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2- Constructing and Connecting Dynamic System

# 2- Constructing and Connecting Dynamic System

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02/01/2013

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# OUTLINES

1. Constructing Dynamic System Models
• • • Transfer Function Models Zero-Pole-Gain Models State-Space Models

2. Connecting
• • • Models in Series Models in Parallel Placing Models in a Closed-Loop Configuration

Model Types
1. Linear versus Nonlinear Models 2. Time-Variant versus Time-Invariant Models 3. Continuous versus Discrete Models The Control Design and Simulation Module supports :
• • • Both linear and nonlinear models. Time-invariant models Continuous and discrete models.

Model Forms
Systems described as:
– Single-input single-output (SISO) systems. – Single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems. – Multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems. – Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Model Forms
• The first step in working with the Control Design toolkit is inputting a model to work with. The Control Design Toolkit can work with
• Transfer Function (TF) • State Space (SS) • Zero Pole Gain (ZPK) models.

Constructing Dynamic System Models
Use the CD Construct Transfer Function Model VI to create continuous SISO, SIMO, MISO, and MIMO system models in transfer function form.

Constructing Transfer Function.vi

Sampling Time (s) defines whether the model represents a continuous-time system or a discrete-time system. If the model represents a continuous-time system. Sampling Time (s) must equal zero. If the model represents a discrete-time system, Sampling Time (s) must be greater than zero and equal to the sampling rate, in seconds, of the discrete system.

Constructing Transfer Function.vi
• Numerator contains the constant coefficients, in ascending order. The coefficients take the following form: b0 + b1s + ... +bmsm. • Denominator contains the constant coefficients, in ascending order. The coefficients take the following form: a0 + a1s + ... +ansn. • Delay is the transport time delay that might exist in the system.

SISO Transfer Function Model

SISO Transfer Function Model
Use the CD Draw Transfer Function Equation VI to displays the transfer function equation of the model.

Display format specifies the format in which this VI displays the equation. Output (row) specifies the index number of the output row from which to draw the transfer function matrix. The index is zero-based. The default is –1, which draws all outputs. Input (column) specifies the index number of the input column from which to draw the transfer function matrix. The index is zero-based. The default is –1, which draws all inputs.

SISO Symbolic Transfer Function Model

SISO Transfer Function Model
• If you know the coefficients of the discrete transfer function model, you can enter in the appropriate values for Numerator and Denominator and set the Sampling Time (s) to a value greater than zero. Figure shows this process using a sampling time of 10 µs

.

SISO Transfer Function Model
• If you do not know the coefficients of the discrete transfer function model, you must use the CD Convert Continuous to Discrete VI for the conversion. Set the Sampling Time (s) parameter of this VI to a value greater than zero. Converting from a continuous model to a discrete model results in the following equation:

SISO Transfer Function Model
Constructing Models Textually
• MathScript allows models to be created using m-file syntax.

SIMO, MISO, and MIMO Transfer Function Models
You can define the transfer function of this MIMO system by using the following transfer function matrix H, where each element represents a SISO transfer function.

H11 & H21 has one input U1 and two outputs Y1 & Y2

Suppose the following equations define the SISO transfer functions between each input-output pair.

H11 & H12 has two inputs U1 and U2 and one output Y1

SIMO Transfer Function Model

MISO Transfer Function Model

MIMO Transfer Function Model

Constructing Zero-Pole-Gain Models

Constructing Zero-Pole-Gain Models
• Use the CD Construct Zero-Pole-Gain Model VI to create this continuous zeropole-gain model.

• You create SIMO, MISO, and MIMO zero-pole-gain models the same way you create SIMO, MISO, and MIMO transfer function models. • You create symbolic zero-pole-gain models the same way you create symbolic transfer function models.

Constructing State-Space Models

Constructing State-Space Models
• Using the RLC Circuit Example, the following equations define a continuous state-space model.

• The following matrices define a state-space model where R = 20 Ω, L = 50 mH, and C = 10 µF.

Constructing State-Space Models
• Use the CD Construct State-Space Model VI to create this continuous state-space model.

• You create SIMO, MISO, and MIMO state-space models the same way you create SIMO, MISO, and MIMO transfer function models.

Model Forms
Control Design and Simulation Module represents dynamic system models in the following three forms: transfer function, zero-pole-gain, and state-space.

Connecting Models
1. Connecting Models in Series 2. Appending Models 3. Connecting Models in Parallel 4. Placing Models in a Closed-Loop Configuration

Connecting Models in Series

Connecting Models in Series
CD Series VI

Connections specifies which outputs of the first model this VI connects to which inputs of the second model. Output Model 1 specifies the output number of the first model that is connected to an input of the second model as specified by Input Model 2. Connections uses the index number of the input and output to identify the input-output pair. The indexes are zero-based. Input Model 2 is the input number of the second model that is connected to the output of the first model as specified by Output Model 1. Connections uses the index number of the input and output to identify the input-output pair. The indexes are zero-based.

Connecting Models in Series
•Connecting SISO Systems in Series 1 2

2

3

3 1

Connecting Models in Series
• • Connecting SISO Systems in Series Consider a valve that controls the flow rate of water into a tank.

1 3

2

1 3

2

Connecting Models in Series
•Creating SIMO Systems in Series 1
This means you have one input and two outputs

Select row index col index

1 2
Model 1 Model 2

3

The Output of CD Series.vi 3 2
SELECT OUTPUT 0 FROM Model 1 AND INPUT 0 FROM Model 2

Connecting Models in Series
• • Creating SIMO Systems in Series For example, adding another valve and tank to the example in the Connecting SISO Systems in Series section of this chapter results in a SIMO system that divides the flow rate between two different tanks.

Connecting Models in Series
• Steps:
3 1 2 6

5 4

1

3 2

6

4 5

Connecting Models in Series
• Creating MISO Systems in Series
1 2
This means you have two input and one outputs

1

3 3 2

Connecting Models in Series
• Connecting MIMO Systems in Series
1 MIMO 1 2 MIMO 2 MIMO 1 1 3

3 2 MIMO 2

Appending Models

Append Model 2 to Model 1 in a vertical vector

Connecting Models in Series
(MathScript)
• Use MathScript commands to interconnect models

Connecting Models in Parallel

Connecting Models in Parallel
• A parallel connection creates a single model from two separate systems that share common inputs. • You also can use a parallel connection to add or subtract outputs of two subsystems and represent them as a single output. • Use the CD Parallel VI to connect systems in parallel.

SISO with positive connection in the output

SISO will execute parallel concatenation with the specified output sign

SISO Vertical Concatenation

SISO Horizontal Concatenation

Parallel Connection in SIMO

Parallel Connection in SIMO

Parallel Connection in MISO

Parallel Connection in MISO

Parallel Connection in MIMO

Parallel Connection in MIMO

Placing Models in a Closed-Loop Configuration
Use the CD Feedback VI to place one or two models in a closed-loop configuration.

Closed-Loop Models

Feedback Sign specifies the sign of all feedback connections. If Feedback Sign is positive (TRUE), Model 1 This model represents the system in the forward loop path. Model 2 This model represents the system in the feedback path

Unity Feedback Closed-Loop Configuration

SISO Feedback Closed-Loop Configuration

SIMO Feedback Closed-Loop

MISO Feedback Closed-Loop

MIMO Feedback Closed-Loop

MIMO Feedback Closed-Loop

Feedback connection of discrete-time transfer function models including time delay

Control Design Model Interconnection (Graphical)
• Connect models in series and parallel • Create feedback loops

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