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1. Abbreviations 2. Introduction 3. Block Diagram 4. Block Diagram Description 5. Schematic 6. Schematic Description 7. Hardware Components 8. Circuit Description 9. Software components
a. About Kiel b. Embedded C

10. 11. 12. 13.

KEIL procedure description Conclusion (or) Synopsis Future Aspects Bibliography



Memory accelerometer module Vectored interrupt controller Fast interrupt request Pulse width modulation General purpose input/output
Universal asynchronous

receiver/transmitter DLAB LCR LSR RDR SPI ADC DAC SSP MOSI RTC EINT DTR AHB ATLE CTS RTS DSR RI Data latch access bit Line control register Line status register Receiver data ready Serial peripheral interface Analog to digital converter Digital to analog converter Synchronous serial port Master out slave in Real time clock External interrupt Data terminal ready Advanced high performance Auto transfer length extraction Clear to send Request to send Data set ready Ring indicator


An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few predefined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers are generally considered embedded devices because of the nature of their hardware design, even though they are more expandable in software terms. This line of definition continues to blur as devices expand. With the introduction of the OQO Model 2 with the Windows XP operating system and ports such as a USB port both features usually belong to "general purpose computers", the line of nomenclature blurs even more. Physically, embedded systems ranges from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. In terms of complexity embedded systems can range from very simple with a single microcontroller chip, to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.

Examples of Embedded Systems:

Avionics, missiles Cellular telephones and telephone switches Engine controllers and antilock brake controllers for automobiles Home automation products, such as thermostats, air conditioners, sprinklers, and security monitoring systems Handheld calculators Handheld computers Household appliances, including microwave ovens, washing such as inertial guidance systems, flight control hardware/software and other integrated systems in aircraft and

machines, television sets, DVD players and recorders Medical equipment Personal digital assistant Videogame consoles Computer peripherals such as routers and printers. Industrial controllers for remote machine operation.







Max 232


Block Diagram Explanation:

In this section we will be discussing about complete block diagram and its functional description of our project.
description about each block of the block diagram. And also brief

Micro controller:
In this project work the micro-controller is plays major role. Micro-controllers were originally used as components in complicated process-control systems. However, because of their small size and low price, Micro-controllers are now also being used in regulators for individual control loops. In several areas Microcontrollers are now outperforming their analog counterparts and are cheaper as well.

This section is meant for supplying Power to all the sections mentioned above. It basically consists of a Transformer to step down the 230V ac to 18V ac followed by diodes. Here diodes are used to rectify the ac to dc. After rectification the obtained rippled dc is filtered

using a capacitor Filter. A positive voltage regulator is used to regulate the obtained dc voltage. But here in this project two power supplies are used one is meant to supply operating voltage for Microcontroller and the other is to supply control voltage for Relays.

LCD Display Section:

This section is basically meant to show up the status of the project. This project makes use of Liquid Crystal Display to display / prompt for necessary information.

Here we are using GSM MODEM to communicate with the mobile phone to which we are going to send the message. When ever an authorized person wants to know the status of parameter or whenever parameters values increases above the threshold value then a message will be sent through modem.This fault is indicated by displaying in LCD. This project will facilitates us to monitor as well as control different parameters at a time which increase accuracy and speed.

Buzzer Section:
This section consists of a Buzzer. The buzzer is used to alert / indicate the completion of process. It is some times used to indicate the start of the embedded system by alerting during start-up.

Finger Print Scanner:

A fingerprint sensor is an electronic device used to capture a digital image of the fingerprint pattern. The captured image is called a live scan. This live scan is digitally processed to create a biometric template (a collection of extracted features) which is stored and used for matching. It supports wide range of fingerprint sensor interoperability giving you a freedom to select suitable sensor that most fits to your application.

Furthermore, the fingerprint data for enrollment and verification are compatible among different sensors, even if they are based on different technologies. ever before. This feature of unification presents application manufacturers and system integrators with much more flexibility than

This section acts as a backend database for the project. This section is realized using an EEPROM integrated circuit chip.

1. Micro Controllers(ARM-7) 2. Power Supply 3. GSM Modem 4. RFID TAG & READERS 5. LCD. 6. GPS 7. BUZZER 8. TEMPERATURE


ARM stands for Advanced RISC Machines. It is a 32 bit processor core, used for high end application. It is widely used in Advanced Robotic Applications.

History and Development:

ARM was developed at Acron Computers ltd of Cambridge, England between 1983 and 1985. RISC concept was introduced in 1980 at Stanford and Berkley. ARM ltd was found in 1990. ARM cores are licensed to partners so as to develop and fabricate new microcontrollers around same processor cores.

Key features:
1. 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package. 2. 8 kB to 40 kB of on-chip static RAM and 32 kB to 512 kB of on-chip flash memory. 128-bit wide interface/accelerator enables highspeed 60 MHz operation. 3. In-System Programming/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot loader software. Single flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1 ms. 4. EmbeddedICE RT and Embedded Trace interfaces offer real-time debugging with the on-chip RealMonitor software and high-speed tracing of instruction execution. 5. USB 2.0 Full-speed compliant device controller with 2 kB of endpoint RAM. In addition, the LPC2146/48 provides 8 kB of on-chip RAM accessible to USB by DMA. 6. One or two (LPC2141/42 vs. LPC2144/46/48) 10-bit ADCs provide a total of 6/14 analog inputs, with conversion times as low as 2.44 s per channel. 7. Single 10-bit DAC provides variable analog output (LPC2142/44/46/48 only). 8. Two 32-bit timers/external event counters (with four capture and four compare channels each), PWM unit (six outputs) and watchdog. 9. Low power Real-Time Clock (RTC) with independent power and 32 kHz clock input.


Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs (16C550), two

Fast I2C-bus (400 kbit/s), SPI and SSP with buffering and variable data length capabilities. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) with configurable priorities Up to 45 of 5 V tolerant fast general purpose I/O pins in a tiny Up to 21 external interrupt pins available. 60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable onOn-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down. Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions as well as Processor wake-up from Power-down mode via external Single power supply chip with POR and BOD circuits: CPU operating voltage range of 3.0 V to 3.6 V (3.3 V 10 %) and vector addresses. LQFP64 package.

chip PLL with settling time of 100 s. from 1 MHz to 25 MHz.

peripheral clock scaling for additional power optimization. interrupt or BOD.

with 5 V tolerant I/O pads.

Block diagram:

Pin description

Core Data path:

Architecture is characterized by Data path and control path. Data path is organized in such a way that, operands are not fetched directly from memory locations. Data items are placed in register files. No data processing takes place in memory locations. Instructions typically use 3 registers. 2 source registers and 1 destination register. Barrel Shifter preprocesses data, before it enters ALU.

- Barrel Shifter is basically a combinational logic circuit, which can shift data to left or right by arbitrary number of position in same cycle.

Increment or Decrement logic can update register content for sequential access.


In ARM 7, a 3 stage pipeline is used. A 3 stage pipeline is the simplest form of pipeline that does not suffer from the problems such as read before write. In a pipeline, when one instruction is executed, second instruction is decoded and third instruction will be fetched. This is executed in a single cycle.

Register Bank:

ARM 7 uses load and store Architecture. Data has to be moved from memory location to a central set of registers.

Data processing is done and is stored back into memory. Register bank contains, general purpose registers to hold either data or address. It is a bank of 16 user registers R0-R15 and 2 status registers. Each of these registers is 32 bit wide.

Data Registers- R0-R15:

R0-R12 - General Purpose Registers R13-R15 - Special function registers of which,

R13 - Stack Pointer, refers to entry pointer of Stack. R14 - Link Register, Return address is put to this when ever a subroutine is called. R15 - Program Counter Depending upon application R13 and R14 can also be used as GPR. But not commonly used.

In addition there are 2 status registers

CPSR - Current program status register, status of current execution is stored. SPSR - Saved program Status register, includes status of program as well as processor.

CPSR contains a number of flags which report and control the operation of ARM7 CPU.

Conditional Code Flags

N - Negative Result from ALU Z - Zero result from ALU C - ALU operation carried out V - ALU operation overflowed

Interrupt Enable Bits

I - IRQ, Interrupt Disable F - FIQ, Disable Fast Interrupt

T- Bit
If T=0, Processor in ARM Mode. T=1, Processor in THUMB Mode

Mode Bits
Specifies the processor Modes. Processor Modes will be discussed in the next part of this tutorial.

ARM features:
Barrel Shifter in data path that maximize the usage of hardware available on the chip. Auto increment and Auto decrement addressing modes to optimize program loop. This feature is not common in RISC architecture. Load and Store instruction to maximize data throughput. Conditional throughput. execution of instructions, to maximize execution

Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) Features:

ARM PrimeCell Vectored Interrupt Controller 32 interrupt request inputs 16 vectored IRQ interrupts 16 priority levels dynamically assigned to interrupt requests Software interrupt generation

The fastest possible FIQ latency is achieved when only one request is classified as FIQ, because then the FIQ service routine can simply start dealing with that device. But if more than one request is assigned to the FIQ class, the FIQ service routine can read a word from the VIC that identifies which FIQ source(s) is (are) requesting an Interrupt. Vectored IRQs have the middle priority, but only 16 of the 32 requests can be assigned to this category. Any of the 32 requests can be assigned to any of the 16 vectored IRQ slots, among which slot 0 has the highest priority and slot 15 has the lowest. Non-vectored IRQs have the lowest priority. The VIC ORs the requests from all the vectored and non-vectored IRQs to produce the IRQ signal to the ARM processor. The IRQ service routine can start by reading a register from the VIC and jumping there. If any of the vectored IRQs are requesting, the VIC provides the address of the highestpriority requesting IRQs service routine, otherwise it provides the address of a default routine that is shared by all the non-vectored IRQs. The default routine can read another VIC register to see what IRQs are active. All registers in the VIC are word registers. Byte and half word reads and write are not supported.

Register description:

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter 0: Features:

16 byte Receive and Transmit FIFOs Register locations conform to 550 industry standard Receiver FIFO trigger points at 1, 4, 8, and 14 bytes Built-in fractional baud rate generator with autobauding capabilities. Mechanism that enables software and hardware flow control implementation

Pin description:

Register description:


The VPB interface provides a communications link between the CPU or host and the UART0. The UART0 receiver block, U0RX, monitors the serial input line, RXD0, for valid input. The UART0 RX Shift Register (U0RSR) accepts valid characters via RXD0. After a valid character is assembled in the U0RSR, it is passed to the UART0 RX Buffer Register FIFO to await access by the CPU or host via the generic host interface. The UART0 transmitter block, U0TX, accepts data written by the CPU or host and buffers the data in the UART0 TX Holding Register FIFO (U0THR). The UART0 TX Shift Register (U0TSR) reads the data stored in the U0THR and assembles the data to transmit via the serial output pin, TXD0 the UART0 Baud Rate Generator block, U0BRG, generates the timing enables used by the UART0 TX block. The U0BRG clock input source is the VPB clock (PCLK). The main clock is divided down per the divisor specified in the U0DLL and U0DLM registers. This divided down clock is a 16x oversample clock, NBAUDOUT the interrupt interface contains registers U0IER and U0IIR. The interrupt interface receives several one clock wide enables from the U0TX and U0RX blocks status information from the U0TX and U0RX is stored in the U0LSR. Control information for the U0TX and U0RX is stored in the U0LCR

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter 1:

UART1 is identical to UART0, with the addition of a modem interface. 16 byte Receive and Transmit FIFOs Register locations conform to 550 industry standard Receiver FIFO trigger points at 1, 4, 8, and 14 bytes Built-in fractional baud rate generator with autobauding capabilities. Mechanism that enables software and hardware flow control implementation Standard modem interface signals included with flow control (autoCTS/RTS) fully supported in hardware (LPC2144/6/8 only).

Pin description:

Register description:

The VPB interface provides a communications link between the CPU or host and the UART1. The UART1 receiver block, U1RX, monitors the serial input line, RXD1, for valid input. The UART1 RX Shift Register (U1RSR) accepts valid characters via RXD1. After a valid character is assembled in the U1RSR, it is passed to the UART1 RX Buffer Register FIFO to await access by the CPU or host via the generic host interface the UART1 transmitter block, U1TX, accepts data written by the CPU or host and buffersvthe data in the UART1 TX Holding Register FIFO (U1THR). The

UART1 TX Shift Register (U1TSR) reads the data stored in the U1THR and

assembles the data to transmit via the serial output pin, TXD1. The UART1 Baud Rate Generator block, U1BRG, generates the timing enables used by the UART1 TX block. The U1BRG clock input source is the VPB clock (PCLK). The main clock is divided down per the divisor specified in the U1DLL and U1DLM registers. This divided down clock is a 16x oversample clock, NBAUDOUT The modem interface contains registers U1MCR and U1MSR. This interface is responsible for handshaking between a modem peripheral and the UART1 The interrupt interface contains registers U1IER and U1IIR. The interrupt interface receives several one clock wide enables from the U1TX and U1RX blocks. Status information from the U1TX and U1RX is stored in the U1LSR. Control information for the U1TX and U1RX is stored in the U1LCR.

Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC): Features:

10 bit successive approximation analog to digital converter (one in LPC2141/2 and two in LPC2144/6/8). Input multiplexing among 6 or 8 pins (ADC0 and ADC1). Power-down mode.

Burst conversion mode for single or multiple inputs. Optional conversion on transition on input pin or Timer Match signal. Global Start command for both converters (LPC2144/6/8 only).

Basic clocking for the A/D converters is provided by the VPB clock. A programmable divider is included in each converter, to scale this clock to the 4.5 MHz (max) clock needed by the successive approximation process. A fully accurate conversion requires 11 of these clocks.

Pin description:

Register description:

Operation: Hardware-triggered conversion:

If the BURST bit in the ADCR is 0 and the START field contains 010-111, the ADC will start a conversion when a transition occurs on a selected pin or Timer Match signal. Th choices include conversion on a specified edge of any of 4 Match signals, or conversion on a specified edge of either of 2

Capture/Match pins. The pin state from the selected pad or the selected Match signal, XORed with ADCR bit 27, is used in the edge detection logic.

An interrupt request is asserted to the Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) when the DONE bit is 1. Software can use the Interrupt Enable bit for the A/D Converter in the VIC to control whether this assertion results in an interrupt. DONE is negated when the ADDR is read.

Accuracy vs. digital receiver:

The AIN function must be selected in corresponding Pin Select register (see "Pin Connect Block" on page 75) in order to get accurate voltage readings on the monitored pin. For pin hosting an ADC input, it is not possible to have a have a digital function selected and yet get valid ADC readings. An inside circuit disconnects ADC hardware from the associated pin whenever a digital function is selected on that pin.

Real Time Clock

Measures the passage of time to maintain a calendar and clock. Ultra Low Power design to support battery powered systems Provides Seconds, Minutes, Hours, Day of Month, Month, Year, Day of Week, and Day of Year Dedicated 32 kHz oscillator or programmable prescaler from VPB clock. Dedicated power supply pin can be connected to a battery or to the main 3.3 V

on, and optionally when it is off. It uses little power in Power-down mode. On the LPC2141/2/4/6/8, the RTC can be clocked by a separate 32.768 KHz oscillator, or by a programmable prescale divider based on the VPB clock. Also, the RTC is powered by its , which can be connected to a battery or to the same 3.3 V supply used by the rest of the device.


Register description:
The RTC includes a number of registers. The address space is split into four sections by functionality.The first eight addresses are the Miscellaneous Register Group(Section 19.4.2). The second set of eight locations are the Time Counter Group(Section 19.4.12). The third set of eight locations contain the Alarm Register Group(Section 19.4.14). The remaining registers control the Reference Clock Divider. The Real Time Clock includes the register shown in Table 263. Detailed descriptions of the registers follow.

RTC interrupts:
Interrupt generation is controlled through the Interrupt Location Register (ILR), Counter Increment Interrupt Register (CIIR), the alarm registers, and the Alarm Mask Register (AMR). Interrupts are generated only by the transition into the interrupt state. The ILR separately enables CIIR and AMR interrupts. Each bit in CIIR corresponds to one of the time counters. If CIIR is enabled for a particular counter, then every time the counter is Incremented an interrupt is generated. The alarm registers allow the user to specify a date and time for an interrupt to be generated. The AMR

provides a mechanism to mask alarm Compares. If all nonmasked alarm registers match the value in their corresponding time counter, then an interrupt is generated. The RTC interrupt can bring the microcontroller out of power-down mode if the RTC is operating from its own oscillator on the RTCX1-2 pins. When the RTC interrupt is enabled for wakeup and its selected event occurs, XTAL1/2 pins associated oscillator wakeup cycle is started

Miscellaneous register group:

Interrupt Location Register (ILR - 0xE002 4000):

The Interrupt Location Register is a 2-bit register that specifies which blocks are generating an interrupt (see Table 265). Writing a one to the appropriate bit clears the

Clock Tick Counter Register (CTCR - 0xE002 4004):

The Clock Tick Counter is read only. It can be reset to zero through the Clock Control Register (CCR). The CTC consists of the bits of the clock divider counter


An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.

What is GSM
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a set of ETSI standards specifying the infrastructure for a digital cellular service. The standard is used in approx. 85 countries in the world including such locations as Europe, Japan and Australia1.

GSM Call Routing Mobile Subscriber Roaming

When a mobile subscriber roams into a new location area (new VLR), the VLR automatically determines that it must update the HLR with the new location information, which it does using an SS7 Location Update Request Message. The Location Update Message is routed to the HLR through the SS7 network, based on the global title translation of the IMSI that is stored within the SCCP Called Party Address portion of the message. The HLR responds with a message that informs the VLR whether the subscriber should be provided service in the new location.

Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) Call Routing

When a user dials a GSM mobile subscriber's MSISDN, the PSTN routes the call to the Home MSC based on the dialed telephone number. The MSC

must then query the HLR based on the MSISDN, to attain routing information required to route the call to the subscribers' current location. The MSC stores global title translation tables that are used to determine the HLR associated with the MSISDN. When only one HLR exists, the translation tables are trivial. When more than one HLR is used however, the translations become extremely challenging; with one translation record per subscriber (see the example below). Having determined the appropriate HLR address, the MSC sends a Routing Information Request to it. When the HLR receives the Routing Information Request, it maps the MSISDN to the IMSI, and ascertains the subscribers' profile including the current VLR at which the subscriber is registered. The HLR then queries the VLR for a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN). The MSRN is essentially an ISDN telephone number at which the mobile subscriber can currently be reached. The MSRN is a temporary number that is valid only for the duration of a single call. The HLR generates a response message, which includes the MSRN, and sends it back across the SS7 network to the MSC. Finally, the MSC attempts to complete the call using the MSRN provided

GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephone system that is widely used in many parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. GSM operates in the 900MHz, 1800MHz, or 1900 MHz frequency bands. GSM has been the backbone of the phenomenal success in mobile telecoms over the last decade. Now, at the dawn of the era of true broadband services, GSM continues to evolve to meet new demands. One of GSM's great strengths is its international roaming capability, giving consumers a seamless service. This has been a vital driver in growth, with around 300 million. In the Americas, today's 7 million subscribers are set to grow rapidly, with market potential of 500 million in population, due to the introduction of GSM 800, which allows operators using the 800 MHz band to have access to GSM technology too.

GSM security issues such as theft of service, privacy, and legal interception continue to raise significant interest in the GSM community. The purpose of this portal is to raise awareness of these issues with GSM security.

The mobile communications has become one of the driving forces of the digital revolution. Everyday, millions of people are making phone calls by pressing a few buttons. Little is known about how one person's voice reaches the other person's phone that is thousands of miles away. Even less is known about the security measures and protection behind the system. The complexity of the cell phone is increasing as people begin sending text messages and digital pictures to their friends and family. The cell phone is slowly turning into a handheld computer. All the features and advancements in cell phone technology require a backbone to support it. The system has to provide security and the capability for growth to accommodate future enhancements. General System for Mobile Communications, GSM, is one of the many solutions out there. GSM has been dubbed the "Wireless Revolution" and it doesn't take much to realize why GSM provides a secure and confidential method of communication. Digital containers offer an alternative way of securely delivering content to consumers. They can offer many advantages, particularly for content delivery over mobile phone networks: Scalability Micro transactions /Micro payments compatibility Content channel

neutrality (heterogeneous networks, unicast /multicast/broadcast etc) Possibility of DRM Consumer anonymity Etc.

GSM Modems
A GSM modem can be an external modem device, such as the Wavecom FASTRACK Modem. Insert a GSM SIM card into this modem, and connect the modem to an available serial port on your computer. A GSM modem can be a PC Card installed in a notebook computer, such as the Nokia Card Phone. A GSM modem could also be a standard GSM mobile phone with the appropriate cable and software driver to connect to a serial port on your computer. Phones such as the Nokia 7110 with a DLR-3 cable, or various Ericsson phones, are often used for this purpose. A dedicated GSM modem (external or PC Card) is usually preferable to a GSM mobile phone. This is because of some compatibility issues that can exist with mobile phones. For example, if you wish to be able to receive inbound MMS messages with your gateway, and you are using a mobile phone as your modem, you must utilize a mobile phone that does not support WAP push or MMS. modem interface. This is because the mobile phone automatically processes these messages, without forwarding them via the Similarly some mobile phones will not allow you to correctly receive SMS text messages longer than 160 bytes (known as concatenated SMS or long SMS). This is because these long messages are actually sent as separate SMS messages, and the phone attempts to reassemble the message before forwarding via the modem interface. (Weve observed this latter problem utilizing the Ericsson R380, while it does not appear to be a problem with many other Ericsson models.) When you install your GSM modem, or connect your GSM mobile phone to the computer, be sure to install the appropriate Windows modem driver from the device manufacturer. To simplify configuration, the Now SMS/MMS Gateway will communicate with the device via this driver. An additional benefit of utilizing this driver is that you can use Windows

diagnostics to ensure that the modem is communicating properly with the computer. The Now SMS/MMS gateway can simultaneously support multiple

modems, provided that your computer hardware has the available communications port resources.

Fig:16 GSM smart modem


Analogics GSM Smart Modem is a multi-functional, ready to use, rugged and versatile modem that can be embedded or plugged into any application. The Smart Modem can be customized to various applications by using the standard AT commands. The modem is fully type-approved and can directly be integrated into your projects with any or all the features of Voice, Data, Fax, SMS, and Internet etc. Smart Modem kit contain the following items: Analogics GSM/GPRS Smart Modem SMPS based power supply adapter. 3 dBi antenna with cable (optional: other types) Data cable (RS232) User Manual

The connectors integrated to the body, guarantee the reliable output and input connections. An extractible holder is used to insert the SIM card (Micro-SIM type). Status LED indicates the operating mode.

Fig 17: Block diagram of modem with key connections

Physical Characteristics
Dimensions Weight Housing 100 x 78 x 32 mm (excluding connectors) 125 grams Aluminum Profiled

Temperature Range:
Operating temperature: from -200C to +550C Storage temperature: from -250C to +700C

Fig 18: Internal diagram of GSM modem

Installing the modem:

To install the modem, plug the device on to the supplied SMPS Adapter. For Automotive applications fix the modem permanently using the mounting slots (optional as per your requirement dimensions).

Inserting/ Removing the SIM Card:

To insert or Remove the SIM Card, it is necessary to press the SIM holder ejector button with Sharp edged object like a pen or a needle. With this, the SIM holder comes out a little, then pulls it out and insert or remove the SIM Card

Fig 19: Inserting/Removing the sim card into the modem

Make sure that the ejector is pushed out completely before accessing the SIM Card holder do not remove the SIM card holder by force or tamper it (it may permanently damage). Place the SIM Card Properly as per the

direction of the installation. It is very important that the SIM is placed in the right direction for its proper working condition

Connecting External Antenna:

Connect GSM Smart Modem to the external antenna with cable end with SMA male. The Frequency of the antenna may be GSM 900/1800 MHz. The antenna may be ( 0 dbi, 3 dbi or short length L-type antenna) as per the field conditions and signal conditions.

DC Supply Connection
The Modem will automatically turn ON when connection is given to it. The following is the Power Supply Requirement:

Parameters Supply Voltage Peak Current at 5 V supply Average Current at 5 V supply in idle Mode Average Current at 5 V supply in idle Mode and RS232 Power Saving Activated


Avg 9V

Max 12 V 1.8 A (during transmission) 35 mA 13 mA

Connecting Modem to external devices:

RS232 can be used to connect to the external device through the D-SUB/ USB (for USB model only) device that is provided in the modem.


Connector SMA 15 pin or 9 pin D-SUB (optional)

Function RF Antenna connector USB RS232 link Audio link (only for 15 D-SUB) Reset (only for 15 DSUB) USB communication port (optional)

2 pin Phoenix


Power Supply Connector SIM Card Connection Audio link connection Simple hand set (4 wire) 2 wire

SIM Connector RJ11 (For 9 D-SUB and USB only)

desktop phone connection

Description of the interfaces:

The modem comprises several interfaces: LED Function including operating Status External antenna (via SMA) Serial and control link Power Supply (Via 2 pin Phoenix SIM card holder


LED Status Indicator:

The LED will indicate different status of the modem:

OFF ON Flashing Slowly Flashing rapidly

Modem Switched off Modem is connecting to the network Modem is in idle mode Modem is in transmission/communication (GSM only)

9 - PIN D-SUB Female Connector

PIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NAME X None TX Rx DSR GND DTR CTS RTS X None Designation NC Transmit Data Receive Data Data Set Ready Ground Data Terminal Ready Clear to send Request to send NC Type NC Input Output Output Ground Input Output Input NC

Protecting Modem:
Do not expose to the modem to extreme conditions such as High temperatures, direct sunlight, High Humidity, Rain, Chemicals, Water, Dust etc. For these details see the specifications given. Do not drop, Shake or hit the Modem. (Warranty may void) The Modem should not be used in extreme vibrating conditions Handle the Antenna and cable with care.

AT commands features: Line settings:

A serial link handler is set with the following default values Autobaud, 8 bits data, 1 stop bit, no parity, flow control.

Command line
Commands always start with AT (which means attention) and finish with a <CR> character.

Information responses and result codes

Responses start and end with <CR><LF>,. If command syntax is incorrect, an ERROR string is returned. If command syntax is correct but with some incorrect parameters, the +CME ERROR: <Err> or +CMS ERROR: <SmsErr> strings are returned with different error codes. If the command line has been performed successfully, an OK string is returned. In some cases, such as AT+CPIN? or (unsolicited) incoming events, the product does not return the OK string as a response.

Services provided by GSM

GSM was designed having interoperability with ISDN in mind, and the services provided by GSM are a subset of the standard ISDN services. Speech is the most basic, and most important, teleservice provided by GSM. In addition, various data services are supported, with user bit rates up to 9600 bps. Specially equipped GSM terminals can connect with PSTN, ISDN, Packet Switched and Circuit Switched Public Data Networks, through several possible methods, using synchronous or asynchronous transmission. Also supported are Group 3 facsimile service, videotex, and teletex. Other GSM services include a cell broadcast service, where messages such as traffic reports, are broadcast to users in particular cells.

A service unique to GSM, the Short Message Service, allows users to send and receive point-to-point alphanumeric messages up to a few tens of bytes. It is similar to paging services, but much more comprehensive, allowing bi-directional messages, store-and-forward delivery, and acknowledgement of successful delivery. Supplementary services enhance the set of basic teleservices. In the Phase I specifications, supplementary services include variations of call forwarding and call barring, such as Call Forward on Busy or Barring of Outgoing International Calls. Many more supplementary services, including multiparty calls, advice of charge, call waiting, and calling line identification presentation will be offered in the Phase 2 specifications.

Architecture of the GSM network

A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure 1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. Not shown are the Operations A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure 1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. Subscriber carries the Mobile Station. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. Not shown is the Operations intendance Center,

which oversees the proper operation and setup of the network. The Mobile Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio link. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the Mobile services Switching Center across the A interface.

Fig 20: General architecture of a GSM network

Mobile Station:
The mobile station (MS) consists of the mobile equipment (the terminal) and a smart card called the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The SIM provides personal mobility, so that the user can have access to subscribed services irrespective of a specific terminal. By inserting the SIM card into another GSM terminal, the user is able to receive calls at that terminal, make calls from that terminal, and receive other subscribed services. The mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The SIM card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system, a secret key for authentication, and other information. The IMEI and the IMSI are independent, thereby allowing personal mobility. The SIM card may be

protected against unauthorized use by a password or personal identity number.

Base Station Subsystem:

The Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts, the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station Controller (BSC). These communicate across the standardized Abis interface, allowing (as in the rest of the system) operation between components made by different suppliers. The Base Transceiver Station houses the radio transceivers that define a cell and handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. In a large urban area, there will potentially be a large number of BTSs deployed, thus the requirements for a BTS are ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost. The Base Station Controller manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio-channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers, as described below. The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC).

Network Subsystem
The central component of the Network Subsystem is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC). It acts like a normal switching node of the PSTN or ISDN, and additionally provides all the functionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers, and call routing to a roaming subscriber. These services are provided in conjunction with several functional entities, which together form the Network Subsystem. The MSC provides the connection to the fixed networks (such as the PSTN or ISDN). Signalling between functional entities in the Network Subsystem uses Signalling System Number 7 (SS7), used for trunk signalling in ISDN and widely used in current public networks.

The Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR), together with the MSC, provide the call-routing and roaming capabilities of GSM. The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network, along with the current location of the mobile. The location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signaling address of the VLR associated with the mobile as a distributed database station. The actual routing procedure will be described later. There is logically one HLR per GSM network, although it may be implemented The Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains selected administrative information from the HLR, necessary for call control and provision of the subscribed services, for each mobile currently located in the geographical area controlled by the VLR. Although each functional entity can be implemented as an independent unit, all manufacturers of switching equipment to date implement the VLR together with the MSC, so that the geographical area controlled by the MSC corresponds to that controlled by the VLR, thus simplifying the signalling required. The other two registers are used for authentication and security purposes. The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network, where each mobile station is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). An IMEI is marked as invalid if it has been reported stolen or is not type approved. The Authentication Center (AuC) is a protected database that stores a copy of the secret key stored in each subscriber's SIM card, which is used for authentication and encryption over the radio channel.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Liquid crystal displays (LCD s) have materials which combine the properties of both liquids and crystals. Rather than having a melting point, they have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as

mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal. An LCD consists of two glass panels, with the liquid crystal material sand witched in between them. The inner surface of the glass plates are coated with transparent electrodes which define the character, symbols or patterns to be displayed polymeric layers are present in between the electrodes and the liquid crystal, which makes the liquid crystal molecules to maintain a defined orientation angle. One each polarisers are pasted outside the two glass panels. These polarisers would rotate the light rays passing through them to a definite angle, in a particular direction When the LCD is in the off state, light rays are rotated by the two polarisers and the liquid crystal, such that the light rays come out of the LCD without any orientation, and hence the LCD appears transparent. When sufficient voltage is applied to the electrodes, the liquid crystal molecules would be aligned in a specific direction. The light rays passing through the LCD would be rotated by the polarisers, which would result in activating / highlighting the desired characters. The LCDs are lightweight with only a few millimeters thickness. Since the LCDs consume less power, they are compatible with low power electronic circuits, and can be powered for long durations. The LCD s wont generate light and so light is needed to read the display. By using backlighting, reading is possible in the dark. The LCDs have long life and a wide operating temperature range. Changing the display size or the layout size is relatively simple which makes the LCDs more customer friendly. The LCD s used exclusively in watches, calculators and measuring instruments is the simple seven-segment displays, having a limited amount of numeric data. The recent advances in technology have resulted

in better legibility, more information displaying capability and a wider temperature range. These have resulted in the LCD s being extensively used in telecommunications and entertainment electronics. The LCD s has even started replacing the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used for the display of text and graphics, and also in small TV applications.

LCD operation
In recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED s (sevensegment LED or other multi segment LED s). This is due to the following reasons: 1. The declining prices of LCD s. 2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contract to LED s, which are limited to numbers and a few characters. 3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, there by relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In the contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

LCD pin description

The LCD discussed in this section has 14 pins. The function of each pin is given in table.

TABLE 1: Pin description for LCD:

1 2

Vss Vcc


Ground +5V supply power



Power supply to control contrast


RS=0 register




RS=1 to select data register 5 R/W I R/W=0 for write R/W=1 for read 6 7 E DB0 I/O I/O Enable The bus 8 DB1 I/O The bus 9 DB2 I/O The bus 10 DB3 I/O The bus 11 DB4 I/O The bus 12 DB5 I/O The bus 13 DB6 I/O The bus 14 DB7 I/O The bus 8-bit data 8-bit data 8-bit data 8-bit data 8-bit data 8-bit data 8-bit data 8-bit data

TABLE 2: LCD Command Codes Code (hex) Command to LCD Instruction Register

1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38

Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor Increment cursor Shift display right Shift display left Display off, cursor off Display off, cursor on Display on, cursor off Display on, cursor on Display on, cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix

The LCDs used exclusively in watches, calculators and measuring instruments are the simple seven-segment displays, having a limited amount of numeric data. The recent advances in technology have resulted in better legibility, more information displaying capability and a wider

temperature range. These have resulted in the LCDs being extensively used in telecommunications and entertainment electronics. The LCDs have even started replacing the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used for the display of text and graphics, and also in small TV applications.


Sending commands and data to LCDs with a time delay:

To send any command from table 2 to the LCD, make pin RS=0. For data, make RS=1.Then place a high to low pulse on the E pin to enable the internal latch of the LCD.


The "Piezoelectric sound components" introduced herein operate on an innovative principle utilizing natural oscillation of piezoelectric ceramics. These buzzers are offered in lightweight compact sizes from the smallest diameter of 12mm to large Piezo electric sounders. Today, piezoelectric

sound components are used in many ways such as home appliances, OA equipment, audio equipment telephones, etc. And they are applied widely, for example, in alarms, speakers, telephone ringers, receivers, transmitters, beep sounds, etc.

FIG: Types of Buzzers

Oscillating System:

Basically, the sound source of a piezoelectric sound component is a piezoelectric diaphragm. A piezoelectric diaphragm consists of a piezoelectric ceramic plate which has electrodes on both sides and a metal plate (brass or stainless steel, etc.). A piezoelectric ceramic plate is attached to a metal plate with adhesives. Fig. 2 shows the oscillating system of a piezoelectric diaphragm. Applying D.C. voltage between electrodes of a piezoelectric diaphragm causes mechanical distortion due to the piezoelectric effect. For a misshaped piezoelectric element, the distortion of the piezoelectric element expands in a radial direction. And the piezoelectric diaphragm bends toward the direction shown in Fig.2 (a).

The metal plate bonded to the piezoelectric element does not expand. Conversely, when the piezoelectric element shrinks, the piezoelectric diaphragm bends in the direction shown in Fig.2 (b). Thus, when AC voltage is applied across electrodes, the bending shown in Fig.2 (a) and Fig.2 (b) is repeated as shown in Fig.2 (c), producing sound waves in the air.

In general, man's audible frequency range is about 20 Hz to 20kHz. Frequency ranges of 2kHz to 4kHz are most easily heard. For this reason,

most piezoelectric sound components are used in this frequency range, and the resonant frequency (f0) is generally selected in the same range too. As shown in Fig. 3, the resonant frequency depends on methods used to support the piezoelectric diaphragm. If piezoelectric diaphragms are of the same shape, their values will become smaller in the order of (a), (b) and (c).

In general, the piezoelectric diaphragm is installed in a cavity to produce high sound pressure. The resonant frequency (fcav) of the cavity in is obtained from Formula (1) (Helmholtz's Formula). Since the piezoelectric diaphragm and cavity have proper resonant frequencies, (f0) and (fcav) respectively, sound pressure in specific frequencies can be increased and a specific bandwidth can be provided by controlling both positions.


EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced e-e-prom or simply e-squared), which stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable ReadOnly Memory, is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store small amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed, e.g., calibration tables or device configuration. When larger amounts of more static data are to be stored (such as in USB flash drives) other memory types like flash memory are more economical. EEPROMs are realized as arrays of floating-gate transistors.

In 1983, Greek American George Perlegos at Intel developed the Intel 2816, which was built on earlier EPROM technology, but used a thin gate oxide layer so that the chip could erase its own bits without requiring a UV source. Perlegos and others later left Intel to form Seeq Technology, which used on-device charge pumps to supply the high voltages necessary for programming EEPROMs.

Functions of EEPROM
There are different types of electrical interfaces to EEPROM devices. Main categories of these interface types are :

Serial bus Parallel bus

How the device is operated depends on the electrical interface.

Serial bus devices

Most common serial interface types are SPI, IC and 1-Wire. These three interfaces require between 2 and 4 controls signals for operation, resulting in a memory device in an 8 pin (or less) package.

The serial EEPROM typically operates in three phases: OP-Code Phase, Address Phase and Data Phase. The OP-Code is usually the first 8bits input to the serial input pin of the EEPROM device (or with most IC devices, is implicit); followed by 8 to 24 bits of addressing depending on the depth of the device, then data to be read or written. Each EEPROM device typically has its own set of OP-Code instructions to map to different functions. Some of the common operations on SPI EEPROM devices are:

Write Enable (WREN) Write Disable (WRDI) Read Status Register (RDSR) Write Status Register (WRSR) Read Data (READ) Write Data (WRITE)

Other operations supported by some EEPROM devices are:

Program Sector Erase Chip Erase commands

Parallel bus devices

Parallel EEPROM devices typically have an 8-bit data bus and an address bus wide enough to cover the complete memory. Most devices have chip select and write protect pins. Some microcontrollers also have integrated parallel EEPROM. Operation of a parallel EEPROM is simple and fast when compared to serial EEPROM, but these devices are larger due to the higher pin count (up to 32 pins or more) and have been decreasing in popularity in favor of serial EEPROM or Flash.

Failure modes
There are two limitations of stored information; endurance, and data retention. During rewrites, the gate oxide in the floating-gate transistors gradually accumulates trapped electrons. The electric field of the trapped electrons adds to the electrons in the floating gate, lowering the window between threshold voltages for zeros vs ones. After sufficient number of rewrite cycles, the difference becomes too small to be recognizable, the cell is stuck more. During storage, the electrons injected into the floating gate may drift through the insulator, especially at increased temperature, and cause charge loss, reverting the cell into erased state. The manufacturers usually guarantee data retention of 10 years or more. in programmed state, and endurance failure occurs. The manufacturers usually specify minimal number of rewrites being 10 6 or

Related types
Flash memory is a later form of EEPROM. In the industry, there is a convention to reserve the term EEPROM to byte-wise writeable memories compared to block-wise writable flash memories. EEPROM takes more die area than flash memory for the same capacity because each cell usually needs both a read, write and erase transistor, while in flash memory the erase circuits are shared by large blocks of cells (often 5128). Newer non-volatile memory technologies such as FeRAM and MRAM are slowly replacing EEPROMs in some applications, but are expected to remain a small fraction of the EEPROM market for the foreseeable future.

Comparison with EPROM and EEPROM/Flash

The difference between EPROM and EEPROM lies in the way that the memory programs and erases. EEPROM can be programmed and erased electrically using field emission (more commonly known in the industry as "Fowler-Nordheim tunneling").

EPROMs can't be erased electrically, and are programmed via hot carrier injection onto the floating gate. Erase is via an ultraviolet light source, although in practice many EPROMs are encapsulated in plastic that is opaque to UV light, and are "one-time programmable". Most NOR Flash memory is a hybrid styleprogramming is through Hot carrier injection and erase is through Fowler-Nordheim tunneling.

The MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package contains the necessary drivers (two) and receivers (also two), to adapt the RS-232 signal voltage levels to TTL logic. It became popular, because it just needs one voltage (+5V) and generates the necessary RS-232 voltage levels (approx. -10V and +10V) internally. This greatly simplified the design of circuitry. Circuitry designers no longer need to design and build a power supply with three voltages (e.g. -12V, +5V, and +12V), but could just provide one +5V power supply, e.g. with the help of a simple 78x05 voltage converter. The MAX232 has a successor, the MAX232 A. The ICs are almost identical, however, the MAX232A is much more often used (and easier to get) than the original MAX232, and the MAX232A only needs external capacitors 1/10th the capacity of what the original MAX232 needs. It should be noted that the MAX 232(A) is just a driver/receiver. It does not generate the necessary RS-232 sequence of marks and spaces with the right timing, it does not decode the RS-232 signal, it does not provide a serial/parallel conversion. All it does is to convert signal voltage levels. Generating serial data with the right timing and decoding serial data has to be done by additional circuitry, e.g. by a 16550 UART or one of these small micro controllers (e.g. Atmel AVR, Microchip PIC) getting more and more popular. The MAX232 and MAX232A were once rather expensive ICs, but today they are cheap. It has also helped that many companies now produce

clones (ie. Sipex). These clones sometimes need different external circuitry, e.g. the capacities of the external capacitors vary. It is recommended to check the data sheet of the particular manufacturer of an IC instead of relying on Maxim's original data sheet. The original manufacturer (and now some clone manufacturers, too) offers a large series of similar ICs, with different numbers of receivers and drivers, voltages, built-in or external capacitors, etc. E.g. The MAX232 and MAX232A need external capacitors for the internal voltage pump, while the MAX233 has these capacitors built-in. The MAX233 is also between three and ten times more expensive in electronic shops than the MAX232A because of its internal capacitors. It is also more difficult to get the MAX233 than the garden variety MAX232A.

A Typical Application
The MAX 232(A) has two receivers (converts from RS-232 to TTL voltage levels) and two drivers (converts from TTL logic to RS-232 voltage levels). This means only two of the RS-232 signals can be converted in each direction. The old MC1488/1498 combo provided four drivers and receivers. Typically a pair of a driver/receiver of the MAX232 is used for

TX and RX

And the second one for

CTS and RTS.

There are not enough drivers/receivers in the MAX232 to also connect the DTR, DSR, and DCD signals. Usually these signals can be omitted when e.g. communicating with a PC's serial interface. If the DTE really requires these signals either a second MAX232 is needed, or some other IC from the MAX232 family can be used (if it can be found in consumer electronic shops at all). An alternative for DTR/DSR is also given below.

Maxim's data sheet explains the MAX232 family in great detail, including the pin configuration and how to connect such an IC to external circuitry. This information can be used as-is in own design to get a working RS-232 interface. Maxim's data just misses one critical piece of information: How exactly to connect the RS-232 signals to the IC. So here is one possible example:
MAX232 to RS232 DB9 Connection as a DCE MAX232 Pin Nbr. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MAX232 Pin Name T2out R2in R2out T2in T1in R1out R1in T1out GND Signa Voltag l e CTS RTS RTS CTS TX RX TX RX GND RS-232 RS-232 TTL TTL TTL TTL RS-232 RS-232 0 DB9 Pin 7 8 n/a n/a n/a n/a 3 2 5

In addition one can directly wire DTR (DB9 pin 4) to DSR (DB9 pin 6) without going through any circuitry. This gives automatic (brain dead) DSR acknowledgment of an incoming DTR signal. Sometimes pin 6 of the MAX232 is hard wired to DCD (DB9 pin 1). This is not recommended. Pin 6 is the raw output of the voltage pump and inverter for the -10V voltage. Drawing currents from the pin leads to a

rapid breakdown of the voltage, and as a consequence to a breakdown of the output voltage of the two RS-232 drivers. It is better to use software which doesn't care about DCD, but does hardware-handshaking via CTS/RTS only. The circuitry is completed by connecting five capacitors to the IC as it follows. The MAX232 needs 1.0F capacitors, the MAX232A needs 0.1F capacitors. MAX232 clones show similar differences. It is recommended to consult the corresponding data sheet. At least 16V capacitor types should be used. If electrolytic or tantalic capacitors are used, the polarity has to be observed. The first pin as listed in the following table is always where the plus pole of the capacitor should be connected to.
MAX232(A) external Capacitors Capacito + r Pin C1 C2 C3 1 4 2 Pin 3 5 16 This looks non-intuitive, but because pin 6 is on -10V, GND gets the + connector, and not the -







The 5V power supply is connected to

+5V: Pin 16 GND: Pin 15

Meet or Exceed TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V.28 Operate With Single 5-V Power Supply Operate Up to 120 kbit/s Two Drivers and Two Receivers 30-V Input Levels Low Supply Current . . . 8 mA Typical Designed to be Interchangeable With Maxim MAX232 ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22

2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A) Applications TIA/EIA-232-F Battery-Powered Systems Terminals Modems Computers

Description/ordering information

The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V, and can accept 30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA232 levels. The driver, receiver, and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments Lin ASIClibrary.



A fingerprint sensor is an electronic device used to capture a digital image of the fingerprint pattern. The captured image is called a live scan. This live scan is digitally processed to create a biometric template (a collection of extracted features) which is stored and used for matching.

General Descriptions
FIM30 is an evolutionary standalone fingerprint recognition module consisted of optic sensor and processing board. As CPU and highly upgraded algorithm are embedded into a module, it provides high recognition ratio even to small size, wet, dry, calloused fingerprint. High speed 1: N identification and 1: N verification. FIM 30 has functions of fingerprint enrollment, identification, partial and entire deletion and reset in a single board, it does not require connection with a separate PC, thereby offering convenient development environment. Off-line functionality stores logs on the equipment memory (up to 100 fingerprints) and its identified using search engine from the internal algorithm. Evolutionary standalone fingerprint recognition module FIM30 is ideal for on-line applications, because allows ASCII commands to manage the device from the host. On-line functionality, fingerprints to verify (1:1) or identify (1: N) can be stored on non volatile memory, or be sent by RS-232 port.


On-line and off-line fingerprint identification incorporated Identification rate 1:1 and 1:N; FAR: 1/100.000 y FRR: 1/1.000 Algorithm and high hardness optical sensor It provides high recognition ratio even to small size, wet, dry, calloused fingerprint.

Fast acquisition of difficult finger types under virtually any condition. Memory capacity for 100 fingerprints Memory events: up to 2,000 authentications Access host can be protected by fingerprint or password It offers convenient development environment. Two communication ports: RS-232 or host ( on-line applications ) ASCII protocol Supply voltage: 5V Small size and robust durability, it has longer life span.

This FIM 3030 is going to have the Optical Sensor to Enroll and Identify the Finger Print.

Optical sensor
Optical fingerprint imaging involves capturing a digital image of the print using visible light. This type of sensor is, in essence, a specialized digital camera. The top layer of the sensor, where the finger is placed, is known as the touch surface. Beneath this layer is a light-emitting phosphor layer which illuminates the surface of the finger. The light reflected from the finger passes through the phosphor layer to an array of solid state pixels (a charge-coupled device) which captures a visual image of the fingerprint. A scratched or dirty touch surface can cause a bad image of the fingerprint. A disadvantage of this type of sensor is the fact

that the imaging capabilities are affected by the quality of skin on the finger. For instance, a dirty or marked finger is difficult to image properly. Also, it is possible for an individual to erode the outer layer of skin on the fingertips to the point where the fingerprint is no longer visible. It can also be easily fooled by an image of a fingerprint if not coupled with a "live finger" detector. However, unlike capacitive sensors, this sensor technology is not susceptible to electrostatic discharge damage.

Target Application
Door-lock system Safe Box Simple Access Controller Vehicle Control ATM ,And more

Block Diagram

RS-232C communication data consist of 8-bit data, no parity, 1-bit start-bit and 1-bit stop-bit.

Here this FIM 3030 supports the serial communication protocol which is RS-232. we are interfacing serially by converting the TTL logic into RS-232 standards and vice versa. For this hardware interfacing we are using MAX-232 as a level converter for reading and writing data.


An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.

Biometrics: What is Biometrics?

The study of automated identification, by use of physical or behavioral traits.

Physical vs. Behavioral: Physical

Fingerprint Iris Ear Face Retina Hands

Signature Walking gait Typing patterns


Why go for Biometrics?

Authentication the process of verifying that a user requesting

a network resource is who he, she, or it claims to be, and vice versa.

Conventional authentication methods

something that you have key, magnetic card or


something that you know PIN or password

Biometric authentication uses personal features

something that you are

Biometrics has no risk of Forgetting it Loosing it Getting it stolen Getting it copied Being used by anyone else.

Essential Properties of a Biometric Universal

Everyone should have the characteristic

No two persons have the same characteristic

Characteristic should be unchangeable

Characteristic must be measurable

Biometric System Process Flow

Pattern Recognition
Description and classification of measurements taken from physical or mental processes Examination of pattern characteristics Formulation of the recognition system Important part of any biometric system

Why Fingerprint biometry? High Universality

A majority of the population (>96%) have legible fingerprints More than the number of people who possess passports, license and IDs

High Distinctiveness
Even identical twins have different fingerprints (most biometrics fail) Individuality of fingerprints established through empirical evidence

High Permanence

Fingerprints are formed in the fetal stage and remain structurally unchanged through out life.

High Performance

One of the most accurate forms of biometrics available Best trade off between convenience and security

High Acceptability
Fingerprint acquisition is non intrusive. Requires no training.

Uniqueness Surety over the Cards and Keypads Against to Cards Duplication, misplacement and improper disclosure of password No excuses for RF/Magnetic Cards forget ness No need to further invest on the Cards Cost No need to further manage the Cards Writing Devices

Fingerprint Patterns
Loops Ridge lines enter from one side and curve around to exit from the same side 60-65% of population Rounded or circular ridge pattern 30-35% of population Ridge lines enter from one side of print and exit out the other 5% of population Whorls


Power supply
The power supplies are designed to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronics circuits and other devices. A power supply can by broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function. A d.c power supply which maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of a.c mains fluctuations or load variations is known as Regulated D.C Power Supply For example a 5V regulated power supply system as shown below:

A transformer is an electrical device which is used to convert electrical power from one Electrical circuit to another without change in frequency.

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC. Step-up transformers increase in output voltage, step-down transformers decrease in output voltage. Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage to a safer low voltage. The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up. The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio, determines the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high

voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.

An Electrical Transformer Turns ratio = Vp/ VS = Np/NS Power Out= Power In VS X IS=VP X IP Vp = primary (input) voltage Np = number of turns on primary coil Ip = primary (input) current


A circuit which is used to convert a.c to dc is known as RECTIFIER. The process of conversion a.c to d.c is called rectification


Half wave Rectifier Full wave rectifier 1. Centre tap full wave rectifier.

2. Bridge type full bridge rectifier.

Comparison of rectifier circuits:

Type of Rectifier Parameter Number of diodes 1 PIV of diodes Vm 2Vm Vm 2 4 Half wave Bridge Full wave

D.C output voltage




Vdc,at no-load




Ripple factor Ripple frequency Rectification efficiency Transformer Utilization Factor(TUF) RMS voltage Vrms















Full-wave Rectifier:

From the above comparison we came to know that full wave bridge rectifier as more advantages than the other two rectifiers. So, in our project we are using full wave bridge rectifier circuit.

Bridge Rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a

bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. This is a widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement as shown in fig(a) to achieve full-wave rectification. This is a widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.


During positive half cycle of secondary, the diodes D2 and D3 are in forward biased while D1 and D4 are in reverse biased as shown in the fig(b). The arrows. current flow direction is shown in the fig (b) with dotted

Fig(B) During negative half cycle of secondary voltage, the diodes D1 and D4 are in forward biased while D2 and D3 are in reverse biased as shown in the fig(c). The arrows. current flow direction is shown in the fig (c) with dotted

Fig(C) Filter:

A Filter is a device which removes the a.c component of rectifier output but allows the d.c component to reach the load

Capacitor Filter:

We have seen that the ripple content in the rectified output of half wave rectifier is 121% or that of full-wave or bridge rectifier or bridge rectifier is 48% such high percentages of ripples is not acceptable for most of the applications. Ripples can be removed by one of the following methods of filtering. (a) A capacitor, in parallel to the load, provides an easier by pass for the ripples voltage though it due to low impedance. At ripple frequency and leave the appears the load. (b) An inductor, in series with the load, prevents the passage of the ripple current (due to high impedance at ripple frequency) while allowing the d.c (due to low resistance to d.c)

(c) Various combinations of capacitor and inductor, such as L-section filter section filter, multiple section filter etc. which make use of both the properties mentioned in (a) and (b) above. Two cases of capacitor filter, one applied on half wave rectifier and another with full wave rectifier.

Filtering is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected across the DC supply to act as a reservoir, supplying current to the output when the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is falling. The capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC, and then discharges as it supplies current to the output. Filtering significantly increases the average DC voltage to almost the peak value (1.4 RMS value). To calculate the value of capacitor(C), C = *3*f*r*Rl Where, f = supply frequency, r = ripple factor, Rl = load resistance

Note: In our circuit we are using 1000F. Hence large value of

capacitor is placed to reduce ripples and to improve the DC component.

Voltage regulator ICs is available with fixed (typically 5, 12 and 15V) or variable output voltages. The maximum current they can pass also rates them. Negative voltage regulators are available, mainly for use in dual supplies. Most regulators include some automatic protection from excessive current ('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection'). Many of the fixed voltage regulator ICs have 3 leads and look like power transistors, such as the 7805 +5V 1A regulator shown on the right. The LM7805 is simple to use. You simply connect the positive lead of your unregulated DC power supply (anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input pin, connect the negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a 5 volt supply from the output pin.

Fig 6.1.6 A Three Terminal Voltage Regulator 78XX:

The Bay Linear LM78XX is integrated linear positive regulator with three terminals. The LM78XX offer several fixed output voltages making them useful in wide range of applications. When used as a zener diode/resistor combination replacement, the LM78XX usually results in an effective output impedance improvement of two orders of magnitude, lower quiescent current. The LM78XX is available in the TO-252, TO-220 & TO-263packages.


Output Current of 1.5A Output Voltage Tolerance of 5% Internal thermal overload protection Internal Short-Circuit Limited No External Component Output Voltage 5.0V, 6V, 8V, 9V, 10V,12V, 15V, 18V, 24V Offer in plastic TO-252, TO-220 & TO-263 Direct Replacement for LM78XX


This section basically consists of a Linear Keypad. Basically a Keypad can be classified into 2 categories. One is Linear Keypad and the other is Matrix keypad.

1. Matrix Keypad. 2. Linear Keypad.


Matrix Keypad: This Keypad got keys arranged in the form of

Rows and Columns. That is why the name Matrix Keypad. According to this keypad, In order to find the key being pressed the keypad need to be scanned by making rows as i/p and columns as output or vice versa. This Keypad is used in places where one needs to connect

more no. of keys with less no. of data lines.


Linear Keypad: This Keypad got n no. of keys connected to n

data lines of microcontroller. This Keypad is used in places where one needs to connect less

no. of keys. Generally, in Linear Keypads one end of the switch is connected to Microcontroller (Configured as i/p) and other end of the switch is connected to the common ground. So whenever a key of Linear Keypad is pressed the logic on the microcontroller pin will go LOW.

Here in this project, a linear keypad is used with switches connected in a serial manner. Linear keypad is used in this project because it takes less no. of port pins. The Linear Keypad with 4 Keys is shown below.

Circuit description:
The project ATM terminal design is based on fingerprint recognition is used to provide the high security for ATM access. The project will use ARM7 TDMI-S based NXPs (national semiconductors and Philips) LPC 2148 microcontroller in LQFP (Liquid Quad Flat package) with 64 pins. The Power requirement of LPC2148 Microcontroller is 3.3VDC and VSS ground. The power supply for the LPC2148 is produced by using available 1 230VAC with the help of conversion AC to DC supply which includes four most basic steps of step down the available power to required level of power supply, Rectification of 1 supply to the pulsated DC supply, filtering of Pulsated DC supply to non regulated DC supply and then through regulator a pure regulated DC supply is produced.

This project mainly consists of the LPC2148 microcontroller, GSM modem, and Fingerprint Module and ATM terminal with key pad. The fingerprint module is used to enroll the fingerprint and verification of the finger tips of that person. This can also be used to identify the persons fingerprint, which is already stored in the database. The fingerprint module is connected port using to the the serial microcontroller module is communication using port the to UART1. serial the The communication microcontroller UART0.GSM connected

fingerprint module consists of the finger print scanner and the driver circuit for the fingerprint. Every person is given with a unique account number and password for that account. Each and every person has to enter the account number which is stored in the database (EEPROM). If the entered account number is matched with the existed account, it will request for the password to access that account. If the entered account number is wrong, it will buzz the buzzer. If the entered account number and the entered password are correct, it will request for the finger print verification. If the entered password and the account number are not matched then microcontroller will send a message to the account holder with the GSM technology. If the finger print of that person is matched with the details of that account, then that person will be able to do the ATM transactions like balance check, mini statement, deposit and withdrawal. If the finger print of that person is not matched then microcontroller will send a message to the account holder with the GSM technology. The ATM terminal is constructed as in general. The balance checking, Deposit required amount, the withdrawal amount and mini statement. The result of that transaction is stored in the EEPROM for the further transactions. This project useful for the advanced security for the ATM transactions and also for the Locker system.


Software used: *Keil software for c programming


It is possible to create the source files in a text editor such as Notepad, run the Compiler on each C source file, specifying a list of controls, run the Assembler on each Assembler source file, specifying another list of controls, run either the Library Manager or Linker (again specifying a list of controls) and finally running the Object-HEX Converter to convert the Linker output file to an Intel Hex File. Once that has been completed the Hex File can be downloaded to the target hardware and debugged. Alternatively KEIL can be used to create source files; automatically compile, link and covert using options set with an easy to use user interface and finally simulate or perform debugging on the hardware with access to C variables and memory. Unless you have to use the tolls on the command line, the choice is clear. KEIL Greatly simplifies the process of creating and testing an embedded application.

The user of KEIL centers on projects. A project is a list of all the source files required to build a single application, all the tool options which specify exactly how to build the application, and if required how the application should be simulated. A project contains enough information to take a set of source files and generate exactly the binary code required for the application. Because of the high degree of flexibility required from the tools, there are many options that can be set to configure the tools to operate in a specific manner. It would be tedious to have to set these options up every time the application is being built; therefore they are stored in a project file. Loading the project file into KEIL informs KEIL which source files are required, where they are, and how to configure the tools in the correct way. KEIL can then execute each tool with the correct options. It is also possible to create new projects in KEIL.

Source files are added to the project and the tool options are set as required. The project can then be saved to preserve the settings. The project is reloaded and the simulator or debugger started, all the desired windows are opened. KEIL project files have the extension


The simulator/ debugger in KEIL can perform a very detailed simulation of a micro controller along with external signals. It is possible to view the precise execution time of a single assembly instruction, or a single line of C code, all the way up to the entire application, simply by entering the crystal frequency. A window can be opened for each peripheral on the device, showing the state of the peripheral. This enables quick trouble shooting of mis-configured peripherals. Breakpoints may be set on either assembly instructions or lines of C code, and execution may be stepped through one instruction or C line at a time. The contents of all the memory areas may be viewed along with ability to find specific variables. In addition the registers may be viewed allowing a detailed view of what the microcontroller is doing at any point in time.


1. 2.

Click on the Keil u Vision3 Icon on Desktop The following fig will appear

3.Click on the Project menu from the title bar 4.Then Click on New Project

5.Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\

6.Then Click on Save button above. 7.Select the component for u r project. i.e.NXP 8.Click on the + Symbol beside of NXP

9.Select LPC2148 as shown below

10.Then Click on OK 11.The Following fig will appear

12.Then Click YES 13.Now your project is ready to USE 14.Now double click on the Target1, you would get another option Source group 1 as shown in next page.

15.Click on the file option from menu bar and select new

16.The next screen will be as shown in next page, and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder.

17.Now start writing program in either in C or ASM 18.For a program written in Assembly, then save it with extension . asm and for C based program save it with extension .C

19.Now right click on Source group 1 and click on Add files to Group Source

20.Now you will get another window, on which by default C files will appear

21.Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file 22.Click only one time on option ADD 23.Now Press function key F7 to compile. Any error will appear if so happen.

24.If the file contains no error, then press Control+F5 simultaneously. 25.The new window is as follows

26.Then Click OK 27.Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar, and check your required port as shown in fig below

29.Drag the port a side and click in the program file

29.Now keep Pressing function key F11 slowly and observe. 30.You are running your program successfully


The project ATM TERMINAL DESIGN IS BASED ON FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION has been successfully designed and tested.

Integrating features of all the hardware components used have developed it. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly advanced ICs and with the help of growing technology the project has been successfully implemented.


1. 2. 3. 4. M. A. Mazidi, J. C. Mazidi, R. D. Mckinaly, The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, Pearson Education, 2006. 5. 6. 1.GPS 2.ALL DATA SHEETS 3.ALL MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS 4.TEMPERATURE SENSOR 5.ARM DATASHEET