor and Material)
Description Temporary buildings and utilities—labor To Include Labor only for construction or erection, maintenance and dismantling of the temporary facilities, in accordance with but not limited to the following: Roads, ditches, bridges, storage areas, parking lots, fencing, buildings, water system, sanitary system, power distribution, tel-

Temporary buildings and utilities—material and supplies

ephone and communications systems, and plant air system. Note: Does not include construction camp, quartering or catering facilities. Material and supplies and maintenance for construction and dismantling of the temporary facilities in accordance with but not limited to the following. Also includes rental of temporary field offices and warehouses, roads, ditches, bridges, storage areas, parking lots, fencing, buildings, water system, sanitary system, power distribution, telephone and communications systems, and plant air system. Note: Does not include construction camp, quartering or catering facili-

Labor Burdens and Overhead Personnel Benefits
Description Retirement and savings plan (for overhead and indirect personnel only) Insurance—employees' life and hospitalization (for overhead and indirect personnel only) Insurance—W/C, B/I, and P/D Taxes—payroll Tb Include Actual cost fixed by the appropriate accounting office. Note: Does not include any like or similar item which is a part of a union fringe benefit. Direct premium charges only. Note: Does not include any like or similar item which is a part of a union fringe benefit. Premium expense based on payrolls. Limits conform to the requirements for the state as specified in the contract. FICA and Medicare, state unemployment insurance and federal unemployment insurance. Actual cost for overhead and indirect personnel only based on gross payroll as billed by the appropriate Accounting Office. Note: Does not include any like or similar item which is a part of a union fringe benefit.

Vacation pay (for overhead and indirect personnel only)

Small Tool and Consumables
Description Construction supplies TD Include This account should include items that are consumed and, by their use, directly related to construction; for example, sandpaper, rope, chalk, soapstone, emery paper grinding wheels, moil points, saw blades, padlocks, threading dies, drill bits and reamers, rags, brooms and mops, air and water hose for general use. Purchase or rental of hand tools, power operated hand tools, etc. Rental or repair parts for such tools will be included in this account. This account includes minor equipment such as small pumps to 3", vibrators, light plants (800 watt3,000 watt), chain saws, pipe threaders, tar pots, small, sand blasting machines, air and chain hoists. This cost will include items that are, by their use, directly beneficial to and for the convenience of workmen; for example, towels, toilet paper, drinking cups, ice drinking water, hard hats, protective clothing, gloves, boots, salt tablets, soap, drinking water barrels or containers, safety shoes, and work shoes. Credit is to be received for sales by payroll deduction for items charged here.

Small tools (in accordance with contract limits)

Workmen's supplies

Other Indirects
Description Advertising Bond premiums Communications and postage To Include Classified ads, public advertisements. Bid bonds, performance bonds, maintenance bonds, and fidelity bonds. Telephone, telegraph, teletype, postage, radio rental or communications system

Containers Dues

Engineering supplies

Expediting Heat, light, water, and power Insurance—general

Legal Licenses and permits

Move in/out—supplies and services

Office supplies

Safety and medical expense, material

rented from a third party. Include data lines and couplers. Deposits for returnable containers and reels. Membership dues for clubs and professional organizations, for overhead and indirect personnel only. Note: Does not include union dues. Surveying instruments (purchase or rental) drafting supplies, surveying supplies, blueprint or photostat work, progress photos. Cost for services supplied by expeditors who are not on the job payroll. Public utility charges and heating fuels for job buildings. Cost for water not used for construction purposes. Premiums for builder's risk, fire and extended coverage, equipment floater coverage, non-owned automotive liability, independent contractors' liability, contractual liability, special risk coverage, such as war risk and heavy lift, hull and P&I, umbrella. Abstracts, lawyers fees, court costs, notary fees, sign-up expense. Business permits, construction permits, export/import licenses, government inspection fees, hauling permits. Transportation of tools, and construction equipment by others to project construction area, and miscellaneous supplies consumed and services used, for move-in and -out purposes. Stationery supplies, printing, office equipment purchase, rental or repair, office and warehouse forms and supplies, jobsite reproduction costs and furniture. Medical examination fees, medical supplies, safety signs and literature, first-

Testing and laboratory analysis

Traveling

Welding supplies

Unclassified Data processing services

Consulting services

Trade journals, books, publications, and subscriptions Contract Guard Service Quality AssuranceMaterial and Supplies Employee Educational Assistance

aid equipment, fire extinguishers, and refills. Soil surveys, concrete cylinder tests, independent inspectors. Lab charges to test welders. Transportation and subsistence expense of overhead and indirect employees on business trips (excluding quality assurance personnel travel). All material, supplies, and tools required by a welder, i.e., acetylene, oxygen, flux, welding rods, lighters, flints, chipping, hammers, wire brushes, stingers, helmets, lenses, asbestos gloves, goggles, gauges, welding qualification test material, etc. Flowers, weather reports and forecasts, and bank service charges. Cost for data processing services for the project. Terminal rental, supplies, computer charges from outside jobsite sources, etc. Cost for outside consulting services which might be required in connection with the projects which are not a part of engineering. Cost of books or subscriptions.

Cost of subcontract guard service Normally includes travel costs for quality control personnel. Cost of employee educational assistance, for overhead and indirect personnel only.

Home Office Cost 1. Engineering/Design Services—Total labor and material cost for the complete engineering and design of the project including engineering fee. 2. Construction Services—Services furnished by various home office departments such as estimating, scheduling, expediting, etc., as may be required to assist the project. Services are charged to the project only for time actually spent on the project. 3. Project General Management—Includes the portion of time that the contractor's management staff applies in regard to overall direction of the project.

Section 2 PROCESS EQUIPMENT

The most important component of physical plant cost is that of process equipment. From it the prime basis can be formed for the estimation of the entire plant. Once the production rate has been established and a rough flow sheet presented, an equipment list can be compiled noting the type, size, capacity and material of construction. From the logarithmic graphs that appear on the following pages, an average cost of equipment material and installation manhours can be computed. Inasmuch as it is not practical within the scope of this manual to adequately describe each piece of equipment beyond the very minor description as appears on the individual graphs, I rely on the estimator's ability to realize that the items covered are of a standard nature for chemical plants, refineries, and industrial plants. All installation manhours include offloading equipment at job site, hauling up to 2,000 feet and rigging, picking, setting, and aligning of the equipment. The equipment graphs include the total cost of the equipment, but do not include structural steel or miscellaneous iron such as supports, ladders, walkways, platforms, or handrails. See other sections for these items. AU shop fabricated equipment graphs, as in the case of vessels, include the total shop cost, overhead, and profit for fabricating and furnishing of all material and components required for that piece of equipment. Packaged unit graphs include the total skid-mounted cost of the equipment and piping, electrical components and instrumentation, which may be an integral part of the package. Sub-contract equipment graphs include the total sub-contractors cost and profit for the furnishing and installing of the equipment. All equipment graphs include an average allowance for freight cost within the continental forty-eight states. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

ACID CCX)LERS WITH PUMP AND MOTOR
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Heat Exchanger Area

Square Feet

ACID COOLERS WITH PUMP AND MOTOR
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Heat Exchanger Area

Square Feet

VIBRATING BIN ACTIVATORS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Diameter Inches

VIBRATING BIN ACTIVATORS
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Diameter Inches

HIGH-SPEED MECHANICAL AERATORS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

(D Basic unit—ductile iron/carbon steel © Basic unit—stainless steel

HIGH-SPEED MECHANICAL AERATORS
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Motor Horsepower

LOW-SPEED MECHANICAL SURFACE AERATORS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

©Fixed low-speed unit © Floating low-speed unit

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LOW-SPEED MECHANICAL SURFACE AERATORS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Motor Horsepower

® Fixed low-speed unit ©Floating low-speed unit

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AIR POWER COMPRESSORS Synchronous Motor Driven Rated for Sea Level to 3,300 Feet Altitude at 125 psig Maximum Discharge Pressure
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

0)460,575, or 480 volts ©2300 or 4160 volts

AIR POWER COMPRESSORS Induction Motor Driven Rated for Sea Level to 3,300-Fbot Altitude at 125 psig Maximum Discharge Pressure
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

©460,575, or 230-volt ©480or2,300-volt

AIR POWER COMPRESSORS Synchronous and Induction Motor Driven Rated for Sea Level to 3,300-Foot Altitude at 125 psig Maximum Discharge Pressure
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Motor Horsepower

AUTOMOTIVE AND INDUSTRIAL SERVICE AIR COMPRESSORS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

(D Single-stage, air-cooled—capacity 7.9 to 37.0 acfin @ 80 psig. ©Two-stage, air-cooled—capacity 5.0 to 97.2 acfin @ 175 psig.

AUTOMOTIVE AND INDUSTRIAL SERVICE AIR COMPRESSORS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Motor Horsepower

(D Single-stage, air-cooled—capacity 7.9 to 37.0 acftn @ 80 psig. ©Two-stage, air-cooled—capacity 5.0 to 97.2 acftn @ 175 psig.

CENTRIFUGAL AIR COMPRESSORS Plant and High-Pressure (Soot Blower) Types 100 to 350 psig Discharge Pressure
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Nominal Motor Horsepower

0 Plant air compressors (2) High-Pressure (soot blower) compressors

CENTRIFUGAL AIB COMPRESSORS Plant and High-Pressure (Soot Blower) Types 100 to 350 psig Discharge Pressure
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Nominal Motor Horsepower

INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Air-Cooled, Two-Stage—50 to 250psig
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

(D Two-stage—50 to 125 psig, ©Two-stage-150 to 250 psig.

INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Air-Cooled, Two-Stage—50 to 250psig
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Motor Horsepower

INTEGRAL GAS ENGINE COMPRESSOR Fbur-Cylinder Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Rated Hp.

(BHP)

(D Cast iron cylinders, 1,000 psig discharge (2) Nodular cylinders, 1,500 psig discharge ©Forged steel cylinders, 2,500 psig discharge ® Forged steel cylinders, 6,000 psig discharge

INTEGRAL GAS ENGINE COMPRESSORS Fbur-Cylinder Type 1,CXX) TO 6,000 psig Discharge
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Rated Horsepower (BHP)

PACKAGED AIR COMPRESSOR UNITS Single-Stage, Water-Cooled Oil-Lubricated and Nonlubricated Types
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower (DOil-lubricated-208, 230, or 460-volt. ©Nonlubricated-208, 230, or 460-volt.

PACKAGED AIR COMPRESSOR UNITS Single-Stage, Water-Cooled Oil-Lubricated and Nonlubricated Types
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Motor Horsepower For 208-, 230-, or 460-volt units.

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Electric Motor Driven
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Compressor 1) 2) 3) 4)

Horsepower

Cast Iron Cylinders 1000 PSI Discharge Nodular Iron Cylinders 1500 PSI Discharge Steel Cylinders 2500 PSI Discharge Steel Cylinders 6000 PSI Discharge

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS Electric Motor Driven 1,000 to 6,000 psi Discharge
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Compressor Horsepower

TWO-STAGE, TWO-CYLINDER, WATER-COOLED AIR COMPRESSORS Oil-Lubricated and Nonlubricated 150 to 350 psi Discharge Pressure
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower 0 Oil-lubricated © Nonlubricated

TWO-STAGE, TWO-CYLINDER, WATER-COOLED AIR COMPRESSORS Oil-Lubricated and Nonlubricated 350 to 500 psig Discharge Pressure
Eauimnent Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower (D Oil-Lubricated (D Nonlubricated

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TWO-STAGE, TWO-CYLINDER, WATER-COOLED AIR COMPRESSORS Oil-Lubricated and Nonlubricated 150 to 500 psig Discharge Pressure
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Motor Horsepower

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REFRIGERATED AIR DRYERS Automatic Type 15 to 1000 scfm
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity

SCFM

REFRIGERATED AIR DRYERS Automatic Type 1,200 to 15,000 scfm
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity scfm

REFRIGEBATED AIR DRYERS Automatic Type 15 to I9OOO scfm
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Capacity SCFM

REFRIGERATED AIR DRYERS Automatic Type 1,200 to IS9OOO scfm
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Capacity SCFM

CHILLER AIR DRYERS Capacity 3,000 to 28,000 scfm at lOOpsig
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity SCFM At 100 PSIG

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CHILLER AIR DRYERS Capacity 3,000 to 28,000 scfm at lOOpsig
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

C a p a c i t y SCFM At 100 PSIG

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SURGE ARRESTORS Hydrocarbon and Water Service 500 psi Design Operating Pressure ASME Code—Section VIII Division I
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Nominal Size Gallons

©Hydrocarbon Service ©Water Service

SURGE ARRESTORS Hydrocarbon, Water and Sewage Service 275 psi Design Operating Pressure ASME Code—Section VIII Division I
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Nominal Size Gallons

©Hydrocarbon service ©Water service ® Sewage service

SURGE ABBESTORS Hydrocarbon, Water and Sewage Service 275 and 500 psi Design Operating Pressures ASME Code—Section VIII Division I
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Nominal Size Gallons

DRY MATERIAL BLENDERS, PACKERS9 AND FEEDERS Auger Blenders Rotary Drum Blenders
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

iuaximum Mixing Cubic Feet Per Hour

(D Auger blenders © Rotary drum blenders

DRY MATERIAL BLENDERS9 PACKERS9 AND FEEDERS Auger Blenders Rotary Drum Blenders
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Maximum Mixing Cubic Feet Per Hour

©Auger blenders © Rotary drum blenders

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Fixed Side Mounted Mixers with Top Motors
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Rating

Hors epower

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Fixed Side Mounted Mixers with Top Motors
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Rating Horsepower

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Plate Mounted Open Tank Mixers
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Rating Horsepower

(D Plate-mounted, open tank mixers—direct drive. ©Plate-mounted, open tank mixers—gear drive.

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Portable Clamp and Flanged Mounted Mixers
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Rating Horsepower

® © © ®

Portable clamp mounted mixers—direct drive. Portable clamp mounted mixers—gear drive. Flanged top tank mounted mixers—direct drive Flanged top tank mounted mixers—gear drive.

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Flanged Top Tank Mounted and Plate Mounted Open Tank Mixers
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Rating Horsepower

©Portable clamp mounted mixers—Direct And Gear Drive. © Flanged top tank and plate mounted open tank mixers—direct and gear drives.

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Gearmotor Mixers
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Approximate Weight - Pounds

(D For mounting on structural steel support above open tank © For mounting on closed tank with stuffing box/shaft seal ® For mounting on closed tank with end face mechani cal seals Note: Motor horsepower range 2-200, shaft length range 100"-23O*, impeller range 29"-75".

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Gearmotor Mixers
Erection Manhours

Approximate Weight - Pounds

(D For mounting on structural steel support above open tank © For mounting on closed tank with stuffing box/shaft seals or end face mechanical seals Note: Motor horsepower range 2-200, shaft length range 100"-23O*, impeller range 29"-75".

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Batch and Pipeline Homogenizer Mixers
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Horsepower

(D Batch homogenizer mixers © Pipeline homogenizer mixers

MIXERS AND BLENDERS Batch and Pipeline Homogenizer Mixers
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Horsepower

MIXERS High-Intensity
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Working Capacity Cubic Feet

MIXERS High-Intensity
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Working Capacity Cubic Feet

DRY MATERIAL BLENDERS9 PACKERS9 AND FEEDERS Bag Vibrating Packers Rigid Container Vibrating Packers
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Maximum Bag Width Or Container Diameter Inches

® Bag vibrating paekers © Rigid container vibrating packers

DRY MATERIAL BLENDERS9 PACKERS9 AND FEEDERS Bag Vibrating Packers Rigid Container Vibrating Packers
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Maximum Bag Width Or Container Diameter Inches (D Bag vibrating packers (2) Rigid container vibrating packers

BOILERS Package Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Pounds Per Hour

Note: Cost is for total boiler including forced draft fan assembly. Boiler capacity pounds per hour-saturated steam at 100 to 235 psig.

BOILERS Package Type
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Pounds Per Hour

Note: Manhours are for installation of boiler including forced draft fan. Boiler capacity pounds per hour-saturated steam at 100 to 235 psig.

BOILER STACKS 1 M-InCh Plate
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet Of Stack

(D 24-inch diameter (3) 42 to 48-inch diameter © 30-inch diameter © 54 to 60-inch diameter ® 36-inch diameter Note: Cost includes stack, cable, and clamps.

5

BOILER STACKS /ie- and 3/s-Inch Plate
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet Of Stack

® %>-inch plate 42- to 48-inch diameter © %3-inch plate 54- to 60-inch diameter ® %-inch plate 54- to 60-inch diameter Note: Cost includes stack, cable, and clamps.

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1

BOILEB STACKS Ai-, 5/i6-, 3/8-Inch Plate
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Linear Feet Of Stack

® 24-inch diameter © 30-inch diameter ©36-inch diameter

(D 42- to 48-inch diameter ® 54- to 60-inch diameter

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CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT Cone Pelletizers
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Cone Size Feet

CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT Cone Pelletizers
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Cone Size Feet

CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT Turbo-Screen Cyclone and 48"-Pressure Sifter (3-Screens)
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Diameter Inches

® Stainless steel turbo-screen cyclone © Carbon steel turbo-screen cyclone ® 48-inch pressure sifter (3-screens)

CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT Turbo-Screen Cyclone and 48"-Pressure Sifter (3-Screens)
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Diameter

Inches

® Carbon or stainless steel cyclone ©48-inch pressure sifter (3-screens)

CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT Rotary Screens
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Capacity Screen Area Square Feet

CLASSIFICATION EQUIPMENT Rotary Screens
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Capacity Screen Area Square Feet

VERTICAL TUBE SURFACE CONDENSERS AND RECEIVERS
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Cooling Surface Square Feet

VERTICAL TUBE SURFACE CONDENSERS AND RECEIVERS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Cooling Surface Square Feet

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Open Belt
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet

(D 18-inch belt <D 36-inch belt © 24-inch belt © 42-inch belt ©30-inch belt Note: See structural steel account for bents.

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Open Belt
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Linear Feet

® 18-inch belt ® 36-inch belt © 24-inch belt © 42-inch belt (S) 30-inch belt Note: See structural steel account for bents.

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Belt Enclosed with Walkway
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet (D 18-inch belt ® 36-inch belt © 24-inch belt © 42-inch belt <§) 30-inch belt Note: See structural steel account for bents.

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Belt Enclosed with Walkway
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Linear

Feet

® 18-inch belt (D 36-inch belt © 24-inch belt © 42-inch belt (E) 30-inch belt Note: See structural steel account for bents.

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Spaced, Bucket Elevators, Belt-Driven
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Linear Feet

® 6-x 4-inch buckets (2) 12-x 7-inch buckets ® 16- x 8-inch buckets

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Spaced, Bucket Elevators, Chain-Driven
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet

(D 6-x 4-inch buckets (D 12-x 7-inch buckets (S) 16-x 8-inch buckets

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Spaced, Bucket Elevators, Chain- or Belt-Driven
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Linear Feet

® 6-x 4-inch buckets (2) 12-x 7-inch buckets ® 16- x 8-inch buckets

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Continuous, Bucket Elevators, Belt-Driven
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet

0 8- x 5-inch buckets (D 16-x 8-inch buckets ® 20-x 8-inch buckets

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Continuous, Bucket Elevators, Chain-Driven
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Linear Feet

(D 8-x 5-inch buckets (2) 16-x 8-inch buckets ® 20-x 8-inch buckets

CONVEYING EQUIPMENT Conveyors—Continuous, Bucket Elevator, Chain- or Belt-Driven
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Linear Feet

® 8-x 5-inch buckets (2) 16-x 8-inch buckets ® 20-x 8-inch buckets

SCREW CONVEYORS
Equipment Cost

Overall Conveyor Length-Linear Feet

Screw Diameter: (D 6-inch ©9-inch (E) 12-inch 014-inch

©16-inch ©18-inch CD 20-inch ©24-inch

SCREW CONVEYORS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Overall Conveyor Length-Linear Feet Screw Diameter: ® 6-inch ©16-inch ©9-inch ©18-inch ©12-inch ©20-inch (D 14-inch ©24-inch

DRYERS—DRUM Atmospheric Single Drum Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds

DRYERS—DRUM Atmospheric Double and Twin Drum Types
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds (D Double drum ©Twin drum

Next Page

DRYERS—DRUM Atmospheric Single, Double, and Twin Drum Types
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Approximate Weight Pounds (D Single Drum ©Double Drum ©Twin Drum

Previous Page

DRYERS—VACUUM Conical Rotating Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds

DRYERS—VACUUM Double Drum and Rotary Types
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds

0 Double drum © Rotary—stainless steel (H) Rotary—carbon steel

DRYERS—VACUUM Conical Rotating and Double Drum Types
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Approximate Weight Pounds ® Conical rotating ©Double drum

DRYERS—VACUUM Rotary Types Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Approximate Weight Pounds ©Carbon Steel ©Stainless Steel

DUST COLLECTORS CENTRIFUGAL SCRUBBERS High Capacity, Low Energy Loss Type Hot-Rolled Steel Construction
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity C F M At 4.5 V Pressure Drop

(D 12-gauge ® %6-inch plate (2) 10-gauge ® V4-inch plate Note: Cfin capacity at 2.0-inch pressure drop will equal approximately 67% of above cftn.

DUST COLLECTORS CENTRIFUGAL SCRUBBERS Medium Capacity, Medium Energy Loss Hot-Rolled Steel
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost Capacity C F M At 4.5" Pressure Drop ® 12-gauge (E) %6-inch plate <2) 10-gauge (D V4-inch plate Note: Cfm capacity at 2.0-inch pressure drop will equal approximately 71% of above cfm.

DUST COLLECTORS CENTRIFUGAL SCRUBBERS High Capacity, Low Energy Loss Type T304-2B Stainless Steel Construction
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity CFK At 4.4" Pressure Drop

® 12-gauge ® ^16-inch plate © 10-gauge ® V4-inch plate Note: Cfm capacity at 2.0-inch pressure drop will equal approximately 67% of above cfm.

DUST COLLECTORS CENTRIFUGAL SCRUBBERS
Medium Capacity, Medium Energy Loss Type T304-2B Stainless Steel Construction
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity CFK At 4.5" Pressure Drop

® 12-gauge © %6-inch plate (2) 10-gauge (D V4-inch plate Note: Cfrn capacity at 2.0-inch pressure drop will equal approximately 71% of above cfm.

DUST COLLECTORS CENTRIFUGAL SCRUBBERS High- and Medium-Capacity Units Hot-Rolled Steel and T304-2B Stainless Steel
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Capacity C F M At 4.5" Pressure Drop

® Hot-rolled steel—all thicknesses ©T304-2B stainless steel-all thicknesses

DUST COLLECTORS Hot-Rolled Steel—Cyclones
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity C F M At 6.0" Pressure Drop

(D 16-gauge (g) 12-gauge ©%6-inch plate (2) 14-gauge 0 10-gauge Note: Cfin capacity at 2.5-inch pressure drop will equal approximately two-thirds of above cfin.

DUST COLLECTORS 304 Stainless Steel Cyclones
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Capacity CFM At 6,O" P r e s s u r e Drop

® 16-gauge ® 12-gauge ©%6-inch plate © 14-gauge (D 10-gauge Note: Cftn capacity at 2.5-inch pressure drop will equal approximately two-thirds of above cfin.

DUST COLLECTORS Hot-Rolled Steel and 304 Stainless Steel Cyclones
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Capacity C F M At 6.0" Pressure Drop

® Hot-rolled steel—all thicknesses ©304 stainless steel—all thicknesses

DUST COLLECTORS Filter Cartridge or Tube House Filters
Equipment Cost

Equipment
Filter Cartridge Or Fabric Filter Square Feet Area

C os t

(D Filter cartridge © Fabric filter—tube house

DUST COLLECTORS Filter Cartridge or Tube House Filters
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Filter Cartridge Or Fabric Filter Square Feet Area

©Filter cartridge ©Fabric filter—tube house

DUST COLLECTORS Packaged Motor Operated Blowers for Filter Cartridge and Tube House Dust Collectors
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Motor Horsepower

DUST COLLECTORS Packaged Motor Operated Blowers for Filter Cartridge and Tube House Dust Collectors
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Motor Horsepower

FANS AND BLOWERS Blowers—Rotary to 15 psi
Equipment Cost

Equiproe nt

Cost

Inlet—CFM

FANS AND BLOWERS Blowers—Rotary to 15 psi
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Inlet—CFM

FANS AND BLOWERS Centrifugal Fans with Backwardly Inclined Blades
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Maximum Volume - CFM

® 5-inches @ 2,300 fpm to 2^-inches @ 3,200 fpm (D 8^-inches @ 3,000 fpm to 4^-inches @ 4,175 fpm ® 13^-inches @ 3,780 fpm to 6%-inches @ 5,260 fpm (D Above Class Three specification Note: Performance range designations are indicated by static pressure (inches of water) at fan outlet velocity (feet per minute). Performance range-single width-fan class.

FANS AND BLOWERS Centrifugal Fans with Backwardly Inclined Blades
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Maximum Volume - CFM

Note: Manhours are for all classes

FANS AND BLOWERS Cast Iron Industrial Fans
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Maximum Volume-CFM

FANS AND BLOWERS Cast Iron Industrial Fans
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Maximum Volume-CFM

FANS AND BLOWERS Heavy Sheet Steel Industrial Fans
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Max imum Vo1ume-CFM

Next Page

FANS AND BLOWERS Heavy Sheet Steel Industrial Fans
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Maximum Volume-CFM

Previous Page

HEAVY DUTY BELT FEEDERS
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Capacity Cubic Feet Per Hour

HEAVY DUTY BELT FEEDERS
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Capacity Cubic Feet Per Hour

PRE-WETTING DRY CHEMICAL FEEDERS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Hopper Cubic Feet

PRE-WETTING DRY CHEMICAL FEEDERS
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Hopper Cubic Feet

Note: Manhours are for mounting on drum or tank or placed on stand or shelf above tank.

PRJS-WETTING DRY CHEMICAL Package Units
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Tank Gallons

(D Single-tank system ©Two-tank system

PRE-WETTING DRY CHEMICAL FEEDERS Package Units
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Tank Gallons ® Single-tank system © Two-tank system

DRY MATERIAL FEEDER EQUIPMENT Vibrating Feeders
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Tons Per Hour

DRY MATERIAL FEEDER EQUIPMENT Vibrating Feeders
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Tons Per Hour

DRY MATERIAL FEEDER EQUIPMENT Volumetric and Gravimetric Feeders
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Approximate Weight In Pounds ©Volumetric feeders © Gravimetric feeders

DRY MATERIAL FEEDER EQUIPMENT Volumetric and Gravimetric Feeders
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Approximate Weight In Pounds

(D Volumetric feeders © Gravimetric feeders

DRY MATERIAL FEEDERS Wing and Conveyor Types
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Maximum Cubic Feet Per Hour

(D Wing-type feeders-ratchet drive ® Wing-type feeders-micro master drive ® Conveyor type feeders (3) Sanitary wing-type feeders

DRY MATERIAL FEEDERS Wing and Conveyor Types
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Maximum Cubic Feet Per Hour

® Wing-type feeders—ratchet drive ©Wing-type feeders—micro master drive © Conveyor-type feeders (D Sanitary wing-type feeders

GRAVITY FILTRATION UNITS
Total Material Cost

Material

Cost

Unit Diameter-Feet

GRAVITY FILTRATION UNITS
Total Unit Installation Manhours

Ins tallation

Manhours

Unit Diameter-Feet

FILTERS Pressure Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Diameter Feet

FILTERS Pressure Type
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Diameter

Feet

FILTERS Rubber-Lined
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Flow Rate G. P . M.

(D Units on casters with rubber-lined filter and pump. © In addition to above, includes adequate rubber-lined steel slurry tank, rubber-lined valves, and rubberlined steel fittings.

FILTERS Rubber-Lined
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Flow Rate G. P, M.

(D Units on casters with rubber-lined filter and pump. © In addition to above, includes adequate rubber-lined steel slurry tank, rubber-lined valves, and rubberlined steel fittings.

FILTER EQUIPMENT Vibrating Screens
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Square Feet Single Deck Area

® One-deck screen ©Two-deck screen ©Three-deck screen Note: Costs of all two-and three-deck screens are based on square feet of single deck area.

FILTER EQUIPMENT Vibrating Screens
Erection Manhours

1'iaiuiv Q HlIlI H JlIlIf iluilllHII44414444-4UuUIII * vjivii l-»

Square Feet Single Deck Screen Area

(D One-deck screen ©Two-deck screen © Three-deck screen Note: Manhours for two- and three-deck screens are based on square feet of single deck area.

FLAKERS Cooling Drum Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds

FLAKEBS Cooling Drum Type
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Approximate Weight Pounds

INERT GAS GENERATORS
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Rated Out Put - (SCFM Inerts)

® Indoor construction © Outdoor construction © Explosion-proof construction Note: Add 3% to above for two-point control. Add 5% to above for automatic output control.

INERT GAS GENERATORS
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Rated Output (SCFM Inerts)

O D Indoor construction ® Outdoor construction ® Explosion-proof construction Note: Add 1% to above for two-point control. Add 1.5% to above for automatic output control.

GAS PULSATION DAMPERS
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Volume Cubic Inches

Next Page

GAS PULSATION DAMPERS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Volume Cubic Inches

Previous Page

HEATERS Deaerating Feedwater Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Outlet Capacity Pounds Per Hour

HEATERS Deaerating Feedwater Type
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Outlet Capacity Pounds Per Hour

HEATERS Gas-, Oil, and Dual-Fired Heaters
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds ® Gas-fired ©Oil-fired ©Dual-fired

HEATERS Gas-, Oil-, and Dual-Fired Types
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Approximate Weight Pounds

HAIRPIN TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Heat Transfer Surface Square Feet

HAIRPIN TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Heat Transfer Surface Square Feet

HEAT EXCHANGERS Shell and Tube, Fixed Tube Sheet, and U-Tube
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Heating Surface Square Feet ® 150# Rating © 300# Rating ® 600# Rating Note: Above is for carbon steel, straight tube exchangers. Add following percent to the above for: Straight Tubes U-Tubes Tube Sheet Carbon Steel 6% 10% Stainless Steel 20% 26% 30% Copper 10% 16% 20%

HEAT EXCHANGERS Shell and Tube, Fixed Tube Sheet, and U-Tube
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours Heating Surface Square Feet Note: Above manhours are for 150# rating. Increase above for: 300# Rating-10% 600# Rating-20%

HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HEATING WATER
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Heating Surface Square Feet (D Carbon steel shells, copper-lined heads, %-inch copper "U" tubes 18 BWG, two-pass, 150-pound construction. © Carbon steel shells, copper-lined heads, bronze tube sheet, two-pass, 150-pound construction.

HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HEATING WATER
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Heating Surface Square Feet

® Carbon steel shell, %-inch O.D. copper "U" tubes 18 BWG, two-pass, 150-pound construction. (2) Carbon steel shell, bronze tube sheet, two-pass, 150pound construction.

Next Page

HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR

HEATING WATER
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Heating Surface Square Feet

Previous Page

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Single-Stage, Vertical Split Case
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Prime Mover Horsepower

(D 3,500 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0. (2) 1,750 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Single-Stage, Horizontal Split Case
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Prime Mover Horsepower 03,600 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0. © 1,750 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Single-Stage ANSI and API 610
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Prime Mover Horsepower

(D ANSI pumps—3,500 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0. (2) ANSI pumps—1,750 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0. ® API 610 pumps—3,500 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Two-Stage and Multi-Stage Horizontal Split Case
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Prime Mover Horsepower

® Two-stage, 3,550 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0 ©Multi-stage, 3,550 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Single-Stage, In-Line Ductile Iron and Steel Cased API-610 Standard
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower ® Ductile iron—3,550 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0 © Steel Cased, API-610 Standard-3,550 r p m specific gravity of 1.0

GEAR PUMPS Light and Heavy Duty
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Motor Horsepower

©Light duty ©Heavy duty

SEWAGE PUMPS Horizontal and Vertical— 1,750 rpm
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Motor Horsepower

(D Horizontal—l%inch solids < 2 > Horizontal—2-inch solids ©Vertical—l%inch solids

(D Vertical 2-inch—solids © Vertical 3-inch—solids

SEWAGE PUMPS Horizontal—1,750 rpm
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Motor Horsepower

(D Horizontal—2%ineh solids ©Horizontal—3-inch solids

SEWAGE PUMPS Horizontal and Vertical— 1,150 rpm
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower ® Horizontal—l%ineh solids © Horizontal—2-inch solids (S) Horizontal—2%inch solids (D Horizontal—3-inch solids © Vertical—2-inch solids (§) Vertical—3-inch solids

SUMF AND PLUNGER PUMPS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower

® Sump pumps—3,600 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0 © Sump pumps—1,750 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0 ©Plunger pumps—10 to 350 gpm

VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS Single and Multi-Stage
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Motor Horsepower (D 3,550 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0 © 1,750 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0 (2) 1,170 rpm—specific gravity of 1.0

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Single-, Two-, Multi- and In-Line Single Stage
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Prime Mover Or Motor Horsepower

(D Single-stage or in-line single-stage ©Two-stage ©Multi-stage

GEARPUMPS Light and Heavy Duty
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Motor Horsepower

©Light duty ©Heavy duty

SEWAGE FUMPS Horizontal and Vertical
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Motor Horsepower (D Horizontal ©Vertical

SUMP AND PLUNGER PUMPS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Motor Horsepower (D Sump pumps © Plunger pumps

Next Page

VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS Single- and Multi-Stage
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Motor Horsepower

Previous Page

REACTOBS Glass Lined, Agitated, Jacketed 25 and 100 psi
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Capacity-Gallons

(D Glass-lined steel—25 psi ©Glass-lined steel-100 psi

REACTORS Glass-Lined, Agitated, Jacketed 25 and 100 psi
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Capacity-Gallons

® Glass-lined steel—25 psi ©Glass-lined steel-100 psi

STEAM JET EJECTORS Single-Stage Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Suction And Discharge Size Inches

STEAM JET EJECTORS Single-Stage Type
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Suction And Discharge Size Inches

GAS SCRUBBERS High-Energy Venturi Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Approximate Weight Pounds

(T) 12-gauge hot-rolled steel material (D K-inch plate hot rolled steel material ® 12-gauge stainless steel material (D %-inch 304 stainless steel material

GAS SCRUBBERS High-Energy Venturi Type
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Approximate Weight Pounds

® Hot-rolled steel material (2) 304 stainless steel material

SEPARATORS Vane Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Line Size Inches

(D 275-pound rating <2) 720-pound rating

SEPARATORS Vane Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Unit Diameter Inches (D Carbon Steel (2) Stainless Steel

SEPARATORS Vane TyP 6
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Line Size Inches

(D 150# or 300# raised face flanged—without base © 150# or 300# raised face flanged—with base

VIBRATING SEPARATORS
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Unit Diameter Inches

0 Carbon steel © Stainless steel

VIBRATING SEPABATORS Carbon or Stainless Steel
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Unit Diameter Inches

API TYPE OIL/WATER SEPARATORS
Packaged Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Gallons Per Minute

Next Page

API TYPE OIL/WATER SEPARATORS Packaged Units
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Gallons Per Minute

Previous Page

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Crushers
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Horsepower

® Gyratory ©Jaw

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Crushers
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Horsepower

(D Gyratory ©Jaw

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Impact Breakers
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Horsepower

(D Dual rotary © Single rotary (E) Twin rotary

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Impact Breakers
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Horsepower

® Dual rotary © Single rotary ©Twin rotary

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Reversible and Non-reversible Hammermills
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Horsepower ® Reversible © Non-reversible

SIZE REDUCTON EQUIPMENT Reversible and Non-reversible Haxnmermills
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Horsepower

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Ring-Type Granulators
Equipment cost

Equipment Cost

Horsepower

SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Ring-Type Granulators
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Horsepower

HOT PROCESS WATER SOFTENER SYSTEM
Total Process Material and Equipment Cost

Total Process material

And Equipment Cost

Softener Diameter-Feet

HOT PROCESS WATER SOFTENER SYSTEMS
Total System Installation Manhours

Total System

Installation Manhours

Softener Diameter-Feet

API CONE ROOF STORAGE TANKS
Subcontractor Installed Price on Foundations by Others

Subcontractor

Installed Price

Capacity-Barrels

API CONE ROOF STORAGE TANKS
Subcontractor Installed Price on Foundations by Others

Subcontractor

Installed Price

Capacity-Barrels

API FLOATING ROOF STORAGE TANKS
Subcontractor Installed Price on Foundations by Others

Subcontractor Installed Price

Capacity-Barrels

STORAGE TANKS— ASME SPHERES
Subcontractor Installed Price on Foundations by Others

Subcontractor Installed Price

Capacity-Gallons

(S) %-inch plate (D V2-inch plate (H) %-inch plate @ %-inch plate

TANK HEATING COILS Fintube Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

Heating Surface Square Feet

TANK HEATING COILS Fintube Type
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Heating Surface Square Feet

FIRED HEATERS FOR TANKS Fintube Type
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

BTU Per Hour

® Gas-fired ©Oil-fired

FIRED HEATERS FOR TANKS Fintube Type
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

BTU Per Hour

Gas- or oil-fired.

TANK SUCTION AND LINE TYPE FUEL OIL HEATERS
Equipment Cost

Equipment Cost

Gallons Per Hour

©Tank suction type-heating range 60° to 140° F. © Line type—heating range 80° to 240° F.

TANK SUCTION AND LINE TYPE FUEL OIL HEATERS
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Gallons Per Hour

©Tank suction type—heating range 60° to 140° F. © Line type-heating range 80° to 240° F.

PROFANE STORAGE TANKS ASME 250 psi—117-Inch I.D.
Equipment Cost

Equipment

Cost

S h e l l Length-Feet

Next Page

PROPANE STORAGE TANKS ASME 250 psi—117-Inch I.D.
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Shell Length-Feet

Previous Page

SHOP FABRICATED VESSELS 24-Inch Through 144 Inch Diameter
Average Weight—Pounds Per Linear Foot

Average Weight Pounds Per Linear Foot

Vessel Diameter-Inches

0 Horizontal vessels (2) Vertical vessels with legs ® Vertical vessels with skirt plates

SHOP FABRICATED HORIZONTAL VESSELS 24-Inch Through 144-Inch Diameter
Fabricated Cost Per Ton

Fabricated Cost Per

Ton

Vessel Diameter - Inches

®SpotX-Rayed (2)100%X-Rayed Note: If drip legs are required, weigh drip legs and use $2.40 per pound for spot x-rayed and $2.50 per pound for 100 percent x-rayed. Baffels, draw-off boxes and vortex breakers— estimate weight and price at 20 percent of the vessel per-ton cost.

SHOP FABRICATED VERTICAL VESSELS WITH ANGLE LEGS 24-Inch Through 144-Inch Diameter
Fabricated Cost Per Ton

Fabricated Cost Per Ton

Vessel Diameter - Inches

(DSpotX-Rayed ©100%X-Rayed Note: For conical transmission pieces use three linear feet of the larger vessel diameter weight at 35% of the cost per ton of that diameter vessel. See other graphs for tray rings, trays, and demisting pads if required.

SHOP FABRICATED VERTICAL VESSELS WITH ANCHOR RING AND SKIRTS 24-Inch Through 144-Inch Diameter
Fabricated Cost Per Ton

Fabricated Cost Per Ton

Vessel Diameter - Inches

(DSpotX-Rayed ©100%X-Rayed Note: For conical transmission pieces use three linear feet of the larger vessel diameter weight at 35% of the cost per ton of that diameter vessel. See other graphs for tray rings, trays, and demisting pads if required.

SHOP FABRICATED TRAY RINGS
Cost Each

Shop Fabricated Cost Each

Vessel Diameter - Inches ® Tray rings for single-pass removable trays (D Tray rings for two-pass removable trays

COLUMN TOAYS Shop Installation Only 36-Inch Through 144-Inch Diameter
Installation Cost Each

Shop Installation Cost Each

Vessel Diameter - Inches

©Removable type single downflow valve or perforated type trays © Removable type double downflow valve or perforated type trays Note: Includes shop installation only. Does not include cost of tray.

DEMISTING PADS Shop Installation 36-Inch Through 144-Inch Vessel Diameter
Shop Installation Cost Each

Shop Installation Cost Each

Vessel Diameter - Inches

® 2-, 4-, or 6-inch pad with bottom grid only ©2-, 4-, or 6-inch pad with bottom and top grid Note: Above cost includes furnishing and installing bar support and installation only of pad as outlined.

SHOP STRESS RELIEF OP VESSEL
Cost Pter Ton

Shop Cost Per Ton

Total Vessel Weight Tons

REMOVABLE TYPE TRAYS 14 Gauge Stainless Steel Valve Trays With Stainless Steel Valve Discs 24-Inch Tray Spacing
Material Cost Each

Material

Cost Each

Tray Diameter Feet

©Single downflow—410 stainless steel © Single downflow—304 stainless steel ® Single downflow—316 stainless steel

REMOVABLE TYPE TRAYS 14 Gauge Stainless Steel Valve Trays With Stainless Steel Valve Discs 24-Inch Tray Spacing
Material Cost Each

Material

Cost Each

Tray Diameter Feet

(D Double downflow—410 stainless steel © Double downflow—304 stainless steel (S) Double downflow—316 stainless steel

DEMISTING FADS Four-Inch Thickness
Material Cost Each

Material Cost Each

Vessel Diameter-Inches (D Carbon steel (2) 410, 304, or 316 stainless steel ® Monel

DEMISTING PADS Pour-Inch Thickness Top or Bottom Grids only
Material Cost Each

Material Cost Each

Vessel Diameter - Inches

0 Carbon Steel (D 410 or 304 Stainless Steel ® 316 Stainless Steel (D Monel

VESSELS 24-Inch Through 144-Inch Diameter
Field Erection Manhours Per Ton

Erection Manhours Per Ton

Vessel Weight-Tons

® Horizontal vessels © Vertical vessels Add for following if required: Remove and replace manway cover—1.3 manhours per tray. Check tray and tighten retaining bolts—1.8 man- hours per tray.

VESSEL TRAY INSTALLATION 36-Inch Through 144-Inch Vessel Diameter
Field Erection Manhours Each

Erection Manhours Each

Vessel Diameter-Inches

® Single downflow valve or perforated tray types 0 Double downflow valve or perforated tray types

DEMISTING PADS 36-Inch Through 144-Inch Vessel Diameter
Field Erection Manhours Each

Erection Manhours Each

Vessel Diameter-Inches

(D 2-, 4-, or 6-inch pad with bottom grid only © 2-, 4-, or 6-inch pad with bottom and top grid

Section 3 SITE PREPARATION

General preparation of the plant site for construction is included in this section. Items include, but are not necessarily limited to, clearing, rough grading, cut, fill, borrow, disposal, soil stabilization, and finish grading. Soil tests are not considered a part of site preparation and are not included. If this is to form a part of the estimate, it must be determined from other sources. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information. AREA CLEAR AND GRUB Manhours Per Acre
Manhours Per Acre Site Description Light Medium Medium Heavy Heavy On Site Disposal 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Off Site Disposal 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0

Light—Light brush and grass, no trees. Medium—Considerable brush of larger size. Medium Heavy—Large brush and small trees. Heavy—Much small brush, many small trees and occasional large trees. All manhours include cutting, stacking or piling. On site disposal manhours include hauling to on site disposal area or on site burning. Off site disposal manhours include hauling to off site disposal area within five mile radius of site. Cost of all small tools and construction equipment is included under their respective accounts.

AREA CUTS AND FILLS Manhours and Material Cost Per Acre

Land Description Level Slightly Rolling Rolling Rough Very Rough

Average C.Y./AC. Cut 1,080 1,613 2,420 2,952 3,870 Fill 532 1,080 1,613 1,888 2,420

Average M.H./AC. Cut 40.0 60.0 85.0 105.0 135.0 Fill 5.0 10.0 15.0 17.0 22.0

Purchase Fill/AC. $ 9,400 18,900 28,200 33,100 42,400

Level—Smooth and level no hills. Slightly Rolling—Level with minor contour changes and small hills. Rolling—Constant contour changes and small hills. Rough—Partially level with minor contour changes, slues and valleys. Very Rough—Constant changes, major hills, slues and valleys. If ample fill material is available on the site delete above purchase fill cost. Manhours include removal and on site stock piling top soil and spoil, area cuts and fills to grade and minor site drainage. Cost of all small tools and construction equipment is included under their respective accounts. Fine Grading: Use 1.3 manhours per 100 square yards. Soil Stabilization: Material—Use $1.30 per square yard. Labor—Use 0.05 manhours per square yard.

Section 4 SITE IMPROVEMENTS

This section includes items of work that provide permanent improvements to the plant site, such as security fencing, railroads or spurs including ballast, tank dikes and all sub-base materials for roads, parking areas, paved areas and railroads, concrete trenches, drainage piping, catch basins, manholes and road culverts. Pavements for roads, parking areas and process areas are included under "Discipline, Paving " Site improvements will vary depending on site location, conditions, and project requirements. For these reasons I have listed unit costs for various items that may be required. The scope of work or plot plan will dictate the items required for site improvements. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction of this manual before applying this information.

Security Fencing
Fencing is usually listed as a subcontract price in the estimate and as such includes his overhead and profit. A six-foot-high chain link fence with three strands of barbwire, line and corner post embedded in concrete, top rail and traffic and personnel gates will cost an average of $15.50 per linear foot. Included in this price is installation labor at an average of 0.35 manhours per linear foot.

Railroad and Spurs
Railroads including ballast, ties, tracks, switches, stops, etc., are usually carried in the estimate as a subcontract item. The sub-base material

is usually furnished in place by the earth subcontractor or the general contractor. 1. Sub-base material will average 0.75 cubic yards per linear foot of track (2-rails) at: Material—$22.00 per cubic yard Labor—0.60 manhours per cubic yard 2. Railroad and appurtenances subcontracted price including overhead and profit will average: Labor and Material—$88.00 per linear foot of track (2-rails). Included in this subcontract price is the cost of 1.06 manhours per linear foot of track.

Tank Dikes
Earth type dikes include the furnishing, placing, and compaction of all earth materials. Concrete type dikes include all operations for the forming and placing of concrete. 1. Earth type dikes material will average 1.60 cubic yards per linear foot of dike at the average cost of: Material—$22.00 per cubic yard Labor—0.60 manhours per cubic yard 2. Concrete type dikes material will average 1.4 cubic yards of concrete per linear foot of dike at the average cost of: Material—$180.00 per cubic yard Labor—10.00 manhours per cubic yard

Concrete Trenches
Concrete trenches two feet wide by two feet deep, with standard sumps and basins and grated cover including all earthwork, concrete and related items will average: Material—$35.00 per linear foot Labor—2.50 manhours per linear foot

Drainage
Drainage items such as raw water, oily water, and pressurized systems will vary depending on pipe size, elevations, etc. The following represents an average cost of all items involved: Material—$30.00 per linear foot Labor—3.00 manhours per linear foot

Catch Basins and Manholes
Catch basins and manhole size and length will vary depending on capacity and bottom elevation. The following are average for this type installation and include all costs for earthwork, concrete, concrete related items, frames and solid or grated covers: Material—$700.00 each Labor—25.00 manhours each

Road Culverts
Road culverts will vary in size depending on volume requirements. The following costs are based on using 24-inch reinforced concrete pipe which seems to be predominant for this item: Material—$18.00 per linear foot Labor—0.60 manhours per linear foot

Section 5 CONCRETE

Logarithmic graphs in this section indicate the value of labor in manhours and materials in dollars of earthwork, concrete, fireproofing and grout for equipment foundations and equipment structure foundations. Earthwork and concrete for buildings are included with the buildings and are not to be considered here. The earth and concrete graphs are average and are based on the total equipment count, even though some pieces of equipment may not require foundations. Earthwork graphs include labor in manhours for all hand and machine excavation and backfill. There is also a graph showing average quantities of required backfill in the event special fill material is required. Should special fill material be required it should be priced at the current material value for that particular type of fill. Concrete graphs include the furnishing, fabricating, and placing of forms, reinforcing steel; miscellaneous embedments; concrete and curing; protecting and finishing concrete. There is also a graph showing estimated cubic yards of concrete for cost control and reporting purpose. Piling as such has been excluded. The graphs represent the use of spread type footings and reflect enough manhour and material values to include this item if required. Graphs are included for fireproofing vessel skirts and structural steel. Should this not be required, simply disregard these graphs. The graphs for grouting show average square feet required, for labor manhours and material value based on total equipment count for equipment support and total tons of steel for base plates. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Earth Backfill Materials
Cubic Yards

Cubic Yards Of Backfill

Pieces Of Equipment

©Equipment foundations ©Equipment structure foundations © Pipe rack or sleeper foundations

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Excavation and Backfill for Equipment Foundations
Labor Manhours

Labor Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

(D Hand excavation ©Machine excavation (H) Hand backfill ® Machine backfill

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS For Equipment Structures and Pipe Rack and Sleepers
Labor Manhours

Labor Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Equipment Structures (D Hand Excavation © Machine Excavation © Hand Backfill (D Machine Backfill

Pipe Rack And Sleepers © Hand Excavation © Machine Excavation C D Hand Backfill ® Machine Backfill

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Concrete Quantities
Cubic Yards

Cubic Yards Of Concrete

Pieces Of Equipment

(D Equipment foundations © Equipment structure foundations ® Pipe rack and sleeper foundations

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Forms, Reinforcing, Embedments, Concrete
Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

0 Equipment foundations (D Equipment structure foundations ® Pipe rack and sleeper foundations

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Forms, Reinforcing, Embedments, Concrete
Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

® Equipment foundations © Equipment structure foundations ©Pipe rack and sleeper foundations

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Nonshrink—Nonmetallic Grout
Average Square Feet

Square

Feet

Pieces Of Equipment Or Tons Of S t e e l ©Equipment

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Nonshrink—Nonmetallic Grout
Material Cost

Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment Or Tons Of S t e e l

©Equipment ©Steel

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Nonshrink—Nonmetallic Grout
Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment Or Tons Of S t e e l ® Equipment ©Steel

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Fireproofing Structural Steel
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Tons Of S t e e l

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Fireproofing Structural Steel
Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Tons Of S t e e l

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Fireproofing Vessel Skirts
Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment With Skirts

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Fireproofing Vessel Skirts
Erection Manhours

Erection

Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment With Skirts

Section 6 STRUCTURAL STEEL AND MISCELLANEOUS IRON

The curves in this section represent the material cost in dollars and the erection manhours required for equipment supports, equipment structures and piperacks, and miscellaneous steel and iron for equipment platforms, walkways, and ladders. All steel items are based on the total pieces of equipment even though some pieces will require no steel. If pipe racks are not required, delete these curves from the estimate. All building steel is included with the buildings and is not a part of this section. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

STRUCTURAL STEEL
Tons Required

Tons Required

Pieces Of Equipment

MISCELLANEOUS IRON
Tons Required

Tons Required

Pieces Of Equipment

PIPE RACK STEEL
Tons Required

Tons Required

Pieces Of Equipment

STRUCTURAL STEEL Equipment Supports and Structures
Material Cost

Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR PIPE RACKS Miscellaneous Iron for Equipment
Material Cost

Material Cost Pieces Of Equipment ©Miscellaneous iron © Pipe racks

STRUCTURAL STEEL AND MISCELLANEOUS IRON Equipment, Equipment Supports and Structures, and Pipe Racks
Erection Manhours

Erection Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

® Structural steel ® Miscellaneous iron © Pipe racks

Section 7 BUILDINGS

The scope of work, for a proposed project should include information as to type and size of buildings required. The logarithmic graphs included in this section show average labor in manhours and material dollar cost per square foot of floor area for various types of one-story buildings that are more or less standard. All buildings listed include building earthwork, concrete foundations, concrete ground floor slabs, structural framing, exterior and interior finishes, sprinkler system, plumbing, HVAC, and electrical power and lighting. AU utilities extend five feet outside of building. Following is a listing of buildings with a brief description of their types and inclusions. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

Building Types and Descriptions Office Building
Structure—Clear span steel framing. Exterior Walls—Masonry and curtain wall with aluminum entrance. Interior Walls—Metal studs and drywall with hollow metal doors and frames. Ceilings—Suspended and insulated. Roof—Metal deck with built-up roof, roof ventilators, gutters and drains. Dining Facilities—Coffee bar and dining area. Plumbing—Water, utility lines, toilets, drains and sprinklers. HYkC-Ample for size of structure. Electrical—Lighting and power. Note: No furniture is included.

Laboratory Building:
Same type construction as office building with additional plumbing and electrical outlets for laboratory equipment. Note: No laboratory equipment or furniture is included.

Control Building
Structure—Structural steel framing. Exterior Walls—Concrete block, hollow metal frames and doors and steel sash. Interior Walls—Office and toilet with metal studs and drywall, hollow metal frames and doors. Roof—Pre-cast concrete slabs with insulation and built up roof. Ceilings—Exposed. Plumbing—Toilet utilities and drinking fountain. HVAC—Ample for size of structure. Electrical—Lighting and power. Note: No instrumentation included.

Warehouse Building:
Structure—Structural steel framing. Exterior Walls—Corrugated asbestos or insulated metal siding with hollow metal doors and frames, truck doors and steel sash. Interior Walls—Office and toilet room partitions of metal studs and drywall with hollow metal doors and frames, storage shelving and bins included. Roof—Same as exterior wall siding. Ceilings—Exposed except office and toilet area with same type construction as interior partitions. Plumbing—Toilet utilities and drinking fountains. HVAC-Office area only. Electrical—Power and lighting.

Maintenance Shop Building
Same type construction as warehouse with additional foundations for shop equipment and including an overhead crane. Note: No shop equipment is included.

Change House Building
Same type construction as control building with concrete locker bases, lockers and additional toilet and shower facilities for men and women.

BUILDING MATERIALS
Cost Per Square Foot Materials Only

Material Cost Per Square Foot

Square Feet Of Floor Area

(D Office building (D Laboratory building (E) Control building

® Warehouse building © Maintenance shop building ® Change house building

BUILDING ERECTION
Manhours Per Square Foot

Manhours Per Square Foot

Square Feet Of Floor Area

(D Office building © Laboratory building ® Control building

(D Warehouse building © Maintenance shop building © Change house building

Section 8 PIPING

In the absence of plot plans, piping and instrument diagrams, and flow sheets the cost of process piping can be determined from the following logarithmic graphs. The graphs are based on total equipment count. All dollar costs on the material graphs are average and include the costs of all pipe, valves, and fittings that should be required. Control valve material cost is included in the instrumentation section. Labor manhour graphs are average and include all necessary installation operations. Installation of control valves furnished under the instrumentation section is included here. The offsite fabrication graphs include all labor, material, and shop costs for furnishing and fabricating pipe spools and delivery within reasonable distance of job site. Graphs for underground potable water, fire loops, etc., include all material and labor operations to five feet outside of buildings. The field x-ray and stress relief graphs are to be considered as subcontract work. Building piping for plumbing, etc., to five feet outside the building, is included under the building section and is not to be considered here. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

SHOP FURNISH AND FABRICATE PIPE AND FITTINGS
Linear Feet of Pipe For Pieces Of Equipment

Linear Feet Of Pipe

Pieces Of Equipment

©Alloy 2V2" and over ©Carbon steel 2V2" and over ©Alloy 2" and under

SHOP FURNISH AND FABRICATE PIPE AND FITTINGS
Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Shop Furnish And Fabricate Total Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

OAlloy2J/2" and over © Carbon steel 2Vz" and over ©Alloy 2" and under

SHOP FURNISH AND FABRICATE PIPE AND FITTINGS
Cost For Pieces of Equipment

Shop Furnish And Fabricate Total Cost

Pieces Of Equipment ©Alloy 2 ^ " and over © Carbon steel 2te" and over ©Alloy 2" and under

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE9 AND ERECT PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES
Linear Feet Of Pipe For Pieces Of Equipment

Linear Peet Of Pipe

Pieces Of Equipment

(D Carbon steel 2 ^" and over (E) Carbon steel 2" and under (S) Steam tracing (D Underground ©Alloy 2" and under

1

FIELD FURNISH9 FABRICATE9 AND ERECT PIPE9 FITTINGS9 AND VALVES
Material Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Material Cast

Pieces Of Equipment

® Carbon steel 2W and over © Carbon steel 2" and under © Carbon steel underground

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE9 AND ERECT PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES
Material Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Pieces Of Equipment

©Carbon steel 2%" and over © Carbon steel 2" and under © Carbon steel underground

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE, AND ERECT STEAM TRACING PIPE, FTTTINGS, AND VALVES
Material Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Pieces Of Equipment

FIELD FUBNISH 9 FABRICATE9 AND ERECT PIPE9 FITTINGS9 AND VALVES
Material Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

0 Alloy 2" and under

FIELD ERECT SHOP FABRICATED SPOOLS PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES
Labor Manhours For Pieces Of Equipment

Erection Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Note: All items include installation of control valves. ©Alloy 2Mz" and Over ©Carbon Steel 2te" And Over ©Alloy 2" And Under

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE, AND ERECT PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES
Labor Manhours For Pieces Of Equipment

Erection Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Note: All items include installation of control valves. ® Carbon steel 2 1 ^" and over ® Carbon steel 2" and under

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE, AND ERECT PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES
Labor Manhours For Pieces Of Equipment

Erection Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Note: All items include installation of control valves. (D Carbon steel underground © Steam tracing ©Alloy 2" and under

FIELD FURNISH9 FABRICATE9 AND ERECT MISCELLANEOUS PIPING ITEMS
Material Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

(D Hangers and supports © Testing pipe and fittings © Testing welders

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE9 AND ERECT MISCELLANEOUS PIPING ITEMS
Total Manhours For Pieces Of Equipment

Total Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

(D Hangers and supports (2) Testing pipe and fittings © Testing welders

FIELD FURNISH, FABRICATE, AND ERECT X-RAY AND STRESS RELIEVING
Total Subcontract Cost For Pieces Of Equipment

Total Subcontract Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

Section 9 ELECTRICAL

Logarithmic graphs in this section reflect the average cost of project power and lighting excluding building electrical that is included with the building section. Power and lighting graphs for material in dollars and labor in manhours are included for the battery limit requirements and are based on total pieces of equipment. Instrumentation graphs are included for the cost of miscellaneous hookup materials in dollars and installation of this material in manhours. Instruments, instrument standards, tray supports, trays, tubes and tube bundles are discussed in Section 10, "Instrumentation." I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

ELECTRICAL POWER
Power Material Cost

Electrical Power Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

ELECTRICAL POWER
Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

ELECTRICAL LIGHTING
Lighting Material Cost

Lighting Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

ELECTRICAL LIGHTING
Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Total Miscellaneous Instrumentation Material Cost
Miscellaneous Electrical Instrument Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

Note: Pneumatic instruments and other instrument materials are included under "Instruments."

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Miscellaneous Electrical Instrument Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Note: Manhours for installation of electrical instrument materials only. All other instrument manhours included under "Instruments"

Section 10 INSTRUMENTATION

The following graphs represent the average number of instruments required, their material value in dollars and installation in manhours based on total pieces of equipment. Included with the instrument graphs are dollars and manhours for the furnishing and installation of panel boards. Other graphs are included for the cost and installation of standards, tray supports, trays, tubes, and tube bundles. Material value of control valves is included under this section. The installation of these valves is discussed in Section 8, "Piping." Furnishing and installation of miscellaneous electrical hook-up materials is discussed in Section 9, "Electrical". I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

INSTRUMENTS
Total Number Of Instruments Required

Number Of Instruments

Pieces Of Equipment

INSTRUMENTS
Total Material Cost

Cost Of Instruments

Pieces Of Equipment

INSTRUMENTS
Total Instrument Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

CONTROL VALVES
Total Material Cost

Control Valves Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

Note: Installation manhours included under "Piping."

STANDARDS, TRAY SUPPORTS, TRAYS, TUBES, AND TUBE BUNDLES
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

STANDARDS, TRAY SUPPORTS, TRAYS, TUBES, AND TUBE BUNDLES
Total Installation Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Section 11 INSULATION

The following piping and equipment insulation graphs are based on total pieces of equipment for a project and are average for various types and thickness that are more or less standard for refinery and petrochemical work. All building insulation is discussed in Section 7, "Buildings." Refractories and linings are considered a minor operation for this type construction and can be estimated on the same basis as insulation. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

INSULATING MATERIAL
Total Square Feet

Total Square Feet

Pieces Of Equipment

©Pipe © Equipment

INSULATING MATERIAL FOR EQUIPMENT
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

INSULATING MATERIAL FOR PIPING
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

INSULATING LABOR FOB PIPING AND EQUIPMENT
Total Manhours

Installation Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

©Pipe © Equipment

Section 12 PAINTING

Based on total pieces of equipment the following graphs are average cost of materials in dollars and labor in manhours for painting. Material cost includes sandblasting materials as required and protective coating materials of paint and/or epoxy. Labor manhours include time required for sandblasting and painting. Building painting is discussed in Section 7, "Buildings." I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

PAINTING—EQUIPMENT
Square Feet Area

Square Feet Area

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—STRUCTURAL STEEL AND PIPING
Square Feet Area

Square Feet Area

Pieces Of Equipment (D Structural steel ©Piping

PAINTING—MISCELLANEOUS AND PIPE RACK STEEL
Square Feet Area

Square Feet Area

Pieces Of Equipment

0 Miscellaneous iron ©Pipe rack steel

PAINTING—EQUIPMENT
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—EQUIPMENT
Total Manhours

Painting Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—STRUCTURAL STEEL
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—STRUCTURAL STEEL
Total Manhours

Painting Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—PIPING
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—PIPING
Total Manhours

Painting Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

PAINTING—MISCELLANEOUS AND PIPE RACK STEEL
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment ©Miscellaneous iron © Pipe rack steel

PAINTING—MISCELLANEOUS AND PIPE RACK STEEL
Total Manhours

Painting Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

©Miscellaneous iron © Pipe rack steel

Section 13 PAVING

This section includes items of work for the installation of road, parking area and yard pavements. The placement of sub-base materials for these items is described in Section 4, "Site improvement." The furnishing and placing of finish base and asphalt, concrete or gravel pavement is included. The scope of work or other proposal documents should indicate the pavement requirements. In the absence of this information, the following allowances can be added based on the total equipment count. 1. Asphalt Pavement—40.0 square yards per piece of equipment. 2. Concrete Pavement—4.5 square yards per piece of equipment. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

ASPHALT PAVEMENT 6-Inch Base—2 Inches Asphalt
Total Subcontract Price

Total Subcontract Price

Square Yards

CONCRETE AND GRAVEL PAVEMENTS
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Square Yards

012-inch base material and 6-inch reinforced concrete ® 6-inch gravel pavement

CONCRETE AND GRAVEL PAVEMENTS
Total Manhours

Total Manhours

Square Yards

(D 12-inch base material and 6-inch reinforced concrete © 6-inch gravel pavement

Section 14 PRORATABLES

Materials costs in dollars and labor in manhours on the following graphs reflect the average cost and time required for daily area clean-up, all project scaffolding and final test, start-up, and pre-commissioning assistance. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

PRORATABLE MATERIAL
Total Material Cost

Total Material Cost

Pieces Of Equipment

PRORATABLE LABOR
Total Manhours

Total

Manhours

Pieces Of Equipment

Section 15 CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

The average cost of equipment to construct a project can be estimated from the following logarithmic graphs. The rental or purchase curve represents the average cost of rental or purchase of construction equipment to construct the project. This does not include small tools. The fuel, oil, grease, and supply curve includes the cost of these items to operate and maintain the equipment. The equipment service labor curve represents all labor required to service and maintain the construction equipment. This does not include the operating labor of the equipment when working. Operators are included in the direct account labor. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT BASE RENTAL OR PURCHASE COST FUEL, OIL, GREASE, AND SUPPLIES COST

Total

Cost

Total Direct Field Labor Cost In Million Dollars

(D Rental or puchase cost ©Fuel, oil, grease and supplies cost

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT SERVICE LABOR
Total Manhours

Total Manhours

Equipment Rental Or Purchase Cost In Hundred Thousand Dollars

Section 16 OVERHEADS AND INDIRECTS

Included in this section are logarithmic graphs reflecting average cost of labor, materials, temporary facilities, small tools, consumable supplies, burdens and benefits, etc., required to supervise and construct a project. Various items have been grouped together on the following graphs for ease of listing and application. For a comprehensive listing of total coverage of items under this section refer to the overhead and indirect listings under Section 1 "Disciplines of Work." I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introducton to this manual before applying this information.

INDIRECT LABOR Engineering and Supervision Personnel
Total Manhours

Total Manhours

Total Direct Labor In Hundred Thousand Dollars (D Engineering personnel © Supervision personnel

INDIRECT LABOR Office Personnel
Total Manhours

Total Manhours

Total Direct Labor In Hundred Thousand Dollars

OTHER INDIRECT AND TEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION LABOR
Total Manhours

Total Manhours

Total Direct Labor In Hundred Thousand Dollars

® Other Indirect Labor (D Temporary Construction Labor

PAYROLL BURDENS AND BENEFITS Other Indirect and Temporary Construction Materials
Total Cost

Total Cost

Total Direct Labor In Hundred Thousand Dollars

©Payroll burdens and benefits (2) Other indirect materials (H) Temporary construction materials Note: See next page for continuation of these items.

PAYROLL BURDENS AND BENEFITS OTHER INDIRECT MATERIALS
Total Cost

Total

Cost

Total Direct Labor In Million Dollars

(D Payroll burdens and benefits (E) Other indirect materials

Section 17 HOME OFFICE COST

Total engineering design, including construction services such as estimating, scheduling, expediting, etc., project general management, design allowance, and fee are included as a part of home office cost and as such are considered under this section. Manhour range tables listing manhour ranges for single and duplicate pieces of equipment are included to establish the total home office manhours required. After total manhours are established they are to be spread, on a percentage basis, to the various personnel disciplines, as outlined in the following manhour spread percentage table. Simply by multiplying the established discipline manhours by your established discipline rates a total labor manhour and dollar cost is obtained. Other cost such as blueprints, reproductions, computer use, miscellaneous expenses, travel expenses, telephone, telex, postage, and burdens and benefits are to be established as a percent of the total labor dollars in accordance with the following percentage spread table for these items. After the total labor and material dollars are established, the estimator need only apply a cost for design allowance and fee for a complete home office engineering design cost. See Section 19, "Definition of Estimate Adjustments," for design allowance and fee definitions. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

ENGINEERING DESIGN Manhour Range Allowance Per Piece of Equipment
Manhour Allowance For Single Duplicate Unit Range Unit Range 800-1,000 800-1,000 650-850 400-500 600-800 600-800 400-600 450-650 400-600 500-700 1,000-1,200 1,000-1,200 850-1,000 600-800 650-850 650-850 800-1,000 1,000-1,200 850-1,000 800-1,000 800-1,000 800-1,000 800-1,000 650-850 700-900 750-850 400-500 400-500 350-450 200-250 300-400 300-400 200-400 225-325 200-400 250-350 600-700 600-700 425-500 300-400 325-425 325-425 400-500 500-600 400-500 400-500 400-500 400-500 400-500 325-425 350-450 300-400

Equipment Classification Boilers And Heaters Packaged Steam Boilers Packaged Electric Hydronic Boilers Cast Iron Gas Fired Boilers Steel Boiler Stacks Fired Heaters Deaerating Heaters Classification Equipment Cone Type Pelletizers Pressure Sifters Rotary Screens Turbo-Screen Classifiers Compressors And Air Dryers Reciprocating Gas Engine Compressors Reciprocating Electric Compressors Centrifugal Package Unit Compressors Air Cooled Service Compressors Air Dryer—Refrigerated Type Air Dryer—Chiller Type Conveyors And Bucket Elevators Conveyor—Open Belt Conveyor—Belt Enclosed With Walkway Conveyor—Steel Screw Conveyor—Reciprocating Conveyor—Scroll Conveyor—Spaced Bucket Elevator Conveyor—Continuous Bucket Elevator Crystallizers Batch Vacuum Mechanical Dow Therm Units

ENGINEERING DESIGN Manhour Range Allowance Per Piece of Equipment
Manhour Allowance For Single Duplicate Unit Range Unit Range 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100 80-150 80-150 70-120 700-900 700-900 800-1,000 800-1,000 800-1,000 800-900 800-900 700-900 700-900 800-1,000 800-1,000 800-1,000 1,000-1,200 1,000-1,200 300-400 200-400 200-400 200-500 20-40 20-40 20-40 20-40 20-40 20-40 30-70 30-70 30-50 350-450 350-400 400-500 400-500 400-500 400-450 400-450 350-450 350-450 400-500 400-500 400-500 500-600 500-600 150-200 100-200 100-200 100-200

Equipment Classification Dry Material Blenders And Feeders Blenders Vibrating Packers Electric Vibrating Feeders Gravimetric Feeders Volumetric Feeders Wing-Type Feeders Conveyor Type Feeders Sanitary Type Feeders Dry Polymer Feeders Dryers And Flakers Atmospheric Drum Dryer Vacuum Drum Dryer Twin Drum Dryer Tray Atmospheric Dryer Tray Vacuum Dryer Rotary Dryer Spray Dryer Cooling Drum Flakers Dust Collectors Cyclone Multi Cyclones Washers Automatic Cloth Filters Centrifugal Precipitators Electrical Precipitators Feeder Valves Ejectors Single-Stage Noncondensing Two-Stage Barometric Intercondenser Extractors Continuous Centrifugal

ENGINEERING DESIGN Manhour Range Allowance Per Piece of Equipment
Manhour Allowance For Duplicate Single Unit Range Unit Range 600-800 100-150 400-600 600-800 200-300 200-300 200-400 200-300 200-300 300-400 400-600 400-600 150-200 5,000-8,000 2,000-4,000 1,000-2,000 600-800 600-800 600-800 800-900 800-1,000 850-1,050 650-850 300-400 50-60 200-300 300-400 100-150 100-150 100-200 100-150 100-150 150-200 200-300 200-250 50-70 2,000-3,500 800-1,500 300-500 300-400 300-400 300-400 400-450 400-500 425-525 325-425

Equipment Classification Fans And Blowers Heavy Gauge Centrifugal Fans Motors And V-BeIt Drive For Fans Rotary Blowers Centrifugal Turbo Blowers Filters Pressure Type Oil Mist Collectors Plate And Frame Type Sparkler Leaf Sewage And Rotary Screen Vibrating Flotation Machines Gas Holders Generators Steam Turbine Units Inert Gas Generators Skid Mounted—Diesel Engine Driven Heat Exchangers, Evaporators And Condensers Shell And Tube, Floating Head Exchangers Shell And Tube, Fixed-Tube Sheet, U-Tube Exchangers Steel Fin Tubes, Steel ReBoilers And Jacketed Pipe Long Tube Vertical Evaporators Horizontal Tube Evaporators Jacketed, Glass Lined Steel Vessel Evaporators Condensers—Barometric

ENGINEERING DESIGN Manhour Range Allowance Per Piece of Equipment
Manhour Allowance For Single Duplicate Unit Range Unit Range

Equipment Classification Mixers And Blenders For Liquid And Liquid Solids Propeller Mixers Blender Type Mixers Pan And Sigma Mixers Homogenizers High Intensity Mixers Pumps Centrifugal Vertical Turbine And Sump Power And Internal Gear Rotary Vacuum Sewage Nonclog Scales And Weighing Equipment Mechanical Lever Truck Scales Electronic Load Cell Truck Scales Built In Industrial Scales Automatic Bagging Scales Bulk Weighing Scales Separators Centrifugal Batch Top Suspended Centrifugal Batch Bottom Driven Centrifugal Batch Automatic Centrifugal High Speed Size Reduction Equipment Size Reduction Crushers Size Reduction Mills, Cutters, Pulverizers Ball Mills Thickeners Continuous Type

50-150 50-150 50-150 60-150 60-150 700-900 850-1,100 700-900 400-600 700-900 1,000-1,200 1,000-1,200 200-300 200-300 300-400 600-800 600-800 700-900 700-900 400-600 400-600 500-700 400-600

20-60 20-60 20-60 25-60 25-60 350-450 425-550 350-450 200-300 350-450 500-600 500-600 100-150 100-150 150-200 300-400 300-400 350-450 350-450 200-300 200-300 250-350 200-300

ENGINEERING DESIGN Manhour Range Allowance Per Piece of Equipment

Equipment Classification Vessels, Reactors And Tanks Horizontal Pressure Vessels Vertical Pressure Vessels (Towers) Agitated, Jacketed Reactors Vacuum Receiver Tanks Agitated Tanks Storage Tanks Waste Treatment Equipment Sewage Treatment Plant Package Incinerators—Liquid Waste Incinerators—Solid Waste Solid Waste Shredders Wastewater Treatment Package System Water Treating Equipment Mechanical Surface Aerators Ion Exchanger Demineralizers Water Stills

Manhour Allowance For Duplicate Single Unit Range Unit Range 800-1,000 1,000-1,200 1,000-1,200 800-1,000 700-900 600-1,000 600-800 500-800 500-800 400-600 600-800 850-1,000 600-800 200-300 400-500 500-600 500-600 400-500 350-450 300-500 300-400 250-400 250-400 200-300 300-400 425-500 300-400 100-200

ENGINEERING DESIGN Other Cost as a Percent of Total Engineering Design Labor Dollars
Item Blue Prints And Reproduction Computer Use Miscellaneous Expense Travel Expense Telephone, Telex And Postage Burdens And Benefits Total Percent 14.0 12.0 10.0 3.0 4.0 32.0 75.0

ENGINEERING DESIGN Manhour Spread Percentages
Per Cent Discipline Operations Management Project Management Project Engineer Design Supervisor Civil/Structural Vessels Electrical Plant Design Piping Administration P & Fs Flow Diagrams Mechanical Supervision Instrument Engineering Instrument Drafting Rotating Equipment Special Equipment Heat Transfer Process Estimating Cost Engineering Computer Initial Operations Technical Information Scheduling Purchasing Inspection/Expediting Stenographic Accounting Office Services Contract Legal Home Office Construction Total 1 0.1 1.5 5.5 0.9 5.2 2.6 5.9 19.7 3.0 4.3 2.1 0.4 3.6 4.9 0.8 1.2 0.5 4.2 1.0 1.7 2.5 0.1 0.1 2.2 3.9 3.9 3.8 8.8 1.5 0.1 2.0 100.0 2 0.1 1.6 6.1 1.0 8.7 2.8 6.5 17.0 2.3 4.7 2.0 0.4 5.0 6.4 0.8 1.3 0.5 4.6 1.0 1.3 2.5 0.2 0.1 1.5 3.8 3.8 4.1 5.8 1.6 0.1 LO 100.0 3__ 0.1 1.9 7.0 1.0 6.3 3.1 7.2 23.8 3.8 5.0 2.7 0.4 4.4 5.8 0.9 1.4 0.6 5.1 1.1 1.4 2.8 0.2 0.1 1.4 0.0 0.0 4.6 5.8 1.7 0.1 OO 100.0

Code: 1—Engineering, Procurement And Construction Contract 2—Engineering And Procurement Contract 3—Engineering Only Contract

Section 18 RATIO ESTIMATING FACTORS

Ratio estimating factors are simply the relationship, in percentage ranges, between two or more things and are the transformation of statistical data into combinations of variables that are usually not correlated. The minimum basic information required to assemble an estimate of this type is: 1. Information regarding plant capacity, product form, basic process and raw material. 2. A complete process equipment list with individual shipping dates and total material dollar cost. 3. The general plant location. The accuracy of this type estimate should fall in the range of + 30% to - 30%.

Accuracy Definition
+ % = Add to total cost excluding contingency for highest cost. - % = Deduct from total cost excluding contingency for lowest cost. The direct cost percent ranges in the following tables are to be applied against the total material dollar value of the process equipment. The construction equipment and overhead and indirects percent ranges are a percent of the direct field labor dollar value. The home office percent range is applied against the total direct and indirect cost of the project. The percentages for the various disciplines of work are averages of many projects located in the Gulf Coast Area. When determining a percentage to be applied for a specific project from the percentage range tables consideration should be given to this fact. The percentages for labor are for open or merit shop type operations. If closed shop methods are to be employed additional consideration should be given and applied against the labor dollar value.

Manhours for the various disciplines of work can be obtained by dividing the labor percentage dollars by the established hourly activity rate. A construction schedule can be executed utilizing the discipline manhours coupled with equipment shipping dates. For a description of items included under the various disciplines of work see Section 1, "Disciplines of Work."

Ratio Estimating Factors
The Refinery Process Systems table is based on any one or all of the following process systems and includes all discipline requirements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Atmosphere and vacuum crude distillation Saturates gas plant Naphtha hydrodesulphurization Distillate hydrotreater Flexicoker Heavy oil hydrodesulphurization Fluid catalytic cracker Unsaturates gas plant Cycle oils hydrodesulphurization C5, C6 isomerization Catalytic reformer Aromatics extractions Steam reforming hydrogen plant Butane alkylation Olifin poly plant H2S recovery and sulphur manufacturing

Tables on Chemical Plants are self-explanatory. I caution the engineer/estimator to be thoroughly familiar with the introduction to this manual before applying this information.

REFINERY PROCESS SYSTEMS Ratio Percentages Direct Cost
Average Percent of Totals V VI 92.82 10.03 0.55 3.59 * 1.43 0.22 16.42 * 4.82 4.81 2.21 * 1.84 1.60 27.51 * 0.87 * 7.90 * 4.16 * 9.57 * 5.06 * 0.81 * 3.79 100.0 100.0

Discipline 1. Process Equipment 2. Site Preparation 3. Site Improvements 4. Concrete 5. Structural Steel 6. Buildings 7. Underground Piping 8. Above-ground Piping 9. Underground Electric 10. Above-ground Electric 11. Instrumentation 12. Insulation 13. Painting 14. Paving 15. Proratables ** lbtal Direct Cost

Percentage Ratio Ranges I II HI IV 100.00 44.30-44.60 7.70-7.80 55.83 0.02-0.05 0.25-0.30 2.75-2.85 0.01 0.95-1.10 * 1.10-1.12 0.55 4.25-4.75 0.10-0.12 12.70-12.90 2.41 8.00-8.30 * 3.70-3.75 4.53 1.10-1.25 2.20-2.40 1.70-1.75 0.66 1.10-1.20 * 1.40-1.48 0.62 32.00-35.00 0.75-0.80 21.30-22.40 18.59 0.30-0.50 * 0.65-0.70 0.16 11.50-12.00 * 6.10-6.25 6.47 10.30-10.70 * 3.20-3.50 5.82 4.50-5.00 * 7.40-7.50 2.55 1.50-1.70 * 3.90-4.00 0.93 0.40-0.60 * 0.60-0.70 0.27 1.00-1.10 * 2.80-2.95 0.60 176.9-183.3 47.6-48.2 77.0-79.7 100.0

VII 49.97 1.01 0.69 5.63 3.90 1.71 0.83 18.19 0.32 5.81 4.48 3.94 1.84 0.36 1.32 100.0

* Not applicable or no significant trend data available. Roman Numeral Codes: I. Discipline, Other Materials as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) II. Discipline, Subcontracts as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) III. Discipline, Direct Labor as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) IV. Discipline, Material cost as a percent of Total Material costs. (IV**) V. Discipline, Subcontract cost as a percent of Total Subcontract costs. (V**) VI. Discipline, Labor cost as a percent of Total Labor cost. (VI**) VII. Discipline, Total cost as a percent of Total Direct cost. (VII**)

LIQUID TYPE CHEMICAL PLANT Ratio Percentages Direct Cost
Average Percent of Totals V VI VII 61.30 5.44 37.60 0.01 0.72 0.82 1.74 2.95 1.70 6.30 15.04 6.39 * 6.51 4.89 8.23 6.08 3.55 0.02 4.04 2.17 7.35 34.54 20.40 * 0.39 0.25 * 9.50 6.85 * 4.59 8.24 * 6.44 3.74 * 3.93 1.70 0.85 1.05 0.66 * 3.09 1.04 100.0 100.0 100.0

Discipline 1. Process Equipment 2. Site Preparation 3. Site Improvements 4. Concrete 5. Structural Steel 6. Buildings 7. Underground Piping 8. Above-ground Piping 9. Underground Electric 10. Above-ground Electric 11. Instrumentation 12. Insulation 13. Painting 14. Paving 15. Proratables ** Total Direct Cost

Percentage Ratio Ranges I II HI IV 100.00 24.00-25.50 3.75-5.50 43.50 1.75-2.50 0.01-0.01 0.50-1.00 1.00 2.75-3.50 0.60-0.75 1.50-2.25 1.30 7.50-8.75 2.00-3.00 9.00-12.00 3.58 11.50-12.50 * 4.00-6.00 5.20 4.00-5.00 3.00-3.50 3.50-4.50 1.90 4.00-5.00 0.01-0.02 2.75-3.25 2.00 37.00-43.00 2.75-3.25 24.00-27.00 18.30 0.40-0.60 * 0.20-0.40 0.20 15.00-17.00 * 6.50-7.75 7.20 22.00-25.00 * 3.25-4.50 10.90 7.50-8.50 * 4.50-5.25 3.60 2.50-3.25 * 2.75-2.90 6.30 1.00-1.50 0.30-0.40 0.50-1.00 0.50 1.00-1.50 * 2.00-2.40 0.60 217.9-237.5 32.57-36.43 68.7-85.7 100.0

* Not applicable or no significant trend data available. Roman Numeral Codes: I. Discipline, Other Materials as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) II. Discipline, Subcontracts as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) III. Discipline, Direct Labor as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) IV. Discipline, Material cost as a percent of Total Material costs. (IV**) V. Discipline, Subcontract cost as a percent of Total Subcontract costs. (V**) VI. Discipline, Labor cost as a percent of Total Labor cost. (VI**) VII. Discipline, Total cost as a percent of Total Direct cost. (VII**)

SOLID TYPE CHEMICAL PLANTS Ratio Percentages Direct Cost
Average Percent of Totals V VI VlT 69.24 4.99 37.80 0.02 0.78 0.97 2.32 3.20 2.02 7.37 17.08 7.59 * 7.06 5.81 10.99 6.51 4.22 0.02 4.05 2.38 9.06 34.59 22.37 * 0.35 0.25 * 8.72 6.89 * 2.11 4.14 * 4.03 2.56 * 2.46 1.17 0.98 0.98 0.68 * 3.09 1.15 100.0 100.0 100.0

Discipline 1. Process Equipment 2. Site Preparation 3. Site Improvements 4. Concrete 5. Structural Steel 6. Buildings 7. Underground Piping 8. Above-ground Piping 9. Underground Electric 10. Above-ground Electric 11. Instrumentation 12. Insulation 13. Painting 14. Paving 15. Proratables ** Tbtal Direct Cost

Percentage Ratio Ranges I II IH IV 100.00 25.00-26.00 3.75-4.75 44.16 2.50-3.00 0.01-0.01 0.50-1.00 1.19 3.50-3.75 0.80-0.90 2.25-3.00 1.57 8.75-10.25 2.50-3.00 12.00-13.75 4.33 12.50-14.30 * 5.50-6.25 6.30 5.00-5.50 3.75-4.25 4.00-5.25 2.34 4.75-5.50 0.01-0.01 3.00-3.25 2.18 45.50-46.00 3.25-3.50 27.00-28.25 20.27 0.50-0.70 * 0.30-0.50 0.25 15.50-17.00 * 6.75-7.25 7.35 12.25-14.00 * 1.50-2.50 5.51 5.50-6.50 * 3.00-4.00 2.47 2.00-2.75 * 1.75-2.25 0.91 1.10-1.80 0.30-0.40 0.75-1.00 0.52 1.40-1.75 * 2.25-2.50 0.65 220.8-232.8 36.12-38.07 74.30-85.50 100.0

* Not applicable or no significant trend data available. Roman Numeral Codes: I. Discipline, Other Materials as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) II. Discipline, Subcontracts as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) III. Discipline, Direct Labor as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) IV. Discipline, Material cost as a percent of Total Material costs. (IV**) V. Discipline, Subcontract cost as a percent of Total Subcontract costs. (V**) VI. Discipline, Labor cost as a percent of Total Labor cost. (VI**) VII. Discipline, Total cost as a percent of Total Direct cost. (VII**)

LIQUID/SOLID TYPE CHEMICAL PLANTS Ratio Percentages Direct Cost
Average Percent of Totals V VI 70.31 4.93 0.02 0.74 2.25 3.02 7.16 16.15 * 6.68 10.67 6.16 0.01 3.75 8.62 32.03 * 0.36 * 9.00 * 4.17 * 5.72 * 3.49 0.96 0.94 * 2.86 100.0 100.0

Discipline 1. Process Equipment 2. Site Preparation 3. Site Improvements 4. Concrete 5. Structural Steel 6. Buildings 7. Underground Piping 8. Above-ground Piping 9. Underground Electric 10. Above-ground Electric 11. Instrumentation 12. Insulation 13. Painting 14. Paving 15. Proratables ** Total Direct Cost

Percentage Ratio Ranges I II HI IV 100.00 25.00-26.50 4.00-6.00 42.00 2.25-3.00 0.01-0.01 0.60-1.25 1.08 3.30-3.80 0.75-0.85 2.25-3.00 1.43 9.25-10.50 2.75-3.50 12.50-14.00 3.94 13.50-14.50 * 5.50-6.50 5.73 5.00-5.50 3.75-4.25 4.75-5.25 2.13 4.50-5.25 0.01-0.01 3.00-3.50 1.94 43.00-45.00 3.00-3.50 25.50-28.00 18.06 0.60-0.90 * 0.30-0.50 0.25 17.00-18.00 * 7.15-8.00 7.30 24.00-27.00 * 3.30-4.60 10.48 8.00-9.00 * 4.50-5.50 3.37 3.00-3.50 * 2.80-3.10 2.14 1.25-1.75 0.30-0.50 0.75-1.25 0.47 1.50-2.00 * 2.25-2.50 0.58 237.2-249.7 35.57-39.12 79.15-92.95 100.0

VII 36.52 0.90 1.87 7.01 5.37 3.90 2.15 20.25 0.25 6.94 8.00 3.55 1.62 0.63 1.04 100.0

* Not applicable or no significant trend data available. Roman Numeral Codes: I. Discipline, Other Materials as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) II. Discipline, Subcontracts as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) III. Discipline, Direct Labor as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) IV. Discipline, Material cost as a percent of Total Material costs. (IV**) V. Discipline, Subcontract cost as a percent of Total Subcontract costs. (V**) VI. Discipline, Labor cost as a percent of Total Labor cost. (VI**) VII. Discipline, Total cost as a percent of Total Direct cost. (VII**)

CHEMICAL PLANT—LIQUID HIGH PRESSURE TYPE 4000 TO 5000 PSI Ratio Percentages Direct Cost

Discipline 1. Process Equipment 2. Site Preparation 3. Site Improvements 4. Concrete 5. Structural Steel 6. Buildings 7. Underground Piping 8. Above-ground Piping 9. Underground Electric 10. Above-ground Electric 11. Instrumentation 12. Insulation 13. Painting 14. Paving 15. Proratables ** Total Direct Cost

Average Percent Percentage Ratio Ranges of Totals I II III IV V VI VII 100.00 25.00-26.00 3.75-5.00 43.16 74.86 5.34 38.10 1.70-2.25 0.01-0.01 0.25-0.50 0.75 0.01 0.54 0.63 2.30-3.00 0.50-0.75 1.50-1.75 0.99 1.62 2.21 1.31 6.50-7.25 1.75-2.00 9.25-10.00 2.92 5.30 12.62 5.26 9.00-10.00 * 3.50-4.00 3.98 * 4.88 3.78 3.25-4.00 2.50-3.00 3.25-3.75 1.48 7.67 4.50 2.75 4.75-5.25 0.01-0.01 3.00-3.25 2.12 0.02 4.30 2.38 45.25-47.00 3.25-3.50 27.00-28.00 19.66 9.72 36.75 22.38 0.50-1.00 * 0.25-0.40 0.25 * 0.38 0.25 16.50-17.25 * 6.75-7.25 7.19 * 9.34 6.94 26.50-27.50 * 3.50-4.00 11.66 * 4.88 9.04 8.00-8.50 * 4.50-5.00 3.54 * 6.33 3.79 2.75-3.25 * 2.75-3.00 1.30 * 3.86 1.73 0.75-1.25 0.02-0.04 0.50-0.70 0.37 0.80 0.79 0.51 1.25-1.50 * 2.00-2.50 0.63 * 3.28 1.15 229.0-239.0 33.04-35.31 71.75-79.10 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* Not applicable or no significant trend data available. Roman Numeral Codes: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Discipline, Other Materials as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) Discipline, Subcontracts as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) Discipline, Direct Labor as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) Discipline, Material cost as a percent of Total Material costs. (IV**) Discipline, Subcontract cost as a percent of Total Subcontract costs. (V**) Discipline, Labor cost as a percent of Total Labor cost. (VI**) Discipline, Total cost as a percent of Total Direct cost. (VII**)

CHEMICAL PLANT—LIQUID HIGH ALLOY TYPE Ratio Percentages Direct Cost
Average Percent of Totals V VI VlT 75.07 5.74 40.18 0.01 0.59 0.68 1.65 2.42 1.42 5.09 12.97 5.31 * 5.35 4.06 7.84 4.93 2.95 0.02 4.51 2.45 9.51 38.51 23.01 * 0.27 0.18 * 6.69 4.88 * 4.58 8.31 * 5.67 3.33 * 3.46 1.52 0.81 0.87 0.54 *• 3.44 1.18 100.0 100.0 100.0

Discipline 1. Process Equipment 2. Site Preparation 3. Site Improvements 4. Concrete 5. Structural Steel 6. Buildings 7. Underground Piping 8. Above-ground Piping 9. Underground Electric 10. Above-ground Electric 11. Instrumentation 12. Insulation 13. Painting 14. Paving 15. Proratables ** Total Direct Cost

Percentage Ratio Ranges I II HI IV 100.00 25.00-25.50 3.75-4.25 45.58 1.50-2.00 0.01-0.01 0.25-0.50 0.81 2.25-3.00 0.50-0.75 1.50-1.75 1.07 6.25-7.00 1.50-2.00 8.75-10.00 2.95 9.25-9.75 * 3.50-3.75 4.28 3.25-4.00 2.50-3.00 3.25-3.50 1.59 4.50-5.00 0.01-0.01 3.00-3.50 2.18 44.25-45.00 3.00-3.25 26.00-27.50 20.24 0.25-0.50 * 0.01-0.02 0.17 11.00-12.00 * 4.50-5.25 5.06 23.50-25.00 * 3.00-4.00 10.75 6.75-7.25 * 3.50-4.00 3.11 2.50-3.00 * 2.25-2.50 1.14 0.75-1.00 0.25-0.50 0.50-0.70 0.42 1.25-1.50 * 2.00-2.50 0.65 217.3-226.0 32.77-35.02 65.76-73.72 100.0

* Not applicable or no significant trend data available. Roman Numeral Codes: I. Discipline, Other Materials as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) II. Discipline, Subcontracts as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) III. Discipline, Direct Labor as a percent of Process Equipment costs. (1,1) IV. Discipline, Material cost as a percent of Total Material costs. (IV**) V. Discipline, Subcontract cost as a percent of Total Subcontract costs. (V**) VI. Discipline, Labor cost as a percent of Total Labor cost. (VI**) VII. Discipline, Total cost as a percent of Total Direct cost. (VII**)

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Ratio Percentages As A Percent Of Direct Field Labor
Percent of Direct Field Labor Range Average 12.0-18.0 15.0 2.0-6.0 4.0 7.0-15.0 1^0 21.0-39.0 31.0

Description 16. Rental or Purchase 17. Service Labor 18. Fuel, Oil, Grease, Supplies Tbtal

Note: Fuel percentage based on diesel cost of $1.25 per gallon.

OVERHEAD AND INDIRECTS Ratio Percentages As A Percent Of Direct Field Labor
Percent of Direct Field Labor Range Average 8.0-12.0 10.0 4.0-8.0 16.0 3.0-7.0 5.0 10.0-20.0 15.0 25.0-28.0 5.0-10.0 10.0-20.0 65.0-105.0 27.0 7.0 1^0 85.0

Description 19. Salaried Indirect Office Hourly Indirects Field Hourly Indirects 20. Temporary Construction Facilities* 21. Burdens and Benefits 22. Small Tools and Consumables 23. Other Indirects Tbtal * Includes Labor for Constructing.

HOME OFFICE SERVICES Ratio Percentages As A Percent Of Tbtal Direct And Indirect Cost
Percent of Total Direct and Indirect Range Average 8.0-16.0 12.0 0.1-0.4 0.2 1.0-1.5 U 9.1-17.9 13.3

Description 24. Engineering/Design Services 25. Construction Services 26. Project General Management Tbtal

Section 19 ESTIMATE ADJUSTMENTS

Each estimate, in all probability, will need some or all of the following adjustments dependent upon the scope of work, amount of pre-bid information available, and the type of estimate to be prepared. The following are definitions of these adjustments: Design Allowance. The design allowance is an adjustment to the estimated mechanical equipment cost to provide for nominal and routine changes in equipment design. The design allowance is included in the details of the estimate and is considered as part of the direct base cost. The magnitude of the design allowance is a function of the amount of design information available to the estimator, and it decreases as the accuracy level of the estimate increases. An example of a design allowance is the addition of money for routine nozzle and clip changes on a fabricated vessel. It is expected that all design allowance money will be expended during the project. Quantity Allowance. The quantity allowance is an adjustment to the estimated construction activity take-off quantities to provide for (1) the difference between neat take-off quantities and in-place quantities and for (2) consideration of fabrication waste. The quantity allowance is included in the details of the estimate and is considered as a part of the direct base cost. The magnitude of the quantity allowance is a function of the amount of design information available to the estimator and decreases as the accuracy level of the estimate increases. An example of a quantity allowance is adding to the piping take-off an allowed quantity of small diameter pipe and valves for vents and drains not shown on estimate drawings. It is expected that all quantity allowance money will be expended during the project. Escalation. The escalation is the amount of dollars or percentage of cost added to the estimated base cost to provide for procurement at a future date later than the estimate. The magnitude of the escalation is a

function of an appraisal of anticipated market conditions during the design and construction phases of the project. It is expected that all escalation money will be expended during the project. Contingencies. A percentage of base cost plus escalation and taxes or amounts added to same providing coverage for human calculation or judgement error in accumulation of estimate scope. Contingencies are anticipated to be spent and form a part of the cost of the project. Contingencies vary directly with the accuracy level of the estimate. The more gross the method of estimating, the higher the contingencies. Contingencies do not provide any funds for scope changes. Examples of items covered by contingency are: piping lines missed on take-off, extension errors, dimension errors, etc. Bisk. An amount of money or percent of base cost plus lower level additives (except fee) normally added to the base cost plus additives to cover the chances of probabilities that the base cost estimate plus additives is not ample for financing of the project. Risk is normally associated with the monies applied by a contractor's management in the case of a "lump sum" or "guaranteed maximum" or an owner for other contractual arrangements to cover costs that might occur, but hopefully will not. Risk monies may or may not be spent. These monies are added to provide financial protection and quantify management or executive judgements for final project cost outcome. Considerations of changes in scope normally generated by an organization should be covered in these amounts. In rare cases, risk could be expressed as a deduction from the base cost plus additives. Examples of items covered by risk are: inclement weather conditions, time extensions of the project, prototype processes, productivity loss, etc. Fees. The amount of money anticipated to be recovered by the contractor to provide funds for payments of his non-project overhead and profit.

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