Chapter 1: Introduction

Biodiesel is one of the available alternative fuels in the market. It is derived from biomass, which is one of the sources of renewable energy. Coconut oil is one of the sources of biodiesel and of all the other sources, it would be best in tropical countries such as here in the Philippines where coconut tree is one the primary native crops.

The blending of coco-biodiesel in diesel fuel became mandatory when the Biofuels Act of 2006 (also known as Republic Act 9367) was signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 2007. The said act was initiated by Senator Mirriam Defensor-Santiago, who also authored and sponsored the Biofuels Law. The said law requires bioethanol content of all gasoline sold in the country to be increased to at least ten percent (10%) by the fourth year of the law’s effectivity. On the other hand, diesel fuels sold in the country will be required to have at least one percent (1%) blend of biofuel upon the effectivity of the law, which will be later increased up to two percent (2%) after the second year.

1.1 OBJECTIVES

This thesis aims to provide the readers with a better understanding of one of the latest innovations in the fuel industry, which is the development of coco-biodiesel. It intends to inform people with the current issues regarding

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the improvements of coco-biodiesel in and outside the country. It is also written to promote environmental concerns such as global warming and health issues such as the increasing cases of respiratory diseases worldwide. This paper illustrates the advantageous effects of coco-biodiesel in engine performance of diesel vehicles. Finally, it presents the impact of the usage of coco-biodiesel in the Philippine economy.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The study of coco-biodiesel fuel is very timely because of arising problems such as the rising cost of fuel in the market, global warming phenomenon, and health problems such as respiratory diseases caused by the harmful byproducts of burning petroleum-based fuels. The Philippines spends about 280 billion pesos on oil importation. If at least one percent (1%) blend of coco-biodiesel will be added, diesel consumption will be reduced by 540 million liters per year. Another problem concerning the use of diesel is the deteriorating effects of the increased amount of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere. This is due to the high emission of carbon dioxide coming from incomplete combustion of diesel fuel in vehicles. Last of all, the emission of pollutants such as nitrogen oxide caused also by incomplete combustion of diesel fuel is one of the leading contributors of smog and can trigger serious respiratory problems.

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1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study will use data and will compare theories gathered from different sources (in and outside the Philippines), but will only consider the biodiesel economics within the country. This paper is basically a combination of different studies about biodiesel done to help the readers become aware of this present issue in a readily compiled paper. No new experiments have been conducted to prove any theory or hypothesis regarding the said topic.

1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. Alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. 2. Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit stabilization would be stronger a

than
Figure 1 Molecular Structure of Aromatics

expected by the

stabilization of conjugation alone. It can also be considered a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and of resonance 3. Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources (such as vegetable oils), which can be used in unmodified diesel-engined vehicles. It is thus distinguished from the straight vegetable oils (SVO) or waste vegetable oils (WVO) used as fuels in some modified diesel vehicles.

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4. Bleaching is something is to remove or lighten its colour, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing; a bleach is a chemical that produces these effects, often via oxidation. 5. Catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. 6. Cetane number or CN is a measure of the combustion quality of diesel fuel via the compression ignition process. Cetane number is a significant expression of diesel fuel quality among a number of other measurements that determine overall diesel fuel quality. Cetane number is actually a measure of a fuel's ignition delay; the time period between the start of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. 7. Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. The term typically refers to fuel that has been processed from petroleum, but increasingly, alternatives such as biodiesel or biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel that are not derived from petroleum are being developed and adopted. 8. Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation. 9. Esters are organic compounds in which an organic group (symbolized by R' in this article) replaces a hydrogen atom (or more than one) in
Figure 2 Molecular Structure of Ester

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a hydroxyl group. An oxygen acid is an acid whose molecule has an -OH group from which the hydrogen (H) can dissociate as an H+ ion. 10. Flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture in air. At this temperature the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. A slightly higher temperature, the fire point, is defined as the temperature at which the vapor continues to burn after being ignited. 11. Glycerol, also well known as glycerin and glycerine, and less commonly as propane-1,2,3-triol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-

trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. Glycerol is a sugar alcohol and has three hydrophilic alcoholic hydroxyl groups (OH-) that are responsible for its solubility in water. Glycerol has a wide range of applications. Glycerol has a prochiral spatial arrangement of atoms. 12. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). It is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. 13. Particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. They range in size from less than 10 nanometres to more than 100 micrometres in diameter. The notation PM10 is used to describe particles of 10 micrometres or less;

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other numeric values may also be used. This range of sizes represent scales from a gathering of a few molecules to the size where the particles no longer can be carried by the gas. Sources of particulate matter can be anthropogenic or natural. 14. Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative/chemical analysis which can be used to determine the concentration of a known reactant. Because volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis. A reagent, called the titrant, of known concentration (a standard solution) and volume is used to react with a measured quantity of reactant (Analyte). Using a calibrated burette to add the titrant, it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is stopped. 15. Transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid or base.

Figure 3 Molecular Formula Showing the Chemical Reaction of Transesterification

16. Vegetable fats and oils are substances derived from plants that are composed of triglycerides. Nominally, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid; a dense brittle fat is called a wax.

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Although many different parts of plants may yield oil, in actual commercial practice oil is extracted primarily from the seeds of oilseed plants. 17. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. It is commonly perceived as "thickness", or resistance to flow. Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction.

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Chapter 2: Review of Literature

In relation to the problem statement whereas, the rising cost of diesel fuels in the world market, the negative result of greenhouse gasses emissions in the environment and the bad effects to our health - this paper provide information with better understanding of what biodiesel is, the process of how it is produces as well as the equipments used; the public policy currently approved; the importance of using biodiesel as an alternative; the advantage and disadvantages of using biodiesel, the economic benefits and the up-to-date information about coco-methyl-esters (CME) as a primary source of biodiesel in the Philippine market.

2.1 INTRODUCTION

By 2030, the world’s population is expected to reach 8 billion (Newsweek, dec. 06-07) and as the population grows, more energy is required to produce the basic needs of people. An energy that is more

practical to use in the same way that it is safer, renewable, available and of course - affordable. Biodiesel is one of the candidates of this needed energy because of its abundance and potential source in the country. Biodiesel is a clean-burning diesel replacement fuel that can be used in compressionignition (CI) engines, and which is manufactured from the following renewable, non-petroleum-based sources:

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• Virgin vegetable oils such as soy, mustard, canola, rapeseed and palm oils; • Animal fats such as poultry offal, tallow, and fish oils; and • Used cooking oils and trap grease from restaurants.

Biodiesel is produced in pure form (100% biodiesel or B100), but is usually blended with petrodiesel at low levels, between 2% (B2) to 20% (B20) in the U.S., but at higher levels in other parts of the world, particularly in Europe, where higher-level blends up to B100 are used. Blends of biodiesel higher than B5 require special handling and fuel management as well as vehicle equipment modifications such as the use of heaters and changing seals/gaskets that come in contact with fuel, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The level of care needed depends on the engine and vehicle manufacturer.

Biodiesel is generally made when fats and oils are chemically reacted with an alcohol, typically methanol, and a catalyst, typically sodium or potassium hydroxide (i.e., lye), to produce an ester, or biodiesel.

2.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Rudolf Diesel, the inventor of the first compression-ignition (CI) engine, once said that "the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time." He was indeed right because nowadays biodiesel is one of the greatest alternative sources of renewable fuel. The discovery of transesterification of

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vegetable oil in 1853 by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick gave way to the invention of biodiesel fuel. Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on August 10, 1893. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared "International Biodiesel Day". This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil — a biofuel, though not biodiesel, since it was not transesterified. He believed that the utilization of biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In 1979, more than a century later after the discovery of the first transesterification of vegetable oil, South Africa initiated the use of transesterified sunflower oil, and refined it to diesel fuel standards, By 1983 the process for producing fuel-quality, engine-tested biodiesel was completed and published internationally. An Austrian company, Gaskoks, obtained the technology from the South African Agricultural Engineers; the company erected the first biodiesel pilot plant in November 1987, and the first industrial-scale plant in April 1989 (with a capacity of 30,000 tons of rapeseed per annum). Throughout the 1990s, plants were opened in many European countries, including the Czech Republic, Germany and Sweden. France launched local production of biodiesel fuel (referred to as diester) from rapeseed oil, which is mixed into regular diesel fuel at a level of 5%, and into the diesel fuel used by some captive fleets (e.g. public transportation) at a level of 30%. During the same period, nations in other parts of world also saw

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local production of biodiesel starting up: by 1998 the Austrian Biofuels Institute had identified 21 countries with commercial biodiesel projects. In September of 2005 Minnesota became the first U.S. state to mandate that all diesel fuel sold in the state contain part biodiesel, requiring a content of at least 2% biodiesel. In Asia, Chemrez Technologies Inc. is the

the biggest and most modern biodiesel facility, which started its operation on May 2006. This biodiesel plant is actually located here in the Philippines, which in fact manufactures coco-biodiesel in particular. Chemrez

Technolologies Inc. produces 60, 000 metric tons of Bio-Active (the brand name of their coco-biodiesel) premium biodiesel per annum.

2.3 BASIC PRODUCTION PROCESS

Biodiesel is generally made when fats and oils are chemically reacted with an alcohol, typically methanol, and a catalyst, typically sodium or potassium hydroxide (i.e., lye), to produce an ester, or biodiesel. The approximate percentage proportions of the reaction are as follows in the table below:

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Table 1 Biodiesel Production Input and Output Levels

Pr ocess Input Le vels Volume Input Percentage Oil of Fat 87% Alcohol 12% Catalyst 1%

Pr ocess Output Le vels Volume Output Percentage Ester 86% Alcohol 4% Fertilizer 1% Glycerin 9%

Source: National Biodiesel Board

This process is generally known as transesterification, which is the reaction of a lipid with an alcohol to form esters and byproduct, glycerol. This includes the following processes: • • • Base-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Direct acid-catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to alkyl esters with acid catalysis. Most of the biodiesel produced today is done with the base catalyzed reaction for several reasons: • • It is low temperature and pressure It yields high conversion (98%) with minimal side reactions and reaction time • • It is a direct conversion to biodiesel with no intermediate compounds. No exotic materials of construction are needed.

The chemical reaction for base catalyzed biodiesel production is depicted below. One hundred pounds of fat or oil (such as soybean oil) are reacted with 10 pounds of a short chain alcohol in the presence of a catalyst 12

to produce 10 pounds of glycerin and 100 pounds of biodiesel. The short chain alcohol, signified by ROH (usually methanol, but sometimes ethanol) is charged in excess to assist in quick conversion. The catalyst is usually sodium or potassium hydroxide that has already been mixed with the methanol. R', R'', and R''' indicate the fatty acid chains associated with the oil or fat which are largely palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids for naturally occurring oils and fats.

The Biodiesel Reaction:

Figure 4 The Biodiesel Reaction

The National Biodiesel Board does not get involved with commercial biodiesel production or the design and construction of biodiesel facilities, but we have provided an example of a simple production flow chart along with a short explanation of the steps involved to acquaint the reader with the general production process.

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The Biodiesel Production Process:

Figure 5 Schematic Diagram of Biodiesel Production Process

The base catalyzed production of biodiesel generally occurs using the following steps:

2.3.1 Mixing of alcohol and catalyst. The catalyst is typically sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide (potash). It is dissolved in the alcohol using a standard agitator or mixer.

2.3.2 Reaction. The alcohol/catalyst mix is then charged into a closed reaction vessel and the oil or fat is added. The system from here on is totally closed to the atmosphere to prevent the loss of alcohol. The reaction mix is kept just above the boiling point of the alcohol (around 160 °F) to speed up the reaction and the reaction takes place. Recommended reaction time varies from 1 to 8 hours, and some systems recommend the reaction take place at

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room temperature. Excess alcohol is normally used to ensure total conversion of the fat or oil to its esters. Care must be taken to monitor the amount of water and free fatty acids in the incoming oil or fat. If the free fatty acid level or water level is too high it may cause problems with soap formation and the separation of the glycerin by-product downstream.

2.3.3 Separation. Once the reaction is complete, two major products exist: glycerin and biodiesel. Each has a substantial amount of the excess methanol that was used in the reaction. The reacted mixture is sometimes neutralized at this step if needed. The glycerin phase is much more dense than biodiesel phase and the two can be gravity separated with glycerin simply drawn off the bottom of the settling vessel. In some cases, a centrifuge is used to separate the two materials faster.

2.3.4 Alcohol Removal. Once the glycerin and biodiesel phases have been separated, the excess alcohol in each phase is removed with a flash evaporation process or by distillation. In others systems, the alcohol is removed and the mixture neutralized before the glycerin and esters have been separated. In either case, the alcohol is recovered using distillation equipment and is re-used. Care must be taken to ensure no water accumulates in the recovered alcohol stream.

2.3.5 Glycerin Neutralization. The glycerin by-product contains unused catalyst and soaps that are neutralized with an acid and sent to storage as crude glycerin. In some cases the salt formed during this phase is recovered

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for use as fertilizer. In most cases the salt is left in the glycerin. Water and alcohol are removed to produce 80-88% pure glycerin that is ready to be sold as crude glycerin. In more sophisticated operations, the glycerin is distilled to 99% or higher purity and sold into the cosmetic and pharmaceutical markets.

2.3.6 Methyl Ester Wash. Once separated from the glycerin, the biodiesel is sometimes purified by washing gently with warm water to remove residual catalyst or soaps, dried, and sent to storage. In some processes this step is unnecessary. This is normally the end of the production process resulting in a clear amber-yellow liquid with a viscosity similar to petrodiesel. In some systems the biodiesel is distilled in an additional step to remove small amounts of color bodies to produce a colorless biodiesel.

2.3.7 Product Quality and Registration. Prior to use as a commercial fuel, the finished biodiesel must be analyzed using sophisticated analytical equipment to ensure it meets ASTM specifications. Additionally, all biodiesel produced must be registered with the Unites States Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR Part 79. The most important aspects of biodiesel production to ensure trouble free operation in diesel engines are: • • • • • Complete Reaction Removal of Glycerin Removal of Catalyst Removal of Alcohol Absence of Free Fatty Acids

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These parameters are all specified through the biodiesel standard, ASTM D 6751. The NBB has also recently formed the National Biodiesel Accreditation Commission that has put into place an accreditation program for companies selling biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

However, Biodiesel cannot be used as raw or refined vegetable oils that are unprocessed and should not be used as biodiesel fuel. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), raw or unrefined vegetable oils and greases used in CI engines at levels as low as 10% can cause problems including long-term engine deposits, ring sticking, lube oil gelling, which can reduce the engine’s useful life. These problems generally stem from these oils’ greater thickness, or viscosity, compared to that of typical diesel fuels for which the engines were designed. These problems are avoided through the refinement of these oils in the biodiesel production process.

2.4 QUALITY SPECIFICATION FOR BIODIESEL

Further specifications for biodiesel are implemented throughout U.S by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM D6751 is the given specification name for Biodiesel in U.S. This comprised of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. Thus, if these components is raw and has not been processed, it will not meet the specification for biodiesel. It is important to remember that the ASTM Specification for Biodiesel is blended into petrodiesel and is not meant to be as B100 as stand alone fuel.

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Meanwhile in European countries, EN 14214 is the given specification for biodiesel. In contrast to the ASTM D 6751, B100 could be used unblended in a diesel engine or blended with diesel fuel to produce a blend in accordance to the EN 590 (European diesel fuel specification). This consider up to only 5% blending of biodiesel fuel to diesel fuel as standard diesel fuel specification. 2.5 APPLICATIONS Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines. It has higher lubricity index compared to petrodiesel is an advantage and can contribute to longer fuel injector life. However, biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel, and has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines of vehicles that have previously been run on petrodiesel. As a result, fuel filters and injectors may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made, as biodiesel “cleans” the engine in the process. It is, therefore, recommended to change the fuel filter within 600800 miles after first switching to a biodiesel blend.

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Pure unblended biodiesel can be poured straight into the tank of any diesel vehicle. As with normal diesel, low-temperature biodiesel is sold during winter months to prevent viscosity problems. Some older diesel engines still have natural rubber parts which will be affected by biodiesel, but in practice these rubber parts should have been replaced long ago. Biodiesel is used by millions of car owners in Europe (particularly Germany). Research sponsored by petroleum producers has found petroleum diesel to be better for car engines than biodiesel. This has been disputed by independent bodies, including for example the Volkswagen environmental awareness division, who note that biodiesel reduces engine wear. Biodiesel has also been noted to be linked to premature injection pump failures. While many vehicles have been using biodiesel for many years without ill effect, the correlation between several cases of pump failure and biodiesel cannot be dismissed. Pure biodiesel produced 'at home' is in use by thousands of drivers who have not experienced failure, however. The fact remains that biodiesel has been widely available at gas stations for less than a decade, and will hence carry more risk than older fuels. Biodiesel sold publicly is held to high standards set by national standards bodies.).

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2.6 HEALTH EFFECTS

Results of the health effects testing concluded that biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable, posing no threat to human health. Also among the findings of biodiesel emissions compared to petroleum diesel emissions in this testing: • The ozone (smog) forming potential of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from biodiesel is 50% less. • The exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (a poisonous gas and a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) from biodiesel are 50% lower. • The exhaust emissions of particulate matter (recognized as a contributing factor in respiratory disease) from biodiesel are 30% lower. • The exhaust emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are completely eliminated. • The exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are 95% lower. • The exhaust emissions of aromatic compounds known as PAH and NPAH compounds (suspected of causing cancer) are substantially reduced for biodiesel compared to diesel. Most PAH compounds were reduced by 75% to 85%. All NPAH compounds were reduced by at least 90%.

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2.7 LIFE CYCLE SUMMARY In May of 1998, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) published the results of the Biodiesel Lifecycle Inventory Study. It compared findings for a comprehensive "cradle to grave" inventory of materials used; energy resources consumed; and air, water and solid waste emissions generated by petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel in order to compare the total "lifecycle" costs and benefits of each of the fuels. This 3.5-year study followed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and private industry approved protocols for conducting this type of research. In evaluating the results of the Lifecycle Inventory Study several caveats need to be noted. First, the study was not designed to present conclusions on the appropriate policies to promote the use of biodiesel. Instead, the study was designed to provide policy makers with comparative information that they could use to formulate appropriate policies regarding biodiesel. Second, the study does not provide any economic comparisons or valuations based on current market prices for the two fuels. Third, the study generally assumes that the comparative lifecycle benefits or costs of biodiesel and diesel fuel are proportional when biodiesel and diesel fuel are blended into one fuel, as in the popular 20% biodiesel/80% diesel blend known as B20. With these caveats in mind, the major findings of the study are: • The total energy efficiency ratio (ie. total fuel energy/total energy used in production, manufacture, transportation, and distribution) for diesel fuel and biodiesel are 83.28% for diesel vs 80.55% for biodiesel. The

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report notes: "Biodiesel and petroleum diesel have very similar energy efficiencies." • The total fossil energy efficiency ratio (ie. total fuel energy/total fossil energy used in production, manufacture, transportation, and

distribution) for diesel fuel and biodiesel shows that biodiesel is four times as efficient as diesel fuel in utilizing fossil energy – 3.215 for biodiesel vs 0.8337% for diesel. The study notes: "In terms of effective use of fossil energy resources, biodiesel yields around 3.2 units of fuel product for every unit of fossil energy consumed in the lifecycle. By contrast, petroleum diesel's life cycle yields only 0.83 units of fuel product per unit of fossil energy consumed. Such measures confirm the 'renewable' nature of biodiesel. • In urban bus engines, biodiesel and B20 exhibit similar fuel economy to diesel fuel, based on a comparison of the volumetric energy density of the two fuels. The study explains, "Generally fuel consumption is proportional to the volumetric energy density of the fuel based on lower or net heating value. Diesel contains about 131,295 Btu/gal while biodiesel contains approximately 117,093 Btu/gal. The ratio is 0.892. If biodiesel has no impact on engine efficiency, volumetric fuel economy would be approximately 1 0% lower for biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel. • The overall lifecycle emissions of carbon dioxide (a major greenhouse gas) from biodiesel are 78% lower than the overall carbon dioxide emissions from petroleum diesel. "The reduction is a direct result of carbon recycling in soybean plants," notes the study.

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The overall lifecycle emissions of carbon monoxide ( a poisonous gas and a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) from biodiesel are 35% lower than overall carbon monoxide emissions from diesel. Biodiesel also reduces bus tailpipe emissions of carbon monoxide by 46%.

The overall lifecycle emissions of particulate matter (recognized as a contributing factor in respiratory disease) from biodiesel are 32% lower than overall particulate matter emissions from diesel. Bus tailpipe emissions of PM10 are 68% lower for biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel. The study notes, 'PM10 emitted from mobile sources is a major EPA target because of its role in respiratory disease. Urban areas represent the greatest risk in terms of numbers of people exposed and level of PM 1 0 present. Use of biodiesel in urban buses is potentially a viable option for controlling both life cycle emissions of total particulate matter and tailpipe emission of PM1 O." The study also finds that biodiesel reduces the total amount of particulate matter soot in bus tailpipe exhaust by 83.6%. Soot is the heavy black smoke portion of the exhaust that is essentially 100% carbon that forms as a result of pyrolysis reactions during fuel combustion.

The overall lifecycle emissions of sulfur oxides (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are 8% lower than overall sulfur oxides emissions from diesel. Biodiesel completely eliminates emissions of sulfur oxides from bus tailpipe emissions. The study notes, "Biodiesel can eliminate sulfur oxides emissions because it is sulfur-free."

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The overall lifecycle emissions of methane (one of the most potent greenhouse gases) from biodiesel are almost 3.0% lower than overall methane emissions from diesel. The study notes, "Though the reductions achieved with biodiesel are small, they could be significant when estimated on the basis of its 'CO2 equivalent'-warming potential."

The overall lifecycle emissions of nitrogen oxides (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) from biodiesel are 13% greater than overall nitrogen oxide emissions from diesel. An urban bus that runs on biodiesel has tailpipe emissions that are only 8.89% higher than a bus operated on petroleum diesel. The study also notes: "Smaller changes in NOx emissions for BIOO and B20 have been observed in current research programs on new model engines but it is still to early to predict whether all or just a few future engines will display this characteristic." and "... solutions are potentially achievable that meet tougher future (vehicle) standards for NOx without sacrificing the other benefits of this fuel."

The bus tailpipe emissions of hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are 37% lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. However, the overall lifecycle emissions of hydrocarbons from biodiesel are 35% greater than overall hydrocarbon emissions from diesel. The study notes, 'In understanding the implications of higher lifecycle emissions, it is important to remember that emissions of hydrocarbons, as with all of the air pollutants discussed, have localized effects. In other words it makes a difference

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where these emissions occur. The fact that biodiesel's hydrocarbon emissions at the tailpipe are lower may mean that the biodiesel life cycle has beneficial effects on urban area pollution." The study also cautions about drawing hard conclusions related to the total life cycle emissions of hydrocarbons from sources other than the engine tailpipe • The overall lifecycle production of wastewater from biodiesel is 79.0% lower than overall production of wastewater from diesel. The study notes, 'Petroleum diesel generates roughly five times as much wastewater flow as biodiesel.' The overall lifecycle production of hazardous solid wastes from biodiesel is 96% lower than overall production of hazardous solid wastes from diesel. However, the overall life cycle production of non-hazardous solid wastes from biodiesel is twice as great as the production of non-hazardous solid wastes from diesel. The study notes: "Given the more severe impact of hazardous versus non-hazardous waste disposal, this is a reasonable trade-off."

2.8 CURRENT ISSUES

In our County, Philippines, Chemrez Technologies Inc. was the only operational continuous biodiesel plant using the coco-methyl-ester and started at June 2006 with a capacity of 60, 000 metric tons of Bio-Active premium biodiesel per annum. Flying V Plant group starts commercial operation in Coronan, Davao of Biodiesel plant considering the much availability of Coconut plantation allotted in the area.

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The Biofuel Act of 2006 is the most current issue in the country. This act is signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo mandating the mixing of biofuels (at least 10% of bioethanol content for all gasoline). It is expected to save the country 28 billion pesos to 35 billion pesos worth of oil imports annually and will help develop cleaner source of energy and look for alternative sources of power to reduce dependence to imported oil. The Biofuel law states that at least 1% to 2% blend on diesel fuel will be required within two years of its affectivity and it mandated vehicle owners to use 1%coco-methyl-ester for diesel engine and 5% bioethanol for gas engines. (Manila Bulletin, Jan. 18, 2007, p. B2)

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Cha pter 3: Methodolog y

A Comprehensiv e Analysis of Coco-Biodiesel Fuel

Situation outside the Philippines

Quantitative

Data Processing

Data Gathering

Plant Visit

Data Analysis

Situation inside the Philippines

Qualitative

Revision of Process

Phase 1

Phase 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Phase 3

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Air pollution is a major problem that is occurring worldwide. Severe air pollution can cause Global Warming. If global warming occurs and becomes serious, many third world countries will suffer. The rising occurrence of illnesses because of pollution has inspired the group to come up with the idea of having a comprehensive analysis regarding alternative fuels that would help reduce or even control the pollution caused by normal fossil fuels. The rising cost of fuel in our country and worldwide is very alarming, the supply of fossil fuels are by far depleting.

In the Philippines, many people specifically the children die because of low air quality. One company in the Philippines, known as Chemrez Technologies Inc. had developed an alternative fuel or fuel additive that can help reduce or control the rising incidents because of air pollution. This product is more commonly known as BioActiv™. BioActiv™ is now available in the Philippine market. This product is derived from coconut oil. It is completely biodegradable and contains no toxic or harmful elements. This alternative fuel is safer than normal fossil fuel. Like diesel fuel, it has a high flash point (higher that diesel). Which means is it safe to handle and will not easily ignite.

This alternative fuel is environmental friendly, unlike fossil fuels, when this fuel spills out into the sea, it will not harm all the living species compared to the damage that oil spillage of fossil fuels which leads to long term cleaning process. This product also improves engine performance. It does thorough cleaning inside the engine and inside the engine and fuel tank.

The group went to the company Chemrez Technologies Inc. located at 65 Industria Street Bagumbayan, Quezon City 1110 Metro Manila, Philippines. on the 12th of February 2007 and got the rare opportunity to visit their plant where coco biodiesel “bioactive” is being mass produced, the group was assisted by Engr. Alfredo Urlanda Jr., who showed the group some presentations, and lectured us about the problems regarding the rising cost of fuel and low air quality in our country. By using BioActiv™, consumers could help resolve these said problems. The group obtained theoretical and actual data from Chemrez. The plant inspection trip done by the group on Chemrez was successful and all the data that was obtained had helped the group acquire more knowledge about the comprehensive analysis of cocobiodiesel.

The group also obtained data from various sources such as the internet, magazines and news articles. After gathering all the actual necessary information needed to sustain the group’s existing theoretical ideas, proper precaution is done by the group in order to prevent ideal conflicts between actual and theoretical principles.

In accordance with that, the group must review all necessary facts that might cause inconsistency in the process of doing this research work. If a minor or major cause of inconsistency in the research develops, the group must re-evaluate all the details and find out what is the cause of this problem.

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Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
4.1 Economic Benefits Actual road trials and dynamometer tests show up to a 25% gain in vehicle mileage with a blend of as little as 1%. As the pump price of diesel goes up, the gross savings generated with the use of BioActiv™ (a brand name of a coco-biodiesel) also increases. In addition, extra power, less service downtime, reduced engine wear equate to even more savings. Actual savings are illustrated on the table below: GROSS SAVINGS PER FULL TANK (50 liters) P 30 / P 32 / P 34 / P 36 / Diesel Pump Price P 38 / liter liter liter liter liter 5% P 75.00 P 80.00 P 85.00 P 90.00 P 95.00 10% 150.00 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00 Mileage 15% 225.00 240.00 255.00 270.00 285.00 Gain 20% 300.00 320.00 340.00 360.00 380.00 25% 375.00 400.00 425.00 450.00 475.00
The table below is taken from the brochure of Chemrez Technologies Inc. Table 2 Economics of 1% BioActiv™ into Diesel

4.2 Environmental and Health Benefits The use of coco-biodiesel will help preserve our environment. BioActiv™ is completely biodegradable and contains no toxic or harmful elements. It is non-flammable, safe to handle, and poses no danger to the environment. Best of all, it is made from a renewable resource that is abundant. It will also improve the air that we breathe. Air pollution is a serious problem worldwide and the rising incidence of pollution-related illnesses has become a serious concern. Extensive field and laboratory tests prove that

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BioActiv™ dramatically reduces smoke emissions through complete combustion. With the elimination of air pollution caused by smoke, a cleaner air will result in better respiratory conditions of people.

4.3 Engine Benefits BioActiv™ is a premium fuel enhancer. It contains oxygen for clean burning; solvency for engine cleaning; and high lubricity to reduce friction and wear in fuel systems. Its high cetane number boosts engine acceleration to the satisfaction of motorists. The table below summarizes the benefits of using biodiesel compared to regular diesel: Diesel 51 49ºC 0.05% 0% 3 – 4 cst 3,800 gms 360ºC Parameter Cetane Number Flash Point Sulfur Content Oxygen Content BioActiv Benefits 70 Better ignition / god acceleration 114ºC Safer to handle and store 0% No sulfur oxide emission 11% Complete combustion, less smoke 2 – 3 cst Better atomization

Kinematic Viscosity Lubricity > 7,000 gms Enhances efficiency (BOCLE) of fuel pump T90 Temperature 313ºC Better volatility range
Table 3 Comparing Diesel and BioActiv™

The table below is taken from the brochure of Chemrez Technologies Inc.

4.4 General Advantages • National security. Since it's made domestically, it reduces our dependence on foreign oil.

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National economy. Using biodiesel keeps our fuel buying pesos at home instead of sending it to foreign countries. This reduces our trade deficit and creates jobs.

• •

It's sustainable & non-toxic. Emissions. Biodiesel is nearly carbon-neutral, meaning it contributes almost zero emissions to global warming.

Engine life. Studies have shown it reduces engine wear by as much as one half, primarily because it provides excellent lubricity. Even a 2% biodiesel/98% diesel blend will help.

Drivability. We have yet to meet anyone who doesn't notice an immediate smoothing of the engine with biodiesel. It just runs quieter, and produces less smoke.

4.5 General Disadvantages • Primarily, biodiesel is not readily available in the nation. Only few commercial gas stations offers biodiesel like Flying V. • • Biodiesel is not suitable to any engines, more of the older one. It has a higher gel point. B100 (100% biodiesel) gets slushy a little under 32°F. But B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% regular diesel - more commonly available than B100) has a gel point of -15°F. Like regular diesel, the gel point can be lowered further with additives such as kerosene (blended into winter diesel in cold-weather areas).

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Chapter 5: Conclusion
The use of coco-biodiesel has more benefits compared to its downside. It is illustrated on the results presented previously. However, in order to consummate this paper, some things have to be pointed out clearly. One of the wrong notions about coco-biodiesel is saying that it came directly from coconut oil. That is a wrong idea because coco-biodiesel is rather derived from coconut oil. Coco-biodiesel came from cooking oils. The oil is mixed with alcohol and catalyst and undergoes transesterification before it is converted into biodiesel.

It is also wrong to say that coco-biodiesel is cheaper compared to regular diesel fuels. The savings that is being said is not dependent on the price of the fuel itself, but rather on the savings based on the mileage. By adding one liter of biodiesel fuel enhancer to every 100 liters of diesel, the transportation cost is reduced per kilometer. The savings thus is not from the reduced price of the fuel, but from the reduced usage of the amount of fuel.

In addition to the benefit of generating huge number of jobs with the full implementation of the Biofuel Law, the consumers will also benefit form the reduced price of fuel due to the decrease in importation. The “sensitivity analysis” or the effect of movements in fuel prices on consumer prices showed that for every 50 centavos per liter increase in fuel prices, an increase of one to six centavos in the prices of processed food such as sardines, canned meat and instant noodles was monitored. In the case of agricultural and poultry products such as pork, fish and chicken, the same 33

amount of increase would only result in a price hike of one to four centavos per kilo. (This is according to Department of Trade and Industry undersecretary Zenaida Maglaya.) The coconut industry would benefit approximately 2 billion pesos in additional revenues per year from the sale of the coconut oil. This is the return benefit in the use of locally-sourced fuel in contrast to imported fuel.

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REFERENCES:

Biodiesel Production and Quality. (2002, March 11). <http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/prod_quality.p df>. Cagahastan, D., (2007, January 18). Biofuels Act of 2006 singed into law by President Arroyo. Manila Bulletin, Vol. 409 (No. 18): pp. 1, 16. Calica, A., Gatdula, D., Romero, P., (2006, May 4). First and largest coco-biodiesel plant in asia opens. <http://www.chemrez.com/news.asp?newsid=a>. Cogeneration technologies, Trigeneration Technologies EcoGeneration Solutions, LLC. 2002. Our New Biodiesel Refineries Will Produce B100 Biodiesel for as Little as $.90/gallon! B100 Biodiesel: 100% Clean, 100% Renewable, 100% Affordable Fuel. <http://www.coconutbiodiesel.com>. Galford III, J., (2007, January 18). Legislators hail signing of biofuels Act of 2006. Manila Bulletin, Vol. 409 (no.18): pp. 1, 16. Loyola, J.A. (2007, January 18). Chemrez confident it can supply int’l demand for bio-diesel blending. Manila Bulletin, Vol. 409 (no. 18): pp. B-2. Palad, Carlos. Personal Interview. (2007, February 12). Chemrez Technologies, Inc. Tillerson, R. (December 2006 – February 2007). Newsweek, pp. 40. Urlanda, Alfredo Jr., RME. Personal Interview. (2007, February 12). Chemrez Technologies, Inc. Velasco, M.M. (2007, January 18). Flying V group starts commercial operation of Davao bio-diesel plant. Manila Bulletin, Vol.409 (no. 18): pp. B-2. Zimmerman, S. (2006, November). Capping oil. Reader’s Digest, pp. 94 – 95. <http://www.bioactiv.com.ph>

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Publication of the Project Undertaking

This is to certify that we have no objection to publish the project entitled “A Comprehensive Analysis of Coco-Biodiesel Fuel” by the authors listed below. However, it has to be evaluated by the instructor, and published in the form approved by him.

Date: _______________ _______________________ Christian Jason M. Alfaro

_______________________ Hazel S. delas Llagas

_______________________ Katrina P. Mendoza

_______________________ Rex M. Urbiztondo

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AUTHOR’S BIODATA: Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Nationality: Father’s Name: Mother’s Name: Address: Christian Jason Meraña Alfaro August 23, 1986 Valenzuela City, Philippines Filipino Almer C. Alfaro Zenaida M. Alfaro # 18 Tongonan St., Napocor Village, T. Sora, Quezon, City

Educational Background: Intermediate/College 2003 – Present Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla, Intramuros, Manila B.S. in Mechanical Engineering
Graduation pending December, 2007

Secondary Education 1999 – 2003 New Era University # 9 Central Avenue, New Era, Q.C. 1st Year to 4th year High School

Primary Education 1991 – 1999 Diliman Christian Academy #351 Culiat T. Sora, Q.C.

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AUTHOR’S BIODATA: Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Nationality: Father’s Name: Mother’s Name: Address: Hazel Santos delas Llagas July 26, 1985 Pasay City, Philippines Filipino Ricky C. delas Llagas Orpha S. delas Llagas # 149 Gulod Sapang Palay, City of San Jose del Monte, Bulacan

Educational Background: Intermediate/College April, 2004 – Present Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla, Intramuros, Manila B.S. in Mechanical Engineering Graduation pending July, 2007 De La Salle University Taft Ave., Manila B.S. in Mechanical Engineering

Sept., 2003 – Dec., 2003

Secondary Education 1999 – 2003 1998 – 1999 Primary Education 1994 – 1998 1993 – 1994 1990 – 1993 Sta. Maria Ecumenical School Poblacion, Sta. Maria, Bulacan Proper Elementary School Proper, S.J.D.M. City, Bulacan Grace Learning Center Bulac, Sta. Maria, Bulacan Unalaska City High School Unalaska City, Alaska, U.S.A. Sacred Heart Academy Poblacion, Sta. Maria, Bulacan

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AUTHOR’S BIODATA: Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Nationality: Father’s Name: Mother’s Name: Address: Katrina Pascua Mendoza August 15, 1986 Quezon City Filipino Felix U, Mendoza Elvira P. Mendoza Gate 1 Upper Manalite Brgy. Sta. Cruz, Antipolo Rizal

Educational Background: Intermediate/College 2003 - Present Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila B.S in Mechanical Engineering Graduation pending, October 2007

Secondary Education 1999 - 2003 Primary Education 1991 - 1999 Roosevelt College Cainta Sumulong Highway, Cainta Rizal Roosevelt College Cainta Sumulong Highway, Cainta Rizal

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AUTHOR’S BIODATA: Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Nationality: Father’s Name: Mother’s Name: Address: Rex Minguillan Urbiztondo April 20, 1986 Las Piñas Filipino Roger O. Urbiztondo Lilia M. Urbiztondo #28 Macopa St., Manuela 4-A, Las Piñas

Educational Background: Intermediate/College 2003 - Present Mapua Institute of Technology Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila B.S in Mechanical Engineering Graduation pending, July 2007

Secondary Education 1999 - 2003 Primary Education 1991 - 1999 Elizabeth Seton School BF Homes, Las-Piñas St. Andrew’s School La Huerta, Parañaque city

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