# Three-Dimensional Wall Effects In a freestream, recall that a lifting body can e modeled by a horseshoe vortex

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V∞

Γ

Consider a rectangular cross-section tunnel:

Flow is into page

Γ wing

Γ

The image system for this looks like:

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images y y y Γ y

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actual tunnel y y images y y y y

images y images y y y

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sectional area δ = factor which depends on tunnel & model geometry Wright Brothers is an elliptic cross-section with dimensions 10 ft wide by 7 ft high.100 2002 2 . C Di ∝ C Lα i ⇒ ∆C Di = C L ∆α i ⇒ C Di = C Di ∞ tunnel + ∆C Di Or.Three-Dimensional Wall Effects The effect of these images is: For fixed lift. this creates decrease in induced drag relative to freestream flight: Recall. since we are interested in the total drag: C D∞ = C Dtunnel + ∆C Di Specific formulas derived in detailed analysis give that: S ∆α i = δ ( )C L C where S = reference area C = tunnel cross . ∗ an upwash exists due to images ⇒ α is effectively larger α∞ effective freestream AOA ≅ α tunnel AOA of model in tunnel + ∆α i correction due to upwash induced by images ∗ Similarly. b h B 16. such that Γ is constant.

δ K = Effective span/Jet width 16.100 2002 3 .Three-Dimensional Wall Effects Define: h B b k≡ e B be ≡ effective span ≈ 0.9b λ≡ be horseshoe model b caused because wing tip trailing vortices are inboard of tips a short distance downstream actual trailing vortex Values of δ for a wing with uniform loading in a closed elliptical jet Boundary Correction Factor.