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API MPMS 21.1 - 1993|Views: 44|Likes: 0

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1 93 W 0732290 0516432 049

**Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 21-Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems
**

Section 1-Electronic

Gas Measurement

D

FIRST EDITION, SEPTEMBER 1993

--``````,,`,`,```,,,,,`,,`,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I

IK;cI American Gas Association

I

American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street. Northwest Washington, D.C. 20005

1 1 '

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale, 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT

A P I vPMS*21.1

93

m O732290

O 5 1 6 4 3 3 T85

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**Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 21-Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems
**

Section I-Electronic

Measurement Coordination

Gas Measurement

1

FIRST EDITION, SEPTEMBER 1993

American Petroleum Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale, 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT

--``````,,`,`,```,,,,,`,,`,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A P I r ? P M S * 2 L - L 9 3 H 0732290 0516434 911

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Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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SPECIAL NOTES

1. API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED.

2. API IS NOT UNDERTAKING TO MEET THE DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS, MANUFACTURERS, OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS.

3. INFORMATION CONCERNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RISKS AND PROPER PRECAUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR MATERIALS AND CONDITIONS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FROM THE EMPLOYER, THE MANUFACTURER OR SUPPLIER OF THAT MATERIAL, OR THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET.

4. NOTHING CONTAINED IN ANY API PUBLICATION IS TO BE CONSTRUEE AS GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR USE OF ANY METHOD, APPARATUS, OR PRODUCT COVERED BY LETTERS PATENT. NEITHER SHOULD ANYTHING CONTAINED IN THE PUBLICATION BE CONSTRUED AS INSURING ANYONE AGAINST LIABILITY FOR INFRINGEMENT OF LETTERS PATENT. 5 . GENERALLY, API STANDARDS ARE REVIEWED AND REVISED, REAFFIRMED, OR WITHDRAWN AT LEAST EVERY FIVE YEARS. SOMETIMES A ONETIME EXTENSION OF UP TO TWO YEARS WILL BE ADDED TO THIS REVIEW CYCLE. THIS PUBLICATION WILL NO LONGER BE IN EFFECT FIVE YEARS AFTER ITS PUBLICATION DATE AS AN OPERATIVE API STANDARD OR, WHERE AN EXTENSION HAS BEEN GRANTED, UPON REPUBLICATION. STATUS OFTHE PUBLICATION CAN BE ASCERTAINED FROM THE API PUBLICATIONS DEPARTMENT [TELEPHONE (202) 682-8000]. A CATALOG OF API PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS IS PUBLISHED ANNUALLY AND UPDATED QUARTERLY BY API, 1 220 L STREET, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005.

Copyright ‘C 1993 American Petroleum In\tituic

Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale, 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT

A P I MPMS*ZL.L

93

m 0732290 0536435 858 m

FOREWORD

This publication was developed by representatives from the American Petroleum Institute (API), the American Gas Association (A.G.A.), and the Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies with input from the equipment manufacturers and others. This document represents the first API publication in this field. The use of API standards shall be entirely voluntary in their application. API standards shall consider only designs, techniques, processes, and materials that have been demonstrated to be satisfactory for the service intended. Innovation is encouraged. New designs, techniques, processes, and materials shall be considered for standards when reasonable proof of fitness is available. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation for any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict. Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to Measurement Coordination, Industry Services Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. 20005.

iii

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale, 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT

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`. Leitschuh. Finger. Liaison) G. T.. G. (GPA Liaison) W..A. Chairman S. H. Inc. Wooten. E Van Orsdol. Worrell. Aramco Services Co.`. Enron Corp. Williams Natural Gas Co. Inc. NOVA Corporation of Alberta R... C. Applied Automation. Amoco Production Co. Lampert.S. Ice. Mobil Exploration & Producing U. Griffeth. ARCO Alaska. Rans. Lone Star Gas Co.. iV Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. Peterson. Teyssandier.``-`-`...`. Halliburton Services R. Chevron U.A.`. Williams. DeBusk. Simmons. Coastal Oil & Gas Corp. J. El Paso Natural Gas Co. T.G. (A. C . Texaco Inc. Tenneco Gas Transportation Co. Shiflet. Oryx Energy Co.. Talley.```.S. Bristol Babcock Inc. Heien. American Petroleum Institute F. Riddick. ITT Barton C. Exxon Chemical America-BOP T.`. J.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The task of completing this project could not have been accomplished without many substantial contributions by a considerable number of individuals and companies. J.`. G. GPM Gas Corp. Stark.`. R. Berry.. Borst. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.`--- . Chittim.. Ryan. J. OXY USA Inc. Daniel Flow Products. B. Inc. NOVA Corporation of Alberta G. The list bclow is the roster of the Electronic Gas Measurcment Working Group at the time of publication but is by no means a complete list of individuals who participated in the development of this document. Inc. Tcnneco Gas J. Boyd. Glazebrook. W..

............................... 1............. 1..... 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.............................................. ... .................... ........................4...............6 Audit and Reporting Requirem 1.`......8................3 EGM Devices and Associated Communications ........................... 1....... 1....... 1.............3 Calibration and Verification Procedures ..........4 Configuration Log ..........7.......3 Algorithm Identification .......... 1...............................7..............8............`................ 1.....6 Commissioning ....... 2 3 4 4 4 4 6 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 IO 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 D V Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale........... 1. 2 Linear Meter Installations ...................9..... 1.............................. .............`--- .................9......... 1................. 1.......... ................. 1.................. 1....................`............................. ........7..................................2........................9........3 Integrity of Logged Data ...... 1....`...............2 Definitions ..... .................4.....1 Introduction .......... 1.......9....2 Quantity Transaction Record ........ .6................................. Density 1...9............................... 1.......7 Error Checking ............9...7.......................`....................... 1................5 Data Availability ....4 Frequency of Verification ...5 . 1..................... 1........2 Description of an Electronic Gas Measurement ................................................................4 Electronic Gas Measurem 1....... ............. 1... .. 1.... 1.............................9 Security .............................................6......2 Restricting Access ......4....................................4 Algorithm Protection ........... I S .....1 Access ..........................................4...................... 1........................................................... 1...............1 Overview ....7.... 1............................................................................ 1.........8...................................................... 1...............................`..................................... ........8......................... 1............. 1 Differential Meter Installations ....6 Compressibility............................... 1..................................................L 93 0732290 0536437 b20 D CONTENTS Page SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 1 1 1 1..............................8 Equipment Calibration and Verification ..................... .............. 1.........................5 Hourly and Daily Quantity Calculation .....7 Equipment Installation ...........5 Event Log ....................2 Devices Requiring Calibratioflerification ........................6 Calibration and Verification Equipment ...6 Corrected Quantity Transaction Record ............. 1............6......... 1.......................... 1............5 Cabling ....8 Data Retention .6..............................6 Memory Protection .3 Referenced Publications .............. 1......9..................... I Elements of a Gas Measurement System ......................................................6...... .........``-`-`........................ .. 1.................... 1............................6.............. ...... 1..6.......................3 Symbols ....3 Linear Meter Measurement .............. I .......................................................................4........................ ...............................1 Introduction and Scope ... .7...2 Differential Meter Measurement .. 1...........................................4......................................4 Averaging Techniques ..................................................8.........................2..............5 Ambient Temperature and Pressure Effects ......... 1.. 1...................1 Transducers/Transmitters ..1 Scope ..................................```..5 Original Data .`.... .........6......2 GaugeArnpulse Lines ....8........... 1............................4 Peripherals .....A P I MPMS*2L..... .........................................2.. ..7 Test Record ...

....................................`--- 19 19 20 .............................................. .......................................................................................`.............................................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................... ........``-`-`... .................... 17 31 35 Figures A................ 26 A-9 ....................................................`.......................................................................................................... 27 29 A-10 ................................................................................. .............................`..... .. . 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.................................................................. APPENDIX B-AVERAGING TECHNIQUES .... = Page APPENDIX A-RANS METHODOLOGY FOR SYSTEM FLOW MEASUREMENT ALGORITHMS ......................................................................... 12 vi Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale...................................................................................................1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8 Tables 1-Configuration Log .............................................................................. 25 .... 26 .........`.................... ...........`.........`..... 20 23 ... .................................................................```.........`............ APPENDIX C-CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION EQUIPMENT .....................................................

05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT D In electronic measurement systems. the measurement system consists of primary. turbine. Gas measurement using existing equipment and techniques not in compliance with this standard may have a higher uncertainty than that based on the recommendations contained in this document.``-`-`.. including. electronic correctors of the type used on linear meters were not considered to constitute an electronic gas measurement system.. rotary. 1. The signal may be. temperature. the secondary device is an electromechanical transducer that responds to an input of pressure. may be contained in one or more enclosures.2.`. differential pressure.A P I MPMS*ZL-L 93 - 0732290 0536439 4 T 3 Chapter 21-Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 1. The tertiary device receives the information. 1..1. This standard describes the minimum specifications for electronic gas measurement systems used in the measurement and recording of flow parameters of gaseous phase hydrocarbon and other related fluids for production and transmission custody transfer applications utilizing industryrecognized primary measurement devices. as well as the primary device. and so forth. For the purpose of this standard. but not limited to. The definitions are not intended to be an all-inclusive directory of terms used within the measurement industry. nor are they intended to conflict with any standards currently in use. programmed to correctly calculate flow within specified limits.2. 1.2.2 Words and Terms Accounting period is a group of contract days..2.2. including. but not limited to. or other variables.1 Introduction and Scope The procedures and techniques shown in this document are recommended for use with new measurement applications. that receives information from the primary a n d o r secondary devices. The tertiary device is an electronic computer. an orifice. The tertiary and secondary devices. Analog to digital ( N D )converter is a signal processor that converts an electrical analog signal to a corresponding digital number.1. and other variables that are appropriate for inputs into the tertiary device discussed in this standard.1. digital. The secondary device provides such data.1..3 Signal Processing The electronic signals from the secondary devices transmit information to the tertiary device (electronic flow computer).`. Each primary device requires a specific or properly configured tertiary device appropriate to the type of meter used. secondary..4 System's Accuracy ) 1.. secondary. relative density (specific gravity).2. 1.`. or tertiary device is subject to separate measurement inaccuracies. temperature.2. relative density.1 DEFINITIONS Introduction The purpose of these definitions is to clarify the terminology used in the discussion of this standard only.2.`. 1 Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. Each must be considered independently when viewing the overall accuracy of the system. analog.1 ELEMENTS OF A GAS MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Introduction For the purpose of this standard. static pressure.2 Transducers~ransmitters While digital computation can provide a high degree of accuracy. or diaphragm meter.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . and calculates the quantity of gas flowing through the primary device. and tertiary devices. The electronic flow computer has no effect on the accuracy of either the primary or secondary device. Transducers respond to changes in the measured parameters with a corresponding change in electrical values. or packaged separately. These devices are referred to as transmitters when they have been specifically designed to enhance the transmission of information from one location to another by the addition of an electronic circuit that converts the transducer output to a standard signal. frequency.```. except where characterization may be performed.2. The primary device defines the basic type of meter used for gas measurement. it is important to realize that each primary.`. week.`.2 Description of an Electronic Gas Measurement System 1. but is not limited to.`.1 1. month. 1..1.5 Data Processing The data that the electronic gas measurement system processes must be in accordance with the other appropriate sections of this standard..2 1.2. differential pressure. combines it with programmed instructions..2. --``````. for example. 1. or frequency form.

positive displacement meters.. or calculation purposes.`. Computations can be made directly at the site of the primary element or after transfer of the data to another computer at any off-site location. Calibration span is the difference between the calibrated maximum and minimum range limits. is the volume. Input variable is for the purposes of electronic gas measurement.is the ability of a device or system to repeat well-defined test parameters within an anticipated range of operating conditions.`. all documentation required under Audit and Reporting Requirements (see 1.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. --``````. and does not frequently change.. Average .A P I MPMS*2L=L 93 0732290 0516440 115 2 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS Arcurary is the extent to which the results of a calculation or the readings of an instrument approach the true value.`. This input may be a measured variable from a transducer/transmitter or a manually entered fixed value.. On-site is in close proximity to the primary measurement device. rotary meters. Cert$eci tliermometer is an instrument that measures temperature and whose performance is traceable to primary standards maintained by an internationally recognized standards organization such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology.. Differential pressure is the difference between selected upstream pressure and downstream pressure as defined in API MPMS Chapter 14. linear meter pulse per unit volume factors. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .```. is not associated with a property or state of the flowing gas. 12 timedminute) that an input variable is retrieved for monitoring. and base pressure are examples of constant flow parameters. Differential pressure transmitter is a differential pressure sensing device that converts the differential pressure produced by one of several different head type primary elements into a signal.. Linear meters include turbine meters. and so forth. Gauge h e is the tubing that connects a tap on a meter run to a sensing device or analyzer. Quantity transaction record is a set of historical data. Rick Rans. Pressure. accumulation.. actual specifications for the primary device. Sumpling period is the time in seconds between the retrieval of flow parameters for accumulation and calculation purposes.``-`-`.. and day logged at the completion of the quantiiy transaction record. Sampling frequency is the number per unit of time (for example.`. Ailemge jlowing pressure is the mean value of the measured static pressure of a gas over a specified period of actual flow. or energy accumulated during the record period.`.. constant values.flowing temperuture is the mean value of the measured heat intensity of a gas over a specified period of actual flow. Orifice plate bore diameter. to determine the amount of measurement uncertainty that exists for any given flow pattern across an orifice plate or linear type meter for a specified flow parameter sampling frequency. Flow computer is an arithmetic processing unit and associated-memory device that accepts electrically-converted signals representing input variables from a gas measurement system and performs calculations for the purpose of providing flow rate and total quantity data. month. times and dates of any changes affecting reported volumes. Runs Methodology is a statistical evaluation method. Constmt jlow parameter is any value that affects the quantity calculation. Contrcict dciy is a time period of 24 consecutive hours beginning at the time specified in the contract. Quantii'. that represents uncorrected flow volumes. Flow time average is the time weighted average value of a measured or calculated variable using only samples taken when gas was flowing.6). Linear meter is a linear flow device that generates a signal. Determination of energy values is optional. Audit trail is the record for an electronic gas measurement (EGM) system containing verification or calibration measurements for ail tertiary and secondary devices. and information in a preset format that supports the determination of a quantity over a given accounting period. Lowjlow cutoffis the flow below which no volumes will be calculated. Electronic gas measurement (EGM) is the process whereby gas flow rates are calculated by means of an electronic computer. This transfer can be manual. vortex meters. using a communication system. calculated values. Petjormance uncertain. meter tube internal diameter. using a data storage device..`. Flowing temperature is the measurement of heat intensity of the flowing gas. or automatic.. Conjguration log is a record that contains and identifies all selected flow parameters used in the generation of a quantity transaction record. Date period is the specific year. developed by Mr. and relative density are examples of input variables. temperature. typically pulses. and may include identification of those making the changes. mass.`. Of-site is not in close proximity to the primary measurement device. a data value associated with the flow or state of a gas that is input into the computer for the purpose of being part of a calculation. as calculated by one of the averaging techniques given in Appendix B. Digital to analog (D/A) converter is a signal processor that converts a digital number into a corresponding electrical analog signal. Event log is a record that notes and records all exceptions and changes to the flow parameters contained within the configuration log that occur and have an impact on a quantity transaction record.3.

Unit of time defined by the integral multiplier period. Orifice plate bore diameter calculated at flowing temperature. Velocity of approach factor. Orifice differential pressure. Atmospheric pressure can be assumed to be a constant at a specific site. determined by elevation. for purposes of flow and energy calculations.. Integral value rate equation. Gauge pressure is the static pressure being measured.. not including the atmospheric pressure.. Flowing temperature factor. The secondary device must produce an output signal compatible with the input requirements of the EGM unit. Qf Qhour Qimp Qn Qperioà Qt Q. Trunsducer is a device that generates an electrical signal. The term is typically used synonymously with the term. Quantity accumulated during one hour.`. Quantity for interval dt.... Uncertainty is the amount by which an observed or calculated value may depart from the true value. in inches of water at 60°F. Actual volumetric quantity accumulated for the base multiplier period. Base pressure.``-`-`. Pressure base factor. The temperature sensing device must produce a signal compatible with the input requirements of the EGM unit. q. Orifice plate reference bore size.. Base quantity accumulated for the base multiplier period. Quantity accumulated during one day. The pressure can be measured in absolute or gauge pressure. Coefficient of discharge for flange-tapped orifice meter.`. Actual volumetric flow at flowing conditions. that is proportional to the variable parameter.`. Base multiplier value. Quantity accumulated for the integral multiplier period. Mass flow rate per second..`. Base multiplier value for base multiplier period. such as static pressure. Absolute pressure is the static pressure being measured directly or calculated as gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure. Integral multiplier value for the integral multiplier period. Unit quantity accumulated between time to and time t. Transmitter is a device that takes a digital or analog signal developed by a transducer and converts or amplifies it into an appropriate signal that is read by the EGM unit.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.. Static pressure at linear meter installations is measured at the meter body.. --``````.```. Real gas relative density (specific gravity).. Flowing pressure (upstream tap). Orifice differential pressure. Fh Fpm &b Fzm Gr hn imp IMV IMV. Static pressure at orifice meter installations is measured at one of the differential pressure taps. 'transmitter'. either digital or analog.3 counts d dt dr Dr E. Uncorrected quantity is the quantity accumulated over the flow period at flowing conditions not corrected to standard conditions.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . Pressure factor. Integral value accumulated between time to and time tit. Number of samplings recorded during a sampling period. Temperuture trunsmittrr is a temperature sensing device that converts the flowing gas temperature into a signal.`.`. Time is the specific time logged at the completion of the quantity transaction record. Quantity for period. and temperature that is to be transmitted to the EGM unit. Base volumetric flow-cubic feet at base conditions. differential pressure. Symbol Represented Quantity AVQ AvQbmp bmp BMV BMVbmp 1 Cd(FT) Actual volumetric quantity.2. Temperature base factor. Meter tube reference inside diameter..A P I MPMS*21-1 9 3 = 0732270 0516441 O51 GAS MEASUREMENT SECTION I-ELECTRONIC 3 I ) Stutic pressure is the force per unit area exerted by a gas at a selected point in the system. Time difference between integration samples. Flowing pressure (absolute static pressure). Integral value accumulated between time to and time i. . Integral multiplier value. 1. Unit of time defined by the base multiplier period. Flow rate equation for quantity per unit of time. Volume flow rate per hour at standard conditions. Accumulated counts from primary linear meter for time interval iz.p iv IV '&lp k n AP pb pf P f l 4m 4t Qb Qòmp Qàuy SYMBOLS This standard reflects electronic gas measurement symbols in general technical use.`. Linear meter constant in counts per unit volume. Stutic pressure trunsmitter is a static pressure sensing device that converts the pressure exerted on the inside meter tube wall into a signal...

Virginia 22209. energy. 3.. such as the equations of state for compressibility calculated using the A. This section provides specific guidelines through component algorithms that are consistent in application for all electronic gas measurement systems.`.. 1515 Wilson Blvd. Expansion factor (upstream tap). the appropriate flow equations are found in the latest revision of API MPMS Chapter 14. This methodology is included in Appendix A. or volume. Oklahoma 74145..G.. Massachusetts 02269-9101. shall be applied consistent with the latest revision of the standard. Square-Edged Onfice Meters” (ANS12/API 2530.```. 1. A statistical model known as the Rans Methodology provided. National Fire Protection Association.4 Electronic Gas Measurement System Algorithms 1. Gas Processors Association. shall be applied consistent with the latest revision of the standard.`. GPA Std 2261 Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography Std 2286 Tentative Method of Extended Anulysis f o r Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography NFPA4 NFPA 70 National Electric Code (NEC) American Gas Association. New York.`. As each componcnt algorithm is applied to the appropriate flow equation. Whcn applying these methods to orifice measurement. in degrees Rankine.1 OVERVIEW During the development of this standard. 7.API MPMS*ZL-L 9 3 m 0732290 05Lb442 T 9 B m 4 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS Compressibility ratio (Z. such as the equations of state for compressibility. Time t a t end of operation. All supporting equations referenced. In equation form.. Tf. = unit quantity accumulated between time to and time t..’ Report No. Tulsa. 8 Compressibility Fuctors o f Natural Gas and Other Hydrocarbon Gases f Gas Utility Areas for Electrical InstalClassificatiori o lations API Mun ual o f Pet role uni Measurement Standards Chapter 1.” Section 1. Report No. a total quantity is determined by the integration of a flow rate equation over its defined time interval. Compressibility at upstream flowing conditions.A. in part. Density of a fluid at base conditions. Compressibility factor at base conditions. The component algorithms define sampling and calculation methodologies and averaging techniques.4. ’American National Standards Institute. Section 3. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.3. Summation opcration for n time interval quantities.`.G. Flowing temperature. Parts 1 through 4.A. 7 Measurement of Gas by Turbine Meters Report NO. a composite algorithm is defined that will ensure an acceptable gas measurement system..3 Referenced Publications The following publications are cited in this chapter: AGA. 6526 East 60th Street... GPA3 8185) --``````.A Report No. 4. “Vocabulary.``-`-`.4. Time 0 at beginning of opcration. 8. “Concentric.. the basis for the recommended sampling and calculation frequencies to support limits for statistical uncertainty. Temperature base. the calculation of total quantity is expressed as the following: t ’ Qr = J q t x d t fil Where: .`.`. Compressibility at standard conditions. All supporting equations referenced. Arlington. the intent of this section is not to define all the variations of flow equations. I Batterymarch Park. Q. 1. 1. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . Because a quantity may be expressed as either mass.” Chapter 14. “Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer”. compressibility factor at flowing conditions. 1 1 West 42nd Street. the effect of sampling and calculation frequencies during fluctuating flow and the application of the various algorithms were addressed by computer modeling to assure adequate performance. The flow equations appropriate for application of these methods to linear measurement are found in the latcst revision of A. Quincy./ = integration operation from time to to time t.. Pf. T.. New York 10036. Report No..G. 5 Fuel Gas Energy Metering Report No.. A. /Zf). and whereas the equations and variables rcquired for each are different.`. “Natural Gas Fluids Measurement.`--- This section defines sufficient component and composite algorithms for both differential and linear meter measurement.2 DIFFERENTIAL METER MEASUREMENT In differential metering applications.

1. the recommended minimum for the factored portion of the flow rate equation would be the squarc root of the product of differential pressure and absolute static pressure. can be computed using independent variable input time intervals. The integral value ( I V ) shall be calculated and the summation performed at least once per second. 1. lMVimp = integral multiplier value for the integral multiplier penod (imp).2.. dt = time difference between integration samples. dt = time difference between integration samples. IV = integral value accumulated between time to and time r.2.05 percent greater than the uncertainty associated with a one second integral calculation frequency for a given application.2. to = time at start of integral multiplier period. these operations allow the flow rate computation to be factored into an integral multiplier value (IMV) and an integral value (IV).4. Each of these factors.`. 1 The minimum sampling frequency for any dynamic input variable shall be once every second. as defined.4. IV = integral value accumulated between time to and time t . In equation form. Qimp .. the calculation of the integral value is expressed as the following: I The flowing variables that define flow rate are typically not static. 1...4..4. Multiple samples taken within the one second time may be averaged using any of the techniques defined in 1.`.2...4..`. Ei.`.quantity accumulated for the integral multiplier period (imp)... p f = flowing pressure (absolute static pressure). dt = time difference between integration samples. A slower sampling frequency may be used if the Rans Methodology can demonstrate that the difference in uncertainty associated with a less frequent sampling time is no more than 0. As defined.4. AP = orifice differential pressure.3 Low Flow Detection A low flow cutoff point for differential meters should be determined by the contractually concerned parties based upon a realistic assessment of site conditions.`. iv = integral value rate equation. dt = time difference between integration sampleh. the calculation of the integral value would be expressed as the following: t = [Myrn.2. When orifice meters are used for volumetric calculations.2 Integral Value Calculation An integral value ( I V ) is the value resulting from the integration of the factored portion of the flow rate equation that best defines the conditions of continuously changing flow over a specified time period.. In equation form.4. It is recommended that the sampling frequency and integral value calculation frequency be performed at the same time interval..A P I M P M S * 2 L ~ L 93 0732290 051b443 924 SECTION i-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 5 1 qt = flow rate equation for quantity per unit of time.. Six critical algorithms are required to integrate a differential flow rate into a quantity and are defined in 1..`.`--- IV = J i v x d t 111 Where: I = integration operation from time to to time t .. and 1.1 through 1. = time at end of integral multiplier period..5. Wimp= integral value accumulated between time to and time timp.`..2. and the slower sampling frequency is agreeable to the parties involved. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. x Iy. 1.1 Sampling Flow Variables-Differential Meter Measurement I = integration operation from time to to time t. I . A slower integral calculation frequency may be used if the Rans Methodology can demonstrate that the difference in uncertainty associated with a less frequent integral calculation frequency is no more than 0.05 percent greater than the uncertainty associated with a one second sampling frequency for a given application. and the slower integral calculation frequency is agreeable to the parties involved. The flow rate variable inputs used to perform each integration are determined using the techniques given in i . Note: Time units for qt and dt must be consisteni. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . Where: 1 imp = a unit of time defined by the integral multiplier period.4.. therefore.4.```.4. = f(1 Where: I = integration operation from time to to time timp.. and fim. iv = integral value rate equation.5. a true total quantity is the integrated flow rate over that interval for the continuously changing conditions.? IV = i J q d t til Where: ivxdt lyrn.``-`-`.4. A common time unit must be defined for total quantity calculations such that Qimp --``````.

`. a total quantity is determined by the summation of flow over its defined time interval. --``````... = lo =(I ~ fil) /(it 1. In equation form. By retaining the minimum integral value rate expression. Assuming the integral multiplier period is one hour and that the sample period and integral value period are one second..4. In equation form.. The factor of 3600 converts the integral value from units of seconds to hours.`.4. The integral multiplier period (irnp) shall not exceed one hour. = quantity accumulated for the integral multiplier period (imp). Gr. it is multiplied by the integral value ( I V ) to compute a quantity for the integral multiplier period (imp). the practical equation for volumetric flow rate becomes the following: Where: IMV represents the integral multiplier value and has the following value: The flowing variables that define flow quantity are typically not static.. In linear metering applications.. An integral multiplier period (imp) of less than one hour shall be such that an integral (whole) number of multiplier periods occurs during one hour. 1.`..??.. Pf.4. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .1.? = quantity for interval dt.```.5 Quantity Calculation-Differential Measurement Meter And the total quantity of gas for the integral multiplier period would be calculated as the following equation: IV Q.... the primary device provides measurement in actual volumetric units at flowing conditions. therefore. At the end of each integral multiplier period (imp). the volumetric rate of gas at standard conditions (Equation 3-6B) is given by the following: Where: L = summation operation for I I time interval quantities.I 1. Part 3. = integral value accumulated between time to and time ti. Q. the calculation of quantity for the integral multiplier period (irnp) is expressed as the following: Qintp = 'MYtiip X ' Y n i p Where: imp = a unit of time defined by the integral multiplier period.`--- Qf = tl c QI.2.6 Example: Flow Equation ApplicationDifferential Meter Measurement A practical application of the above methods for volumetric quantity of natural gas at standard conditions is given in this section. Q.... IVjl. to = time O at beginning of operation..2.. a true total quantity is the summation of flow over that interval for the continuously changing conditions.2. In accordance with API MPMS Chapter 14. Note: yt = flow rate = Q / I = flow rate equation for quantity per unit of time.4 Integral Multiplier Value Calculation An integral multiplier value ( I M V ) is the value resulting from the calculation of all other factors of the flow rate equation not included in the integral value ( I V ) .. = counts i k Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale...`. the calculation of total quantity is expressed as the following: 11 e.> = integral multiplier value for the integral multiplier period (imp). = unit quantity accrued between time ru and time t . h. an integral multiplier value ( I M V ) is calculated using the flow variable inputs as determined using the techniques given in 1.4. The volumetric units for an interval of time are provided as counts that are linearly proportional to a unit volume such that Q.`. dt = uniform time difference between flow time intervals...[.``-`-`. IMV.4.A P I MPMS+2L=L 9 3 m 0732290 0536444 860 m 6 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS 1. In this example..3.h. the integral value would be given by the following equation: i600 i.2.`. and integral value... The integral multiplier value would be calculated using appropriate averages of Tf.`.. = Aí'.3 LINEAR METER MEASUREMENT In linear metering applications. = I M V X 3600 Where: Once the integral multiplier value ( I M V ) is computed.

.`. A common time unit must be defined for total quantity calculations such that Qbmp Every count from the linear meter primary device shall be counted.. Note: Many linear meters are designed such that k is equal to unity ( 1 ) or some multiple of IO. BMVbmp = base multiplier value for base multiplier period (bmp).2 hertz (Hzj. AVQ.`..3.. and 1. A slower sampling frequency may be used if the Rans Methodology can demonstrate that a difference in uncertainty associated with a less frequent sampling time is no more than 0. counts = accumulated counts from primary device for interval of time n. 1 1.3.4. input variables may be sampled once per count.4. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . and the slower sampling frequency is agreeable to the parties involved.``-`-`.p = base multiplier value for base multiplier period (bmp).4.`. In equation form.3.4. Ishnlp = base quantity accumulated for the base multi- 1.4. 1. k = linear meter constant in counts per unit volume.`.4.A P I MPMS*2L. sampled input variables shall be discarded from the averages.4.. At the end of each base multiplier period (bmp).3.`..4.. Multiple samples taken within the five second time interval may be averaged using any of the techniques given in 1.. AVQ..5 Quantity Calculation-Linear Measurement Meter Once the base multiplier value (BMV) is computed.3. k = linear meter constant in counts per unit volume.4. In equation form..4.5. it is multiplied by the actual volumetric quantity (AVQ) to compute a quantity for the base multiplier period (bmp).4.3 No Flow Detection AVQbmp X B M b m p Where: bmp = a unit of time defined by the base multiplier period.`. As defined. To calculate equal base volumetric.. energy or mass quantities. During no flow conditions.```.. BMVb.Each of these factors as defined can be computed using independent variable input time intervals..4.2 Actual Volumetric Quantity Calculation An actual volumetric quantity (AVQ) is the value resulting from the calculation of accumulated counts from a primary device divided by the meter constant representing a specified ) plier period (bmp).1 through 1. = quantity for interval of time r i .3.L 93 = O732290 05LbY45 7 T 7 SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 7 B Where: Q. 1. Qbmp = base quantity accumulated for the base multiplier period (bmp). --``````. = quantity for interval of time n.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. a base multiplier value (BMV) is calculated using the flow variable inputs as determined by the techniques given in 1..3. When the count output of the prime sensor is less than 0.1.3. counts = accumulated counts from primary linear meter for time interval n. = actual volumetric quantity accumulated for the base multiplier period (bmpj.05 percent greater than the uncertainty associated with a five second sampling frequency for a given application. six critical algorithms are required and are defined in 1.1 Sampling Flow Variables-Linear Measurement Meter The minimum sampling frequency for a dynamic input variable shall be once every five seconds.`.4. time period. = actual volumetric quantity accumulated for the base multiplier period (bmp). No flow shall be defined as an absence of counts over any base multiplier period (bmp).5. the calculation of the integral value is expressed as the following: Qn = counts! k Where: Q. The actual volumetric quantity (AVQ) shall be calculated and summation performed at least in an interval of time defined by the base multiplier period (bmp). the calculation of quantity for the base multiplier period (bmp) is expressed as the following: Qhmp = AVQhrnp X B"'fbmp Where: bmp = a unit of time defined by the base multiplier period. these operations allow the quantity calculation to be factored into an actual volumetric quantity (AVQ) and base multiplier value (BMV). 1.4 Base Multiplier Value Calculation A base multiplier value (BMV) is the value resulting from the calculation of all other factors of the base quantity equation not included in the actual volumetric quantity (AVQ) factor.. 1. The base multiplier period (bmp) shall not exceed one hour.

compressibility factor at flowing conditions. DENSITY AND HEATING VALUE Compressibility..1 and 1. The Rans Methodology may be used to check the performance of the averaging method used and demonstrates that the difference between the methods is typically negligible. QdOJ = quantity accumulated during one day. When required.6. Zb/Zf= compressibility ratio.1 and be consistent with the time interval of application.2... and volume. density.1 and 1. Where: to = time O at beginning of operation (day). or calculated value using a combination of constant values and sampled inputs.`.`.3.2. i = 60 minutes or t = 1 hour.... = quantity for integral multiplier period. 1.5 HOURLY AND DAILY QUANTITY CALC ULATI0N To accumulate quantities in accordance with 1.400 seconds..4.4. t = 86. and heating value shall be determined using recognized determination or calculation standards required by the appropriate flow equation in application or other recognized standards by mutual consent. and heating value may be required as variables in the computation of quantities expressed in the various units of mass.`. b.. compressibility factor at base conditions. = qIb = Frb = s = Zb = = pressure factor = pfi14. Flow-weighted formulaic averaging.73.2. Qi.`.4. ro = time O at beginning of operation (hour).. Qieriod = quantity for period. 7.G. AVQ = Qf= actual volumetric flow-at flowing conditions. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . density.3.6. compressibility..```. Standard periods of volume reporting include the following: Qhour = quantity accumulated during one hour... x F. d.4. These techniques are the following: 1. i = 3600 seconds. x 4b x t = 1" C = summation operation from time ro to time t..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`. or heating value may be introduced into the calculation as a constant value. Flow dependent time-weighted linear averaging. All sampled inputs should be determined using the techniques given in 1.A P I MPMS*ZL*L 9 3 D 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 L b q 4 b 633 D a CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS 1.6 COMPRESSIBILITY. the factors are defined as the following: F. energy.67iTf. density. A maximum frequency for updating of variables will minimize the uncertainty associated with constant values and sampled inputs. 1. AVERAGING TECHNIQUES Four different averaging techniques may be performed on the sampled flow rate variables or input variables used to calculate the flow quantities or for providing values as detailed in 1. c.. flowing temperature factor = 5 19. c.. io = time 0 at beginning of operation t = time t at end of operation (QieriOd). Compressibility.`.``-`-`.. t = 1440 minutes or i = 24 hours.A Report No.4. (eperiod)..6 Example: Flow Equation ApplicationLinear Meter Measurement For turbine meters.. temperature base factor = ?..b x E. the following equation applies: --``````.6.i5 19.3.`. Flow dependent time-weighted formulaic averaging.. sampled input. or Qb = A V Q x B M V Where: Qh = base volumetric flow-cubic feet at base conditions. Where: In A. Flow-weighted linear averaging.np = quantity for base multiplier period. BMV = x Fpb X F. a. A detailed explanation of each averaging technique is included in Appendix B. X F.4. a practical application for volumetric rate calculations at base conditions could be in the form of the following equation: Qb I t Qperiod = C t = ti> Qimp or Qperioú = C Qhmp Where: I = Qf x F. Audit and Reporting Requirements. Zf = pressure base factor = 14.b X S.67. Audit and Reporting Requirements.4. Qb.73/Pb.

plus all subsequent local edits to that data.1 Data collected or utilized since the last completed data collection period include. Relative density. density.).5.. and differential pressure. temperature. the following: a. b.7 shall be available on-site. e.5. 1.1.`.5.5.5 A quantity statement includes.`. composition. c.```. 1...1.1. 1. flow rate. Also.5. d. orifice bore reference inside diameter (dr).1.1 DIFFERENTIAL METER INSTALLATIONS On-site Calculations For differential pressure metering systems where custody transfer calculations are performed on-site.3 For systems where custody transfer calculations are performed off-site.1. energy content.5. if they are live inputs. composition.``-`-`.1 through 1. Total quantity accumulated during each contractually specified measurement period.5.`.2.4 Indications of alarm or error conditions shall be available off-site.2.1.1.1. but is not limited to. and density shall be available.1..2. For systems where custody transfer calculations are performed off-site.`. or be collectable on-site with a portable data collection device.1 for on-site calculations. Also. Meter run reference diameter (LI.2..5.1 1.2 Off-site Calculations 1. and density shall be included. Longer term data shall be available. i .5. At least hourly quantity totals.1. Also. either on-site or off-site and shall be consistent with audit trail requirements..1. the following information required in 1. density.5. Old and new values for changes to any input variable that will affect calculated quantities. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .3.1. daily custody transfer quantity totals and average pressure.2.1. differential pressure. b. composition.`--- 1 For linear metering systems where custody transfer calculations are performed on-site.1. accumulated quantity. and temperature. energy content. differential pressure..2. including a description of each alarm condition. 151.2.5.2 1.1. 1.2. the information required in 1.and the calibrated span of the pressure. and temperature transducers.1.7 All original data.`. differential pressure. c. 1. shall be available for the current data collection period.5.1.1.1. but are not limited to the following: a. d. differential pressure.`. i. or be collectible on-site with a portable data collection device. composition. 1. shall be available. relative density. 1. as is required in 1. differential pressure.7 shall be available onsite. and density.. Input values of relative density. if they are other than live inputs. i through 1.2 Input variable values affecting measurement include. the same data shall be available at the off-site location. and any alarm or error conditions that are occumng shall be available on-site. At least hourly average values for temperature.5. the information required in l .2 The unique identification number for the metering system shall be available both on-site and off-site.1. 1.4 shall be available.`. The date and time of all events in the record shall be identified chronologically. This statement should be complete in the unit’s memory or otherwise available on-site. A complete summary of all alarm or error conditions affecting measurement. instantaneous indications for the values of pressure.1.5..A P I MPMS*2L-L 93 m 0732290 05Lb11q7 57T m ’ SECTION I-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 9 1.5.5. but are not limited to the following: a. but is not limited to. and relative density.5. 1.5.5 Data Availability The requirements of this section are intended to ensure that the minimum necessary data is collected and retained in order to allow proper determination of the quantities measured through the primary device and to allow a thorough audit of the system operation and quantity determinations. and temperature shall be available. if they are live inputs. 1 through 1. --``````. energy content.5. “As found” and “as left” equipment calibration values for pressure.1 LINEAR METER INSTALLATIONS On-site Calculations 151.3 Instantaneous readings or displays for the values of pressure.4 An electronic or hard copy record includes. composition. A daily summary indicating the hours or percent of time for flow or no flow. energy content. Dates and times for all averages and totals.1 Local on-site.1.2. or any other terms needed for calculation. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. Relative density. 1. energy content.5.1.1.5.5.1. energy content. 1. and temperature.1. relative density.6 The unique identification number of the metering system shall be available on-site.. b. segmented by settlement interval. composition.. and density. if they are live inputs. with the exception of 1.1. if they are live inputs. if they are live inputs. pressure.

and temperature shall be available. daily custody transfer quantity totals and average pressure. “As found” and “as left” equipment calibration values for pressure.2. and any alarm or error conditions that are occurring shall be available on-sile. c. The data will provide sufficient information to apply reasonable adjustments when the electronic gas measurement equipment has stopped functioning. A daily summary indicating the hours or percent of time for flow or no flow. Old and new values for changes to any input value that will affect calculated quantities. if they are live inputs.`. 1.. energy content.2.5.`. The on-site indication is not necessarily electronic.1. and density.2.2. either on-site or off-site. Dates and times for all averages and totals. Relalive density.5. but is not limited to. composition. composition.. Longer term data shall be available.2. but is not limited to the following: a. d. but is not limited to.5. composition.2. and the minimum data rctention periods to ensure and verify the integrity of the audit trail record.1 Local on-site instantaneous indications for the values of pressure.. Input values of relative density. and density.`. if they are live inputs. Total quantity accumulated during each contractually specified measurement period. the following: a. documentation associated with an EGM’s operation. e. shall be available. uncorrected accumulated quantity. b.5 A quantity statement includes.4 An electronic or hard copy record includes.4 Indications of alarm or error conditions shall be available off-site.6.2. Also.2.3. At least hourly average values for temperature and pressure. averages for relative density. relative density.. A complete summary of all alarm or error conditions affecting measurement. configuration logs. plus all subsequent local edits to that data. as is required in 1. Also.. the data information required in 1. energy content. if they are live inputs. 1.5.2. or measurement parameters are incorrectly recorded. 1. and density.5. and density shall also be available.. with the exception of I S.`. The primary reason for retaining historical data is to provide support for the current and prior quantities reported on the measurement and quantity statements for a given accounting cycle.1. event logs. 1.1 for on-site calculations.1..1. 1. composition.5.2 The unique identification number for the metering system shall be available both on-site and off-site. or a combination of both.1. temperature. energy content.2. and density.2. transaction records. if they are live inputs. 1. 1. flow rate..6 Audit and Reporting Requirements 1.5.2. if they are other than live inputs. if they are live inputs. The audit trail shall include.5. density. . accumulated quantity.6 The unique identification number of the metering system shall be available. The EGM audit trail and reporting section defines the minimum requirements of a quantity transaction record and corrected quantity transaction record. the same data shall be available at the off-site location. and meter and/or k factors.`. Meter andíor k factors and the calibrated span of any span adjustable values for pressure and temperature.1. and temperature.2.1 INTRODUCTION An electronic gas measurement (EGM) system shall be capable of establishing an audit trail by compiling and retaining sufficient data and information for the purpose of verifying daily and hourly quantities. and field test reports. 1. At least hourly corrected and uncorrected quantity totals. corrected transaction records.2. and shall be consistent with audit trail requirements. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.2 Input variable values affecting measurement include. including a description of each alarm condition. 1.3 For systems where custody transfer calculations are performed off-site. energy content. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.2.3 Instantancous readings or displays for the values of pressure.5. composition.2. flow rate.4 shall be available. but is not limited to.7 All original data. c.1. The date and time of all events in the log shall be identified chronologically. relative density.2.2 Off-site Calculations For systems where custody transfer calculations are performed off-site. segmented by settlement interval. This statement should be complete for all data included in the units memory or otherwise available on-site. Also.1 Data collected or utilized since the last completed data collection period includes.`--- 1... 1. Also.2.5. but are not limited to the following: 1 52. composition. is determined to be out of accuracy guidelines.2. shall be available for the current collection cycle.```.2. The records and reports in this section may be created on-site or off-site.`.``-`-`.1.5.5. temperature. energy content.API M P M S * 2 I I . d. and relative density.5. I through 1S.L 93 0732290 0516448 40b 10 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS 1. b. a. b. energy content.2.`.

6. The following data shall be collected in the daily quantity transaction record: date period.`. time.2.2. Constant flow parameters include only those measured or known parameters that do not depend on any averaged logged parameter. differential pressure. uncorrected quantity. quantity..4 CONFIGURATION LOG The configuration log shall be part of the audit package for the accounting period.3 ALGORITHM IDENTIFICATION An algorithm identification shall be provided to identify the calculations performed in the electronic gas measurement system.. flow temperature. flow time.2.1 Daily Quantity Transaction Record for Differential Type Meters 1 The daily quantity transaction record is the average or summation of data collected and calculated during a contract day. time..2. A daily quantity transaction record will end and a new daily record begin at the end of each contract day or any time a constant flow parameter is changed. A quantity transaction record will end and a new daily record begin at the end of each contract day or any time a constant flow parameter is changed. Constant flow parameters include only those measured or known parameters that do not depend on any average logged parameters. time. 1.4 Hourly Quantity Transaction Record for Linear Type Meters 1. The following data shall be collected in the hourly quantity transaction record: date period.6.`--- The daily quantity transaction record is the average or summation of data collected and calculated during a contract day.`.``-`-`. See 1.`.2 and API MPMS Chapter I for definitions of these terms.6. flow time. and relative density. static pressure. The hourly quantity transaction record is the average or summation of data collected and calculated during a maximum of 60 consecutive minutes.2 and API MPMS Chapter 1 for definitions of these terms. mass. Constant flow parameters include only those measured or known parameters that do not depend on any averaged logged parameters.2. such as software or manufacturer’s version.3 The quantity transaction record is the set of historical data and information supporting the accounted quantity or quantities of volume. 1. There shall be 24 hourly quantity transaction records for each contract day. time. or energy. flow temperature.2.6. . static pressure.`. uncorrected quantity.```.2.. The quantity transaction record will be identified by a unique alphanumeric identifier denoting a specific electronic metering device and primary device. and a new record begin at the end of each hour or any time one or more constant flow parameters are changed. There shall be 24 hourly quantity transaction records for each contract day plus additional quantity transaction records for each time one or more constant parameters are changed.6. flow temperature.2. if live. quantity. static pressure.. See 1.`.2 QUANTITY TRANSACTION RECORD 1.~ A P I MPMS*2L-L 93 m 0732290 05Lb449 342 m SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 11 1 1.2. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````. There will be one daily quantity transaction record for each contract day plus an additional quantity transaction record for each time one or more constant flow parameters are changed.2. These quantity transaction records shall reflect the effect of any constant flow parameter changes. and relative density.2. flow temperature. An hourly quantity transaction record will end. See 1. quantity.2 and API MPMS Chapter 1 for definitions of these terms..6.2 and API MPMS Chapter 1 for definitions of these terms. quantity. The following data shall be collected in the hourly quantity transaction record: date period. and relative density. A quantity transaction record will end and a new record begin at the end of each hour or any time one or more constant flow parameters are changed. It is recognized that flow integral will provide valuable information in certain situations.. The following data shall be collected in the daily quantity transaction record: date period. Constant flow parameters include only those measured or known parameters that do not depend on any average logged parameters. and relative density. differential pressure.. The log will contain and identify all constant flow parameters used in the generation of a quantity transaction record.. It is recognized that flow integral will provide valuable information in certain situations.`..`. See 1.2. 1. static pressure. if live.2 Hourly Quantity Transaction Record for Differential Type Meters 1 The hourly quantity transaction record is the average or summation of data collected and calculated during a maximum of 60 consecutive minutes. The configuration log will be generated Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. There will be one daily quantity transaction record for each contract day plus an additional daily quantity transaction record for each time one or more constant flow parameters are changed. Daily Quantity Transaction Record for Linear Type Meters 1.6.

The purpose of the record is to identify reasons for all corrections. --``````.6. along with the date and time of the change. and to clarify the adjusted quantities to be applied to the meter and quantity accounting statements.5 EVENT LOG The event log shall be a part of the audit package for the accounting period.6.. power variation. All transducershransmitters used for custody transfer electronic gas measurement that are exposed to the elements should be protected.) Meter Tube Reference Inside Diameter (U. All transducers/transmitters shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines and the most current revision of the National Electrical Code (NEC).`. Each time a constant flow parameter that can affect the quantity transaction record is changed in the system. tariff. 1. or contract. The manufacturer shall state the combined accuracy effect of linearity..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.. The event log is used to note and to record exceptions and changes to the flow parameters. or were found to be in error at a later time. Dynamic flow parameters corrected as a result of calibration.. Alternatively. Table 1-Configuration Log Differential Mctcr Meter Identifier Datc and Time Contract Hour Atmospheric Pressure (if appropriate) Pressure Base (P. The combination of the original transaction record and the final corrected quantity transaction record will provide a detailed tracking of the custody transfer quantities.6 CORRECTED QUANTITY TRANSACTION RECORD The corrected quantity transaction record identifies changes to the original quantity transaction record..7 TEST RECORD A test shall be part of the audit package and consists of any documentation or record (electronic or hard copy) produced in the testing or operation of metering equipment that would affect the calculation of measured quantities..`. and mounting position sensitivity shall be stated. more frequent verification or the use of transducers/transmitters that electroni- 1.`. shall be logged. a temperature-controlled enclosure may be used.. In order to limit the operating ambient temperature range. Table 1 shows the information the configuration log is to contain. The effect of temperature on zero and span shall also be provided. but not be limited to. hysteresis. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . and environmental limits for all transducers/transmitters involved in electronic gas measurement shall be clearly stated and provided with the equipment. vibration. but are not limited to.6. to provide the original and corrected constant and variable parameters used in the corrected quantity record. Constant flow parameters were not available at the time of calculation. the minimum retention period for the electronic flow measurement audit trail data shall be two years. were entered incorrectly.. The original quantity transaction records will remain intact as a permanent record. The events include. and peripheral equipment evaluation reports..`.`.) Static Pressure Tap Location Orifice Tap Configuration Orifice Plate Matcrial Meter Tube Material Calibrated Static Prcssurc Range Calibrated Differential Pressure Range Calibrated Temperaturc Range Low Differential Cut Off Relative Density (If Not Livc) Compressibility (If Not Live) Gas Components (If Not Live) Linear Meter Mctcr Identifier Date and Time Contract Hour Atmospheric Pressure (if appropriate) Pressure Base ( P b ) Temperature Base (T. failure.`. contained in the configuration log. The date and time of all events in the log shall be identified chronologically.4. Other accuracy factors such as static pressure.5. changes or modifications to items in 1.) Meter Factor k Factor Relative Density (If Not Live) Compressibility (If Not Live) Gas Components (If Not Live) Calibrated Static Pressure Range Calibrated Temperature Range b.8. orifice plate and equipment change tickets. The correction of electronic gas measurement results from the following: a. but not be limited to..7.7 Equipment Installation 1..) Orifice Plate Reference Bore Size (d. 1.A P I MPMS*23-3 93 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 6 4 5 0 Ob11 m 12 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS from data and information listed in 1. The above situations result in the need to correct the original parameters and calculate revised quantity transaction records. the old and new value. and repeatability.8 DATA RETENTION Unless specified by regulation.1 TRANSDUCERS/TRANSMITTERS The range.`.```. calibration/verification reports as defined in 1. 1.6. operating limits.6. The corrected quantity transaction record is required to reflect changes to the original constant and/or dynamic flow parameters used in the calculation of the final quantity transaction record. o r adverse operating conditions of the measurement equipment. The documentation shall include.) Temperature Base (7i. that occur and that have an impact on a quantity transaction record.4 and 1. 1.``-`-`.

. Gauge line installations should slope downward toward the primary meter at a minimum of one inch per foot. the static pressure transmitter shall be connected to either the upstream or downstream differential pressure tap as allowed for by the EGM device. of 1 percent of flow over the expected range of operating temperatures and pressures for the installation. For differential pressure systems. 3) and consider using full port manifold valves with a nominal internal diameter consistent with the gauge lines.`. with the latest edition of the metering standard (API MPMS Chapter 14. 1.3. All cabling shall be shielded from environmental elements and from outside electrical interference. Gauge lines shall be supported sufficiently to prevent any observable sag and vibration. refer to API MPMS Chapter 14. The EGM device shall have radio frequency interference protection and electromagnetic interference protection suitable for the expected operating environment. 1.7. Separate static pressure taps are unacceptable. A.. Report No. document. Research has substantiated that longer gauge lines are more prone to pulsation-induced errors. 1 percent lull scale (FS) over the full input voltage range at reference conditions. If severe operating con- 1. 1. AC power and signal wires shall be no closer in proximity than necessary in open wire runs between the conduit terminal end and the EGM equipment.G. All installation materials shall be compatible with the service and/or environment.7.7. It is recommended that additional calibration check points be performed and recorded on the initial start-up of each EGM device to help verify proper operation.1 SCOPE This calibration and verification section describes the minimum requirements for calibrating and verifying EGM devices used for custody transfer. and control valves shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. Alternating current (AC) power cables and signal cables shall not be run in the same conduit. and the measurement fluid defines part of the measurement site as a classified area per the NEC. Report No. and the hazardous area classification. electronic. ANSUAPI 2530.`. voltage. These results are in addition to the normal calibrations that are to be performed for use of an EGM device.A. based on actual performance test results for identical systems. The testing shall be performed by establishing steady known or fixed inputs and comparing the calculation results to a standardized or mutually accepted calculation result. Gauge lines should also be of uniform internal diameter and constructed of material compatible with the fluid being measured. Installation materials shall be compatible with the service and/or environment.A.`.`.G.A P I MPMS*ZLmL 9 3 m 0732290 05Lblt5L T T O m SECTION I-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 13 cally correct for ambient temperature changes can be used to account for seasonal temperature changes that may also reduce the expected operating ambient temperature range between tests..```. the length of such lines should be minimized. and communication inputs and outputs. In the presence of pulsation. A. a recommended guideline for designing an installation with this requirement is A.. pulsation should be eliminated at the source. samplers. Any connections to the primary device shall be installed in accordance Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.3 EGM DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED COMMUNICATIONS The EGM device and associated communication equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines and the NEC.4 PERIPHERALS 1 Peripheral equipment such as analyzers. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.`--- . presence of toxic or corrosive material... including the hazardous area classification(s).7.3.G. 7) in use. 1. or frequency and compares or plots the resulting output against the input. Report No.`..A.5 CABLING All cabling shall be approved for the class of service and installed in accordance with NEC requirements.`. 3.6 COMMISSIONING 1 1.A. as appropriate.``-`-`.8 Equipment Calibration and Verification 1.8. ClassiJication of Gas Utility Areas for Electrical Installations...G. therefore. This criteria does not include the uncertainty of the basic flow coefficients or primary device.. The EGM device or installation shall include electrical transient suppression on all EGM device electrical.2 GAUGEAMPULSE LINES Whenever possible. The electronic measurement system (flow computer and transducers) shall be capable of a performance uncertainty. Part 2 (A. The analog to digital (A/D) converter can be tested with automatic test equipment or with an adjustable signal producing device that sweeps the full range of the EGM device input in current. including ambient temperature swings. If the EGM device is not approved for installation in a hazardous area.7.`. The tertiary device (not including the transducer) shall have a maximum error of O.) The internal volume calculations of the EGM device shall be checked and documented.

higher uncertainties may result.. For further information.8.8.3. and adjustments made to eliminate errors. Temperature transmitters. multiphase flow. “as found” readings shall be recorded at approximately O.3. see API MPMS Chapter 14.4. --``````.8.8. decreasing. Calibration of the actual temperature element is not possible by the user. Others are calibrated electronically (smart) and require no mechanical adjustments. or very low differentials are present. By utilizing the displayed value.3. 1.1 CaIibrationNerification of Pressure and Temperature Devices The guidelines in 1. For this reason.`. “as found” readings shall be recorded at approximately O. The recommended requirements for simulated input to the transmitter are covered in Appendix C. Verification tests shall be conducted by comparing the EGM measured value (the digital value provided by the flow computer) of each input variable to the correct value determined by a certified reference standard.3. the accuracy of the electrical signals between the transducers and the flow computer will also be verified. On-line analyzers.`. the user must refer to the manufacturer’s operation guide for step-by-step calibration procedures. a calibration shall be conducted according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures and adjustments made to eliminate errors.3.5 are recommended for calibration/verification of pressure and temperature input devices.. 1.1.4 When a verification test is performed on a temperature device.3.8. If possible. Should the “as found” readings fail to meet the output of the calibrationherification equipment. but verification of the operation is required..1.8. where applicable.`. 1. Verification at additional readings is acceptable.A P I MPMS*23. and 100 percent of scale (or operating pressure range) increasing and 80. d. span. Some have zero. Should the “as found” readings fail to meet the output of the calibration/ verification equipment. 1. Transmitter verification is accomplished by simulation of the temperature sensor input for the given temperature or by verifying the sensor and transmitter together as a unit with the sensor placed in a controlled temperature environment. a calibration shall be conducted according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures and adjustments made to eliminate errors. 1. current. and 100 percent of scale increasing and 80..8. 1.`.``-`-`. an “as left” verification test shall be conducted. Part 2. pulse frequency.3. Verification at additional readings is acceptable. or other forms of data signals.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.5”F of the certified thermometer’s reading.. both the element and transmitter should be verified together. decreasing. b.1.```. and analyzers are substantially different in their methods of calibration. Static pressure transmitters. 1. For resistance temperature detectors (RTDs).8.3 93 m 0’732290 0536452 937 m 14 CHAPTER 21-F~ow MEASUREMENT USINGELECTRONIC METERINGSYSTEMS ditions such as pulsating flow.8.2.8.2 When a verification test is performed on a differential pressure device.1.1.. or whenever the verification test determines an unacceptable difference between the value measured or produced by the certified reference standard and that of the value measured and utilized by the EGM. c..1.8. Procedures for “as left” tests are similar to the “as found’ tests described in 1. f. 20. Densitometers/gravitometers. other critical components. Verification is defined as the process of confirming or substantiating accuracy of an EGM device by the use of certified reference standards over the EGM’s prescribed operating range.1. transmitters.`. Calibration is defined as the adjustment of an EGM device or components to conform with certified reference standards to provide accurate values over the EGM’s prescribed operating range.1.. A calibration will only be necessary during initial installation of the unit. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .8.3. 50. the “as found’ reading of the fluid’s temperature should be checked against a certified thermometer to within 0.3 CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION PROCEDURES EGM devices and their individual transducers.3.3 When a verification test is performed on a static pressure device.1 through 1. 20 and O percent of scale (or operating pressure range). Their signal output can be a voltage. and linearity adjustments and some only zero and span.3..2 DEVICES REQUIRING CALIBRATION/ VERIFICATION The following EGM devices require calibratiordverification: a.3. following replacement of a transmitter.3. 1.8. Verification at additional readings is acceptable.1.5 After calibrating a device.`. a calibration shall be conducted according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures.`. Check for bypass (equalizer) valve leakage between the high and low pressure taps. e. Differential pressure transmitters.. the resistance reference or ice point should be verified in a properly prepared ice bath or ice bath substitute. Pulse generators and counters. and O percent. 1.1 Check sensing lines and valves from calibration/ verification equipment to the EGM device to ensure no leaks.1.3.and 1. 50. Should the “as found” readings fail to meet the output of the calibration/verification equipment.

The output of the analyzer should be verified through the EGM device. percent full scale/degrees temperature change from reference) should be listed in the manufacturer’s performance specifications and should be considered when selecting and installing EGM equipment. the accuracy requirements will determine the use of either a dead weight or electronic digital indicator of the appropriate range.. and it should not be used after the manufacturer’s expiration date. Reference instruments used in EGM calibrationherification shall be checked and calibrated once every two years or as recommended by the instrument manufacturer.2 percent would require calibrationherification with equipment with an accuracy of O.. The standard should be periodically checked to ensure that the composition has not changed. However.4 CalibrationNerificationof Densitometers and Gravitometers The calibrationíverification of densitometers and gravitometers should be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and industry standards.3 CalibrationNerificationof Analyzers 1. Uncertainty for pressure readout or measurement devices is usually related to a percent of full scale reading.05 percent of 100 = 0.6 CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION EQUIPMENT The minimum uncertainty requirement for calibration/ verification equipment shall be a factor of two better than the specified uncertainty of the transmitter. The uncertainty for the desired reading niust be calculated for each point.8. if the temperature during transportation or storage approaches the dew point. Ambient temperature changes or extremes may cause a significant systematic 1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. deviation on measurement accuracy.8.3. 1.`. This frequency is a recommended minimum and does not preclude verification and inspection on a more frequent basis when required by operating conditions or contractual agreements. The minimum verification frequency may be extended by mutual agreement or when warranted by supporting measurement data.. During verificationkalibration.`.3. in a practical sense.`.2 Verification of Pulse Counters The accuracy of an EGM device to interpret and process pulse signals should be verified using pulse generators (current or voltage) corresponding to the output of the actual input device.8. differential pressure transducershransmitters are calibrated at atmospheric pressure.5 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND LINE PRESSURE EFFECTS 1.8. For example. Standards shall be kept in a specified temperature range. To achieve accurate calibration. An “as left” test shall be conducted after a calibration.``-`-`.1 Ambient Temperature Effect EGM devices are typically installed in an uncontrolled environment. calibration system uncertainties better than 10. transducer. 1.L 93 W 0732290 05Lb453 873 W SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC G A S MEASUREMENT 15 1. 1.`--- ..`.5 percent at 10 psi (0. 1 percent or better at the pressure measured.. a calibration shall be conducted according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedures. For most electronic pressure transmitters. The simulated signal shall be recorded along with the actual value as determined by the EGM device. a device with a stated accuracy of 0. or other associated device to be calibrated.5 percent of 10).Also. such as API MPMS Chapter 14. 1.2 Line-Pressure Effect In field practice.`. All reference instruments and/or standards used for calibrationíverification shall be certified to 60°F and traceable to primary standards maintained by an internationally recognized standards organization such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology. For further information. a transmitter with a stated accuracy of 0.. Specifications on line pressure effects and compensation techniques should be provided by the manufacturer and be considered when determining the measurement uncertainty of the system. 1..8. Operating temperature range and its corresponding effect on measurement uncertainty (that is.8. For example..A P I MPMS*2L.5.```.05 percent of a full scale of 100 pounds per square inch (psi) would correspond to an accuracy of only 0. Should the “as found” readings of the analyzer fail to meet the repeatability or reproducibility standards. 1 The accuracy of an analyzer should be verified using a certified reference standard gas.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.8. sufficient significant digits must be present on the digital readout to ensure a suitably accurate measurement when the uncertainty of the last digit is considered.`.1 or Gas Processors Association (GPA) Standard 2261 or Standard 2286. ambient temperature should be recorded.5.05 = 0. Responses of these devices under a variety of summer and winter conditions could affect the performance and accuracy of flow measurement. line pressure may cause a shift in calibration.3. see Appendix C .8.4 FREQUENCY OF VERIFICATION The accuracy of all electronic gas measurement (EGM) equipment should be verified on a quarterly basis. When a differential pressure device is placed in service at higher pressure conditions.05 percent are not normally required. the natural gas standard must be heated in accordance with appropriate industry standards. whichever period is shorter.`. This will prevent condensation or stratification..

. If errors in transmission are detected.3.A P I MPMS*E'L-L 9 3 0732290 05Lb454 70T 16 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS 1.1 For metering systems not contained within locked cnclosurcs or fenced perimeters.`..1 may be utilized to deny access to the system. These measures may include mechanical devices and/or additional levels of electronic security.`.9.9. 1.. Both the original and the final adjusted data shall be retained.9. Some means of effectively determining the date of the changes shall be provided..3 INTEGRITY OF LOGGED DATA 1. shall be logged (hard copy or electronically).7 ERROR CHECKING An effective system of error checking shall be utilized each time data is transferred from a system capable of storing data to any other system capable of storing data.2.9.`.2 When primary power is lost.1 ACCESS 1. 1.9. Additionally.1 In order to provide maximum security and integrity for the data..9.. considering industry practices and contractual obligations. the time and date of the failure and the time and date of the return to normal status shall be logged in the audit trail. 1.1.9. the owner or the owner's contractually designated representative.1 Every time any constant flow parameter is changed in the system.`--- 1. 1.9. the EGM device shall provide a backup power supply.. 1.9. A unique security code of at least four characters shall provide this protection..6. 1.9.. This requirement includes calibration reports --``````. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .3. capable of retaining all data in the unit's memory for a period not less than the normal data collection interval for the unit. unrestricted visual access to the metering system is anticipated and acceptable during normal business hours.2 Additional security measures other than the electronic means described in 1.```.4 ALGORITHM PROTECTION The algorithm used to calculate quantities shall be protected from alterations at the field or accounting office levels.6.2 Only the owner of the meter or the owner's contractually designated representative has the right to calibrate or alter the function of the metering system in any way. Owners should consider assigning unique codes or security measures to individuals in order to ensure all parties gaining access are identifiable and accountable.2.5 ORIGINAL DATA There shall be no changes to the original data.2. 1. the system shall prevent the use of incorrect data. These adjustments or corrections shall be shown in the audit trail and shall clearly indicate the old and new values and the dates and times of the period or periods affected by the change.9.1 Systems shall be designed so that unauthorized access to the unit for the purpose of altering any input variables that may affect measurement will be denied.9. A security code shall be used every time any changes or edits are performed that will alter quantities being measured.9. plus the date and time of the change. 1.9.9.2 Any adjustments or corrections to the original data or calculated values shall be stored separately and shall not alter the original data.``-`-`. is restricted to activities contractually recognized as necessary and appropriate. 1.2 RESTRICTING ACCESS 1.`.6 MEMORY PROTECTION 1..9. the old and new value. or nonvolatile memory.`.2. even by persons with the security code necessary to perform all other routine functions. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.1.`. 1.9. 1.3 A security code may be utilized any time data is collected from the system.9 Security that shall be completed and included in the audit trail or in a separate calibration report.`.

the gas density at any pressure and temperature may be calculated using the equation (A-3) and the gas density at base conditions is the following equation: P "Assuming C ('4-4) '.. ' 17 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`.l A.`.. This eliminates the requirement to maintain definitions of all of the constants as the equations are derived. The fundamental form of the head flow equation' used in this standard is the following: q m Oc cme.l..`.. and A-7 to solve for Q.`..`. - (A-2) Pb If the real relative density is known. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT I ..``-`-`..' y ( pJAp) (A. A-6.`. results in Use of the ' ' o c ' ' (proportional to) sign is used to replace "= K *" (equals Constant times) in the equation for simplification.(air) is constant.e.l Differential Meter Measurement FLOW EQUATION --``````...`--- The equations and constants in this section apply generally to all head-type meters.`. It is intended that these equations provide an example for the application of flow equations to EGM devices.```.. Refer to the appropriate standards for the constants and other applicable equations.A P I MPMS*2L=1 93 0732290 051b455 b4b = APPENDIX A-RANS METHODOLOGY FOR SYSTEM FLOW MEASUREMENT ALGORITHMS A. Equations A-3 and A-4 reduce to the following equation: Substituting Equation A-5 into Equation A-1 results in the equation shown below: Using Equations A-2.1 ) The volume flow rate at base conditions may be calculated using the equation shown below: 4" = 9.

`.```. The flow pattern that would cause the largest calculation/sample interval error is a step pattern..13) Approximate numerical integration values can be calculated for n < 03 as long as n is large relative to the changes of qm or q. over the integration interval.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. The desired integration accuracy is known.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . c. (t)dr (A-IO) [o 11 Q.. for a single calculation/sampling interval.`.. The error for the integration interval would be equal to the step change in flow rate (see Figure A-1). the end time of the integration.. The maximum error would occur if the flow rate was sampled just pnor to a step change.1. b.`.``-`-`.`. to + i ( t l -to)/n. = 14.`.. The maximum calculation error possible. the number of calculations. results in --``````.`. The maximum change in flow rate during any calculationhmpling interval can be estimated. the nthcalculation. = jq.2 INTEGRATION OF FLOW RATE The accumulated mass or volume is calculated by integrating the flow rate as a function of time as shown below: fI Q.L 93 0732290 0 5 L b 4 5 b 5 8 2 m 18 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS which then reduces to the following equation: A.`--- (A-12) (A. For other samples of the step flow pattern and other flow patterns the error will be less than this maximum (see Figures A-2 through A-4). A conservative estimate of n can be calculated based on the following assumptions: a.. can be estimated if the maximum change in the flow rate during any calculationhmple interval can be determined.(t)dt fo (A-l I ) The use of numerical integration techniques where to = tl = n = i = t = the start time of the integration....A P I NPNS*2L. The calculationhmpling interval is statistically independent of flow rate..`..

`....`. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .A P I MPMS+2L=L 93 = 0732290 051bq57 GAS MEASUREMENT 419 SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC --``````.`--- 19 loo I - Flow Rate EGM Flow CalculationiSample Interval Figure A-1 loo i - Flow Rate ~ ~ ~ v o i u m e CalculationiSample Interval Figure A-2 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale....`..``-`-`..`..`..`.```.`.

A P I MPMSJ2L-L 9 3 0732290 05LhY58 355 W 20 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS .`.`.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT ..`..`.Flow Rate m a o c m & al 60 5 s! 40 20 Calculation/Sarnple Interval Figure A-3 o m a m Flow Rate o CalculationiSarnple Interval Figure A-4 --``````..`..`....```..``-`-`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`..

(Statistically. its value should be the maximum possible.`--- emax 2 1 (A-IS) ecalcu/arion/sarnplu For a finite n. Equations A-12 and A..) 0. the error value o f the mean of these errors can be calculated using: 30.`..`.`. then the error calculated from Equation A-14 could be used as an estimate of the standard deviation.```.SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 21 Using this worst case error.. it will be assumed to be the 30 (99 percent confidence level) value of this normal distribution. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .. where n is large relative to the changes in q m or q.``-`-`.. the integration error can be estimated by applying statistical principles related to the standard deviation.. Because the error estimate from Equation A-14 is conservative.`.`. the maximum calculation error is shown in the following equation: E max = qavg Aqmax (A-14) Because the calculationísampling interval is independent of flow rate...`.= 0 - " h (A-15) If the distribution of the calculationísampling interval errors is assumed to be a normal distribution.= 30 - "*/n (A-16) (A-17) Solving for n: n = ( --``````. n is assumed to be large.`...13 become (A-19) (A-20) Substituting Equations A-I and A-2 into A-19 and A-20 results in (A-2 1) 1 QPL-N2n C " Cmrter(t) Y ( ? ) ( Pf ( t ) A P ( t ) (A-22) Pb i=O (t) Substituting Equations A-7 and A-9 into A-19 and A-20 results in (A-23) (A-24) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. From this value...

This requires an assumed value of the parameter be used to flow weight the process variables and will introduce some calculation error.`. For example. If the “average” of the process variable is not a flow weighted Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. The “average” temperature could be used to calculate C. b.... Dependent on thc changc in this parameter over the calculation interval. Assume that all of the process variables except for differential pressure.```.. static pressure. can be moved to the left side of the E sign in Equations A-19 to A-22...3 SIMPLIFICATION OF FLOW INTEGRATION .536460 T O 3 22 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS A. The flow equation for this time interval simplifies to where differential pressure and static pressure are sampled n times per five minutes.. C. Assume that all of the process variables except for differential pressure are constant for a one-second time interval.`.. Assume that all of the process variables except for differential pressure and static pressure are constant for a one-minute time interval. The parameter can be calculated as a constant once per integration based on the “average” of the input parameter.. AR The following two A.`. a.C assumptions can be used to simplify the calculation process: q. y p f . The flow equation for this time interval simplifies to (A-25) where differential pressure is sampled rz times per second.3. is constant for the integration interval. temperature.... when utilizing averages.1. The flow equation for this time interval simplifies to (A-26) where differential pressure and static pressure are sampled n times per minute.A P I MPMS*21-1 73 0732270 0. b..`. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````...3. a.`.1 The flow equation is a function of. if C... ZF Z.1... One or more of the parameters is constant over the integration interval.. c. and specific gravity are constant for a five-minute time interval. Note: Zfis a function of pressure. Some examples of applying this simplification to the flow equation are the following: a.. For example.. The validity of this assumption is reduced as the integration interval increases....2 Based on the assumption that a parameter is “constant” over the integration interval then.`.. is that the “average” of the input parameter should be a flow weighted average... One or more of the parameters is linear over the integration interval. but has been assumed to be constant..3 The calculation error introduced. then C. the flow equation can be mathematically simplified by moving the parameter from the variable side of the equation to the constant side.``-`-`. .” This allows these “constants” to be calculated on an integration interval as opposed to being calculated on a calculation/sample interval basis. once per integration interval.`--- A..1. A.3.. a calculation error will be introduced. The first limitation that must be considered.`. This implies that as the integration interval is reduced more of the time dependent vanables can be considered “constant. can be reduced if the parameter is linear over the integration interval.1. by assuming a variable parameter is constant. is dependent on flowing temperature because the meter size expands with temperature.

``-`-`. e.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . Assume the calculation error for each process variable to be systematic and sum the errors to calculate the total error for the parameter. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``````...`.`--- Flow Rate Fluctuation Correction Factor 1.Parametermi. (A-28) integration = 2 Parameter.```..`.. time weighted averages must be calculated and reported for all input parameters. Repeat this estimate for each remaining process variable..A P I M P M S * 2 1 . 3. the maximum error will occur between the step increase in flow rate to a point where the time before the step change equals the time after the step change.`. A conservative estimate of the error from each parameter is the following: 1. Dependent on the size of the change in flow rate.1 93 = 0732290 0516463 9 4 T = GAS MEASUREMENT SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC 23 B average (that is.`.. To estimate the maximum and minimum of the value of the calculated parameter based on an estimate of the maximum and minimum value of one process variable. A second error introduced by averaging occurs if the parameter is non-linear......0 - 0. then this assumption will also introduce an additional calculation error..: 4. The maximum difference between the volume calculated using flow weighted averages and time weighted averages was determined for a step change in flow rate. Note: For Audit purposes. b.9 L c O o LL <u c O . 5.`. 2.`. time weighted average). The difference between integrating the non-linear value and the assumed linear value must be added to the error introduced by the averaging technique. Note: Figure A-5 was developed empirically by assuming a direct correlation between the parameter being calculated and the change in flow rate.. Assume the calculation error for each process variable to be Parameter..`._ c o o 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Fluctuation [(q(max)-q(min))/q(max)]*lO0 Figure A-5 Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. Flow weight the parameter error by multiplying the calculated error times the flow weighting factor from Figure A-5. .

`..ApI MPMS*:23.``-`-`. assume the calculation error for each parameter is systematic and sum the individual parameter errors as follows: - ‘rotai - ‘ p a r a m e t e r .`. the flow weight factor would be 100 percent.. Note: If flow time averages are used for the calculation then this factor would he determined by the flow Ructuation exclusive of the “no flow” periods.. the two equations can be combined to yield (A-33) A.. + ‘porumercr2 + . The fundamental form of the volumetric flow equation used in this standard is: The volume flow rate at base conditions may be calculated using the following equation: Since R is a constant for the gas regardless of pressure and temperature. To calculate the total calculation error. the design criteria shall meet a daily uncertainty not to be greater than 0.`.5 ENERGY EQUATION The accumulated energy is calculated by integrating the flow rate times the energy rate as follows: fl Energy = j q ( t )e ( t )d t f0 (A-30) A.`. These equations can be simplified as described in A.`--- The equations and constants in this section apply generally to all “linear-type” meters. Where operating considerations require less or more frequent sampling and calculation rates. If periods of “no flow” occur. The error associated with the calculation methodology implemented should be calculated by adding the calculatiordsampling interval error (Equation A-1 7) and the integration interval error (Equation A-28).1.`.`..1 Linear Meter Measurement FLOW EQUATION --``````.2. c.1...3. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .4 CALCULATION METHODOLOGY The calculation methodology implemented in individual EGM devices will utilize the basic form of the flow equation (A-19 through A-24).2 INTEGRATION OF FLOW RATE The accumulated volume can be calculated by integrating the flow rate as a function of time as shown in the equation below: II = j Q f ( t ) dr TO (A-34) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale...L 93 m 0732290 0536462 886 m 24 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS 6.2 A. (A-29) A. A...5 percent.2.```.`..1. and for the same number of moles of gas N ..

can be estimated if the maximum change in the flow rate during any calculation/sample interval can be determined. The desired integration accuracy is known. loo { - Flow Rate E G M Flow Calculation/Sarnple Interval Figure A-6 --``````. A conservative estimate of n can be calculated based on the following assumptions: a.`.`. The calculation/sampling interval is statistically independent of flow rate. i = the nthcalculation. The maximum change in flow rate during any calculation/sampling interval can be estimated..`.``-`-`.. The error for the integration interval would be equal to the step change in flow rate (see Figure A-6). 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .. c. The maximum calculation error possible.`.A P I MPMS+21.```.... For other samples of the step flow pattern and other flow patterns the error will be less than this maximum (see Figures A-7 through A-9).`.`. n = the number of calculations..L 93 = 0732290 0516463 712 GAS MEASUREMENT SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC 25 b The use of numerical integration techniques where to = the start time of the integration.. t l = the end time of the integration. The maximum error would occur if the flow rate was sampled just prior to a step change. results in (A-35) Approximate numerical integration values can be calculated for n < M as long as n is large relative to the changes of Qf over the integration interval..`.. The flow pattern that would cause the largest calculation/sample interval error is a step pattern. b.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. t = to+ i ( t l -to)/n. for a single calculation/sampling interval.

`.``-`-`.`..`.`..`..```. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT ..26 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS Flow Rate EGM Volume Calculation/Sample Interval Figure A-7 --``````.`...`--- Flow Rate o o m a m CalculationiSample Interval Figure A-8 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.....`.

. n is assumed to be large._ o m 80 q (avg) o 3 c m Q 60 2 8 40 20 Calculation/Sample Interval Figure A-9 Using this worst case error..*Qmax emax ~ (A-36) Because the calculation/sampling interval is independent of flow rate.`..`. Because the error estimate from Equation A-36 is conservative.```.`. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````. then the error calculated from Equation A-36 could be used as an estimate of the standard deviation. l Jl (A-37) If the distribution of the calculation/sampling interval errors is assumed to be a normal distribution.`.`. From this value. the error value of the mean of these errors can be calculated using - Jl (A-39) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`--- 30- = 30 (A-38) . the maximum calculation error is .....`. it will be assumed to be the 30 (99 percent confidence level) value of this normal distribution. (Statistically.``-`-`. the integration error can be estimated by applying statistical principles related to the standard deviation..`. its value should be the maximum possible..) 0 0 -= ..A P I MPMS*ZL-L 93 = 0732290 05Lb4b5 GAS MEASUREMENT 595 = 27 SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC 1O0 -- Flow Rate volume c .

time weighted average).`.. One example of applying this simplification to the flow equation is the following: Assume that all of the process variables except for static pressure are constant for a oneminute time interval. by assuming a variable parameter is constant. when utilizing averages limitation.3 The calculation error introduced. dependent variables can be considered “constant”.`. One or more of the parameters is linear over the integration interval. the flow equation can be mathematically simplified by moving the parameter from the variable side of the equation to the constant side. 5. This requires an assumed value of the parameter be used to flow weight the process variables and will introduce some calculation error.. In typical practice. A.2 Based on the assumption that a parameter is “constant” over the integration interval then. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. time weighted averages must be calculated and reported for all input parameters.`. A..2.`. A second error introduced by averaging occurs if the parameter is non-linear. Note: For Audit purposes. b.`--- y A. can be reduced if the parameter is linear over the integration interval...`. is that the “average” of the input parameter should be a flow weighted average. One or more of the parameters is constant over the integration interval. The first limitation that must be considered. The following two assump- a..1 The flow equation is a function of Qp tions can be used to simplify the calculation process: 7.. A.`. at a rate independent of basic sampling and integration intervals.A P I MPMS*23. where n is large relative to the changes in or Qp Equation A-34 becomes the following equation: --``````. For example. as opposed to being calculated on a calculatiodsample interval basis.``-`-`.`. The parameter can be calculated as a constant once per integration based on the “average” of the input parameter. The difference between integrating the non-linear value and the assumed linear value must be added to the error introduced by the averaging technique. then this assumption will also introduce an additional calculation error.2.3.3 93 D 0732290 0536466 421 D 28 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS Solving for n n = ( (A-40) For a finite n.```.2.3 1 “ = i=O Qf (0 (A-41) SIMPLIFICATION OF FLOW INTEGRATION Zp Z. turbine “k” Factor is dependent on flow rate because of physical characteristics of the meter itself. a.. The flow equation for this time interval simplifies to the following: (A-42) where static pressure is sampled n times per minute. The validity of this assumption is reduced as the integration interval increases.3. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . This implies that as the integration interval is reduced more of the time. b. If the “average” of the process variable is not a flow weighted average (that is.2.. an average frequency is used to compute “k”.. This allows these “constants” to be calculated on an integration interval..3.

To calculate the total calculation error....`. c.0 0. the flow weight factor would be 100 percent.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````. 6.SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 29 A conservative estimate of the error from each parameter is the following: I . Assume the calculation error for each process variable to be systematic.9 - O% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Fluctuation [(q(max)-q(min))/q(max)]*l O0 Figure A-1 O Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. assume that the calculation error for each parameter is systematic...Parametermi.`. and sum the individual parameter errors. Flow weight the parameter error by multiplying the calculated error times the flow weighting factor from Figure A-10.`..`. 3.. and sum the errors to calculate the total error for the parameter. 2. Flow Rate Fluctuation Correction Factor 1.`.``-`-`. To estimate the maximum and minimum of the value of the calculated parameter based on an estimate of the maximum and minimum value of one process variable. then this factor would be determined by the flow fluctu ation exclusive of the “no flow” periods. If periods of “no flow” occur.. Note: If flow time averages are used for the calculation.`--- .```. Assume the calculation error for each process variable to be Parametermax . (A-43) 4. 5..`. Repeat this estimate for each remaining process variable.`. einiegrurion - 2 Parameter..

The error associated with the calculation methodology implemented should be calculated by adding the calculation/sampling interval error and the integration interval error. Where operating considerations require less or more frequent sampling and calculation rates.`. + . + epararnerer...`--- A....`.2.`. Note: Figure A-IO was dcvcloped empirically by assuming a direct correlation between the parameter being calculated and the change in flow rate.4 CALCULATION METHODOLOGY The calculation methodology implemented in individual EGM devices will utilize the basic form of the flow equation. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT ..5 ENERGY EQUATION The accumulated energy is calculated by integrating the Bow rate times the energy rate: 71 Energy = JQ ( t ) e ( t ) d t ti) (A-45) Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. (A-44) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --``````.```. the maximum error will occur between the step increase in flow rate to a point where the time before the step change equals the time after the &tepchange. A.30 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS etorai = epararnerer.. the design criteria shall meet a daily uncertainty not to be greater than 0..`.3. Dependent on the size of the change in Row rate.`. The maximum diffcrcncc between the volurne calculated using flow weighted averages and time weighted averages was determined for a step change in Row rate.`....`. These equations can be simplified as described in A.2..``-`-`.5 percent.2.

.`.`..`. All formulaic averages (time or flow-weighted) 8. "flow dependent" refers to the requirement that these values only be calculated during periods of flow.`. the formulas for calculation periods where there is flow reduce to the following: --``````.`.l B. Flow-dependent time-weighted linear average . 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT I Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . ti = constant).`--- 3 1 Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale....`.1. Flow-dependent time-weighted formulaic average - 1 c.l..A P I MPMS*2L-L 93 0732290 05Lb4b9 130 D APPENDIX B-AVERAGING TECHNIQUES For the time-weighted averages.. Flow-weighted formulaic average B.. Flow-weighted linear average l k d. All linear averages (time or flow-weighted) k p.2 8.2 WHERE THERE I S NO FLOW For calculation periods where there is no flow the formulas are shown below: a.`.1 Sampling Periods WHERE THERE IS FLOW Where the sampling period is constant (that is.2.. = T C P i r i k j=l 1 b. These methods are described by the following equations. Any algorithm yielding the same results may be used. k f i=l b.```.``-`-`.l Calculation Periods WHERE THERE IS FLOW For calculation periods where there is flow the formulas are shown below: a.. B.

i= I tk = C ti i= I k k Number of samples where flow was occurring during calculation period is r .`. All linear averages (time or flow-weighted) - ~n = 1 k C Pi i= I b.`. Flow-weighted formulaic average B... ri = constant). the formulas for calculation periods where there is no flow reduce to the following: a.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. Total time for calculation period is = C tiri. Flow-dependent time-weighted linear average Pf 1 = k x ¡=I t CPiF. All formulaic averages (time or flow-weighted) Where...`.``-`-`.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .`. b.. Flow-weighted linear average 1 Pf = TCPiY .A P I MPMS*23*3 9 3 0732290 05361170 952 32 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS a..`..2 WHERE THERE IS NO FLOW Where the sampling period is constant (that is.2.```.=I k d.`. Flow time during calculation is k fr= ctiq i= I k Summation of flow-weighting factors during calculation period is r.. = cq i= 1 --``````..`. Flow-dependent time-weighted formulaic average c.

= Flow weighting factor... t i = Time interval for sampling period i. This would typically be ( h ~ ) 'for ..A P I MPMS*23-3 93 0732290 0536471 899 SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GASMEASUREMENT 33 1 Summation of flow-weighting factors during calculation period is the following: k t. y = Lowest order power with which the input variable appears in the flow or volume measurement equation.`..`. pi = Input variable value at sample period i.``-`-`...`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.= cy i= I p f = Average of input variable during calculation periods with flow.`. Fi = Flow dependency factor. ~ an orifice meter..`. p.```. i = Index specifying the sample period. --``````. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .`.`. k = Total samples in calculation period. and one if flow at sample period i. Zero if no flow at sample period i ..i = Average of input variable during calculation periods without flow.`...

Examples are dead weight gauges and digital pressure equipment.l HYDRAULIC/PNEUMATIC A device that generates a hydraulic or pneumatic signal by placing known weights on a piston of known size is generally referred to as a “dead weight tester.l. or greater than 50 degrees. Reference to manufacturer’s specifications is advised prior to use of equipment.1. In practice. C. Due to sensitivity of calibration/verification equipment. However.`.`. One exception is the commonly used liquid filled manometers. At latitudes of less than 40 degrees.2 --``````.`..`.```. 35 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale...`..A P I MPMS*2L*L 93 0732290 0 5 L b 4 7 2 725 A PPENDIX C-C A LIBRAT1ON AND VER IFICATION EQUIPMENT C.``-`-`. C. The signal is adjusted to a desired pressure as indicated by the measurement device.. only one pressure signal is generated and referenced to atmospheric pressure. Static pressure calibratiodverification equipment is divided into the following three main types: C. or. liquid filled manometers are not suitable for calibrationíverification of electronic devices because they lack adequate resolution. The electronic output of the pressure transmitter is then adjusted or calibrated to correspond to the pressure signal. The electronic output of the pressure transmitter is then adjusted or calibrated to correspond to the pressure signal.” By using accurate weights and a piston of accurately determined area. these devices form a secondary standard for pressure measurements. The pressure used for calibrating the static pressure transmitter may be supplied from various sources.`--- ADJUSTABLE Adjustable static devices generate a pressure signal and measure the signal generated. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . The equipment available for calibratiodverification of differential pressure transmitters is similar to that used for static pressure transmitters as described in the previous section....`. C..`.2 Differential Pressure Differential pressure calibratiodverification equipment is used to generate accurately determined differential pressure signals on the pressure sensing element(s) of a differential pressure transmitter.3 READ OUT Read out static devices measure only the pressure signal applied to the static pressure transmitter from an external source. thus creating a differential pressure between the generated signal and atmospheric pressure.1. dead weight testers must have weights that are trimmed to the local gravity.. The signal generator may be combined with the measuring device-the combination generally referred to as a calibrator. the pressure generator and measuring instrument combination may consist of two or more separate devices. or at altitudes greater than 5000 feet.l Static Pressure Static calibratiodverification equipment is used to accurately determine or produce a pressure signal on the pressure sensing element of a static pressure transmitter. or appropriate correction factors must be applied to adjust for the effects of local gravity. consideration should be given to gravitational constants and other environmental influences.

`... The accuracy of the calibration environment should be I 0. frequency. Care should be taken in placement of the sensor in the environment to minimize the effects of thermal conductivity through the sensor to atmosphere. Frequency stability and accuracy shall be at least two times better than the device being tested for 150 percent of the length of the test.``-`-`. C. Typical EGM applications requiring analog signal inputs for calibratiodverification include flow computers that receive analog signals from differential pressure..2 PULSE SIGNAL Pulse signal generators are used for calibration/verification of EGM equipment that receives a pulse signal input. the sensor is placed in a controlled temperature environment (a temperature bath or block). by a transmitter for input into the EGM equipment. 1 percent. This accuracy requirement includes the nonuniformity of the block and the accuracy of the temperature standard. An analog signal generator may consist of either a composite device incorporating both a signal source and readout device (calibrator) or separate devices connected to provide a signal source with a separate readout or indicator. flow. 3 Flow Temperature Flowing temperature calibratiodverification equipment is used for calibration and verification of the instruments measuring the temperature of the flowing fluid. or other factors. During calibration and verification.3 FREQUENCY Frequency standards shall generate a sine waveform with a maximum harmonic distortion of 1 percent. shall meet the standard required for “electronic digital multimeters” as defined in C. Pulse generators shall generate a pulse level (current or voltage) corresponding to the output of the simulated device f5 percent.`. Temperature measurement of the flowing fluid is made by a temperature element with suitable mechanical provisions for insertion in the flow stream. and temperature elements and/or transmitters. Standard analog signals include volts (v) and amperes (a). 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT . Composition of signal requires a maximum allowable ripple of O. such as 4-20 milliamperes. c. uneven heating.A P I MPMS+23-L 93 --``````.```.. The measurement made by the sensing element may be either used directly by the EGM equipment or converted into other electrical signals. pressure. diaphragm.`.4. Devices generating an analog signal (voltage..6 of this appendix. or current) shall meet the following standards for stability and composition of signal: a.4.. Devices measuring digital or pulse signals.`.`. Each portion of a composite device or assembled system that is used for EGM calibrationíverification shall meet the requirements established in this standard that apply to that portion of the device or system utilized. C.4.l percent over a period of 150 percent of the period of time in which the measurement is required to be made.`--- 0732290 O536473 b b L 36 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS C ..`.1 ANALOG Analog signal generators are used for calibratiodverification of EGM equipment that receives an electronic analog input. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale. b. or vortex flow meters. rotary. or readout devices on composite devices or calibrators.4.4 Electronic Signal Generators C.2”F or better. C. Coriolis..`. Actual pulse tolerance for a given interval shall be at least a factor of two better than the stated uncertainty of the device simulated. Pulse signals are typically generated by turbine... Stability means that voltage or current sources shall not exhibit a level fluctuation of greater than IO.

0005 percent of reading Note that total accuracy requirements above include the effect of the uncertainty of the last digit.. IEEE-488.`. .SECTION 1-ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT 37 C.4.05 percent of reading 0.4. current (milliamperes).`.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`--- Resistance signal devices are used to simulate resistance temperature detector (RTD) inputs in the calibration/verification of EGM equipment.`. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````. C. Resistance devices shall be of the decade bridge type or individual resistor elements that have been prepared for use as a resistance standard..``-`-`. Accuracy for either type of resistor calibratiodvcnfication devices shall be at least a factor of two better than the accuracy of the RTD being tested over the ambient temperature range at the calibration/venfication location.. For any other electronic measurements made.```. Requirements for use and calibration/ verification of such digital communication methods are covered under standards issued by various electronic groups and organizations such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Electronic Industries Association (EIA).4. 1 ohm. All DMMs will have. Digital electronic outputs from flow transmitters or computers occur where each digital transmission is used to send volume or mass flow data. Specifications and requirements listed in this section for multimeters shall also apply to both devices measuring only one or more parameters and the readout devices of integrated source/measurement units or calibrators.075 percent of reading 0.. Minimum total accuracy specifications for parameters and ranges commonly used on EGM instruments are the following: Voltage (v or mv): Milliamperes (ma): Frequency (Hz): 0.`. and so forth. Each portion of a composite device or assembled system that is used for EGM calibratiodverification shall meet the requirements established in this standard for that portion of the device or system utilized for calibration or verification. A digital signal generator may consist of either composite devices incorporating both a signal source and readout device (calibrator) or separate devices connected to provide a signal source with a separate readout or indicator.4 DIGITAL Digital signal generators are used for calibrationívenfication of EGM equipment that receives a digital electronic signal.. and resistance. Analog or mechanical type meters will not be used. the minimum requirement for accuracy of the calibrating or measuring device shall be a factor of two better than the stated accuracy of the device being calibrated. For decade bridges the minimum resolution shall be O.`.6 ELECTRONIC DIGITAL MULTIMETERS Electronic digital multimeters (DMM) are readout devices used to measure the various electronic parameters associated with the calibratiodverification of EGM instruments..`. frequency. four significant digits displayed for all measurements used in the calibrationherification of EGM instruments. Parameters measured include voltage.5 RESISTANCE C... This standard does not include requirements for digital communication protocols or methods such as RS-232.`. Individual resistors used for calibration/verification must be adequately enclosed in a protective enclosure and provided with suitable terminals for a resistive standard.. as a minimum.

`. party or person performing the inspection.`.`. Calibration stickers or tags shall be attached showing the date of calibration or verification... --``````.``-`-`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`. Instruments subject to harsh field conditions may require calibratiodverification on a more frequent period as determined by actual experience.`..5 Frequency of Calibration All reference electronic instruments used in EGM calibration/verification shall be checked and calibrated once every two years or as recommended by the instrument manufacturer..```. Instruments dropped or damaged shall not be used until they are checked and recalibrated. and the due date of the next certification.`.. whichever period is shorter..A P I MPMS*23.3 93 W 0732290 0536475 434 W 38 CHAPTER 21-FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC METERING SYSTEMS C.. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .. Standards used for calibration/verification shall be traceable to primary standards as maintained by an internationally recognized standards organization such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)...`.

`.`..`.`..`.`.`. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT .A P I MPflS*ì?L-L 93 0732290 0516476 370 W Order No.```... 852-30730 1-01102-9/93-3M --``````......`--- (1E) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale..``-`-`.

`... Northwest .. 05/24/2005 03:14:38 MDT --``````.`.`--- American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street..``-`-`..```..`.`.API flPflS*ZL-L 93 0732290 O536477 207 1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Tyco Engineering Services/5956999001 Not for Resale.`...`..`..

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