Classification of Documents: (Used in International Trade

The international Trade documents may be classified as under a. b. c. d. e. Commercial documents Official documents Insurance documents Transport documents Financial and financing documents

a. Commercial documents: • Invoice: An invoice is a commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer, indicating the products, quantities and agreed prices for products or services with which the seller has already provided the Buyer. An invoice indicates that, unless paid in advance, payment is due by the buyer to the seller, according to the agreed terms. Invoices are often called Bills. a) Proforma Invoice: It is a memorandum of the terms of a contract of sale wherein the seller gives the quotation to the potential buyer. If the buyer approves its terms, he sends a definite order for supply. Such an invoice is marked with the word “Proforma Invoice”. b) Commercial Invoice: A commercial invoice is a bill for the goods from the seller to the buyer. Commercial invoice are utilized by customs officials to determine the value of the goods in order to assess customs duties and taxes. c) Certified Invoice: An invoice bearing a signed statement by someone in the importer’s country who has inspected the goods and found that the goods are in accordance with the specific contract of the proforma and that the goods are of a specific country of origin. Certificate of origin: It is a specified document certifying the country of origin of the merchandise required by certain foreign countries for tariff purposes. This certificate is issued by Chamber of Commerce, Trade Association or any other authorized body of the exporting country and it sometimes requires the signature of the consul of the country to which it is destined. Weight notes or certificates: This certificate indicates the weight of the goods issued by a public agency. It can be evidenced by means of a separate document, or by a weight stamp/declaration of weight superimposed on the transport document by the carrier or his agent. Packing List: The exporter must prepare a packing list showing description of items, number of containers/boxes with specification of net weight & gross weight etc. to enable the importer of the goods to check the shipment.

Quality or Inspection certificate: This is a certificate declaring that the goods have been examined and found to be in accordance with the contract of sale. It is signed by the manufacturer or supplier or any recognized independent inspection body as required by the importer.

b. Official documents: • Consular Invoice: It is an invoice made out in a specially printed form of the exporter and is shown before the consul of importing country stationed in the exporter’s country as being correct in all respect. The consular of the importing country then certifies the invoice. A consular invoice enables the importer country to have all accurate record of the merchandise shipped. Legalized Invoice: Some Middle East countries require that the commercial invoice should be countersigned and stamped by the authorized officer in their Embassy or the consulate in the exporter’s country instead of consular invoice. Black-listed Certificate: Under this certificate, the exporter has to provide a Black-listed certificate evidencing that all parties involved including the bank and shipping line are not black-listed. Due to strained political relation or any other reasons some countries do not allow transactions with some particular countries. These countries and the exporters are treated as Black-listed. Health, Veterinary and Sanitary Certificate/Photo Sanitary Certificate, Certificate of Analysis: This certificate is generally needed in purchase of foodstuff, hides and livestock and in the use of packing materials. It is issued by the recognized health authorities in the exporting countries. The certificate confirms that the shipment meets the required health, veterinary and sanitary standards.

c. Insurance documents There are some risks of damage, loss or destruction of goods during the time of transit. Marine Insurance plays a very vital role in this respect. The scope of Marine Insurance extends to Sea, Land and Air conveyances only in respect of good from one country to another country or one place to another place with short distance through the vessel, craft which the goods are carried or conveyed. Marine insurance comprises of the following: • Marine Cargo Insurance • Marine Hull Insurance • Freight There are various types of marine insurance policies, which differ in respect of the cover provided to the insured. The main types are as follows: i) Floating policy: A floating policy is a contract of insurance means to cover a number of shipments, the details of which are not finalized when the insurance contract is concluded. Under the floating policy, insurance cover

ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)

is given in general terms and details of shipments are declared subsequently and endorsed in the policy. Time policy: It covers the subject matter of insurance for a period of time. Voyage policy: It insures the subject matter from one place to another irrespective of the length of time taken. Mixed policy: It covers both a voyage and a period of time exceeding 30 days. Open cover or Blank policy: This policy is automatically covers all the shipments of the exporter up to an estimated amount during a given period. Specific policy: A specific policy is a contract of insurance, which covers a specific shipment. Valued policy: A valued policy is one, which specifies the agreed value of merchandise insured. Unvalued policy: In this type of policy, the value of the merchandise insured is not specified. The insurable value of the goods is ascertained later on subject to the limit of the sum insured.

d. Transport Documents: This document indicates that the goods, which are delivered to the named shippers, airlines or transporters, must be carried to a named port, airport or place of delivery. Following transport documents are being used at present in the international trade: i) Airway Bill/Air consignment Note: This document confirms the delivery of goods to an airline or its agent for transportation by air to a named consignee according to the defined and agreed terms. Mate’s Receipt: It is a prima facie evidence of the quantity and condition of the goods received. When the goods are delivered to the shipping company for transportation, at first a temporary receipt is issued by the ship’s Chief Officer acknowledging the delivery of the goods alongside the carrying vessel which is known as Mate’s Receipt. On the basis of Mate’s receipt, the shipper has to pay the port dues and other charges. Bill of Lading: A bill of lading is a document which is issued y the transportation carrier to the shipper acknowledging that they have received the shipment of goods and that they have been placed on board a particular vessel which is bound for a particular destination and states the terms in which these goods received are to be carried. Normally a bill of lading contains the port of shipment and of destination, the name of consignee, the number, contents and identification marks of the goods shipped and the amount of freight “paid” or “to pay”. The bill of lading serves three main purposes,



• • •

as a document of title of the goods as a receipt from the shipping company and as a contract for transportation of the goods.

Classification of Bill of lading: • • • • • • • • • • • iv) Clear and clause of dirty or foul Bills of lading: On board or shipper and Received for shipment Bill of lading ‘Through’ or ‘Port to Port’ Bill of lading ‘Stale’ Bill of lading Charter Party Bill of lading Negotiable or Non negotiable and ‘straight’ or ‘order’ Bill of lading Liner Bill of lading House bill of lading Short form or Blank Back Bill of Lading Third Party Bill of lading Combined Transport Bill of Lading

Railway consignment Note/Railway Receipt: When the exporter or his agent delivers a consignment to the railway authorities for its onward carriage to a named destination, they issued a receipt, indicating the details of the consignment and destination to which they would carry it. This document is called the Rail Consignment Note or Railway Receipt. Roadway Bill: It is an internationally approved document of transaction when goods are being sent by road through the countries that had ratified the CMR (Convention Merchandise Routers). Post Parcel Documents: It is a receipt issued by Post Office for the parcel. The post office has received for direct delivery to the addressee. It is not a document of title of goods and generally contains the post office stamp.



e. Financial and financing documents There are some documents used for payment in international trade transaction such as: • Bill of Exchange • Promissory Note • Trust Receipt • Bill of Exchange: Bill of Exchange is one of the key financial instruments in International Trade. It is an instrument by which sellers can obtain the payment from their buyers for the invoiced value of goods.

As per section 5 of the Negotiable Instrument Act. 1881, A bill of Exchange is an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order, signed by the market, directing a certain person to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of, a certain person or the bearer of the instrument. Features of a Bill of exchange: a. It must be unconditional order. b. It must be written order. c. Addressed by one person to another. The term person includes corporations, partnerships as well as natural persons. d. Dully signed by the person giving the order. e. Bill must be payable on demand or on a determinable date. f. The Bill of Exchange must be make payable ‘to order’ or ‘to bearer’. g. It must indicate the payment of a certain sum Parties of a Bill of exchange: There are six parties involved in a bill of exchange. They are: a. The Drawer: b. The drawee: c. The Payee: d. The endorser: e. The endorsee: f. The acceptor: • Promissory Note: It is a negotiable instrument. As per section 4 of the Negotiable Instrument Act. 1881, ‘A promissory note is an instrument in writing (not being a bank-note or a currency note) containing an unconditional undertaking signed by the maker, to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of a certain person, or to the bearer of the instrument.’ Features of a promissory note: a) b) c) d) It must be unconditional promise Must be written by one person to another Must be signed by the maker Promise to pay a sum of certain money to, or to the order a specific person or the bearer. e) Promissory note payable to the maker’s order must be endorsed by the maker. • Trust Receipt: The trust Receipt is a receipt for goods, documents of title to goods, securities, etc. executed by a person, signifying that he has received the specified goods, title etc and will be holding them in trust for the person or institution from whom her has received them. The person who executes the receipt is called the

trustee. The trustee undertakes to keep the goods fully insured against all risks and ensure overall safety of the goods entrusted to him.

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