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DOCUMENT COVER SHEET

DESIGN BASIS REPORT FOR


INDIA PAVILION AT WORLD EXPO 2010, SHANGHAI
04 29/05/2009 Issued for Approval
Rev Date Description Checked By
CLIENT:- ITPO Approved By:-

ARCHITECT:- STUCTURAL CONSULTANTS :-


Sanjay Prakash & Associates Sanjay Prakash & Associates
Pradeep Sachdeva & Design Associates
NAME OF PROJECT:-
INDIA PAVILION AT WORLD EXPO 2010, SHANGHAI
SIGN DATE DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION SHEET
STATUS SIZE
DESIGNED BY: M.M.S. 14/12/2008 For Approval SHANGHAI A4
& N.P.
CHECKED Dr. Prem Krishna
BY
APPROVED BY: Dr.D.K. Paul DOC. NO. REV.NO. NO.OF
SHEETS
SPA/(Shanghai 04 8
Expo)/DBR/01

PROJECT: INDIA PAVILION AT SHANGHAI EXPO 2010.

DESIGN BASIS REPORT ON STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

A. BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

1. PROJECT DESCRIPTION:
11.1 Location: SHANGHAI
01.2 Type of Building: Dome (Composite structure: R.C.C. & Bamboo) & Steel frame
structure for shops/others with pre-cast ribbed roof slab.

2. STRUCTURAL DESIGN :
The main considerations followed for the design of structure are:
(a) Structural safety and stability.
(b) Demands of aesthetics conceived by the architect.
(c) Availability of material, equipment and expertise.
(d) Constructability and ease of maintenance.
(e) Durability.

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(f) Economy.
(g) Recyclability.

3. GENERAL STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT

3.1 Dome

The nearly hemispherical dome has a diameter of 34 m at the bottom. The


structure has 36 meridional rib segments at a maximum a/c spacing of 3 m at the
base, sitting on a RCC ring beam, and connected at the top to a 5.0 m dia. steel
ring. The section of the bottom RCC ring beam is 650 x 450 mm. This ring beam
is supported on 12 peripheral steel columns dividing it into 12 equal segments.
The dome structure comprises of a bamboo grid with both meridional and
circumferential members. In cross section, the meridional members each are
comprised of a bunch of six 100 mm dia. bamboos, and the circumferential ones
are a single 100 mm dia. bamboo @ 0.5 m c/c.
For the slab which forms the floor of the exhibit area under the dome, the
structure uses a steel frame with RCC pre-cast pre-stressed hollow slabs. Below
this are the stores, green room and equipment room.

3.2 Other Covered Area (Shops)

These are all single-storey structures using steel frames with RCC pre-cast pre-
stressed hollow slabs. The frame is fabricated so as to be assembled on site with
bolted connections. The main beams are equivalent of ISMB 500 (or 450), while
secondary beams are equivalent of ISMB 250 and columns ISHB 300.

3.3 Foundations

3.3. A. The site has poor quality soil. Hence, pile foundation is proposed for the structure.
In order to speed construction and allow for dismantling later, steel piles are
proposed; these are usual locally.

3.3. B. Survey done after the geo-tech report has revealed a subway influence zone on
the west side of the site which restricts digging in the south-west part of the site.
Hence isolated foundation is suggested in this area. So we go for isolated footings
only in grids 10 to 17 at G to U.

4. SPECIFICATIONS USED
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4.1 All the buildings have been designed as framed structures in accordance with the
relevant Indian Codes of Practice for civil works i.e. IS: 456-2000,, IS: 800-1984,
IS 875, IS 1893-2002, IS 4326-1976, IS -13920-1993, NBC 2005 and Expo
temporary building, live loads and settlement criteria for different types of footing
was taken from structure design standards (Chinese code).

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Wind and seismic loads have been taken to be those applicable to a similar
structure at Delhi. From personal enquiry it was established that for Shanghai
these loads will be considered as conservative.

5.0 LOADS CONSIDERED

The structure is analyzed for all possible combinations of loads i.e. gravity loads
(dead and live loads), earthquake load and wind loads. The vibration caused by a
small proposed wind turbine is not eccentric, low frequency, and isolated, so not
considered significant.

5.1 Dead Load:

The dead load on the structure includes all the permanent loads such as those of
the structural components.

The dead load thus comprises of the weight of all walls, partitions, floors, roofs
and also includes the weight of all other permanent constructions in the buildings
and shall conform to IS: 1911-Schedule of unit weights of buildings materials.

Unit weight of various materials used in the structural members is taken as


follows:

a. Water 1.0 T/cum


b. RCC 2.5 T/cum
c. Plaster 2.4 T/cum
d. Brickwork 2.0 T/cum
e. Soil 1.8 T/cum
f. Cinder/foam concrete filling 1.0 T/cum
g. Partition wall/Cubicles 1.5 T/cum
h. Bamboo 0.6 T/cum
i. Sheet Roofing materials 1.6 T/cum
j. Steel 7.85 T/cum
k. Sand 2.0 T/cum
l. Ferro-Cement 2.4 T/cum
m. Concrete pavers 2.4 T/cum
n. Foam Concrete 0.6 T/cum
o. Hollow precast slab 1.6 T/cum

Computation of Dead Load:

Shop Roofs:
Paver Blocks = 2.5 x 0.05 = 0.125 T/m2
Sand = 2.0 x .075 = 0.15 T/m2

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Water proofing plaster = 2.4 x 0.020 = 0.048 T/m2
Foam Concrete = 0.6 x 0.1 = 0.06 T/m2
Precast hollow slab 0.12 m thick = 1.6 x .12 = 0.192 T/m2
Miscellaneous = 0.1 T/cum

Total = 0.675 T/m2

Total load considered = 0.70 T/m2

Dome Roof:
Ferro-cement (40 mm thick) = 2.4 x .04 = 0.96 T/m2
Water proofing plaster (20 mm thick)= 2.4 x 0.020 = 0.048 T/m2
Uniform load for 150mm thk. planter tray = 1.8 x 0.15 = 0.27 T/m2
Miscellaneous (steel cables etc.) = 0.05 T/m2

Total = 0.464 T/m2

Total load considered = 0.50T/m2

Dome floor: Main Exhibit


Floor finish = 2.4 x 0.05 = 0.12T/m2
Screed = 2.4 x 0.05 = 0.12 T/m2
Precast hollow slab 0.12 m thick = 1.6 x .12 = 0.192 T/m2
Miscellaneous (seating etc.) = 0.05 T/m2

Total = 0.482 T/m2

Total load considered = 0.50T/m2

Wall load:
Load of 230mm thick brick wall = 0.46 T/m2
Load of 115mm thick brick wall = 0.23 T/m2

230mm Masonry wall


Floor ht. – Beam depth = 3.45 – 0.45 = 3.00 m
Load = 0.46 x 3.00 = 1.38 T/m

Total load considered = 1.4 T/m

115mm Masonry wall


Floor ht. – Beam depth = 3.450 – 0.45 = 3.00m
Load = 0.23 x 3.00 = 0.69 T/m

Total load considered = 0.7 T/m

Parapet wall load (0.85 m height) = 0.4 T/m

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5.2. a. Live Load:

Live loads on the entire floor shall comprise of all loads other than dead loads.
The minimum live loads on different occupancies have been considered as per
Table 1 of I S 875 (Part 2)-1987 (commercial buildings) as follows:

(a) Shop area & assembly area = 0.5 T / m2


(b) Corridors, passages, staircases including
fire escapes, lobbies, balconies, storage = 0.5 T / m2
(c) Dome surface (inclined roof) = 0.04 T / m2
5.3. b. Live loads on the entire floor shall comprise of all loads other than dead loads.
The minimum live loads on different occupancies have been considered as per
Table 2.5.1 of ‘Expo temporary building, structure design standards’ from
Shanghai, China as follows:

(a) Shop area & assembly area = 0.3 T / m2


(b) Corridors, passages, staircases including
fire escapes, lobbies, balconies, storage = 0.3 T / m2
(c) Dome surface (inclined roof) = 0.04 T / m2

5.3 Seismic Load:

Response spectrum method was used as per IS: 1893 (Part-1) 2002 with the
following data:
Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient = (Z x I x (Sa/g))/(2 x R)
Where (Sa/g) = Average response acceleration coefficient
Zone factor Z = 0.24 (zone IV).
Importance factor I = 1.0
Response reduction factor R =5.0

Ductile detailing is being done as per IS: 13920

5.4 Wind Load:

The wind load has been taken as per IS: 875 (Part-3)-1987 and wind pressure
calculation done as follows:
pz= 0.6 Vz2 N/sqm
Vz = K1 K2 K3 Vb
Where,
Vz =Design wind velocity
K1 =Probability factor or risk coefficient, taken as 0.71 from T- 1
K2=Terrain, height and structure size factor, category ‘1’ and class
‘B’ is taken as 1.07 from Table 2.

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K3 =Topography factor = 1.0
Vb =Basic wind speed = 47m/s

Thus pz = Design wind pressure = (0.71 x 1.07 x 47)2 x 0.6 N/m2


= 0.765 kN/m2

Wind load on structure is applied in STAAD model as member load on dome area
and as joint load on shop and others.

For the dome likewise, the external pressure coefficients (Cpe) are taken from
Table 25 of NBC of India (1983) and internal pressure co-efficient (Cpi) for
normal opening is taken as ± 0.2. Thus, total pressure co-efficient (Cpe + Cpi) are
taken for different positions of periphery by linear interpolation as follows:

POSITION OF Total pressure co-efficient


PERIPHERY (Cpe + Cpi)
0° 1.0 +0.20 = 1.20
6° 0.96 +0.20 =1.16
12° 0.92 +0.20 =1.12
………………………………….so on

60° -0.70 – 0.20 = -0.90


……………………………………
180° 0.40 + 0.20 = 0.60

For the cylindrical wall, the external pressure coefficients (Cpe) are taken from
Table 21 of NBC of India (1983) for H/D=1 and internal pressure co-efficient
(Cpi) for normal opening is taken as ± 0.2. Thus, total pressure co-efficient (Cpe
+ Cpi) are taken for different position of periphery by linear interpolation as
follows:

POSITION OF Total pressure co-efficient


PERIPHERY ( Cpe + Cpi )
0° 1.0 +0.20 = 1.20
6° 0.92 +0.20 =1.12
12° 0.84 +0.20 =1.04
………………………………….so on
60° -1.20 – 0.20 = -1.40
……………………………………
180° -0.40 – 0.20 = -0.60

6. Ductility and Durability:

Besides the strength, to ensure durability of structure, Concrete Mix M25 is used
for foundations, column (other than Dome), pre-cast slab & plinth beam and M35
grade concrete used for piles and pile cap. For static response of structure under

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seismic conditions, provisions as per IS:13920 have been adopted to ensure
adequate ductility of structure.

7. Analysis and Design:

7.1 A 3-dimensional model of structure is generated using STAAD-Pro software.

7.2 For seismic load evaluation response spectrum is used. Minimum base shear and
mass participation factor as per IS:1893-2002 is considered in the design.

8. Load Combinations:

1. For the design of steel members which are designed on the basis of the
working stress approach, the following load combinations are taken.

D.L. + L.L.
D.L. + W.L.
D.L. + L.L. + W.L.
D.L. + 0.5 L.L. ± Eq

33% increase in permissible stress is allowed when considering wind and seismic
forces.

2. For the design of concrete sections which are designed with the limit state
method, the following load combinations are taken:

1.5 (D.L. + L.L.)


1.2 (D.L. + L.L. + W.L.)
1.2 (D.L.) + W.L.)
1.2 (D.L. + 0.5 L.L. ± Eq)

9. Notations

D.L. = Dead Load


L.L. = Live Load
Eq = Earthquake Load in X-direction/Z-direction
W.L. = Wind Load in X-direction/Z-direction

10. Materials:

Concrete Grade:
Concrete mix of M25 conforming with IS:456 and CPWD specifications are used.

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Steel Reinforcement:
Fe 415 Grade (TMT - bars) conforming with IS:1786.
Structural Steel: Factory Rolled Mild Steel with yield stress = 308 MPa
Bamboo: Moso variety from China*

_____________________________________________________________________
* Properties deduced from the reference:
H.Q. Yu, Z.H. Ziang, C.W. Hse and T.F. Shupe, “Selected Physical and
Mechanical Properties of MOSO Bomboo”, Jnl. of Tropical Forest Science
20(4):258-263 (2008).

11 Design Standards :

All the relevant IS codes, Chinese codes & specifications are followed.

The main codes are as follows:


a) IS:875-1987(Part-I, II, III), Code of Practice for Design loads (other than
earthquake)
1b) IS:800-1984: Design of Structures using Steel.
2c) IS:456-2000, Code of practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
d) IS:1893-2002 Criteria for E/Q Resistant Design for Structure.
3e) IS:4326:1993 E/Q Resistant Design & Construction of Buildings.
f) IS:13920-1993 Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected
to Seismic Forces
g) SP:16 Design aids to IS:456
h) SP:34 Concrete Reinforcement & Detailing.

i) Expo temporary building, structure design standards (Chinese codes).