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THEIR ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS
WITH A DESCRIPTIVE UST OF THOSE BELONGING TO
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA
EDWARD LUTHER STEVENSON,
McKEW PARR COLLECTION
82 .PUBLICATIONS OF THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA No.
D. PH.PORTOLAN CHARTS THEIR ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS WITH A DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF THOSE BELONGING TO THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA BY EDWARD LUTHER STEVENSON. NEW YORK 1911 .
Copyright. igii BY THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA Ube ftnicbecbocliet ^teee. t\ew j^orb .
20. 39 1537 41 ANONYMOUS. 31. 1470 35 ANONYMOUS. 29. 1650 V 65 66 67 68 68 69 70 71 72 74 75 -I QO^OO' . AFTER 1550 HIERONYMO GIRIVA. 1600 MAIOLO E VISCONTE. 1552 52 17. ATLAS OF SEVEN CHARTS. EARLY 15tH CENTURY 33 petrus roselli. AFTER 1560. TURY 11. DOMINICUS DE VILLARROEL. 1582 . 30. 5. LATE 16tH CENTURY VINCENTIUS DEMETRIUS VOLCIUS. ATLAS OF SEVEN CHARTS. 1637 GEORG. EARLY 17tH CENTURY PLACITUS CALVIRO ET OLIVA. 27. ATLAS OF FOURTEEN CHARTS. 16tH CENTURY ANONYMOUS. ATLAS OF FOUR CHARTS. 1597 anonymous. 1605 JOANNES OLIVA.53 55 JAUME OLIVES. EARLY 17tH CENTURY JOUAN BATTISTA CAVALLINI. 16th century ANONYMOUS. 3. CENTURY BARTOLOMEO OLIVO. 1590 CIRCA 61 64 vincentius prunes. 9. 28. 15. 16tH LATE CHARTS. AFTER 1550 BARTOLOMEO OLIVES. second half of 21 . EARLY 17tH CENTURY ANONYMOUS. 24. 58 GIOVANNI MARTINES. ATLAS OF SIX CHARTS. 7. ATLAS OF FIVE CHARTS. 16. 1 • -29 THE COLLECTION OF 2. 43 45 50 51 BAPTISTA AGNESB. 6. 1512 38 coNDE hoctomanno freducci. ANDREA BOCKLER. ATLAS OF FIVE CHARTS. . 22. atlas of three charts. EARLY 16tH CENTURY 42 ANONYMOUS. GIOVANNI MARTINES. 8. EARLY 15tH 12.CONTENTS PAGE PORTOLAN CHARTS BIBLIOGRAPHY DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF CHARTS AND ATLASES IN THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA: 1. 19. 13. 14. ATLAS OF THREE CHARTS. LATE 15tH CENTURY 36 VESCONTE DE MAIOLO. 18. ATLAS OF THREE CHARTS. 10. EARLY 16tH CENTURY 16tH CENEARLY ANONYMOUS. 32 GIACOMO GIROLDI. 4. 1563 56 1566 JAUME OLIVES. 26. FOUR ATLAS OF ANONYMOUS. 1524 CONTE DE OTHOMANO FREDUCCI. 32. 1468 35 nicolaus de nicolo^. 23. LATE 16tH CENTURY ANONYMOUS. 25.59 CENTURY.
CHART TWO OF ATLAS 16 BAPTISTA AGNESE. 1582. CHART TWO OF ATLAS. 1582. 1650. .66 CHART TWO OF 70 ANONYMOUS.REPRODUCTIONS GIOVANNI MARTINES.22 32 DARTOLOMEO OLIVO^ AFTER 1550 BARTOLOMEO OLIVES. SECOND HALF OF 16tH CENTURY. AFTER 1560. EARLY 16tH CENTURY. CHART ONE OF ATLAS CHART TWO OF ATLAS CHART THREE OF ATLAS 58 BOs GIOVANNI MARTINES. CHART TWO OF ATLAS 74 . 1552 40 50 JAUME JAUMB OLIVESj 1563. CHART THREE OF ATLAS 1566 54 GIOVANNI MARTINES^ 1582. 1512 12 CONTE DE OTHOMANO FREDUCCI^ 1537. ANDREAS b6cKLER_. CHART ONE OF ATLAS . ATLAS GEORG. . OLIVES_. FrOntiSpieCe FACING PAGE PETRUS ROSELLI. GIOVANNI MARTINES. 1468 6 VESCONTE DE MAIOLO. . CHART THREE OP ATLAS. 62 DOMINICUS DE VALLARROEL^ CIRCA 1590.
the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast in varying extent to the north and the south of Gibraltar. They are the creations of seamen.PORTOLAN CHARTS AMONG the geographical records of earlier centuries us. explorers. It is only in recent times that there has been an improvement in the charting of the region to which most of them pertain. truthful in their presentation of the geographical features of the earth. that is. Portolan charts are based upon careful and what may be called scientific observations. maps of the middle ages they present The former strikingly exhibit the inIn general. as well scientific by their remarkable approach to accuracy for so early a period. They attract and hold by reason of their artistic features. Though highly interesting as reflecting geographical notions of the time in which they were drawn. To the cloister a marked contrast. they possess little value as scientific maps. which have come down to than the none are more charts in- teresting portolan which were drawn during the attention as the years fittingly designated the period of great geographical discoveries. navi- gators. chart-makers 1 who were leaders in the . they are far from. They too ex- hibit the geographical interests of the period to which they belong. fluence of ecclesiastical and classical tradition.
known is as those to which Nordenskiold antedating the fourteenth century. from numerous coast sketches those which such. as he chooses to that is. is and the oldest example bearing date and signature of the year 1311. of India. character. is known. and at the end of the sixth day. laume de Nangis describing the crusade of work by GuilKing Louis had sea charts IX. however. the one which served as a sort of original pattern. neither are re- such sketches fers. ship. and of America. as may be found in a cosmographic title Leonardo Dati. bearing the ments in support of the JLa sfera. 2 . the scientific first modern maps. in 1270. they were the port selected for the rendezvous of the ships making up the overtaken by a storm. In the voyage from Aiguesmortes to Cagexpedition. that of Pietro Visconte Nordenskiold thinks that the normal call it. must have been constructed sometime during the thirteenth century. we are told. portolan chart. This brief word concerning the origin. that to be found in a An interesting record. and general significance of portolan charts. as Cagliari had not yet been reached. the the exact location of his King expressed a wish to know The pilots. for example. as has been stated above. yet the fact remains that no dated portolan chart of that century. poem by The argu- assumption seem reasonable. noting that the King's ships on board. liari.expansion of geographical knowledge which opened the New World region of Africa. An inquiry into the his- tory of portolan charts which have been preserved to our day leads immediately to a query concerning origin. their None of those extant are known to have been drawn prior to the year 1300. list is presented as an introduction to a de- scriptive of the numerous originals belonging to The Hispanic Society of America.
Theobald Fischer has advanced the theory that portolan charts have a Byzantine origin. d. literally a sailing around. Again the fact confronts us that no portolan chart of Byzantine or Greek origin is known. —which chart it was doubtless regarded portolan. not long after 1000 a. The Greeks used cumnavigation. —a more extended ence to the character of the periplus and of the portolan will fittingly introduce us to the portolan chart. and Fiorini holds that Italian navigators. and one might conclude from his references that such as he had in mind were not unlike the portolan charts which we have here under consideration. nor is the evidence of such eastern influence traceable in existing charts.. Ptolemy alone of the ancient writers alludes to the charts of seamen. as a very useful addition to the coming in time to supplant as the knowrefer- ledge of seamanship expanded. As there appears to be a relationship existing between the ancient periplus.brought to him their charts. and the portoat first lan chart of the period of discovery. and showed to him that the port was not far distant. It the word TtspinXovs to designate a cir- course or harbor book. and that in succeeding years they grad- how ually improved them. thousand years and more of the Christian era have left us none of the sailors' charts which may first The have been employed during those centuries. while not precisely word portolano. But all these too are lost. a was not applied to a sea chart or to a collection of sea charts. has a meaning strikItalian The . the Italian portolan. learned from the Greeks of Constantinople how to make and to use charts which were founded on drawings and measurements. synonymous.
the winds. We have no information that the seamen of antiquity were in possession of instruments by which to direct their courses in the open sea. seafarer's chart. —a description of the the currents. Coasting was with the ancient mariners the more common practice. The sun and stars might guide in cloudless weather. in the time of Alexander the Great. visit. but many of the incidents show how meagre at that time was the knowledge of journey. have been preserved to The story of Nearchus' voy- age from the mouth of the Indus to the Euphrates. they should be called portolan charts. and real seamanship. Of coastwise navigation in antiquity a few accounts us. and worthy the highest of the expedition praise. but a cloudy sky brought terror to who had ventured upon a course which led beyond the horizon of known coast lines. and the facility for anchorage. and the sailor more useful trackless to them than a sea. The apostle Paul's jour- ney from Ceesarea to its Rome was in large part a coastwise incidents vividly set forth the dangers and hardships of early navigation. as will appear later. and this rather than loxodrome or compass charts. the shoals.ingly similar to this Greek word. as has also the Enghsh as word rutter. so long a time 4 One wonders that was required for the expedition of the . has so frequently been done. on the contrary. which might be employed in navigating from port to port across a and unknown would be a written descrip- tion of the seas over which they were prepared to travel and the coasts they had to harbors. is the story of an expedition which was regarded as one of great daring. The term portolan should not be employed. the Portuguese roteiro and the French routier. to designate the charts which especially interest us here.
howamong them Scylax of Caryanda. the author as Kretschmer over the isthmus from Corinth on the west coast to our sea" as forty stadia in length. flows into all rivers in which crocodiles sea.. was not far as was coastwise journey. course. for " the greater part of Asia of the river Indus. the second he wanted to know where the are found. seemg. tracing this coast It includes the entire a few omissions. lates in Book IV. north coast of Africa.Emperor Constantinople to the Justinian to pass from but this expedition. the reqmrmg book rather than the It is chart. the coast of Laconia. thence coast. and from the standpoint of refers to a road has noted. leading among thence across to Sicily. with Hercules on the European ginning at the Pillars of eastward to the Tanais. Great. along the islands of the possible. in so instead it too was a ^gean. circuit of the Mediterranean. conthe author of the periplus." Scylax here referred to is be certain that the and to this ever Some of the records. be- . of his History. end he sent out several We cannot. pilot s gmdeperiplus must have been the ferred to. be given as the time of that chapter xliv. directed over the shortest three months. of Alexander the ten shortly before the time Macedonia or Greece. to Malta. while others in it allude must have been writthe greater part of it appearances. ascribed to Scylax of certamty exact century can with the exact year nor the Herodotus reits composition. plus is that oldest known pengenerally accepted that the Neither Caryanda.. reIn each of the expeditions the open sea to Tunis. was explored by Darius. trustworthy men. facts relate to geographical tained in this periplus than that of King Darius which belong to a time later lo all to an earlier day.
" says the author. the rivers emptying into the sea. one of these a city which distant one day's Beyond the Pillars of Hercules which are in Europe. which island. Libya. it stated at the conclusion of his reference to the European needed coast that one hundred fifty-three days are for a coastwise journey from west to east. which not a document of great literary worth. and that five hundred stadia might be recorded as a day's sail. mud. to the harbors. The Pillars of Hercules stand opposite to is each other. and refers to a tides. " at the Pillars of Hercules in Europe." He notes that the Iberians are the peoples to be met with in Europe. The following quotations will serve to indicate the is character of this periplus. and terminating at the island of Cerne. one day's Not far distant is lie two islands by name Gadeira.around Asia Minor and the Levant to Egypt. is and Greek town which called " adding that " its inhabitants are colonists Emporium. and shoals. with an occabeing sional reference to inland cities in close touch with the coast. and of Hercules in Libya. first and open seas. there are also many trading stations of the Carthaginians. though the history of geography: it has a unique value for " I shall begin." The information given is confined to the immediate coast regions with attention directed to the physical features of the land. is On sail. shall continue to the Pillars the land of the great and to Ethiopians. and the African coast to a point opposite that of departure. The distance from port and to port is given. of mud. it is stated. headlands. and the distance between them sail. and of seaweed." who came from . to the peoples. is twelve days' coasting beyond the " parts Pillars of Hercules where the are no longer navigable because of shoals.
there is us no knowledge of it. with minor omissions. To this point is stadia. In addition to this oldest and most elaborate of descriptions all known periploi. it is beyond the Conopic mouth of the Nile.the city of Massilia. this From Pharos Beyond lies to port is a short sail. with an occasional reference to the manners and customs of the peoples. Taurnois. a desert island. certain early 7 of limited . also the colonies of Massilia. but you should and sail around the head of the bay twice as much time would be required." Concerning Libya. fol- lowed with attention directed to the time required in day and night sailing to pass a designated territory." In this wise the entire is Mediterranean coast region. One next comes to the city of Apis. Here lies the Greek city and port Massilia. If a chart accompanied the periplus of left to Scylax. which stadia. is as far as this point the country governed by the Egyptians. there are many harbors. 150 In Pharos. From mouth sail of the Bay of Plin- thine to Leuce Acte requires a if of one day and one night." Referring to the Ligurians. Olbia. noted that they are to be found " beyond the river Rhone as far as Antium. to the inhabitants of the regions passed. Here 200 the is also a peninsula and the a harbor. ples to be The first peo- met with are the Adyrmachidse. and An- tium." are " Seven days and seven nights along the country of the it is necessary for coasting Iberians. It requires four days river and four nights of coasting from the Rhone to Antium. Bay of Plinthine. to the towns. to the geographical features. from the Pillars of Hercules to The entire region Antium is very rich stated that " it lies in harbors. especially those of Greek origin. is From Thonis is the journey to Pharos. but the ships get drinkable water at Marian.
which charts were in use 8 by the pilots of the . which was primarily intended for navigators. coast. carefully we are justified in inferring that he itineraries had examined numerous and accounts of voyages. Ptolemy tells us that in his own work he improved upon that of Marinus. his Strangely enough. To the above may fifth be added a fragment by Marcian. that he had prepared a chart to include the regions he described. and an anonyits mous of miles. reason for believing that there were marine charts passing under the of name Marinus of Tyre. though those contains valuable information for who had occasion to navigate the Black Sea coasts. We probably have in some of the Ptolemy maps the repThere is resentations of Marinus. in the second century of the Chris- tian era. our is knowledge of him and work confined to what we may gather from the works of Ptolemy. although full credit for he gives to the Tyrian what he had done. who lived in the second century of the Christian era.regions have been preserved. periplus of the Black Sea valuable for record distances not only in but also in Roman Among and is those interested in the preparation of charts sailing directions for seamen. and from what is there stated. It could hardly have been intended as a pilot's it guide-book. as the periplus of the Black Sea by Arrian. probably of the century of the Christian era. who docia. which includes a part of the Asia Minor stadia. at one time is was a prefect of Cappa- His description given in a letter to the Emperor Hadrian. In chapters vi-xx of Ptolemy's geographj^ Marinus' contributions in this field are critically treated. a place of importance held by Marinus of Tyre. and that he gave particular attention to the coasts in his work.
A when periplas. to us there are additions and alterations of it The author gives us to understand that was constructed on the written and the verbal reports of navigators. the Black. nor the author is known. Neither the date is the so-called Byzantine Stadiasmos. since in employed throughLatin literature no directions reference found to original sailing for mariners. Often the details are minute in describing the physical features of certain harbors and coasts. though such charts seem to have disappeared shortly thereafter. originally written." including a statement of distances from port to port. It has been assigned to the fourth or the fifth century. and once the property of Constantine Laskaris. It is preserved to us only in part in a manuscript of the tenth century. fled from Constantinople on the coming of the Turk. . how best to approach them or to direct the course in passing them. after the middle of the fifteenth century. and that he had set out to present a very exact periplus of " The Great Sea. and perhaps nearly eight hundred years later. not second in importance to that of Scylax. and occasionally states winds in what notice should be taken of the making an approach. in giving information concerning localities where potable water may be obtained. in point- ing out the several important landmarks. from island to island. It distinguishes between harbors it and mere places of anchorage. designated is indicates whether a port suitable for large or for small vessels. belonging to the Royal Library of Spain. but internal evidence seems clearly to show that in the form in which it has come down later date.Mediterranean. The Greek out the periploi were probably Roman is period. who. such as temples. and the Red seas.
entire care should be it exercised in navigating original certain Apparently included in its form the at Mediterranean city it and Black Seas. though on these charts the radiating points. is Starting Alexandria. headlands. for crossing the sea diagon- ally. true. or forests. Numerous to island. notably of Cyprus and Crete. continuing to the Pillars of Hercules in Europe. that is. with an occasional warning that great waters. or in sixteen directions. with which deis scriptions the Stadiasmos concluded. small islands. then from the same starting point eastward. A brief extract will serve 10 further to indicate its . The Stadiasmos covered and is an exceedingly valuable record for the study of the historical geography of the coast regions may well be considered the most important in document known. linking a sense the older Greek periploi with the later Italian portolans. It is especially interesting to find that instead of limiting the periplus to a continuous description of the coast of the mainland. or other buildings. a periplus of is many of the islands given. also for sailing in various directions from certain points. have not generally been placed at conspicuous ports. followed the coast to the Pillars of Hercules in Africa. Such statements appear as the last suggest a possible ex- planation for the introduction of crossing points as they later on the portolan it is charts. but appear rather to have been inscribed regardless of any particularly important geographical centres. which therefore suggested as the home to of the author.castles. rocks. as from Rhodes from Delos in no less than twenty-five directions. sand hills. or direc- tions are given for sailing from island from mainland to island.
westward from Alexandria to
. . .
a harbor for small
stadia; anchor here with the cape
water here in a tower.
20 stadia from
Leuce Acte; nearby
a low island which
two stadia from the land.
merchandise can anchor here, entering by the west wind,
but near the shore below the promontory there
roadstead for vessels of
a temple of
In the periplus of Cyprus, which
a part of the
Paphos, with Cyprus on the
located toward the south.
It has three harbors which
are accessible with
winds, and a temple of Aphro-
has a harbor,
Ammochostus and may be approached by all winds,
but there are low rocks at the entrance.
In the directions for the circumnavigation of Crete,
find such information as the following:
chorage, a market-place, and an old
Here is an anThe island city.
distant 60 stadia towards the east.
a harbor and near the harbor a temple of Apollo.
also another island at a distance of 3 stadia, called
has an anchorage.
It has a market-place."
If to the above periploi of the Mediterranean
add the account of the expedition of Hanno of 465
along the coast of Africa, perhaps as far as Sierra Leone, which account contains much information of interest, not
unlike in character that given
by the periplus
and the Ora Maritima of Avienus, describing in like manner the Atlantic coast of West Europe, we have
practically all in the
of directions for seamen that
preserved from antiquity.
The middle ages having
or nothing of value
—a few scattered extracts from earher navigators, — value a few maps of no
therefore, pass directly to a
portolan, as has been stated, resembles
the Greek periplus in style and composition.
gests that these later sailing directions are a development
from the former.
at all easy to establish, since
representing the transition.
moreover, in the
Italian portolan that which gives
the appearance of
new and an independent
the early periploi;
the places along the coasts have
names other than those a large number of new names
of the old ones are omitted, which fact
suggests that places once
to be so considered; distances are given in miles instead
of stadia, and direction
there are about sixteen,
some of these
being mere fragments, others are very nearly complete
for the regions under consideration, are in manuscript.
and most of them
Those coasts may be said to be included in the Italian portolans which Italian traders were accustomed to visit, that is, the coasts and islands of the
Mediterranean, the Atlantic coast of Europe as far as
Flanders, the south coast of
of Africa to the vicinity of
Bojador, including the Canary Islands.
ing to note that these are the coasts included in the
great majority of the portolan charts, with additions, as
geographical knowledge expanded, until they became in
some instances world
Greek periplus of importance
of the fourth or fifth century; the oldest of
of the eleventh century,
in the Ecclesiastical
Bremen, being rather an imperfect sketch of the coast from the mouth of the Maas River to Acre in Palestine.
text of this portolan, together with the text
of the others known,
be found in a
by Kretschmer, Die
italienischen Portolane des Mittel-
free translation of passages
The following somewhat
contained in the Parma-Magliabecchi portolan of the
early fifteenth century will serve to illustrate the character of these Italian harbor books prepared for seamen.
Carminar to Cartagena
seasons, before which port there are islands a mile distant.
pass between any of these islands and
the mainland which forms a point.
Sail close to the middle of the
channel, but towards the northeastern shore, where
too close to
recently discovered on the east side.
Enter the port,
keeping the mainland about two prows' lengths distant,
and a half fathoms of
wrecked here during a calm, though the vessel did not
strike a rock.
of Cartagena the west
bald mountain on the
the entrance to Cartagena.
and you may pass between
and the mainland.
deep water, and a good anchoring-place."
60 miles east-north-
a city with a shore
toward the east having a roadstead with a
depth of 22 paces, in front of the
by south of Barcelona In departing,
a low place called Lobri-
steer to the east
taking notice of a castle which
leading toward Sallo.
from a depression
a high, abrupt, and
continue in that direction, and you will
observe a low mountain with a tower on
Here is Barcelona." From San Fiho to Palamosa
east-northeast, quarter east.
a good port
facing a tower where you
come from the
east, take care of
a shoal that
Acqua Fredda, 12
by the beacon.
a high mountain, bald and cut sheer to the
islands in the distance."
be noted that the portolans
pearance with the awakening of the commercial
of Europe, notably in
about the tenth or eleventh century, and that for
of two or three centuries, they served the mariners as a necessary guide in navigation, just as did
the periploi in the earlier day.
the quickened com-
mercial activities, coupled with the discovery and use of the compass, were calculated to lead to a speedy substitution
appearance in what it seems very advanced state of development in
the years of transition
from the thirteenth
to the four-
stages and the processes of that
development we do not know with certainty.
however, rest assured that there
ship between the compass
a very close relationchart, as
and the portolan
such charts multiply very rapidly in the years following
the application of the compass to navigation, but
cannot be quite sure that they owe their origin to the use of the compass. It seems, therefore, not appropri-
compass charts as has often been done, if thereby we mean to imply that they are based fundamentally on information acquired through the use of
ate to call these charts
the crossing hues
sailing directions, they have not the real character of loxo-
dromes, since they were not constructed on those scientific
principles which enter into real
well be doubted that the earUest
furnished with crossing
clusively an appropriate
The term loxodrome chart is likewise not conname for them. We may say, short, that we find in them some of the elements of
is, one crossed with running from port to port to indicate sailing direc-
the simple loxodrome chart, that
they work of Italian and Catalan chart-makers. In the sixteenth century unaltered character but in their fundamental of the more highly decorated than those fourteenth century. most frequently used the carta. may be further stated by is way is explanation that Carta nautica erally charts. The chart-makers themselves. Maiolo uses the term carta nauticatoria. a fact which is is especially true of the earlier examples. in referring to their work. which tion than is a more elaborate descripand harbors and sailing the former of coasts directions. we find the legend " Petrus Vesconte de janua fecit ista carta first domini MCCCXI. they become far more numerous. and having additional details." and in a legend on the of his atlas of 1313. the term which gen- employed by Italian scholars in referring to these signifies With them the word portolano only a coast or harbor-book. In a chart dated 1605. we find the word tahulas employed.tions. the elements of a compass chart in which in determining location the compass has played a part and old- direction. are the With a few exceptions. Occasionally the word employed by a is chart-maker to refer to his work merely the personal civis pronoun." Portolan charts have been preserved in very large number. Herein a most significant witness of the leadership exercised 16 . the elements of the is mediaeval portolan. as " Vicentius Prunes in Majoricarum me fecit anno 1597. of which number near one hundred antedate 1500. the elements of the ancient periplus est —the known pilot-book for navigators. and that we find in the portolan the chief corner-stone on which rest the charts here under consideration —hence we may very appropriately It call them of portolan charts. word anno chart On the oldest dated portolan chart.
CONTE DE OTHOMANO FREDUCCI.7. . 1537 CHART TWO OF ATLAS.
as before stated. with additions of numerous details for the interior regions. or twenty-five In size the sheets vary from of 11 X 15 cm. the size. a leadership held for near half a millennium. after which the number of charts of this general character. and continuing until America had been discovered. In general they are drawn on parchment. The larger world as the Canerio. size was most often determined by the which it of the skin on was drawn. or in sheets atlases. as has been on sheep skin. sary extension of the sheet usually on the In the portolan atlases. goat skin.. Africa had been circumnavigated. that skin. They are preserved in two forms. and the water route to the Indies had been made known. These charts. in the fifteenth century. even the neck being which fact accounts for the peculiar and apparently unnecesleft. is. beginning as early as the eleventh century. include in general the 17 . was greatly increased by means of the printing-press. and these few instances. the atlas of the fourteenth century to 70 x size of the large single sheet chart drawn by Pareto charts. either in single sheets. entire skin was used. in a bound together. leaving the smoother surface for the drawing. the several leaves were often made of two sheets or skins pasted together on the rougher sur- face. seems.by the seamen of the Italian and of the eastern Iberian Peninsula. were drawn on two or more it parchment sheets. stated above. it being ti*ue in most cases that the retained. In the case of the single sheet charts. or calf but in time paper came to be used. which were securely joined together. in the very remarkable charts the Tammar Loxoro 148 cm. which surface received the colors to much better advantage. as an atlas. contain as many as twenty charts.
as before stated. with a part of the Baltic Sea and the British islands. one of their Their striking approach to accuracy. with the Atlantic coast of this continent to a point near Cape Bojador. atlases the In the Mediterranean is usually divided into three sections with one chart for each. or that there has been a conscious imitation by each chart-maker chart-making. it and yet they have so many appears they are copies of features in common that a common original.regions which are referred to in the portolans. the Atlantic coast of Europe which terminates Finisterre or the north either at Cape Scandinavian Peninsula. as he has set himself to his task of It is well established that most 18 Roman maps were . and one or more for the southern Asiatic coasts. A superior atlas is example of an enlarged though early portolan that recently issued in facsimile. most remarkable features. single sheet The and in the charts embrace the Mediterranean. is. one chart includes the Black Sea. If additional charts were added they usually included a world chart. one perhaps for the British islands. especially for the Mediterranean region. not appear to have been drawn according to mathematical principles or rules. that is. one or two for the African coasts. one for the Baltic. in the south a part of the Red Sea and the north coast of Africa. being a reproduction of a British by The Hispanic Society of America Museum they do manuscript. and one or two set forth the Atlantic coast regions. though they were probably based upon measurements and careful calculation. No two are alike. and edited by the author of this monograph. Portolan charts are projectionless. In the east they include the Black Sea.
. Portolan charts. and that the declination of the needle had exerted an influ- may be noted that an acceptable argument has been advanced showing that Constantinople on maps since the time of Ptolemy had been placed too far north It appears. with rare exception. The existence of the error will be readily seen on a critical examination of the location of any selected point in the eastern Mediterranean. an arrangement which is to be met with in the majority of Arabic maps. as if to give this prominence. the near approach to accuracy is also most striking. critical examination will show that in the draughtis ing the chart turned slightly to the left. error in very many and of the sixteenth-century maps. traceable to Ptolemy. geographical localities. is nearly twenty degrees. is error in part one handed down from an early day. Herein one seems of the to in find evidence the influence compass chart construction. whereas 19 Vid. Reproduction No.oriented with the south at the top. Although there is in this fact the suggestion that the comor in pass had been employed in their construction. the amount being near one point of the compass. Maps of the eariy mediaeval centuries have the east at the top. are oriented with the north at the top. therefore. it being perhaps the chief factor in determining the orientation. that the by at least two degrees.^ As The to the length of the Mediterranean from east to west. making ence. As a result of on the right of the chart for example. it the observations on which they are based. A this. are placed relatively too far to the north. appearing on 1 his maps. and on the uppermost border a representation of the earthly paradise. an idea which has since prevailed in all map of construction. 22 for an exception.
degrees of latitude and longitude were seldom if ever indicated on portolan charts. in- teresting. Prior to 1500. A ally scale of miles divided into fifths or tenths is drawn on these charts. recently issued by the author of this paper in size of the original. Reproduction No.on the portolan charts the error seldom exceeds one degree. 20. Though it is this fact is not always strikingly prominent. however. that it is physically impossible to represent distances. Uzielli is of the opinion that it was the Roman mile of 1481 m. is A 1 feature of these charts. in latitude and for the fact that the extension of Europe is greatly reduced. It may further be noted. never failing to attract. often in as many as four or five different places.^ dis- Herein we may find an explanation for the frequent tortion of the coast regions lying Straits of Gibraltar. we It shall is not be able to enter in this brief description. which was gen- erally taken as the unit of measurement. yet clearly indicated in a large number of the beyond the charts. as a partial explanation of some of the portolan chart- makers' errors. 20 . Into a critical consideration of the problems of scale and distance as represented in portolan charts. Vid. It is often very evi- dent that the drafting of such a scale was not done with careful attention to accuracy. to note in this place that the scale same does not appear to have been employed for th^ Atlantic coast that was employed for the Mediterranean. and first to it may be noted that degrees of latitude are be met with on the marine chart of Canerio. retaining at the on a plain surface correct same usu- time correct latitude and longitude. and frequently on charts of later years in a very elaborate cartouche.
been we find now wind one.the network of lines with which they are crossed. Not . now more. in Though will some instances. it additional crossing points appear. also fall into a well-arranged system. this being on Ziegler's map of Palestine. but with the pass- mg years. a large number of these lines appear directed. due to the peculiar design of name compass chart first came into is not always clearly that resembling the compass card. it will be noted. having that point which is directed to the sidereal or true north extended as if to represent the magnetic needle. usually thirty-two in number. especially designed figures for them: called. radiate from a number of crossing points. which points. it to have been erally be drawn as mere fancy gen- found that they are arranged according to a carefully devised scheme. On portolan charts there by the of will usually be found a central point of radiation about which. and not until 1595 is this dechnation represented on a marine chart. will be observed. but While the ornamentation this extension. never indicates the needle's 1532 do we find a printed chart on which the variation of the compass is represented. roses or compass roses these have It is in part these roses that the use. It is not infrequent that these ornaments are a most striking until 21 declination. and that the lines. On the larger sented. in a circle. it frequently is such. eight or sixteen other crossing points are repreis connected with the centre and usually with every other indicated point. of crossing points is not always found The to be size the same. whose diameter is very nearly the width of the sheet. each of which sheets. this being frequently determined the sheet. There was no attempt at a special ornamentation of these crossing points in the earlier charts. number systematically distributed over the chart.
the more general use of the compass. referred to the winds as eight in number. The Italian chart-makers. excellent illustration. were originally intended as construction being laid down by coasts interest. the north. that is. to de- signate each quarter of the heavens by the wind which the west blew from that quarter. the southwest = P. The north was Boreas. little to their The suggestion has been made that the crossing lines lines. the northwest In time. though adding scientific value. and the nimiber of winds. the east Levante. in general. represented by the needle point = G) . 12 for an 22 compass points rather Vid. . In the ancient day.^ We find herein a suggestion that the crossing lines were originally intended to represent the direction of the winds. the draftsman to guide him in sketching his and in in locating his places of special geographical but so few are the instances which might be support of the theory. the south Ostro Libeccio := L. at first limited to four. then to sixteen. that one it is cited safe in asserting to insert to have been the rule with chart-makers lines the after their charts had been drafted. with Maestro = M. the northeast Greco = G. that is. the west Ponente = O. directions. was increased in time to eight. represented by the Greek cross east Scirocco = Hh> the south- = S.feature of portolan charts. those it was a common practice with who had occasion to refer to such matters. the older practice yielded to the newer practice with seamen and direction came 1 to be referred to in terms of Reproduction No. These eight winds were Tramontana. direction. often representing them on their charts in the wind or compass roses by the first or initial letter of the name. was Zephyrus.
capitals were employed. running from the coast. in black. the number some- times exceeds one thousand directly inland —and these names. in general. all Care seems to have been exercised to have represented. if Bays and head- not accurately inscribed. In some instances. It will be observed that the coast lines. especially in is limited to the coast of the main- land. that many of the names are in are inverted. as one examines the chart. and Legends are not shoals. it Since the names run landward from the coast will therefore be noticed. lands. as the geographical information. the coast appears as a succession of short curved lines. N by E. lines. show that the chart- maker must have had before him information which had been intelligently collected.than in the names of the winds. and are usually are continuous. NE The information hij N. or of the islands. which is as to geographical details is contained in portolan charts. NNE. have been sketched with care. much out The technique the earlier charts. of much historical interest. with rare exceptions written in small letters. of portolan charts is by no means complex. islands and while generally located with a near ap- proach to accuracy. which were inscribed in the later charts. A it large majority of the place is names are but a striking feature that 23 many . North. having the north above. as for example. broken only where rivers represented as emptying into the sea. though not extensive. they are often found to be of proportion as to size. inscribed directing attention to rocks but these are indicated by small dots or crosses along the coast lines. though for the regional names. Place names are numerous —for were the coast of the Mediterranean alone. the result of which is to add a feature of ruggedness.
contrast. . field for example. 1 Vid. As tention these charts were intended primarily for the use of seamen. a banner displaying the half moon. from Bartolomeo Olivo. the banner having John. or at least once attached. cal These regions. on a red blue ground. and it is usually the same names so written in the several charts. torial Terri- boundaries do not appear.^ but cities represented in the show a want of knowledge of their exact location. 28. made to cross certain but clearly attesting the want of exact informa- tion: important cities were often made more conspicuous interior by means of pictures. Venice. the gold ground. a certain prominence by way of lines. red. first detail came to have representation in time River courses with striking were represented. and a red lion . features the earlier have. with the castle on a red. Turkish of Mark on territory. to the place entered in red. mented on coat-of-arms. a lion five dots in a blue Knights of St.. a red standard territory. With the passing more and j'-et more of geographical on inland regions. there to was naturally little occasion for atof the geographical features all the interior regions. a in a gold field Portuguese field. by a ruler on his throne or an elaborately drawn tent. silver cross St. as Tartaria. regions remote and unknown. therefore. ground Aragon. For reproduction of picture 24 of Genoa. has the quartered silver. wanting particularly in reference to physicharts. being blank save for the crossing years. This fact appears to have no other signifi- cance than that a certain special importance then attached. though at inaccuracy: mountain ranges were sections. but many of the separate states bear their respective names. and often in addition are distinguished by an appropriate and highly ornaCastile. p.
Man. paradise Now and then one as in finds the earthly represented. Brandan. referring to the products of the region bearing the legend. or from travellers such as Marco Polo. 25 . A 1 noted instance of such false record Vid. as for example. where space permitted. is Where as. generally confined to the world charts of the portolan type which occasionally are to be found in portolan atlases. 2.In addition to the features just described. Many of the portolan charts are both signed and dated. Gog and were often located by the chart-makers. or Nicolo di Conti. while many are wanting such inscriptions. Much of this information appears to have been derived from Pliny. composuit banc cartam ^ civitate is Maioricarum anno domini M cccc Ix iij. are. Isla de St. in the atlas of Bianco of 1436 or in such as the Catalan world chart of about 1450. legends were often inserted." It seldom easy to determine the exact age of an undated chart. or to the character of the inhabitants of the same. after the authority so indicated in a locality has been overthrown. as was Prester John. as may be seen in the representation of a banner. Isidor. properly adorned as a Christian ruler. is the representa- Reproduction No. Modena. Satanaxa. Such legends or descriptive records however. Brasil. belonging to the Royal Estense Library of Italy. author and date legend " Petrus given sheet it is usually found inis serted on the left of the Roselli and very in brief. mediaeval cloister maps. Solinus. and in the Atlantic Magog we frequently find the so-called fabulous islands such as Antillia. remembering that such as are dated frequently contain records which clearly indicate carelessness on the part of the chart-maker or the influence of tradition.
new It remains to refer to one of the most attractive features of portolan charts. that is to the colors employed. seemed in time to his offer to the chart-maker an opportunity to display sense of the artistic. numbers and in brilliant Much care was fre- quently given to drafting designs in which to inscribe the scale of miles. 26 . In some of them the work of the miniaturist of the period is seen at its best. the insertion of which. The effort to emphasize the importance of certain cities led to the addition of fine bits of minia- ture work to the chart's decorations.tion of the cross of the Knights of St. unquestionably served to embolden such navigators as were eager for the finding of lands. In the earliest examples color was but sparingly used. of The majority them were error. yet loth to break vidth tradition or to correct an we cannot deny to some of them a place of leadership in trans-marine discovery as charts islands laid we find in their down far to the west in the Atlantic. and not infrequently we find Banners roses which are very elaborate. John over the had fallen into island of Rhodes long after that island It the hands of the Turks. or to the addition of a suitable border for the chart. to be truthful prein great and they often appear tones. sentations needed color. Portolan chart-makers full were generally inchned to make use in their own records of that which they found at hand. The compass or vnnd rose. though not always resting on authentic discovery. at first simple in character. but with the advancing years it became more and more a feature. may further be stated that one is not always justified in giving to a chart a date prior to a known great geographical is discovery seeing that such event not recorded.
black. except in the case of the Red Sea. winds or directions are in black. With will be found that the lines indicating the eight principal. so the color as represented in these lines found to have been in the at first to have been added regardless of rule or of special plan. blue. where numerous. but on close examination are laid down in accord with a welldevised scheme. the red seems to be the best preserved. or gold. whereas chart-makers were here most careful in the observance and compass or wind roses seems of rule. em- ployed. which in- variably exhibits the influence of tradition. blue. silver. Seldom was color employed for the larger bodies of water. yellow. while on certain world charts of the portolan type. and the quarter winds in red. a certain cially in the case of those of freedom prevailed. the half winds in green.As the crossing lines appear at first to want system or order in arrangement. 27 . for practical reasons that any color scheme was employed at all for the crossIt may ing lines. it the lines of one color. primarily. red. From the multitude of these lines confusion in the would have prevailed attempt to use the chart were rare exceptions. have been. For the colors in the several roses or cards. though occasionally there was a liberal application of green or blue which was often edged with a line of gold. Of the five or six colors gold. being colored red. Con- tinental coast Hues were generally colored but lightly. espe- complicated design. but smaller islands were entirely covered with red. The coast lines of the larger islands were usually treated as the continental coasts. the color was applied so as to produce the most artistic effect regardless of rule. and in the case of the smallest of these islands. green.
aj)pears not a little surprising that the learned chart-makers of the sixteenth century did not in general accept them at their value until Ptolemy's maps. its however. their near Though remarkable it approach to accuracy. had been shown to be inaccurate. as may be seen in the Catalan chart Such then in origin. With seamen. these manuscript parchment charts remained in favor long after the invention of printing and in the multiplication of use maps and charts.the larger seas and oceans were covered with waving blue or green of 1450. by actual astronomical measure- ments. retaining most of the characteristics exhibited in earliest examples. 28 . fifteenth. lines. character. Apparently first structed in the thirteenth century they multiply rapidly throughout the fourteenth. and sixteenth cenfor turies as before stated. and importance are con- portolan charts with which modern scientific chart or map-making had its beginning.
303-312. pp. 1889. Vide passages relating to Nearet al. Fischer. Vide for summary of accounts of early maritime expeditions.] i. UziELLi E Vol. 427-514. Stockholm. Pliny: Carolus Mullerus [Ed. Di S. legends. NoRDENSKioLD field of : Facsimile Atlas. Venedig. with references to Marinus. Geographi grseci minores. 1897. their character. 15-96. list bibliografici ii. FiLiPPo: della Studi biografici e geografia in Italia. Vide for the text of Scylax. chapters on portolan charts which are 29 . i. Th. Stockholm.: Sammlung mittelalterlicher Welt.und Seekarten italienischen Ursprungs und aus itahenischen Bibliotheken und Archiven. Contains scholarly. Scylax. also reference to portolan charts. Vide for a review of Ptolemy's contributions in the geography. standard of measurement. Bibliography. An extensive of portolan charts with brief descriptions. : NoRDENSKioLD a Pcriplus. pp. History.. iii-vi. pp. Ptoi-emy: Vide various editions of his Geography for reference to Marinus. for the text of the Stadiasmos. with numerous reproductions. sulla storia 1882. 1886. Natural History..BIBLIOGRAPHY Herodotus: chus. : Hanno. Am AT Roma. with extensive extracts from the periploi..
Zur Geschichte der Erdkunde im letzten Die Karten der seefahrenDresden. 4 parts. This contains a sumhis Peri- mary. not unlike that by Nordenskiold in plus. in p. : Drittel des Mittelalters. Eeeeea. Leli^wel^ J. 1877. accompagnee de Cartes dans chaque Volume. In Rivista geografica 30 Ital. . Bruxelles. 1850. iii. but is not in all points in agreement with that work. manoscritti specialmente Roma. Atlas compose de cinquante planches. Berlin. XV. 1866. 1852-57. 1909. LucA^ G. de: in Italia. with a It contains the texts of the list known portolans. K. 1866. 1863. 1871.: Die italienischen Portolane des Mittelalters. XVII pour la plupart inedites.: Alte handschriftliche Schifferkarten den Bibhotheken zu Venedig. la priorite XVI. XVII di conservati nelle biblioteche pubbliche e private Milano. Can ale: Storia de commercio. Genova. H. Paris. dei viaggi. This published to illustrate the preceding work. les Portugais. Carte nautiche del medio evo designate Desimoni. An exceedingly valuable work.Keetschmer. Bruxelles. Matkovich. den Volker Siideuropas. Wuttke. of names to be found in portolans and portolan charts. lavori C: Intorno e ai Cartografi italiani e di lore nautici. Napoli. Atlas compose des Cartes des siecles Santaeem: XIV. C..: d' Atlas et Geographic du moyen age. delle scoperte e carte nautiche degl' Italiani. et devant servir de preuves a I'ouvrage sur de la decouverte de la cote occidentale d'Afrique au dela du cap Bojador par 1841. : Atlanti e Carte nautiche dal secolo XIV al 1896. Wien.
chiefly in the Archivo di Stato and the Biblioteca Nazionale fifty-two are . in the Library of Congress three. Choix de cartes siecles. Comparatively few portolan charts atlases are to be found in the is libraries of the United States. five of these charts may be mentioned that ninety- and atlases are to be found in Venice. Venezia. G. E.: Recueil de Portulans. listed as belonging to the British Museum. Stevenson.: Marine World Chart of Nicolo de Canerio Januensis. New York. varies in Rome.Marcel. L. 1908. there are twenty- one. of Providence there are two markably 31 . the majority of ciana. and in the John re- Carter Brown Library fine atlases. Reproduction heliographique. et de mappemondes des XIV. in which there are thirty-two. to The largest collection that belonging The Hispanic Society first of America. them belonging to the Biblioteca Mar- and the Museo Civico. to the larger collections. sixteen to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana In the other collections designated the number from one to and fifteen. Ayer collection of the Newberry Library of Chicago. ale of twenty-six belonging to the Biblioteca Nazion- Naples. In the Edward E. seventeen to the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris. atlases More than are referred to five hundred portolan charts and Uzielli e by Amat which are to be found Referring only in fifty-four public and private it libraries. the great majority of which are here described for the time. Seventeen charts are reproduced in photograph. Raccolta di Mappamondi e carte nautiche del XIII XVI secolo [Ongania]. seventeen to the Archivo del Collegio di Pro- paganda of Milan. sixty-six are to be found in Florence. XV al 1896.
The of the group on the right is in the the left near San Sebastian in ^gean Sea.] numerous features which suggest that is the Giacomo is known.und One other portolan chart by Seekarten. determined It contains. [Fischer. described. that on Spain. work of the above-named author and its date cannot be far from 1425. in be size. On both the upper is and the lower border a scale of miles given. together with the Black Sea. which may be found in the National Library of Paris. 153-154. Sammlung Mittelalterlicher Welt. 1443. here first It includes the Mediterranean. dated 1422. and 1446. early 15th A portolan chart of the early fifteenth century. it however. the British Islands. GIACOMO GIROLDI century. Cape Cantin. where the tongue ex- tension appears. 32 . The faint indication of a scale on the right. The chart crossed by the centre having two complete systems of crossing points. the Atlantic coast of Europe is to Fries- land. Neither the author nor the exact date can with certainty. 53 x 92 cm. with sixteen points in each group. and three of his atlases bearing dates.1. and the coast of Africa from Gibraltar to usual lines. pp. should not be considered as representing degrees of latitude. 1426 [reproduced in photograph by OnThis particular chart is gania]. respectively. [Probable].
It includes the Mediterranean. and one of the year 1465. In central and eastern Europe the Danube. On the upper left of the parchment appears the inscription. one bearing date 1447. A portolan chart of the year 1468. PETRUS ROSELLI. the Rhine. the Scheldt. hitherto apparently his unknown. 2. the Dneister. and the Nile in Africa. four other charts of may be mentioned. the Rhone. as well as miniature representation of cities. are wanting. which names have been taken from Giacomo Giroldi's atlas of 1426. and compass roses. appear.Color has been sparingly used. pp. and its exceedingly important on account of and of its geographical and other details." Roselli belonged to a famous school of Majorcan carto- In addition to this chart. one apparently dated 1462. the Maas the Guadalquivir in Spain. the chart well preserved. size it is 58 X 90 cm. Dnieper. the Seine. 25-44. The place names seem to be identical with those given in Nordenskiold's Periplus. and two small compass A very un- usual and interesting feature for a chart of this character is the representation of the winds by four wind-heads. and the Black Sea. In age. a chart of the Catalan type. each of which is represented as having its source in a lake. It is 1468. one dated 1446. striking agreement between this chart A and the atlas of 1426 may be seen in the physical features of the interior regions which are represented. iij. radiating lines. also in northern France. 33 . The chart has numerous roses. " Petrus Roselli com- posuit banc cartam in civitate JNIaioricarum anno domini M cccc Ix graphers. With is the exception of a few water stains.
and a conspicuous line of cities is represented six are in in the Baltic region. and the Azores Islands. On the north coast of Africa are numerous Mohammedan of Castile and banners. the Madeira.the whole of Europe except Russia and the Scandina- vian region. Roselli drew much of It his is information from charts of especially interesting to find the previous century. finds expression on most of the portolan charts which include that region." In the Atlantic there ilia are numerous fabulous islands including " brazil. " tamar. the Carpathian in Austro-Hungary the Nevada in Spain. The details which are inscribed in the interior regions are very numerous. the Canary. and Mt. The larger cities are distinguished by groups Sierra of turrets and banners. the north coast of Africa." " de moni [Man]. on the west coast are those of flies Portugal. with the representation at northern extremity of the crossing place of the Israelites. those Aragon give prominence to Spain. The tents in the interior of Africa give a rather undue prominence to the rulers of that section. Europe." These islands are located as in Bianco's chart of 1436. Sinai in northwestern Arabia. An is interesting survival from early Christian centuries the idea of giving to the its Red Sea together a color appropriate to name. eleven of which are in Africa. the in Alps are represented . and its this idea. Pareto's chart of 1455. Europe on a river evidently intended for the Danube. Across the north of Africa stretches the Atlas range of mountains. that there are numerous features resembling the Catalan 84 . Venice and Genoa are given their usual prominence. Such decorations as these are particularly numerous on other parts of the chart. and in Benincasas' chart of 1482. the Papal banner over Avignon. " " antilia.
57 x 91 35 . late size. in portolan chart of the fifteenth century. A size well-drawn parchment chart of the year 1470. ANONYMOUS CHART. "Nicolaus de Nicolo M. the Adriatic. cccclxx. The chart is well preserved. the Dardanelles. and the southwest coast of the Black Sea. who probably was a native of Venice. according to Nordenskiold. It is drawn in large scale. in 65 X 101 cm. the Sea of Mar- mora. 4. appears the author legend. has neither compass roses nor scale of miles. it belonged to Count Pietro Gradenigo. NICOLAUS DE NICOLO. the Bosphorus. In 1882. the JEigean. A cm. 1470. The islands of the Adriatic are made especially prominent. Though colors the map is somewhat stained and its and torn. None of the cities have been distinguished by picture. with the west coast of Asia Minor. 15th century. can be easily read. its are well preserved. other than is contained in this one example of his work. though the usual sixteen crossing points with the connecting lines appear. It includes the east coast of Italy and Sicily. which is in this instance on the right. In the tongue of the sheet.chart of 1375. with few exceptions. geo- graphical nomenclature. though slightly torn on the edges." be Nothing appears to known concerning this chart-maker. and is an excellent specimen of early Italian parchment. 3. and the lagoons of Venice have been inscribed with great care. nor do regional names appear.
Though that it its author. having the very extension. 1512. On the upper and on the lower border a scale of miles represented. common tongue It is 55 x 90 cm. probably of the city of Venice. and a banner. but com- pass roses are wanting. is The The Danube laid down its as a river flowing directly eastits ward. Mt. being in Italian It is and occasionally Venetian of its well preserved. The chart in- cludes the Black Sea. which region lies in the tongue extension on the left. Catharine. Rome. Rhodes has as the cross of the Knights of St. there the suggestion in some of its details may be the work of Petrus Roselli. VESCONTE DE MAIOLO. Compass is lines are numerous. flows through two are well written. topped with a lakes. The coasts are colored. A tion. as are also the islands. portolan chart of the year 1512. Sinai which is is placed the Monastery of St. as in the re- presentation of the Jordan and other features of that eastern region. 5. Flags and bancities. having several large islands at mouth. ners are numerous. Jeru- and Cairo are represented by interesting colored inscribed as an important locality on pictures. as is The names dialect. Damascus. is is unknown. In the upper corner on the left is a characteristic inscrip- " Vesconte de Maiolo 86 composuy banc cartam in . usual in red and in the black. and the Mediterranean as far west as the Balearic Islands. salem. John. Jordan. Belgrade on the Danube. except in parts margins. Some of the important Venice. having castle source in a mountain. a part of the Red Sea. in size.
This chart of 1512. Valencia. Compass drawn. the coasts of Africa as far south as Cape Bojador. Rhodes being marked with the John. On is the upper and on the lower border. as are most of the islands. with the Madeira and Canary Islands. the Atlantic coast of Spain from Gibraltar to Cape Finisterre. and Genoa south made is especially prominent. The flags. Milan. 10 in a facsimile atlas of charts illustrating early discovery and exploration in America. are among which in Barcelona. papal coat-of-arms. being the native place of Maiolo. the Black Sea. by pictures. several countries are designated Cities.Neapoli de anno doi 1512 die 11 jany. distinguished by appropriate numerous. has been issued by in colors of the original. represented as rising in five a mountain in Central Europe. original this Society from 1504 in the to 1549. a scale of miles Continental coast lines are colored. Fourteen single charts and atlases are known to have been made by Vesconte of 1527. Vesconte de Maiolo belonged to a distinguished Italian family of chart-makers whose work has been pre- served in numerous examples. according to Nordenskiold. Avignon has of the Alps. are in is northern and in Palestine Jerusalem 37 appropriately represented with an elaborate church edifice topped with . which Africa. His world chart Ambrosiana. roses are small and are not numerous. Six cities are located on the Danube River. It includes the entire Mediterranean. cross of the Knights of St. and Lisbon appear the is Spain." near which author legend is a well-executed miniature of the Virgin and Child. issued by the author of this paper. and was included as No. be- longed in 1882 to Count Pietro Gradenigo of Venice.
with the usual representations. A portolan chart of the year 1524. the northern part Sea. The Nile. the Rhone. are in red and black and are in the Itahan The chart is well preserved. in size." the extreme left is the author legend. islands. and the Nevada in Spain. The island cross of the Knights of John covers of Rhodes. Coast names are remarkably well 38 . The of the chart contains the Black Sea. tinental coasts are colored. tures are the Atlas Additional interior physical fea- Mountains stretching across the north of Africa with striking colors of green and red. Conde Hoctomanno Freducci de Ancona According to Uzielli e fatta nel Amat. On 1524. to the left is In the extension of the sheet scale given the of miles. is without compass roses. 6. 1524. " la m. Red and the Conthe Mediterranean as far west as the Balearic Islands. It has neither degrees of latitude nor longitude indicated. as are most of the St. vgo. CONDE HOCTOMANNO FREDUCCI. being injured only in certain parts of the border. though not The names language. and the distinctly drawn.a Christian banner. it once belonged to the Marquis Girolamo but di Colloredo in Udine. It is attached to a wooden roller. Danube rivers are all Sierra accurately. It contains the usual sixteen crossing points with the radiating lines. and has marks it of nails in the margin which suggest that may at one time have been fastened to the walls of a ship's cabin. being 39 x 60 cm.
Jerusalem. immediate right and 39 give to of the each chart a very attractive appearance. as no less than eight of his atlases are known. Catharine having a subscribed legend.written." s. " Portolano m. and mounted on pasteboard. first la fatte nel This atlas. The author was a distinguished Italian. and in Palestine the Jordan River and lakes are inscribed. and appears to have been a very productive chart-maker. CONTE An DE OTHOMANO FREDUCCI. Each chart is 1537. de Ancona. Each . and slightly torn in excellent condition. together with the lines which radiate from each point and connect save the two on its it with every other point left. and at least his single-sheet charts. 7. according to Nordens- became known in 1882. the chart is stains. It has an excellent pigskin binding with a title in gold stamped on the front of the cover." kiold. Conte de Otho mano. Aside from a few water margins. 35 x 45 cm. to the east of which is a range of mountains. Sinai with the Convent of St. at which time it was the property of Luigi Arrigoni of Milan. the Nile delta has been made prominent. and exquisite miniatures of Venice. and Cairo adorn the chart. 16th century. A few rivers are represented emptying into the Black Sea. atlas of five portolan charts drawn on parchment. each peak having a name. cccccxxx7. " Yhs ma vgo. Mt. five of On the left of chart four is the legend. Freducci. ano M. in size. Damascus. The sixteen crossing points arranged in a circle about a central crossing.
" Yxola de till. and Azores Islands. some length. is in Italian. Chart three represents the western Mediterranean with the island of Majorca placed at the centre. tinents are colored. and Ireland." Islands. which is at the centre of the of radiating points. England. and otherwise made conspicuous by 40 its color." and dis- " isola de man. and somewhat inland. and Ireland are tinguished by regional names artistically drawn. including also in the north from Gibraltar islands. Across Ireland is written a legend as if to explain the signifiis cance of a great bay on the west. Chart two represents the Atlantic coast of Europe to Holland. The Azores. and to the west of Spain the Azores Scotland. which thickly studded with small islands: " Lacus fortunatus ubi sunt insule que dicunt incule sec beate n ccclxxij. and one compass rose has been drawn on chart three. islands are red. 2. and the Madeira.five charts has what appears to be a scale of miles marked its across each of four corners. with the coast of Africa from Gibraltar to a point near the mouth of the Senegal. Coast names . has the Genoese cross con- spicuously marked. or gold." 3. blue." " Montorius. and written in red Turreted buildings which represent cities are exceedingly numerous. the Madeira. the nomenclature or black. Scotland. artistically. and are sketched very 1. The borders of the conseries and are represented as a of large and small curves. but are small. Near the parallel of the is Canary Islands. a legend of Canary. Chart one represents a section of the coast of Spain. green. and the Canary Islands are practically located on the same meridian. The circle island of Lancillotto. with numerous small among them England.
however. apparently drawn to represent latitude and longitude. ANONYMOUS. Along eastern the right appears the author legend quoted above. . and Cairo. there are lines which cross at right angles. having clature in the language of eastern Spain. The 8. at intervals of eight or ten degrees. first half of 16th century. though not designated is represented by a large group of buildings stretching along the Nile. Chart five the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. it based very largely on fifteenth-century originals. nomen- While is clearly belonging to the sixteenth century. A first half of the sixteenth century. Compass design. 5. with the bordering regions. with an unusual names in the Balearic group of is islands.are exceedingly numerous. number of The one comthis chart in pass rose of the atlas to be found on northern Africa. atlas is remarkably well preserved. is Rhodes by name. chart of the size. in determined. conspicuously marked with the cross of the Knights of St. roses are few and are very simple in In addition to the crossing lines running diagonally over the sheet. its 47 X 74 cm. is ver}'- The region represented a fact especially the border on striking by reason of its details. John. to be noted of the ^gean includes Sea. it Though authorship cannot be may be referred to as an excellent example its of Catalan or Spanish draftsmanship. 41 These lines. 4. Chart four includes the Mediterranean from a meridian slightly to the east of Sardinia to the extreme western coast of Asia Minor.
of St. Christian powers are represented as holding sway over a part of the Balkan peninsula. On the left is the tongue extension. chart includes the entire Mediterranean. ANONYMOUS.are not designated as graduation lines. and a part of the Red Sea. cluding the papal banner over Avignon. the Spanish banner over Spain. The colored in- and banners inscribed are especially numerous. Mohammedan ban- ners in Africa and the East. being the only interior physical features 9. in is Though its author is unknown. but not over Malta. The Sierra Nevada Mountains in Spain are especially conspicuous. as is called Babelonia. The red. the nomenclature being in the language of the peninsula. Graduation not indiscale on the upper and on the lower borders a 42 . represented. 48 X 82 cm. but Genoa. Four scales of miles are indicated without special ornamentation. size. of the Israelites the Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula southward from Cape Finisterre. is the Black Sea. it of Italian origin. but chart. Asia Minor. which having at its colored northern extremity the crossing place indicated. and Cairo which flags in each of the continents the largest cities are especially distinguished in picture. apparently used for is on which extension a miniature is picture of Christ on the cross. the cross of the Knights John over Rhodes. early 16th century. though not over Rome. and the coast of the Black Sea. and a very hmited section of the coast of Africa. Regional names are omitted. hanging the cated. A clearly parchment sheet of the early sixteenth century.
and in rather an unusual running is The The Very much of available space covered with elaborate scroll 43 . Over the islands of Rhodes repre- and Malta the sented. is Each 37 x 57 cm.of miles cartouche. is John is The chart well preserved. in size. drawn with a pen. lines. style. Pictures of flags and dis- banners are wanting. The three continents name is written in a by name. Mediterranean. is Neither the author nor the date in particular it known. [vid. Italian. to the walls of a pilot's 10. perhaps for attaching cabin. contain- ing three charts of the early sixteenth century. Fifteen compass roses of different sizes and designs are drawn. nomenclature writing is French. is drawn. are colored. and the Atlantic Finisterre. Jerusalem or Palestine being tinguished by the representation of a mountain (Gol- gotha) with three crosses. Judging from the character of the ornamentation. being torn but nails on the border. as are the rivers. 22]. As is usual in such most of the names are in black. which cities. The coast lines. but many are in red. early 16th century. slightly cross of the order of St. Spanish. through which it have been driven. the coast of Africa. beginning at Cape and terminating at a point near eight degrees down charts. the Black Sea. A chart portolan atlas bound in pasteboard cover. each in an elaborately ornamented The chart includes the entire coast. and are connected by the crossing are each designated scroll. seems to be a French work is No. ANONYMOUS.
like the preceding." "France. " Europa." is " Barbaria. and the third section some distance to the west of the coast of Ireland 1." " Barbaria " are inscribed. atlas is not all one of great value." are The sheet is somewhat injured by water 3. is The chart much The faded. Chart three includes the entire Mediterranean. and Canary Islands. Degrees of latitude are indicated on chart one. on the extreme of but in three sections." The names " " Romania " Natolia. The nia. and the Mediterranean to the Gulf " of Genoa. but are not elaborate." and an elaborate ornament containing a shield with lily the French is topped with a royal crown." " Candia." " Morea. In Spain the Spanish shield with the imperial double eagle. is and. with the border- ing coasts. not on a meridian. " L'ocean occidental. over-decorated. the next coast Spain from the thirty-first to the forty-fourth parallel. stain.and feather designs are in brilliant colors. 2." Olanda. the Cape Verde." " Iscotia." "Irland. attention Much sheet. though contain- ing practically that may be found in the better Italian 44 ." " Africa." " Inglaterr. was given to the ornamentation of the Chart two includes the ^gean inscribed. " Grecia. from " parallel forty-four to fifty-eight. Chart one includes the Atlantic coast regions from Holland the — Olanda " — ^to a point near with the British Islands." In the Atlantic to the west of Spain near it the legend. with that section left indicating degrees from the twenty-second parallel section near the to the thirty-first. the Azores." " Asia." " Spag- "Africa." regional names include " Europa. Madeira. Compass roses numerous.
than for the use The atlas is one of his largest. and with the numerous small islands in red. however. prolific that one can hardly be in error in ascribing Its date cannot be far from 1545. Agnese was a and chart-maker. but the work- so strikingly characteristic of Baptista it Agnese to him. containing not only those his atlases. or gold. 11. Each 28 x 41 cm. teen and fourteen. His work. Interior regions on some of the charts contain numerous vignettes and figures. with blue coast outlines. charts which usually are to be found in thir- but certain important additions as Nos. though having withal numerous and curious contains two inaccuracies. BAPTISTA AGNESE. many of whose atlases are extant. and held a foremost place among the Italian chart-makers of his time. A page half of the sixteenth century. with far more than the usual references to geographical features. containing fourteen charts preceded by representations of coats-of-arms is and astronomical tables. appears libraries of princes to have been done rather for the of mariners.portolan charts of the period. with a third on character. it was apparently designed for display rather than for use. The several charts have retained their brilliant colors. Page two like of the atlas coats-of-arms similar in general design. portolan atlas of the first early 16th century. blue. The manship is neither signed nor dated. He ex- hibited remarkable skill as a draftsman miniaturist. page three of Declination tables are given on page 45 . in atlas is size.
both for the Old and for New World. a part of Asia and of on the left the east Europe on the right. the east and west coast of South America. being in size within the narrow black border 35 X 50 cm. five.. with the African coast from the Gulf of Guinea eastward. Degrees of latitude and longitude are indicated. and the southern Asiatic coast to China. occupying double pages." of The Atlantic coast America is represented from Labrador to the Strait of Magellan. The Pacific coast includes is Lower California and it the Gulf of California which colored red. Chart two includes the Atlantic Ocean with coast of Africa. an armillary sphere is artistically sketched on page and on pages six and seven the circle of the zodiac with the several signs very artistically designed. Chart three includes the Indian Ocean. thence extends southward to about latitude 12°. also the tropics as are and the equator. is The nomenclature the very is rich. includes the Pacific Ocean. and North America. and on the left a small section of the coast of Asia. 2. as do all the line charts. with America on the right. 1. In the centre of the chart is a combined compass and wind rose encircled with the sixteen crossing points from which the usual thirty-two lines radiate. and remarkably well preserved.four. degrees of latitude and longitude as in chart one. tures of the chart are the The general fea- same 46 as are represented in the preceding. 3. omitting the remaining section of the coast to the Strait of Magellan. with the " insule Maluche. omitting the Pacific coast from latitude 12° to the Strait of Magellan. . Chart one. The chart contains the crossing lines. with an omission on the extreme east of Brazil.
Chart seven represents the eastern Mediterranean Chart six represents the Mediterranean region from the west coast of Greece to 6. with northwest Africa. ture representations of kings on their thrones. 7. omitting indications of iatitude and longitude. except that of the Crimea. the Balearic. but all names can be read with ease. The Atlas The from Sicly to Palestine. It is slightly waterstamed. the Madeira. the British Islands. Red colored red. but no indication of degrees of latitude or longitude. though with and the mountains of southern Europe from the Pyrenees to the Balkan peninsula are mscnbed. mers are represented in heavy blue minia- Numerous httle care for accuracy. Numerous regional names appear. The fealines. the north coast of Spain. It contains the usual portolan chart features. retains the cross coast Chart eight represents the Black Sea with the hne in blue. and of There are numerous fjne tures of chart one are included.4. which The is island of Rhodes still of the Knights of St. in Numerous cities in picture. northern Italy. Chart five includes the 5 Spanish peninsula. heavy blue lines are represented range of mountains is and rivers in Spain. France. 8. with the south coast of the Black bea and the northern section of the Gibraltar. which Zi^e 9- ''''" ^'' ''-' '' ---'^'^y ^'- -^ Chart nine represents Italy with the Adriatic 47 . represented in northern Africa chart has the usual crossing lines. Sea. John. and the Canary Mands. border. tinent Chart four includes the greater pari of the conof Europe with Scandinavia on the northern the Baltic. the coast the Dalmatian coast.
48 There are also . mountains in Asia. the Pyrenees in Spain. however. and three. The whole northward. Sicily. and the in Andes northern South America. is Chart eleven a world chart including prac- same as may be found in Nos. is Agnese world chart. and the usual arrangement of crossing The tropics is and the equator are represented. having the equatorial diameter Fifteen parallels are It is nearly twice that of the polar. Mons luna " in Africa. is The island of Rhodes conspicuous with the red ground and the gold cross. The entire surface covered with a pale-yellow color shading to light green. Crete has a city with harbor prominently marked on 11. fills Mountain ranges River with its The Po have numerous branches the low plain of northern Italy. oblong in shape. effort to be strictly accurate. are very prominent. red. represented and twenty-four curved meridians. of the north of Europe is. the author attempting to produce not only a sea chart but a land is map as well. two. This chart differs greatly from the preceding. tically the the north coast. 12. and Corsica ap- Chart ten represents the iEgean Sea as it pears in most portolan atlases. Other large islands have the entire surface either green.coast of Dalmatia. or gold. are especially conspicuous. as and a few interior features appear. one. Sardinia. roses. but graduation Chart twelve a characteristic wanting. The Tiber and the Arno rivers a source in the same lake. 10. represented with the Scandinavian peninsula stretching off to There are five compass or wind lines. more or less a conventional world chart. since the author clearly made little Nu- merous regional names are geographical " inscribed.
monster appears Very small and artistically-drawn buildings representing cities and towns are numerous. nine The chart has the same ground and thirteen. 13. and. The chart is off the Norway slightly water-stained at the top. the Ganges. the Volga. Chart fourteen includes the Scandinavian pen- insula with the Atlantic islands to the northwest and the west. the Amazon is and the La Plata. blue. Chart thirteen represents Palestine. each wind having ate name. 49 . Twelve wind heads are its arranged about the chart. the north. One wind head is represented at the north. 14. and are made especially conspicuous. nine and fourteen. and a sea coast. and Jerusalem appears group of buildings surrounded with a wall. it is Like Nos. but all crossing lines are omitted. though the color has not been evenly applied. crossing the artistic New World at Panama. sheet.numerous rivers. the Danube. it places the east at the top of the is though a compass rose inscribed. and with the Baltic Sea and its neighboring re- gions to south and east. It has a both a marine and a land chart. Mountain ranges and several towns isolated mountain peaks are very numerous. as is from Spain to Peru. The Jordan River and are much magnified which indicates As drawn. and villages are The each represented by an as a artistic vignette. also the route Magellan's route indicated. light yellow shading to ground color of very green. and the lakes are colored in size. color as Nos. artistic representations of rulers Two well-drawn ships sail the Atlantic waters. as the Nile. appropri- Compass roses as well as crossing lines are wanting. There are numerous on their thrones. the Indus. in the New World.
" Olivo mallorqin En. a date earlier. in width." left corner. and twice at the bottom of the chart. degrees west The chart includes the Mediterranean. it appears to have been drawn after 1526. We here one numerous attempts at date forgery. roses are numerous. marked on a meridian passing about of the coast of Spain. is on so Domingo chart of 1568 Lisbon distinguished. Palermo Ano inscribed The of three figures over an find erasure. and only the figure the 1 is the original. On the western border is a representation of is Christ on the cross. Sometimes for a specific reason. on the Iberian Olives' Spanish flag whereas likewise alone appears peninsula. The scale of miles indicated twice at the top. of Malta. and the African coast to Cape Bojador. John appears on as the the island and perhaps near 1581. OLIVO. BARTOLOMEO by 51 cm. by a Portuguese banner. Its author was a member of the famous Oliva family of Majorca. the Atlantic coast region as far north as Holland. Compass is and elaborate. often to found altered to one the one later. Scotland. This portolan chart of the sixteenth century in length is 86 cm. On last this chart his name are is inscribed in the upper 1520. 50 The author has not .12. with England. Here we scale also have it distinctly indicated that the same was not used for the Atlantic coast that was used Degrees of latitude are five for that of the Mediterranean. and is it interesting to observe that the central crossing in Sicily. after 1550. the Red and the Black Seas. While argument is not conclusive. as the cross of the Order of St. generally to give a fictiis tious value to a chart. and Ireland.
16. JAUME OLIVES. 1563. . CHART THREE OF ATLAS.
and the Atlantic coast from " lisbona " to Cape most Cantin. coasts and in- land. gotha with the three crosses. HIERONYMO GIRIVA. Compass roses are numerous. numerous river courses are shown.given a colored border to his continental coasts. being only slightly torn borders. southwest of Ireland. the the camel. A few of the important rivers are represented in their lower courses. as the Nile. and GolSpain. Mountains are represented in northern Africa. after 1550. and the elephant are well represented. scale of miles is The central rose is placed In each of the four corners a in a drawn waving is scroll ornament. the ostrich. including " lisbona " and " barselona " in Over each appears an appropriate banner. in size. cities especially distinguished by picture are numerous both along the accurate information. and in Africa. but internal evidence sugit is gests that the work of Giriva. though not from An ocean monster appears to the lion. The three continents are distinguished by names . On the interior of the front cover has been pasted the engraved book-plate of Conde de Vislahermosa. The chart includes the Medi- terranean with a very small section of the Black Sea coast. Eleven cities are distinguished by minia- ture pictures. The on its chart is well preserved. 13. In the upper corner on the left a representation of Christ on the cross. neither signed nor dated. but has added color liberally to his islands. being inscribed at of the sixteen crossing points. in the island of Sicily. A It is portolan chart with pasteboard cover of the second It is half of the sixteenth century. 33 x 65 cm. 51 .
beginning at the north with the needle point circle letters for the eight G SW. which family has early chart-makers. M = NW. chart includes the Mediterranean. S = SE. also the Nile. The is chart is well prefirst-class work not that of a 14. the Guadalquivir. L = = W. features inscribed include the Sierra Interior physical Nevada Mountains. and the Atlantic coast from Cape Finisterre are represented in picture. and the banners are very numerous. five of which are large and beautifully executed. O = S. Compass or wind roses are and by Nordenskiold. 1552. in size 49 x 75 cm. Twice on the upper and is Q thence to the right about the twice on the lower border the scale of miles inscribed. " Bartolomeo olives maijorq. Hh = E. very conspicuous in southern Spain. On the left is the author legend. P The = NE. to Cape Nun. and Cartagena being especially prominent. BARTOLOMEO OLIVES. numerous at the crossing points. Genoa. with the numerous others distinctly indicated in their lower courses. A portolan chart of the year 1552. and the Rhine rivers." and in the tongue extension a miniature of the Virgin and Child. served. Mount Sinai topped with the Convent of St. a section of the Red Sea with the crossing-place Seven cities of the Israel- ites indicated. 52 . 1552. In each of these the initial winds appear. but the decorative miniaturist. the Danube. of Oliva.the Rhone. the Black Sea. Bartolomeo was one of the most distinguished members of the Majorcan family a place of prominence large among A number of his charts are recorded by Uzielli e Amat. Catharine. Venice.
margin on the right 15. Each at least and one compass rose. in in size. including a plain narrow red is Across the upper part of chart one the author legend. 18 x 25 cm. " Michele Petrocochino del quondam Georgio. after 1560. there number of single charts and name. ing to astronomy and geography. G.. On the back of the front cover are the words in gold " Carta Navigatoria. the initial letters of a former owner. A bound portolan atlas of seven charts. as regional names. or in blue and gold. except the first. Meridians and paral53 and a polar diameter of 165 mm. has a scale of miles. with the letters M. .The its chart is remarkably well preserved. and the lower courses of rivers. occupying two pages. however. have been bound in with the charts. Each chart. Coast lines are in gold. though doubtless one of his earlier atlases. each having an equatorial diameter of 167 mm. A few minor geographical features are represented. P. GIOVANNI MARTINES. having only slightly torn." and on both front and back the outline design for a coat-of-arms. chart. dark is leather." Fifteen pages of relat- manuscript in Italian and written in a bold hand. Chart one represents the world in two hemi- spheres." the figure It is 2 being written in after an erasure. border. 24 x 34 cm. " Joan Martines en Messina any 1562. 1.. the oldest hitherto described being dated 1567- He was one of the foremost chartbeing extant a considerable atlases bearing his makers of his day. The several charts have the usual characteristics of the type. able the date as is it hardly probit appears is correct.
from which thirty- two lines radiate. Coast lines in both are in gold.lels are drawn at intervals of fifteen degrees. Chart seven includes the Black Sea drawn in 54 large scale. Sardinia. six includes the ^gean and the eastern Mediterranean. from 3. section this Corsica. is represented. (Bering) east Asia. 2. and northern Spain. Chart five includes the Mediterranean from the eastern coast of Spain to the west coast of Greece. with the Madeira and the Canary- Islands. Chart two includes the southern coast of the Spanish peninsula. with small of the the extreme north coast of Africa. and Sicily. 6. Chart with three includes the northwest coast of Europe. 4. France. One of these points is located at the centre. On Chart chart names are particularly numerous. On this and succeeding charts three crossing points and three only are represented. are and Ireland well represented. one at the right of this. a chart to which much interest attaches. the west coast of Africa to about latitude 15° north. but are on the same parallel or line crossing the chart east to west. ail and one at the left. also the Balearic a Islands. . The Strait which name appears It is of Anian in north- The great austral continent " terra incog- nita " is sketched in outline. 7. Scotland. written. England. The names numerous and well Chart four includes the south coast of Ireland and England with the coast of Holland. and numerous original names appear the Old and the New World. 5.
m^ i} ^"^* .^•:.
the Christian cross while the all the banners represented are Mohammedan. a part of which is has been cut away. Chios and Rhodes have With the exception of sheet five. The usual portolan all chart colors have been employed preserved. It is a characteristic bit of of the work of a very distinguished member makers. in though each chart. This atlas of six charts dated 1563 size. of which are well From It a central point on each chart thirtyall two lines radiate with one exception. page a has been drawn with the radiating suggesting that the author had intended these as construction lines for a chart which lines. JAUME OLIVES. interesting to find that on the last double page a very large compass rose has been drawn filling almost the entire sheet. measures 23 X 36 cm. It has an excellent leather binding. Chart one represents the eastern Mediterranean. and on the circle first double lines." All names have been inscribed with great care.16. with the entire front and back of the cover very artistically decorated with contemporary tooling. Coast most instances have been colored. in had never been drawn. " Majorcan family Oliva. the atlas 1. Jaume oliues mallorchi en napoli any 1563. to which has gilt border. is 19 x 23 cm. 1563. which family had numerous representatives in the ranks of the early chart- On the last double page appears the inscription. omitting the Levantine coast. partly in Italian and partly in Catalan. of cities and banners on each of the remarkably well preserved. is other lines having been omitted. been added a There are numerous miniature representations charts. occupying double pages. The chart has the thirty-two radiating 55 .
lines and instead of a wind or compass rose initial letters it has the usual for the eight principal winds properly is placed near the border of the sheet. Chart six represents the Black Sea and the ex- treme eastern Mediterranean coast. Three cities are es- pecially distinguished in the Iberian peninsula. city of Genoa is made especially conspicuous in picture. The Spanish. 5. rectangular in and in size 46 x 69 cm. JAUME OLIVES. Chart two includes the Atlantic coast from " to " c. most of which are Mohammedan. also England. and Mohammedan and the banners are prominent features of the chart. This chart has been somewhat mutilated on the upper or northern section. Papal. each with Chart four represents the western Mediterranean Sicily to the from Strait of Gibraltar. and Ireland. c. There a central compass rose from which thirty-two picture and banner. lines radiate. Chart five represents the middle Mediterranean region. with a small section of the northwest coast of Africa. 1566. Banners are nimfierous. 6. portolan chart of the year 1566. 56 On the upper left ap- . which arrangement very unusual. In the centre hues only is a compass rose from which thirty radiate. finisterr " blancho " with the Canary and the Madeira Islands. 2. A shape. including the Adriatic and the ^gean Seas. 3. 17. Scotland which is separated from the former is by a strait. Chart three includes the western coast of Europe " Cartagena " to " dascie " from on the North Sea coast. 4.
the Black Sea. Other distinguished members of this family were Bartolomeo and Domingo Oliva.pears the Madonna and a lion. and one seilles." Jaume Olives was a first member of the famous family of Oliva which came into prominence in the island of Majorca. Seven large compass roses are included in Neither latitude of miles are is the circle of sixteen crossing points. and very numerous. one dated 1559 is in the National Library of Naples. of the 67 . the Red Sea the Israelites coast of Spain at with the indicated course of the northern extremity. but not to such extent as to injure the contents of the chart. each being the author of numerous portolan charts. The chart includes the Mediterranean. and are of the sheet have been torn. Jaume Olives. Five other charts of this author are known. which represent the Mediterranean. near is this picture which represented as tearing an is animal in pieces. one of 1561 is in the is Vittorio in Emanuele Library in Rome. from Cape are and the coast of Africa to Cape Blanco. Four entire scales drawn. The corners on the left small letters. notably Genoa and banners are and Venice. It is one of the most valuable collection. Mallorquien Marsela ay 1566. one Museo Civico of Venice. one of which. the Atlantic Finisterre. nor longitude indicated. underneath which " the inscription. bearing date 1557. of of 1563 the 1566 in Mar- The one here described appears to have been his last. Important cities made prominent. is in the University Library of Pavia. brilliantly-colored flags The names are written in very numerous. Child resting in the clouds.
Marseilles. 1. Jomard. 2. is In the front of this atlas eral charts *' pasted a brief description of the sev- by E. Chart three represents the coast region of west- ern Europe from Gibraltar to Denmark and Iceland. of which are exceedingly well done. The nomenclature is especially Chart one includes the eastern Mediterranean. and Over Jerusalem waves a Crimea the Genoese flag. rich. GIOVANNI MARTINES. made prominent by groups of turreted buildings. and on each chart a scale of miles drawn on a great waving scroU. are represented as separated by a strait. containing five charts each 32 x 48 cm. some of which are elaborately executed. This chart is especially interesting. Messina Any 1582. 3. bound " in pasteboard en On chart four appears the inscription." Joan Martines author are A number all of charts and atlases by this known. The usual intricate crossing hues are inscribed." There are three or roses more compass on each chart. the preceding. portolan atlas of the year 1582. and Cairo appears as a many-turreted city on the Nile. England and Scot- land. flag with the cross. F. A cover. Genoa. over the which flag also appears prominent at the entrance to the Black Sea. editor of the famous atlas Monuments de la Geographic. 1582. as on contemporaneous charts. Chart two includes the central and western MediIt contains all the characteristic features of terranean. The Red Sea is a conspicuous feature. Iceland appears on the extreme 58 . in size. the the Black Seas. ^gean.18. with Venice. cities and two in northern Africa.
GIOVANNI MARTINES.]H. .
west of Spain the prime meridian About four degrees to is drawn across the the on which degrees of latitude are very distinctly indicated. chart. north of the equator. as The prime meridian on which the degrees of latitude are marked Islands." with its usual peculiar fea- tures. is located to the southwest of Iceland." with a few other names to be found on the Zeno of 1558." Nimierous Portuguese banners are inscribed along the coast. A atlas of portolan charts of the second half of the sixteenth century in brown 69 leather cover. southwest of which is " Frixlandia. French late 16th century. ANONYMOUS ATLAS. Chart five represents the west coast of Africa from the mouth of the Senegal to the Cape of Good Hope. is on the preceding on this chart that the name 5.northern border. Chart four presents the west coast of Spain and the coast of Africa from Gibraltar to the mouth of the 4. while south of the same it is represented as starting at a point at least four degrees farther to the east. of Martines appears. which point is is conspicuously marked with a also the city of Lisbon. It con- . The prime meridian. if such it is intended to be. Senegal. the last-named point being especially marked in large capitals "CAPO DI BONA SPIRANZA. is represented is much It to the west of the Canary than and at least ten degrees farther west chart. runs slightly to the west of Africa. atlas is well preserved in all its rich details. The 19. The Iberian turreted cities peninsula is especially distinguished by its and conspicuous banners. map " Isla de Brasil. Portuguese banner.
" 2. the and the opposite mainland of are Adriatic coast of Tuscany." "Catalogue. all made especially prominent by heavy coloring." and are inscribed a conspicuous is cartouche." "P:Gal. certain parts of which are unusually heavily marked. French portolan charts of the period are not numerous." " Tunis. are in French. island of Sicily." " Tuscane. and regional one of names. are numerous and some are very inscribed are bril- Certain designs for banners. the north 3. the coast of Istria." "Valence." " Istrie. scale includes the Chart one drawn on a large western Mediterranean. especially. the most valuable of the kind 1. Regional names are numerous. in " size. as well as the caris touches in which the scale of miles liantly colored and elaborately executed." "Genes." "Genes." " Afrique " " Tunis." " Arger. Chart two includes the middle Mediterranean and the Adriatic. at the right." " Spagne. but to the corresponds in all important particulars contemporaneous work of Italian chart-makers. the Atlantic coast of Africa to Cape Cantin. Many regional names are inscribed as "Europe. and this work is known. As inserted in the atlas." Its author unknown. The coast of France." " ItaHe.tains four charts each occupying double pages 49 x 61 cm. Chart three includes the eastern Mediterranean." in " Greece." " Venise." " Fex." " Dalmatic. including " Europe." " Andalvzie. roses Compass large." " Afrique." "Provence. 60 . The coast nomenclature is very full. On it the outside of the front cover is stamped is Ex Hbris Luigi Arrigoni Mediolani." " Granade. The coast lines are colored." " Barbaric. of Tunis. and the coast of western Greece. of the Italy." " TripoH.
1582 CHART TWO OF ATLAS.18. . GIOVANNI MARTINES.
It appears indeed to be simply ing the contents of the preceding grouped into chart. Dominicvs de Villarroel Regis s Ilispaniarvm Cosmography senting the faciebat. with one page representing Judith and Holophernes having a Latin subscription concluding with a reference to the author: "Hoc opvs D. with a small section of the southwest shore of the Black Sea. in a pasteboard cover and draA\Ti near the close of the sixteenth century. and contains numerous elaborate orna" ments. with the addition of such names as "Greece. An atlas of portolan charts. the Atlantic from Cape Finisterre southward. each 37 x 52 cm. Europe." " Troye. 20." " Svrie. tables furnished Under each the . It contains seven charts. in size." Carmanie. one Tile entire atlas is one remarkably well preserved. of Africa to Cape Cantin." Chart four includes the entire Mediterranean. is mouth 4." one page repre- martyrdom of St. the northern section of the coast of Spain Red is Sea.is highly colored." " Asie." and " " Afrique " are ap- propriately inscribed. Sebastien. DOMINICUS DE VILLARROEL. as is the The name " Barbaric. the coast There a very considerable left. and one page of on which appear two circular calendar with a movable parchment 61 disc. bound 1590 circa. containing the regional names and most of the a chart represent- features represented on each of the preceding charts. of the Nile made prominent." " Natolie. tongue extension of the sheet on the It is rather more highly decorated than is either of the preceding sheets." Golgotha is represented with the three crosses.
of this same chart-maker. Chart one represents the eastern Mediterranean in the interior regions only and the Black Sea. 1. Chart two includes the central and western Medi- terranean. The Bibliotheque Ra- tionale of Paris possesses a portolan chart. cosmographo de su civitate terranean. is probably his last work. of the years 1530 and 1580 which may be by the same cosmographer. is not referred to by Fernandez de Navarrete in his Bibliotheca tnaritima espafiola. in a Degrees of on each also the scale of miles cities waving scroll. Chart three includes western Europe from Gib- raltar to the White Sea. (vid. 65. some of which are elaborately executed. representing the Medide Villeroel. me fecit in " atlases are referred to Neapolis 1589. but was probably an Italian living under Spanish rule in Naples. several countries. Europe. This atlas. latitude are represented. The several countries of central bj'^ Europe are each distinguished the representation of at least one city over which 3.tables use. Certain important are made especially conspicuous on the first four charts. recording the names of the 2. Spain gives excellent illustration of the statement . having compass roses which are especially well drawn. and 62 is remarkably well drawn. flies an appropriate banner. Each chart is covered with the usual crossing lines and contains several compass roses. and northern Africa with the inscrip- Don Domingo Magestad. apparently the work tion. hitherto unknown. is an explanation as to its meaning and as he its Villarroel was probably not a Spaniard. and nu- merous banners of state and coats-of-arms are represented in their appropriate localities." and two by Nordenskiold in his PeripluSj p.
1582 CHART THREE OF ATLAS. GIOVANNI MARTINES.18. .
Mgean the Sea with the neighboring As in preceding chart ships are artistically sketched sailing the sea. and Ireland. as well as all coast-places bearing name. 63 . among which are S. exhibiting on the right the coast of Africa. Portugal. In and the succeeding chart the draftsman has altered somewhat his style. in his Theatrum this of 1570. giving less attention to ornamentation. Lower Italy. 20) that a different scale of measurement was used for are remarkably well repre- the Atlantic coast coast. The prime meridian Canary Islands.p. and Sicily. is which is represented the scale of the same pattern. and the ribbon miles 7. Chart six includes the Adriatic. Brand an and Icaria. by a gold dot. In the middle Atlantic are many islands. left and the island of Frisland of the Zeno map. The cities are made prominent merely Compass roses are less conspicuous though scroll in in the style of the small roses on the preceding charts. Chart four includes southern Spain with the coast of Africa to the Gulf of Guinea. Greenland. on the Canada and Labrador with the neighboring islands under the name Terra Nova. The North American that of the coast represents a type between as laid Dieppe School and that of Ortelius down 6. are preceded by a gold dot. and the towns. This is one of the most interesting charts of the Atlas. on are marked from 1° Ocean from 15° Chart five presents the Atlantic to 60^ north latitude. 5. ' from that used for the Mediterranean England and Ireland is sented as 4. the Baltic with the entire Scandinavian region. Chart seven represents the entire coast regions. at the top Iceland. is represented passing west of the which meridian degrees of latitude to 42° north.
" Neither Uzielli e this Amat nor Nordenskiold refers to chart-maker. extended to the borders of the lel lines Numerous to south paral- cross the sheet from north and from east to west at intervals of about five degrees. from Cape Finisterre to Cape Cantin. sheet being so call much least is longer than broad would apparently for at two systems of crossing its Instead but one of represented with centre of in the island Sardinia. The circumference the circle in which the sixteen points appear passes through the Adriatic on the right and the east coast of Spain on the left. though evidently very slightly reduced from its original size 64 by trimming. over each of which an appropriate banner. Its dimen- sions are 17 x 54 cm. with an extensive nomenclature. A small portolan chart of the year 1597. miniature of the Virgin and Child resting on a cloud. left The author legend near reads. The chart is well preserved. " Vincentius the upper civis border on the prunes in majoricarum me fecit anno 1597.21. also the Atlantic coast region. VINCENTIUS PRUNES. Ten miniature is representations of cities are drawn. In the tongue extension on the are the heads of three cherubs. The lines passing through those points are sheet. . Along The the upper and is also along the lower border a scale of miles represented. 1597. but no interior regional names are given. although they as a make brief mention of Matteo Prunes Majorcan cartographer whose work left is a belongs to the second half of the sixteenth century. underneath which The points. chart includes the entire Mediterranean.
The of the islands are colored. the west coast of Spain. ters Regional names in large capital as are inscribed. Spagne. cluding a section of the coast of Asia Minor. two and three being located in the and there are somewhat elaborate caris touches. represented." has the " Asie. century. " Grece. except that nothing beyond the Strait of Gibraltar is represented. sheet tongue extension on the 3. sists The ornamentation con- of compass roses." and the coast of "Romanic. in It brown boards.22. " Natolie. in- Chart one represents the Grecian Archipelago." left. regions and islands have " been made " conlet- spicuous by color. bound size. 2. by means of color and the Chart two represents the entire Mediterranean." the island of " Candie " very prominent. Certain coast especially the entrance to the Black Sea. and the coast of Africa to Cape Cantin. although not in the centre of the sheet. Chart three includes about the same as the pre- ceding. made the centre of the group of sixteen crossing points. each of which has eight points." and " Morea. in 40 X 58 cm." Chios and Rhodes are their made silver conspicuous cross. Each chart is the work of an unknown continental coasts and most chief French cartographer. and Sicily is it is drawn on a somewhat larger scale." " Barbaric. ANONYMOUS ATLAS. and a second crossing point 65 is indicated in the eastern ." " Afrique." This Europe. the central one in charts island of Sicily. in each of which a scale of miles 1. second half of 16th An is atlas containing three portolan charts of the late sixteenth century. the east coast of the Grecian peninsula.
belonging in size the closing years of the sixteenth century. or as in the atlas. century. the decorations of each sheet showing workmanship Chart one represents the iEgean Sea with all of its neighboring coasts to the west. pictures of important cities appear. Compass roses are lines numerous. Golgotha sur- mounted with the three The chart furnishes an example of an attempt 66 to represent along the . of a superior quality. and the with the island of Crete at the south. and terminates in the west at Gibraltar. 35 X 62 cm.Mediterranean. The coasts are colored with certain sections very conspicuous. It contains a scale of miles in an elaborate cartouche stretch- ing entirely across the northern boundary. and the compass are rather more numerous than is usual by reason of is the fact that each of the sixteen crossing points con- nected with every other point. 1. as crosses. presents of a mem- exquisitely done. atlas is well preserved in all its details. 2. with a very limited section of the southwest coast of the Black Sea. the north. Sixteen its The Nile with is numerous branches excellent is represented. close of the 16th A to portolan atlas containing three charts. which. Chart two includes the entire Mediterranean. it appears on the extreme right. the lines being extended to the border of the chart. ANONYMOUS ATLAS. however. though not conspicuous. centre of a system. it Though unsigned and undated many features suggesting that it is the work The drafting is ber of the Oliva family. east. is not represented as the The 23.
CHART THREE OF ATLAS .20. DOMINICUS DE VALLARROEL. CIRCA 1590.
is Rocco probably the name of Compass lines and compass cards are lines. 24. in is clearly a double ing a narrow strip page chart from an atlas. Chart three represents the of the Europe and Africa from Holland to the mouth of Senegal River. and the Canary Islands. or as it appears on the chart as placed in the upper border. 16th century. the degrees of latitude are represented on a conspicuously drawn meridian line. represented with the usual system of crossing scale of miles is A upper corner on the right. the Azores. lines are arranged as on the other charts of the Two cities are represented in picture in France. is represented in the comer of the chart nearest Ireland. A It small parchment sheet of the sixteenth century. ' 3. three in Spain. the Madeira. two southwest. ANONYMOUS CHART. including the British Islands. Along the western. the pass roses are numerous. In the upper comer on the right the name Bagli " has been written. Along the border of the sheet. and There is a mountain range in France running north and south and one similarly represented in the African desert with a spur extending to the in Africa. 24 X 37 cm. size. Comatlas. In each of the four corners a scale of miles drawn with a half Atlantic coast border ornament. and one in an elaborate A scale of miles cartouche in Africa.coasts rocky promontories and sand is shoals. havattached on the right to give the " pages the requisite size. which a one-time owner. and outside the colored in the 67 drawn . and the crossing atlas.
VINCENTIUS DEMETRIUS VOLCIUS." probably that of a former possessor. The chart is not that of a careful. is a prominent representation of degrees of lati- tude. late 16th century. A chart of the late sixteenth century. are the only regional names recorded. expert workman. and " Barbaric " in northern Africa. Malta and Rhodes are covered the Knights of St. greatly reduced from original size.border. though the sheet considerably water-stained. 1600. though the nomenclature is Italian. especially for compass cards. with one com- pass rose. In the lower corner on the left is the name It in- " Bogali. 25. nor is it one of great scientific value. near it the inscribed name. Apparently its is it is a sheet from an atlas. A size. portolan chart dated 1600. but no cities flags or banners by miniatures. in In the upper corner on the 68 left is the author . The names are all legible. in size. coasts. suggests that is the work of a French draftsman. Color was liberally used. cludes the Tyrrhenian Sea with the adjacent coasts islands. being 46 x 85 cm. John. Asie " across Asia Minor. 26. nor are The chart includes the eastern Mediterranean " from the island of Sicily. The chart is not one of great importance. though numbers are not given. and and has the usual crossing lines. and along the with the cross of are distinguished represented. 18 x 19 cm. It is in a fair state of preservation. ANONYMOUS CHART. An ornamentation in the lower corner.
however.legend. The chart is remarkably clean and well preserved. has been crudely altered to 1505. A portolan chart of the year 1605. " Vinus demetrei Volcius Raehuseus Fecit in This chart is terra Liburni de 13 lanuari 1600. and slightly below the picture of the Virgin. and the date 1605. one of 1566. Apparently only two other charts of Baldasaro's are known. is the author legend. 1598. To the right. 1596. which border is omitted on the right. " Carta nauticatoria di e mano de fatta Baldasaro da Maiolo Giouan Antonio de Visconte neir anno 1605 in Genoua. and 1607. left." the year as here given having been also changed by the same hand. There are has compass or wind the roses. MAIOLO E VISCONTE." first here made known. having a considerable tongue extension on the and a narrow black border making an angle in the tongue extension. Giovan Antonio was likewise a member 69 of a famous family. In the tongue extension of the chart a re- presentation of the Virgin and Child. The centre of the circle in which the sixteen is crossing points appear five in southern Italy. which. 27. especially distinguished as chart- makers in the sixteenth century. 1605. In size it is is 58 X 81 cm. and on both the upper of miles and lower border a scale been inscribed. of which family Pietro Vesconte . Baldasaro was the last descendant of the famous Maiolo family of Genoa. but other portolan charts by Volcius which have been described bear dates 1593. and one of 1583. It includes the entire Mediterranean with the Atlantic coast from Cape Finisterre to Cape Bojador. 1601.
among which Genoa. first early 17th century. Islands. . In the upper corner on a somewhat faded representation of Christ on to the right of which. the coast of Africa to " rio doro. the Madeira. In its colors and nomenclature the chart is well pre- served. cities In all eighteen are so distinguished. "Joannes Oliva . the Islands. the Azores.was a member. in size. whose name appears on the oldest-known portolan chart bearing date. 51 the left is quarter of the seventeenth the cross. the Black Sea. Canary and the fabulous islands " Maida " and " Brazil. The of chart represents the Mediterranean." Colored groups of turrets with flying banners represent the larger cities. Compass cards are nmnerous. and in faint out- line a section of the Baltic and the southern extremity of Scandinavia. 28. is x 96 cm. The author was coming originally a member 70 of the from the Balearic and later . Venice." the British Islands. the inscription: fecit in civitate Liburni ano domini . the Atlantic coast Europe from Gibraltar to Holland. and Con- stantinople are especially conspicuous. the year having been erased. JOANNES OLIVA." —the numbers representing famous Oliva family. Portolan chart of the century. and somewhat below it. though the sheet has been slightly stained and torn in the margins. though not elaborate is in design: a very simple scale of miles represented on the upper and also on the lower border. Much care seems to have been exercised with reference to the insertion of the British Islands. a small section of the Red Sea.
. and in Palestine Golgotha in Catalan. from which the thirty-two lines radiate. Chios. or in Italian with with the three crosses. " Placitus Calviro et Olivia fecit in nobile urbe messana .. In Africa the river Nile drawn. and Malta the cross is is represented. The nomenclature distinct is Catalan forms. PLACITUS CALVIRO ET OLIVA. an interesting fact that those written in red are best preserved. The chart represents the Mediterranean and the Black Sea with a small section of the Atlantic coast from Lisbon to Cape Cantin.having its representatives in single many localities in Italy. Nine other his are parchment charts and two atlases of known.. but is somewhat jured along the edges. and as usual the names are in It is red and black. A ing scale of miles appears on the upper border. the central one being located on the island of Sicily. all Fifteen compass roses adorn the chart. recorded three times in a long wavis Latitude represented on a meridian cross- ing the chart east of the heel of the boot of Italy. The three continents is are designated by name. in size 53 x 100 cm. is the left in the tongue extension the author legend. in- The chart is very well executed. the chart here described being apparently hitherto unknown. and on is the lower the scale scroll. century.'JM 29. and in parts slightly faded. Over Rhodes. early 17th A On portolan chart of the early seventeenth century." Numerous charts 71 signed as here are . though not of the same design.
A large parchment chart of the early seventeenth cen- . the Cape Verde in Africa. with his appropriate shield. of Spain in the " West Mare Oceano numerous." " R. and palm banner. the Black Sea." R. " These represent Turc. especially in Africa." " R. including Fes.known." " Imperator. also Golgotha with the three Nillo. the Atlantic coast from Holland to a point near Islands. In the extension on Child. cities." " R." " R. de Francia. 72 early 17th century." " R. de Russia. de Ungaria. The date of this chart has been erased apparently with the thought of substituting another for the original. possessing no superior well scientific value." " " Gran Gran soldano di Babilonia. " Flume No less than twelve rulers appear " in their respective countries. de Alger. " two ocean monsters are There are many minia- represented. scribed. except on the right. de parts of the chart. ANONYMOUS CHART. each in full figure." and the Nile River. de Tunis. de Tripoh." " R." " R. British It is a chart elaborately ornamented. Degrees of latitude are represented on the left. de Maraco. trees are ture representations of each with its appropriate in- The three continental names have been crosses." R. de Spania. part of the North Sea. much faded. It is the left is a miniature of the Madonna and furnished with an elaborate border ornament. where this appears to have been cut away. with the Madeira and the Canary Islands. The chart includes the Mediterranean. though drawn and elaborately decorated. Various animals are to be seen in Africa. are very well preserved. 30." The purely geographical but the ornamentation is the coast lines and nomenclature.
The interior regions are left blank. and one compass rose has been inscribed." and " Angola." In Africa appear the " names "Marocho. The map is covered with a terest to the network of compass lines in which the usual portolan chart colors appear." " Francia. 77 x 93 cm."' "Benin. Plans et Jourla naux de Marine in Paris. inlets. On the right is represented the west coast of Portugal and Africa to the Cape of Good Hope. As the chart represents the territory of especial in- Dutch West India Company. in size. in which year that company was founded. it is probable that it was drawn for use on one of its ships. Amazon to the Rio de North America and the West Indies being is In the upper corner on the right an inset map containing the west coast of Europe with the British Islands as far north as 60° north latitude. but the harbors. Degrees of latitude are indicated which extend from 45° south to 43° north." "Guinea.tury." and " Hispania. It is unsigned but the general character of the draftsmanship and the brief inscrip- tion near the scale of miles reading." suggests that it had origin in the is Netherlands though in the main the nomenclature Portuguese. Later settlements in west Africa and Brazil are not represented." "Mandinga." " Gabon. A in the middle of the sheet indicates that the chart belonged to the Depot des Cartes. headlands. and on la the left the east coast of South of the America from the mouth Plata. and mouths of rivers are represented. and not long after the year 1621." " Gout Cust. " Duytsche Mylen 15 its voor een Graedt. suggesting that the map was stamp earlier intended for practical use on shipboard. On the inset map " appear the regional names " Yrlandt. omitted." Enge- landt." " Schotlandt." Loango." and 73 .
the sheet chart includes the western Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast regions from northern France to " Arguin '* in Africa." " "Piemonte. 1654.in the New World is " Brasilia " and " Terra dos Patos." " Costantina. It contains 1636." Oran." " Andaluzia." Navara." cities are Numerous represented in miniature with banners." all The chart remarkably well preserved and names are legible. In the upper corner on the left is the author legend. The The names inscribed for the larger areas are " Spania. De- grees of latitude are to the west of the marked on a hne crossing Madeira Islands. in size. A 1637. 1637. atlases Uzielli e Amat mention three charts and two by this author. in " Africa " Tunesi. name of the province or region in which the The provinces so distinguished are in Europe " Provenza. Jouan Batta CaualUni in Liuorno Ano 1637. 31. and one undated. and near each city is the lies." "Cartagena." " Maroco." " Catalognia." " Algieri. the names of the Atlantic islands being in red." " Valenzia." 74 . " portolan chart." Cavallini was a chart-maker of distinction of the city of Leghorn. A scale of miles appears in each drawn design. 1642." " Portogallo." " Africa. Italy." " Guascognia. of the year It is 42 X 58 cm. corner of the sheet within an elaborately and the chart is furnished with an artistic border." " Barbaria." "Castiglia. numerous compass roses well executed." " Gahzia. once part of an atlas. from each of which thirty-two lines radiate. four of which are dated respectively." " GaUia. JOUAN BATTISTA CAVALLINI." "Fesse." "Arguin. 1639." "Biscaia".
1 650. ANDREA EOCKLER.32. . GEORG. CHART TWO OF ATLAS.
chart is well preserved." author: it may be an inscription of a one-time owner. in parchment cover.The The elephant. Many and of his works are extant. however. and banners are miniature repre- numerous on each as cities. 32. chart. instead of the initial Each Flags are sheet has a scale of miles distinctly marked. the bear. We have here a fine illustration of the combination rose. and the east the Greek L. In the lower corner on the right of chart one This probably refers to the appears the legend. the eight of wind and compass winds being desig- nated in the central part of each compass card by appropriate initials. Andrea Bockler. the north. to the science of war and heraldry. Each sheet contains compass roses with the usual sixteen crossing points arranged about a central point. We the know that at Frankfort a/M. especially certain ones relating to architecture. Ingeineur Ffort. 1650. 1650. there is also an engraved map of his known representing biblical history. atlas of four portolan charts of the year 1650. about the middle of lived seventeenth century. GEORG. " Georg. An bound in size. The atlas appears to be a copy based wholly upon Italian sources of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. and closely resembles the work of the Ohva family. having the needle initial point in place of the T. each chart being 29 x 42 cm. ANDREA BOCKLER. there a distinguished architect and engineer by the name here given. u. and the unicorn are represented in Africa. Archt. sentations of the important The coast lines are 75 . cross.
but crossed with waving red lines. Five other are indicated manner. and in the extreme northwest " Frixlandia. and " lisbona " are marked with turreted Three cities. is The Red Sea has not The atlas is the usual solid red color.tiago. 2." 3. rivers. " ilia de The cities made prominent by " anvero. with the Medi- terranean coast as far as the meridian of Marseilles." " Ciudat de boxador." " granada. " S." " (Cairo) are Mont de Sinayi. line is Madeira and the Canary To the left of these islands a very conspicuous " S. though the point indicated at the north is " dansic "." are so distinguished in Chart two contains the west coast of Europe and first Africa from Holland to Cape Cantin." and Africa. chart Venice and On this Genoa are made especially cities prominent with picture and banner." and to the south of brasill. remarkably well preserved. as if to indicate the 1. 76 . mouths of streams or Chart one represents the Atlantic coast of the old world from Cape Finisterre to a point near the mouth of the Senegal. Chart three includes the Mediterranean from the north coast of Spain to the Gulf of Corinth. on this chart. buildings and banners." " Avignon." " lisbona.tiago " drawn on which degrees of latitude are indicated. Banners are particularly numerous " Gerussallem." colored miniatures " barsalona." this." and "babelonia" given special prominence." " valensia. including also the British Islands. including the Islands. juan." include " frixa." " S. in a similar 4. Chart four includes the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.composed of a series of short curves with numerous breaks. " Melli.
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