To protect body against pathogens (diseasecausing MO) that may enter. Transmission of pathogens:
   

Air Contaminated food Animal vectors Contact

patho: disease gens: agents

First Line Second Line Third Line


Prevention of pathogens entering the body by mean of physical and chemical barriers.

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Sweat Sebum

 

Tears and saliva Mucous membranes

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A physical barrier It has dead keratinised layer that is hard to penetrate Continual shedding of dead skin cells prohibit growth of pathogens If there is a cut, the blood clots quickly to seal the wound

To prevent blood loss and entry of pathogens

Sweat and Sebum

 

Produced by skin as chemical barrier Protective film over skin Acidic sebum secreted by sebaceous glands contain lysozymes, which destroy cell walls of certain bacteria

Tears and Saliva

Tears and saliva contain lysozymes, which destroy bacteria (protect eyes and mouth)

Mucous Membranes

Lines trachea, respiratory passageways, digestive and urogenital tracts.

Mucous Membranes:
Methods of Defense

Mucus secreted in the nasal cavity and trachea
 

traps dust particles and microbial spores contains lysozyme to destroy bacteria

The cilia in the respiratory tract sweep the trapped particles to the pharynx. The hydrochloric acid in gastric juice can kill many microorganisms


The non-specific killing action by phagocytic WBC (e.g. neutrophil-blood, macrophages-IF;
some dissolved e.g. venom and toxin).

They are attracted by chemicals produced at the sites of infection, engulf and ingest MO or other particles (like debris) by phagocytosis. Some phagocytes may also be destroyed by toxins of pathogens.


Immune System

System triggered in response to the presence of foreign substance (antigen = proteins / polysaccharides usually found on cell membrane of MO or foreign tissues) in our body. Specific / targeted response The state which the body is resistant to infections by pathogens



B Lymphocytes – produce antibody T Lymphocytes – attack infected cells or secrete certain chemicals to coordinate immune response


Protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the entry of an antigen into the body. Each type of antibody is specific to a particular antigen. They help to destroy pathogens in different ways.

Types of Antibody Action
    

Neutralisation – neutralizes toxins Agglutination – binds to surface of antigens and
cause clumping of bacteria cells Precipitation – precipitates soluble antigens to form immobile precipitates Opsonisation – binds to surface of antigens to stimulate phagocytosis by macrophages Lysis – binds to surface of antigens to form pores on cell membrane, which leads to cell rupture

Memory Lymphocyte

After recovery, some lymphocytes remain for a period of time.

Memory lymphocytes Infection by the same type of antigen

Defend against future infection.

Therefore, we are immune against particular diseases.

Immunity – ability of organism to resist infection by pathogens or their toxin effects.

Types of Immunity

Naturally Acquired
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Active Passive Active Passive

Artificially acquired
 


Find the graphical representation of each type of immunity.
 

Draw the line graph(s) in a piece of A4 paper Make sure there are:
  

Title Axis labels and units Graph labels
Your A4 paper must be divided into 4 equal parts for this assignment

1 3

2 4


HIV Replication


“Some people get fever, headache, sore muscles and joints, stomach ache, swollen lymph glands, or a skin rash for one or two weeks. Most people think it's the flu. Some people have no symptoms” (AIDS.ORG 2003). In the later stages of HIV symptoms may include: Persistent, unexplained fatigue Soaking night sweats Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F for several weeks Swelling of lymph nodes for more than three months Chronic diarrhoea Persistent headaches


How can you avoid infection?

The only 100% safe way to avoid HIV infection are through abstinence and never sharing needles. If you decide to be sexually active, you should use a condom. For medical procedures, you can donate your own blood in advanced.

World AIDS Day 1st Dec

CV disorders (eg.)
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Anemia (ah-NEE-me-yah): Diseased condition in which there is a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin. Arteriosclerosis (ar-tir-ee-o-skle-ROW-sis): Diseased condition in which the walls of arteries become thickened and hard, interfering with the circulation of blood. Atherosclerosis (ath-a-row-skle-ROW-sis): Diseased condition in which fatty material accumulates on the interior walls of arteries, making them narrower. Hemophilia (hee-muh-FILL-ee-ah): Inherited blood disease in which the blood lacks one or more of the clotting factors, making it difficult to stop bleeding. Hypertension (hi-per-TEN-shun): High blood pressure. Leukemia (loo-KEE-mee-ah): Type of cancer that affects the bloodforming tissues and organs, causing them to flood the bloodstream and lymphatic system with immature and abnormal white blood cells. Sickle cell anemia (SICK-el cell ah-NEE-me-yah): Inherited blood disorder in which red blood cells are sickle-shaped instead of round because of defective hemoglobin molecules.

Appreciating a healthy CV system
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Stick to a nutritious, well-balanced diet. Control your blood pressure. Control blood cholesterol. Prevent and manage diabetes. Quit smoking. Minimize stress.

An electron micrograph scan of a human aortic valve. The aorta is the main artery of the systemic circulation. (Photograph by P. Motta. Reproduced by permission of Photo Researchers, Inc.)

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