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We define a control volume surrounding the body as follows

Trefftz plane ST (part of S )

body z Sbody y x, V

8

S

8

Upstream flow is V∞ and is in x − direction. Thus, drag is the force in x − direction. Apply integral momentum in x to find induced drag.

S body + S ∞

**∫∫ ρuu ⋅ ndS = − ∫∫ pndS
**

S body + S ∞

KK K

K

K K First, on the body u ⋅ n = 0 , so:

**∫∫ ρuu ⋅ ndS = − ∫∫ pndS
**

S∞ S body + S ∞

KK K

K

**Next, also on the body,
**

−

S body

∫∫ pndS =

K

force of body acting on fluid

We are interested in the exact opposite, i.e. the force acting on the body. In x , this is the drag, in z this is the lift, and in y this is a yaw or side force:

we note that ρ ∫∫V∞ u ⋅ n dS = ρV∞ ∫∫ u ⋅ n dS = 0 from conservation of mass S∞ S∞ K K K K 16. ∫∫ ( p∞ + S∞ 1 1 K K ρV∞2 )n ⋅ idS = ( p∞ + ρV∞2 ) 2 2 K K n ∫∫ ⋅ idS = 0 for a closed surface S∞ 1 K K K K D = ∫∫ ρ (u 2 + v 2 + w 2 )n ⋅ i dS − ∫∫ ρu u ⋅ n dS 2 S∞ S∞ Next. we divide the velocity into a freestream and a perturbation: ˆ u = V∞ + u ˆ v= v w= ˆ w ˆ. v ˆ. w ˆ are perturbation velocities (not necessarily small). let’s pull out the drag: K K KK K D = − ∫∫ pn ⋅ i dS − ∫∫ ρu u ⋅ n dS S∞ S∞ The next piece is to apply Bernoulli to eliminate the pressure: p = p∞ + ⇒ 1 1 ρV∞2 − ρ (u 2 + v 2 + w 2 ) 2 2 1 1 K K K K D = − ∫∫ p ∞ + ρV∞2 − ρ (u 2 + v 2 + w 2 )n ⋅ i dS − ∫∫ ρu u ⋅ n dS 2 2 S∞ S∞ But.Trefftz Plane Analysis of Induced Drag ⇒ − S body K K K K p n dS D i Y j L k = − − − ∫∫ ⇒ K K K K KK K Di + Yj + Lk = − ∫∫ pndS − ∫∫ ρ u u ⋅ ndS S∞ S∞ Now.100 2002 2 . where u Substitution gives: D= 1 K K K K ˆ+u ˆ2 + v ˆ2 + w ˆ 2 )n ⋅ idS − ρ ∫∫ (V∞ + u ˆ )u ⋅ ndS ρ ∫∫ (V∞2 + 2V∞u 2 S∞ S ∞ But.

this brings us to the final answer D= 1 ˆ2 + w ˆ 2 )dS ρ ∫∫ (v 2 ST In other words.Trefftz Plane Analysis of Induced Drag ⇒ 1 K K K K K K ˆ n ⋅ i dS + ρ ∫∫ (u ˆ2 + v ˆ2 + w ˆ 2 )n ⋅ i dS − ρ ∫∫ u ˆ u ⋅ ndS D = ρV∞ ∫∫ u 2 S∞ S∞ S∞ If we take the control volume boundary far away from the wing. ˆ. which far downstream must be in the x − direction. cannot induce an x − component of velocity. The reason is that the trailing vortices. u ⇒ D = ρV∞ ˆ ˆ + ρ ∫∫ (u ∫∫ udS 2 ST ST 1 2 ˆ2 + w ˆ 2 )dS − ρ ∫∫ u ˆ ( V∞ + u ˆ)dS +v ST ⇒ D= 1 ˆ2 + w ˆ2 −u ˆ 2 )dS ρ ∫∫ (v 2 ST The final step is to note that far downstream the x − velocity perturbation must die away (in inviscid flow).100 2002 3 . the induced drag is the kinetic energy which is transferred into the crossflow (i.e. w ˆ → 0 except on S T . Downstream the presence of trailing vortices will create non-zero perturbations (more on this in a bit). v ˆ. then the velocity perturbations go to zero except downstream. So. So. the trailing vortices)! 16.

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