CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING

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Control Valves and Tuning
Table of Contents Control Valves AND TUNING........................................................................................................1 Control Valves AND TUNING........................................................................................................2 RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS.........................................................................2 Control Valve Bodies................................................................................................................2 Control-Valve Actuators...........................................................................................................2 Discussion of Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection..........................................................2 QUICK-OPENING..............................................................................................................2 LINEAR FLOW...................................................................................................................2 EQUAL-PERCENTAGE.....................................................................................................3 CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP...........................................................................................3 SIZING BY CALCULATION.............................................................................................3 AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION..........................................................................4 LIQUID SERVICE..................................................................................................................4 CAVITATION......................................................................................................................4 FLASHING..........................................................................................................................5 TUNING CONTROL LOOPS.....................................................................................................6 TUNING CONSTANTS..........................................................................................................6 PROPORTIONAL BAND (K).............................................................................................6 GAIN (K) CALCULATION................................................................................................6 INTEGRAL or RESET (T1)................................................................................................6 DERIVATIVE (T2)..............................................................................................................6 TUNING..................................................................................................................................7 ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND....................................................................................7 ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION..........................................................................7 ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE).........................................................................7 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS.................................................................................................8 TUNING CONTROLLERS.........................................................................................................9 GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS........................................................................9 FLOW..................................................................................................................................9 LEVEL.................................................................................................................................9 LIQUID PRESSURE.........................................................................................................10 GAS PRESSURE...............................................................................................................10 TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION....................................10 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD........................................................11 CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS....................................11 DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS........................................................11 CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES.....................................................................................12 PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS..................................................13

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook

When the valve plug nears the wide-open position. however. Final selection depends upon detailed review of the engineering application. RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS CONTROL VALVE BODIES The rate of fluid flow varies as the position of the valve plug is changed by force from the actuator. The spring and diaphragm pneumatic actuator is commonly specified.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 2 of 13 CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Selecting the proper control valve for each application involves many factors. it is also suitable for many applications where a linear valve plug would normally be specified. and plug characteristic are critical items for selection. but electric. the quick-opening valve plug is used primarily for on-off service. Pneumatically operated piston actuators provide integral positioner capability and high stem-force output for demanding service conditions. Additional increases in valve travel give sharply reduced changes in flow rate. the valve body must permit actuator thrust transmission. "Installed flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic obtained in service when the pressure drop varies with flow and other changes in the system. but other configurations such as ball and butterfly styles are available. Therefore. it must do all of this without external leakage. DISCUSSION OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND VALVE SELECTION The flow characteristic of a control valve is the relationship between the flow rate through the valve and the valve travel as the travel is varied from 0 to 100 percent. Most valve body designs are of the globe style. QUICK-OPENING The quick-opening flow characteristic provides for maximum change in flow rate at low valve travel with a fairly linear relationship. the change in flow rate approaches zero. noise prediction and control becomes a significant factor. The valve body design. resist chemical and physical effects of the process. "Inherent flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic observed during flow with a constant pressure drop across the valve. CONTROL-VALVE ACTUATORS Pneumatically operated control-valve actuators are the most popular type in use. and manual actuators are also widely used. In areas where personnel will be affected. actuator. due to its dependability and its simplicity of design. hydraulic. style. In a control valve. economical process control. LINEAR FLOW Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . efficient. Proper valve sizing is necessary for accurate. and provide the appropriate end connections to mate with the adjacent piping.

value for the valve selected from the catalog. the equation must be limited to 90 degrees.) The linear-valve plug is commonly specified for liquid level control and for certain flow control applications requiring constant gain. The first step is to calculate the required Cg by using the sizing equation. as a rule of thumb. Critical flow is a choked flow condition caused by increasing gas velocity at the vena contracta. the change in flow rate will be large. The change in flow rate is always proportional to the flow rate just before the change in position is made for a valve plug. ∆P/P. with only a relatively small percentage by the control valve. CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP Critical flow limitation is a significant problem when sizing valves for gaseous service. ∆P. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . Valves with an equal-percentage flow characteristic are generally used for pressure control applications. or ball is near its seat and the flow is small. This proportional relationship produces a characteristic with a constant slope so that with constant pressure drop (∆P). causes the sine angle to be 90 degrees. The second step is to select a valve from the manufacturer's catalog. When the valve plug. which equals or exceeds the calculated value. The valve selected should have a Cg. the equation will predict the value of the critical flow. or ball position. additional increases in pressure drop. Valves with an equal-percentage characteristic should also be considered where highly varying pressure drop conditions could be expected. Gain is a function of valve size and configuration. the valve gain will be the same at all flows. equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in the existing flow. The assumed C. Note: Where detailed process knowledge is lacking. critical flow has been reached. the gas and vapor sizing equations are used to determine the proper valve size for a given set of service conditions. EQUAL-PERCENTAGE In the equal-percentage flow characteristic. as no further increase in pressure drop will cause an increase in flow. They are also used for other applications where a large percentage of the total system pressure drop is normally absorbed by the system itself. disc. (by reducing downstream pressure) produces no increase in flow. value for the Cg calculation must match the C. The modified parabolic-flow characteristic curve falls between the linear and the equal-percentage curve. with a large flow. disc. SIZING BY CALCULATION The gas sizing equations can be used to determine the flow of gas or vapor through any style of valve. When the critical pressure drop ratio. The vena contracta is the point of minimum cross-sectional area of the flow stream which occurs just downstream of the actual physical restriction. use equal-percentage characteristics at 70 percent opening. Most commonly. When the velocity at the vena contracta reaches sonic velocity. system operating conditions and valve plug characteristic.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 3 of 13 The linear flow-characteristic curve shows that the flow rate is directly proportional to the valve travel. Absolute units of temperature and pressure must be used in the equation. For service conditions that would result in an angle of greater than 90 degrees. the change in flow rate will be small. (Valve gain is the ratio of an incremental change in flow rate to an incremental change in valve plug position.

such as ball and butterfly valves. Simultaneously. the fluid stream is accelerated as it flows through the restricted area of the orifice. Applying the equation requires knowledge of one additional condition not included in previous equations. Downstream from the vena contracta. At this point. In order to understand the problems more thoroughly. is the result of Reynolds stresses and shear forces that are the results of turbulent flow. as the velocity increases. and Cg values derived by the manufacturers. the fluid stream undergoes a deceleration process resulting in a reversal of the energy interchange. that being the inlet gas density (d). appear in the fluid stream. the most common type of control valve noise. Noise from turbulent flow is more common in valves handling compressible gases than in those controlling liquids. CAVITATION In a control valve. the pressure at the vena contracta will be reduced to the vapor pressure of the liquid. reaching maximum velocity at the vena contracta. A single coefficient is not sufficient to describe both the capacity and the recovery characteristics of the valve. which not only broadens the scope of valve-sizing techniques but also increases the sizing accuracy. This method introduces a critical pressure ratio factor. If the velocity increases sufficiently. The mass flow form of the sizing equation is the most general form and can be used for both ideal and non-ideal vapor applications. r. Predicted noise levels can then be used to select the necessary degree of noise control for each application. AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION Aerodynamic noise. Graphical solution of the following equation provides a very expeditious and accurate technique for predicting ambient noise levels resulting from the flow of compressible fluids through globe valves.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 4 of 13 Accurate valve sizing for gases requires the use of dual coefficients. it will help to determine more accurately the maximum allowable pressure drop for sizing purposes. an interchange of energy between the velocity and pressure heads forces a reduction in the pressure. a brief discussion of the cavitation and flashing processes is presented in the following. Cg and C1. voids or cavities. When used in equations. can be sized in a similar manner using the unique C. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . LIQUID SERVICE The procedure used to size control valves for liquid service should consider the possibility of cavitation and flashing since they can limit the capacity and produce physical damage to the valve. Other valve configurations. Noise-prediction techniques outlined below may be used to determine control-valve noise levels. which raises the pressure above the liquid vapor pressure. the first stage in cavitation.

that is. These implosions. When sufficient vapor has been formed. the flow will become completely choked. the increase in flow rate will no longer be proportional to an increase in the square root of the body differential pressure. After the first vapor cavities are formed. the final stage in the cavitation process. vapor forms as the vena contracta pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure of the liquid Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . the fluid will remain in the vapor state because the downstream pressure is equal to or less than the vapor pressure of the liquid. FLASHING If the pressure at the vena contracta remains low. The first stages of cavitation and flashing are identical. As long as the inlet pressure (P1) remains constant. In order to avoid cavitation completely. an increase in pressure drop (∆P) will not cause the flow to increase.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 5 of 13 The vapor cavities cannot exist at the increased pressure and are forced to collapse or implode. the pressure at the vena contracta must remain above the vapor pressure of the liquid. produce noise. vibration and physical damage.

• If a Proportional Band is larger than 100%. GAIN (K) CALCULATION Ratio of entire span of measurement to percent span being used as Proportional Band. • The controller's output signal determines the amount of movement that will be produced at the control valve. • Derivative action is expressed in minutes. each percent change of input signal to the controller will produce a greater percent of change at the controller's output. therefore K = 2. GAIN = Assume GAIN = GAIN = 100% (the entire span of measurement) % of span being used as a proportional band 50% proportional band. • The Proportional Band that is selected for a particular operating situation determines how much corrective signal the controller can produce for each percent of change in the variable controlled by the controller. each percent change in input signal to the controller will produce a smaller percent of change at the controller's output.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 6 of 13 TUNING CONTROL LOOPS TUNING CONSTANTS PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) • If Proportional Band is 100%. each percent of change at the input to the controller will produce the same percent of change at the controller's output. i. it's action consists of decreasing the number of repeats per minute required to drive the error back to setpoint. • If a Proportional Band is less than 100%. INTEGRAL OR RESET (T1) • Integral action repeats the proportional controllers initial corrective signal until there is no difference between the PV and Setpoint. • Integral ( T1 ) is expressed in "Minutes per Repeat" DERIVATIVE (T2) • Changes the output of a controller in proportion to the "RATE" or "SPEED" at which the controlled variable is moving towards or away from the setpoint. • Represents the time that the proportional plus derivative will take to reach a certain level of output. PB = PROPORTIONAL BAND 100% (span) 50% (PB) 2 Honeywell uses letter “K" to represent GAIN. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . in advance of the time proportional action alone would produce the same output.e: When derivative is applied to a two mode controller ( PI ). to make it a three mode controller ( PID ).

adjust the proportional band to a smaller value (higher gain) until cycling or instability begins. ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION This is done by reducing the time value (in seconds). always set the reset (integral) adjustment at. Normally. etc. etc. ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE) If a derivative adjustment is felt necessary. increase the reset adjustment by 50%. increase the reset to three seconds. adjust the derivative action by beginning at a setting of one second. then reduce the reset to five seconds. That is. If cycling is observed at 8 seconds. Cycling should stop. from 18% to 24%. Then. etc. Then reduce the reset to ten seconds. The proportional band adjustment should now be properly set and should be left at this value. then reduce the reset to two seconds. until improvement is observed and seems to be optimal. etc. The reset action should now be properly adjusted and should be left at this value. for instance with a speed control loop. then halve the proportional band to 10% (a gain of 10). then halve the proportional band to 20% (a gain of 5). That is. increase the reset to 12 seconds. then three. from 10% to 15%. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . When cycling or instability begins.5). derivative action is not needed and does not help the situation. say twenty or thirty seconds or more before adjusting the proportional band. Example: If cycling is observed at two seconds. Say the reset is at twenty seconds. then two. EXAMPLE: Start with 40% proportional band (a gain of 2. increase the proportional band by 50 percent.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 7 of 13 TUNING ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND Always tune proportional band with very little reset action. When cycling just begins.

no noise. no noise. Gain near 1. add dead time. Low gain. Dead time usually present.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 8 of 13 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS Very fast. Linear. high PB Derivative hurts. Valve is the major dynamic element. Sometimes noisy due to poor On line analyzers fast. Valve characteristic unimportant. fast reset. Most lags are in the control system. Linear. pH mixing. Usually linear. fast reset rate. Slow compared to other pressure valves. Dead time possible. Reset seldom necessary. Settings vary. Non linear. Dead time possible (especially in Settings vary but gain usually above 1. Equal percentage Linear. nonlinear. Three response controllers. Single capacity Precise control: No dead time. Averaging control: Infrequent noise. P + I controllers. PRESSURE (Liquid) PRESSURE (Gas) PRESSURE (Vapor) P + I Controllers. Derivative of limited value if dead time is large. variable reset rate. processes. Noisy Single capacity. No dead time. often noisy. High gain controllers. No Noise. specialized controllers. Equal percentage valves. heat exchangers). Simple process. Measurement dynamics are important. Derivative unnecessary. Noisy. Equal percentage valves for linear measurement. Linear. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . FLOW Non Linear (square) measurement common. Low gain. P + I Controller. Derivative sometimes useful. Dynamics vary. Fast. Valve characteristic relatively unimportant LEVEL TEMPERATURE COMPOSITION Three response controllers. Derivative of no value. Dynamics vary. Multiple capacity system. Linear valve. Most lags are in the control system. Self acting or high gain proportional controllers. Linear valves. Sampling systems complicate both measurement and control. Linear valves for differential pressure measurement. Low gain.

then a shorter integral time can be used but remember that a large value is safer. you will find the loop will always cycle. Adjust the proportional band so that the measurement is not too noisy.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 9 of 13 TUNING CONTROLLERS Since there are a very large number of combinations of the two or sometimes three. IMPORTANT NOTE: No controller will work when the valve is almost closed or almost wide open.e. Never use derivative action in a flow loop. If you do not have a feel for the process characteristics or cannot find someone to enlighten you.3 minutes but are rare exceptions. often with a period (time from the peak of one cycle to the peak of the next) of 10 to 15 minutes. LEVEL The next most common loop after flow is level. Set the integral at 10 minutes. Don't attempt tuning under these conditions. This will satisfy 80 to 90% of the level applications in a plant. "knobs" provided for controller tuning. then the controller must be tuned fast too.e. Slow moving or sticky control valves may require 0. DO NOT EVER USE A SHORT INTEGRAL VALUE IN A LEVEL LOOP. inspect the valve and orifice installation to find the.2 or 0. If these settings do not work. temperature control of a tray part way up a distillation column). A few require upsetting the process to some extent. Use the controller in manual or a hand valve if you think a 10 minute reset time is necessary. If the process is slow (i. GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS FLOW Usually. Have the operator open or close a bypass (if one exists) or wait until process conditions change enough to get the valve back within its operating range (from 5 to 95% of travel as extreme limits with 10 to 90% as a safer range). Fix the problem.1 minutes. If you do. at least half of the control loops in a plant are flow loops. If the process is fast to respond (i. the longer the period. then the controller must be tuned slow TO MATCH THE PROCESS. Fast or slow for a controller refers to integral (or reset). The shorter the integral time. Do not confuse these actions or grief will be your constant companion during your controller tuning efforts. often an unacceptable practice in real life. a flow loop). NOT PROPORTIONAL BAND (or gain). Do not adjust the controller to some ridiculous setting such as a 10 minute reset time. then a greater value of integral must be used. Set integral (I) at 0. many methods have been developed over the years to aid in their proper adjustment. problem. If the vessel is large and the controlling flow is a trickle. These notes are intended to provide a few simple rules to use in tuning controllers which will minimize upsets and still get the job done. THE CONTROLLER MUST BE ADJUSTED TO BALANCE THE PROCESS. leave controller tuning to someone else who can get the needed information. A loop where a valve positioner has been used will require a proportional band setting two to three times larger than for a loop without a positioner. if the vessel time constant (volume/flow) is 1 to 2 minutes. usually about 300% although an occasional poor meter run installation may require as much as 1000%. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .

AND COMPOSITION There are several ways to tune these more difficult loops. set the proportional band to as small a value as possible (20-50%) without causing cycling. sometimes with flat bottoms and/or tops Limit cycle will show about 5% change. Switch the controller to automatic when the measurement is close to the desired set point. measure the time from peak to peak (high to high or low to low). increase the proportional band (double. There is absolutely nothing you can do to tune out such a limit cycle. The period will get shorter as the integral time is increased. Noise should not be as severe as for flow and proportional bands will usually be smaller. A limit cycle looks like a saw blade. triple etc. and no derivative. follow the procedure given below. When the flow is used to control the level going to tankage. Proportional bands can be quite small (under 100% and often as small as 20-30%. cycling is usually unimportant. as flow loops. TEMPERATURE. Never use derivative action in a level loop. The first is to use starting settings of 100% proportional band. If the shortcut method described above is unsuccessful or you want to be a bit more methodical. and composition. If a cycle develops. VAPOR PRESSURE.). If it is the reflux or feed to a distillation tower. you're pretty well finished. the integral time is too short and is causing the cycle. When the period is about twice the integral time and the cycles are dampening out. a 5 or 10 minute integral time.) until the cycles damp out. If each peak is higher than the one before. LIQUID PRESSURE Tune the same. It will always work and will leave no doubt as to the characteristics of the control loop. Increase the integral time. Divide by two. set the derivative at one quarter of the integral time. Well now that you've tuned over 90% of the loops in the typical plant. Level loops will usually show a limit cycle when the level controller sets a valve. then such a limit cycle may be unacceptable. GAS PRESSURE Tune the same as level loops using a large integral value. on to the more difficult control tuning applications. vapor pressure. This is the period of the control loop.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 10 of 13 If close control of level is important. which is not equipped with a positioner. usually of the flat bottom type (when almost closed) or of the flat top type when almost fully open. If the measurement is not noisy. These are temperature. Changes in tuning will shorten or lengthen the period but only a positioner or level cascaded to a flow controller will eliminate the problem. Use a larger proportional band (perhaps 100%) if smooth flow control to a downstream unit is more important than tight level control. Included are the temperatures used to infer composition for so many distillation columns. Please note that a valve cycling almost closed or fully open will also produce a limit cycle. Readjust the proportional band if required to get a damped oscillation after an upset (wait for a bump or ask the operator to make a small set point change in a safe direction). If the starting integral value is less than one half of the period. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .

CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS Tune the secondary loop first using the local set point mode. Then set D. Reduce the integral as much as possible. safe values are a large I and a small D. The period will increase by about 43%. (derivative or rate on some controllers) to minimum (if provided on the controller) and I. To test for interaction when two -loops cycle together at the same period. derivative cannot usually be used. In fact. Double the proportional band.S.0) to start. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired.12. Set I = to the period x O. or very nearly so. Set D = to the period x 0. Measure the period (defined as the time for one complete cycle to occur). it can be some time (the plant has to stabilize) before all controllers have their Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . Double the proportional band and try again until uniform. perhaps to half the value tried before. For a P+I Controller: Set I = to the period x 0. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. place one loop in manual. depending on plant start-up conditions. and each controller will still require additional tuning. there are default tuning parameters that can be entered into each controller. (integral or reset on some controllers) to maximum. If oscillations of increasing amplitude develop on the first try. If the cycle stops. Rearrange the loops or use the technique outlined above to minimize cycling. Continue to reduce the proportional band until oscillations start. These instructions are for controllers adjusted in terms of minutes per repeat. Tune the pressure loop (representing the fastest loop in this case) with a minimum integral value. Note the starting valve position. These are start-up values only. Some manufacturers use an inverse relationship so large becomes small and vice versa. Never use a primary controller integral value less than four times the integral value used for the secondary controller.82. repeat step 2 reducing the proportional band. If the measurement is noisy (Ph loops in particular). The same rules hold true for interacting loops such as pressure and pressure compensated temperature used for a distillation tower. Transfer to remote set point and tune the primary loop. then use an integral time at least four times as great for the temperature controller. Double the proportional band. switch the controller to manual. Select a set point equal to the measurement and adjust the proportional band to 100% (or gain at 1. This tuning may occur several times on individual controllers. interaction is probably the problem. Change the output a small amount and transfer the controller to automatic. never under any circumstances set the derivative greater than the integral. If oscillations do not develop. The period will decrease by about 15%. return to manual and set the valve at the original position noted in step 2. oscillations develop. Remember.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 11 of 13 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD When the process is reasonably stable and no plant upsets are expected. DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS For the start-up of any plant.

2 .Discrete 1/0 Loops within LM. When a control valve is tripped on abnormal condition (Low-low level.Single Control Loop.5 Min.Discrete 1/0 Loops within APM (Advanced Process Manager). Derivative values should be added in the final tunings of the applicable controllers.Cascade Control Loop. and . Controller output to field devices shall be -6.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 12 of 13 final (normal operations) tunings.3 CONTROLLER INPUT/OUTPUT INDICATION Output to valves viewed by the operator shall indicate close as 0% and open as 100%.9% to compensate for calibration offsets in the field device. etc.5 1 2 1 PB 200 100 50 100 75 75 REPEATS/MIN 12 1 .Analog Indication Only Loop. There are no values shown for Derivative action for start-up conditions. 5 Min. 1 Min. In case of sensing element failure. TEMPERATURE 1. The following is a list of typical start-up tunings: PROCESS FLOW PRESSURE (Liquid) PRESSURE (Gas) LEVEL GAIN K . 5 Min.9% to 106. the PID controller shall be configured to switch to manual output mode and the controller output to the fail-safe condition value. a "Bad PV" alarm will be generated and if it is a control point. Following are the basic types of control loops: .083 or 5 Sec. .Complex Control Loop.2 MINS/REPEAT T1 . 3.3 ANALYZERS 1.5 . as it has not been shown to be required for those conditions. controller shall switch to manual output mode.). Master controller output in cascade loops shall be 0% to 100%. .3 . Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES The control loops shall be configured to achieve the functionality and philosophy of the P&IDs. 2 Min. . .

0 (min.0 0.25 seconds. Some fast loops (according to EPC contractor) will run at 0.. PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS The PID algorithms will be configured with the following default values unless otherwise specified by the EPC contractor.T2) 0. . It is understand that these are initial values.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 2.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 13 of 13 The controllers (APM) base scan rate will be 0.5 1.T1) 0.0 Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .5 seconds.0 1.0 5.0 3. final loop tuning will be done during plant operation: PID Gain (K) Derivative Flow Pressure (Liquid) Pressure (Gas) Level Temperature 0.0 0.08 1.0 0.3 Integral (min.

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