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NEW STPM Mathematics (T) Topical Past Year Questions
Compiled by: KK LEE (Lee Kian Keong)
August 8, 2016
Abstract
This documents contains all the questions from STPM Past Year Papers and i sorted all the questions
according to the chapters (New STPM syllabus). Download the file from scribd is not allowed. If you
willing to download the file, please contact me by facebook me or download directly from my website
http://kkleemaths.com. I used more than 5 years to make this file. Please appreciate my hard work.
Contents
1 Functions
2 Sequences and Series
3 Matrices
4 Complex Numbers
5 Analytic Geometry
6 Vectors
7 Limits and Continuity
8 Differentiation
9 Integration
10 Differential Equations
11 Maclaurin Series
12 Numerical Methods
13 Data Description
14 Probability
15 Probability Distributions
16 Sampling and Estimation
17 Hypothesis Testing
18 Chisquared Tests
2
15
24
33
36
38
44
48
64
79
89
96
99
120
131
166
175
178
1
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1: Functions
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Functions
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1
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
Find the value of x, with 0◦ < x < 360◦ , which satisfies equation sec x + tan x = 4. Give your answers
correct to the nearest 0.1◦ .
[6 marks]
[Answer : 62◦ ]
2. [STPM ]
√
Sketch the graph of y = 1 − 2x, x ∈ R and the graph of y = x, x ≥ 0 on the same coordinate system.
Solve the inequality 1 − 2x >
√
x.
3. [STPM ]
Function f is defined as
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
1
4
[Answer : {x : 0 ≤ x < , x > 1}]
(
x(x − π),
0 ≤ x < 2π;
f (x) =
2
π sin(x − π), 2π ≤ x ≤ 3π.
(a) Sketch the graph of f .
(b) Find the range of f .
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
(c) Determine whether f is a onetoone function. Give reasons for your answer.
[Answer : (b) {y : π 2 ≤ y < 2π 2 } ; (c) f is not onetoone function.]
4. [STPM ]
Solve the equation
2 logx 3 − log3
5. [STPM ]
The function f is defined as follows:
√
3
x= .
2
[6 marks]
[Answer : x = 3,
f : x → 4 + (x − 1)2 , x ∈ R.
(a) Sketch the graph of f .
(b) State the range of f .
(c) Determine if f
[2 marks]
−1
exist.
1
]
81
[2 marks]
[1 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) {y : y ≥ 4} ; (c) No]
6. [STPM ]
Given that x + 2 is a factor of f (x) = x3 + (a + 2b)x2 + (a − 3b)x + 8. Find a in terms of b, and find
q(x) so that f (x) = (x + 2)q(x) holds for all values of b.
[5 marks]
Determine the values of b so that f (x) = 0 has at least two distinct real roots.
6
2
Sketch on different diagram, the graph of y = f (x) when b = − and b = .
5
5
2
[6 marks]
[4 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
6
5
2
5
Function f is defined by f (x) =
f (x) > f (x − 1).
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7. [STPM ]
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[Answer : a = −7b ; q(x) = x2 − (5b + 2)x + 4 ; {b : b < − , b ≥ }]
1
with x ∈ R and x 6= 0. Determine the set of values of x so that
x
[5 marks]
[Answer : {x : 0 < x < 1}]
8. [STPM ]
Given that x3 + mx2 + nx − 6 is divisible by x − 3 and x + 2. Find the values of m and n.
[5 marks]
[Answer : m = 0, n = −7]
9. [STPM ]
Given that f (x) = log2 (15 − 2x − x2 ). Find the range of x so that f (x) is defined.
2
[3 marks]
Find the maximum value of 15 − 2x − x and hence deduce the maximum value of f (x).
[4 marks]
[Answer : {x : −5 < x < 3} ; 16, 4]
10. [STPM ]
Express sin x − 3 cos x in the form r sin(x − α), with r > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ , giving the value of α
correct to the nearest 0.1◦ . Sketch the curve y = sin x − 3 cos x for 0◦ ≤ x ≤ 360◦ .
[8 marks]
Find the range of values of x between 0◦ and 360◦ which satisfies the inequality sin x − 3 cos x ≥ 2.
Find the largest and the smallest value for
[Answer :
11. [STPM ]
Solve the equation
√
1
.
sin x − 3 cos x + 5
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
10 sin(x − 71.6◦ ) ; {x : 110.3◦ < x < 212.9◦ } ;
s
4x
√ = 3.
1− x
5−
1
√
10
,
5+
1
√
10
]
[5 marks]
[Answer : x =
9
]
16
12. [STPM ]
Determine the values of k so that the quadratic equation x2 + 2kx + 4k − 3 = 0 has two distinct real
roots.
[4 marks]
13. [STPM ]
The function f is defined as follows:
f :x→
5x + 2
, x 6= 5
x−5
(a) Find f 2 and hence deduce f −1 .
[Answer : {k : k < 1, k > 3}]
[3 marks]
3
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
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[3 marks]
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(b) Find f 13 (2).
[Answer : (a) f 2 (x) = x , f −1 (x) =
14. [STPM ]
Show that the roots of x2 + bx + c = 0, a 6= 0 are given by
√
−b ± b2 − 4ac
x=
.
2a
5x + 2
; (b) −4]
x−5
Deduce that if m + ni, with m, n ∈ R, is a root of this equation, then m − ni is another root. [5 marks]
(a) Show that 2+i is a root of f (x) = 0 where f (x) = 2x3 − 5x2 − 2x + 15, and find its other roots.
[5 marks]
(b) Find a polynomial g(x) so that f (x) − xg(x) = 15 − 7x. Express g(x) in the form p(x − q)2 + r,
1
.
[5 marks]
with p, q, r ∈ R, find the maximum of
g(x)
3
2
[Answer : (a) 2i , − ; (b) g(x) = 2 x −
15. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
(
2 − x − 1,
f (x) =
x2 − 9x + 18,
(a) Sketch the graph of f .
x < 3,
x ≥ 3.
5
4
2
+
15 8
,
]
8 15
[5 marks]
x
(b) Determine the set of x so that f (x) > 1 − .
6
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) {x : 0 < x <
12
, x > 6}]
5
16. [STPM ]
Express 9 sin θ − 6 cos θ in the form r sin(θ − α), with r > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ . Hence, find the smallest
and the largest value for 9 sin θ − 6 cos θ − 1.
[6 marks]
√
√
√
[Answer : 3 13 sin(θ − 33.7◦ ) , −3 13 − 1 , 3 13 − 1]
17. [STPM ]
Given that f (x) = x3 + px2 + 7x + q where p, q are constants. When x = −1, f 0 (x) = 0. When f (x)
is divided by (x + 1), the remainder is −16. Find the values of p and q.
[4 marks]
(a) Show that f (x) = 0 only has one real roots. Find the set of values of x such that f (x) > 0.
x+9
(b) Express
in partial fraction.
f (x)
[Answer : p = 5, q = −13 ; (a) {x : x > 1} ; (b)
4
[6 marks]
[5 marks]
x+5
1
−
]
2(x − 1) 2(x2 + 6x + 13)
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
19. [STPM ]
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1 − 2x
as partial fractions.
x2 (1 + 2x2 )
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Express
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18. [STPM ]
[5 marks]
2
x
[Answer : − +
1
4x − 2
+
]
2
x
1 + 2x2
1
1
Express the function f : x →  x − 1 +  x + 1, x ∈ R, in the form that does not involve the modulus
2
2
sign. Sketch the graph of f and determine its range.
[7 marks]
−x,
[Answer : f : x → 2,
x,
x < −2
−2 ≤ x < 2 ,
x≥2
R={y : y ≥ 2}]
20. [STPM ]
Function f is defined by f (x) = x2n − (p + 1)x2 + p, where n and p are positive integers.
Show that x − 1 is a factor of f (x) for all values of p.
[3 marks]
When p = 4, x − 2 is a factor of f (x). Find the value of n and factorise f (x) completely.
[5 marks]
2
With the value of n you have obtained, find the set of values of p such that f (x) + 2x − 2 = 0 has
roots which are distinct and real.
[7 marks]
[Answer : n = 2 , (x − 2)(x + 2)(x − 1)(x + 1) ; {p : p > 2, p 6= 3}]
21. [STPM ]
Solve the simultaneous equations
1
log4 (xy) = , (log2 x)(log2 y) = −2.
2
22. [STPM ]
The functions f and g are defined by
[6 marks]
f : x → 2x, x ∈ R;
g : x → cos x −  cos x, −π ≤ x ≤ π.
(a) Find the composite function f ◦ g and state its domain and range.
(b) Show, by definition, that f ◦ g is an even function.
(c) Sketch the graph of f ◦ g.
1
2
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) f ◦ g : x → 2(cos x −  cos x), D = {x : −π ≤ x ≤ π}, R = {y : −4 ≤ y ≤ 0}]
23. [STPM ]
√
1
3x + 1, x ∈ R, x ≥ − .
3
and state its domain and range.
The function f is defined by f : x →
Find f −1
1
2
[Answer : x = , y = 4, x = 4, y = ]
5
[4 marks]
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
x2 − 1
1
, Df −1 = {x : x ≥ 0}, Rf −1 = {x : x ≥ − }]
3
3
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[Answer : f −1 : x →
1: Functions
24. [STPM ]q
√
√
√
Express 59 − 24 6 as p 2 + q 3 where p and q are integers.
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[7 marks]
√
√
[Answer : 4 2 − 3 3]
25. [STPM ]
Show that polynomial 2x3 − 9x2 + 3x + 4 has x − 1 as factor.
Hence,
[2 marks]
(a) find all the real roots of 2x6 − 9x4 + 3x2 + 4 = 0.
[5 marks]
(b) determine the set of values of x so that 2x3 − 9x2 + 3x + 4 < 12 − 12x.
[6 marks]
[Answer : x = 1, x = −1, x = 2, x = −2 ; x < 1]
26. [STPM ]
√
π
Express cos x + 3 sin x in the form r cos(x − α), with r > 0 and 0 < α < .
[4 marks]
2
√
Hence, find the set of values of x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, which satisfies the inequality 0 < cos x+ 3 sin x < 1.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 2 cos x −
5π 11π
π
2π
<x<
,
< x < 2π}]
, {x :
3
3
6
6
27. [STPM ]
Show that −1 is the only one real root of the equation x3 + 3x2 + 5x + 3 = 0.
28. [STPM ]
Find the set of values of x such that −2 < x3 − 2x2 + x − 2 < 0.
29. [STPM ]
[5 marks]
[7 marks]
[Answer : {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 2}]
1
Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graphs of y = 2 − x and y = 2 + .
x
1
Hence, solve the inequality 2 − x > 2 + .
x
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
√
[Answer : {x : x < 2 − 5}]
30. [STPM ]
Express cos θ + 3 sin θ in the form r cos(θ − α), where r > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ .
[4 marks]
[Answer :
√
10 cos(θ − 71.6◦ )]
31. [STPM ]
Find all values of x, where 0◦ < x < 360◦ , which satisfy the equation tan x + 4 cot x = 4 sec x. [5 marks]
6
[Answer : 41.8◦ , 138.2◦ ]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
33. [STPM ]
The functions f and g are given by
f (x) =
1
where x 6= 0.
x
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Find the solution set of inequality x − 2 <
ex − e−x
ex + e−x
(a) State the domains of f and g,
[7 marks]
√
[Answer : {x : 0 < x < 1 + 2, x 6= 1}]
and g(x) =
ex
2
.
+ e−x
[1 marks]
(b) Without using differentiation, find the range of f ,
2
2
[4 marks]
(c) Show that f (x) + g(x) = 1. Hence, find the range of g.
(x2
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) {x : x ∈ R}, {x : x ∈ R} ; (b) {y : −1 < y < 1} ; (c) {y : 0 < y ≤ 1}]
34. [STPM ]
Express
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32. [STPM ]
Ax + B
C
2x + 1
in the form 2
+
where A, B and C are constants.
+ 1)(2 − x)
x +1
2−x
35. [STPM ]
Functions f , g and h are defined by
f :x→
x
;
x+1
(a) State the domains of f and g.
g:x→
x+2
;
x
[Answer :
h:x→3+
(b) Find the composite function g ◦ f and state its domain and range.
(c) State the domain and range of h.
(d) State whether h = g ◦ f . Give a reason for your answer.
2
.
x
[3 marks]
1
x
+
]
x2 + 1 2 − x
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) {x : x ∈ R, x 6= −1}, {x : x ∈ R, x 6= 0} ;
2
(b) g ◦ f (x) = 3 + , D={x : x ∈ R, x 6= 0, x 6= −1}, R={y : y ∈ R, y 6= 1, y 6= 3} ;
x
(c) D={x : x ∈ R, x 6= 0}, R={y : y ∈ R, y 6= 3} ; (d) h 6= g ◦ f ]
36. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = x4 + ax3 − 7x2 − 4ax + b has a factor x + 3 and when divided by x − 3, has
remainder 60. Find the values of a and b and factorise p(x) completely.
[9 marks]
1
Using the substitution y = , solve the equation 12y 4 − 8y 3 − 7y 2 + 2y + 1 = 0.
[3 marks]
x
1
3
1 1
2 2
[Answer : a = 2, b = 12, (x + 3)(x − 1)(x + 2)(x − 2) , y = − , 1, − , ]
37. [STPM ]
Express 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ in the form R sin(θ − α), where R > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ . Hence, solve the
equation 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ = 3 for 0◦ < α < 360◦ .
[6 marks]
7
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
38. [STPM ]
Find the domain and the range of the function f defined by
Sketch the graph of f .
f (x) = sin−1
2(x − 1)
.
x+1
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : D={x :
π
π
1
≤ x ≤ 3} , R={y : − ≤ y ≤ }]
3
2
2
39. [STPM]
x
If loga 2 = 3 loga 2 − loga (x − 2a), express x in terms of a.
a
40. [STPM ]
Simplify
√
√
( 7 − 3)2
√ ,
(a) √
2( 7 + 3)
[6 marks]
[Answer : x = 4a]
[3 marks]
√
√
[Answer : 2 7 − 3 3]
41. [STPM ]
Find the constants A, B, C and D such that
42. [STPM ]
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[Answer : 5 sin(θ − 36.9◦ ), θ = 73.7◦ , 180.0◦ ]
A
B
C
D
3x2 + 5x
=
+
+
+
.
2
2
2
(1 − x )(1 + x)
1 − x 1 + x (1 + x)
(1 + x)3
[8 marks]
[Answer : A = 1, B = 1, C = −1, D = −1]
1
4
1
Using the substitution y = x + , express f (x) = x3 − 4x − 6 − + 3 as a polynomial in y. [3 marks]
x
x x
Hence, find all the real roots of the equation f (x) = 0.
[10 marks]
√
3± 5
]
[Answer : y − 7y − 6 ; x = −1,
2
3
43. [STPM ]
Find, in terms of π, all the values of x between 0 and π which satisfies the equation
tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2x.
[4 marks]
[Answer :
8
1
5
12 17
π, π, π, π]
24 24 24 24
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44. [STPM ]
The function f and g are defined by
Find f ◦ g and its domain.
45. [STPM ]
f :x→
1: Functions
1
, x ∈ R \ {0};
x
g : x → 2x − 1, x ∈ R.
[4 marks]
[Answer : f ◦ g(x) =
1
1
, D={x : x ∈ R, x 6= }]
2x − 1
2
1
The polynomial p(x) = 2x3 + 4x2 + x − k has factor (x + 1).
2
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) Factorise p(x) completely.
46. [STPM ]
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
3
2
1
2
[Answer : (a) k = − ; (b) (x + 1)(2x + 3)(2x − 1)]
4
> 3 − 3.
Find the solution set of the inequality
x − 1
x
47. [STPM ]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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[10 marks]
[Answer : {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 3}]
θ
2t
1 − t2
If t = tan , show that sin θ =
and
cos
θ
=
.
[4 marks]
2
1 + t2
1 + t2
Hence, find the values of θ between 0◦ and 360◦ that satisfy the equation 10 sin θ − 5 cos θ = 2.[3 marks]
48. [STPM ]
Determine the set of values of x satisfying the inequality
49. [STPM ]
Given that loga (3x − 4a) + loga 3x =
x
1
≥
.
x+1
x+1
[Answer : θ = 36.9◦ , 196.3◦ ]
[4 marks]
[Answer : {x : x < −1, x ≥ 1}]
2
1
+ loga (1 − 2a), where 0 < a < , find x.
log2 a
2
50. [STPM ]
Find the values of x if y = 3 − x and 4y − (x2 − 9) = −24.
[7 marks]
[Answer :
2
]
3
[9 marks]
[Answer : x = 7, x = −9]
51. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = 6x4 − ax3 − bx2 + 28x + 12, where a and b are real constants, has factors (x + 2)
and (x − 2).
9
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
(a) Find the values of a and b, and hence, factorise p(x) completely.
3
[7 marks]
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(b) Give that p(x) = (2x − 3)[q(x) − 41 + 3x ], find q(x), and determine its range when x ∈ [−2, 10].
[8 marks]
[Answer : (a) a = 7, b = 27 , (x + 2)(x − 2)(2x − 3)(3x + 1) ; (b) q(x) = (x − 6)2 + 1 , R=[1,65]]
52. [STPM ]
Find the values of x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ π, which satisfy the equation sin3 x sec x = 2 tan x.
[Answer : x = 0, π]
53. [STPM ]
Solve the following simultaneous equations:
log3 (xy) = 5
54. [STPM ]
The graph of a function f is as follows:
(a) State the domain and range of f .
and
log9
[4 marks]
x2
y
= 2.
[4 marks]
[Answer : x = 27, y = 9]
[2 marks]
(b) State whether f is a onetoone function or not. Give a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) D={x : −3 ≤ x < −1 − 1 < x ≤ 2} , R={y : −1 < y < 2} ;
(b) f is not one to one function.]
55. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = 2x4 − 7x3 + 5x2 + ax + b, where a and b are real constants, is divisible by
2x2 + x − 1.
(a) Find a and b.
(b) For these values of a and b, determine the set of values of x such that p(x) ≤ 0.
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
1
2
[Answer : (a) a = 9, b = −5 ; (b) {x : −1 ≤ x ≤ }]
10
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
1
.
5 sin θ + 12 cos θ + 15
57. [STPM ]
Solve the equation ln x + ln(x + 2) = 1.
[7 marks]
[Answer : 13 sin(θ + 67.4◦ ) ,
f :x→
√
[Answer : −1 + 1 + e]
[6 marks]
[Answer : {x : x ≤ 2}]
1
x
for x 6= ;
2x − 1
2
g : x → ax2 + bx + c, where a, b and c are constants.
(a) Find f ◦ f , and hence, determine the inverse function of f .
−3x2 + 4x − 1
(b) Find the values of a, b and c if g ◦ f (x) =
.
(2x − 1)2
x2 − 2
in terms of f and p.
(c) Given that p(x) = x2 − 2, express h(x) = 2
2x − 5
[Answer : (a) f ◦ f (x) = x , f −1 (x) =
1 1
,
]
2 28
[4 marks]
58. [STPM ]
Find the set of values of x satisfying the inequality 2x − 1 ≤ x + 1.
59. [STPM ]
Functions f and g are defined by
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56. [STPM ]
Express 5 sin θ + 12 cos θ in the form r sin(θ + α), where r > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ . Hence, find the
maximum and minimum values of the expression
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
x
; (b) a = 1, b = 0, c = −1 ; (c) h = f ◦ p]
2x − 1
60. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = ax3 + bx2 − 4x + 3, where a and b are constants, has a factor (x + 1). When
p(x) is divided by (x − 2), it leaves a remainder of −9.
(a) Find the values of a and b, and hence, factorise p(x) completely.
[6 marks]
p(x)
(b) Find the set of values of x which satisfies
≥ 0.
[4 marks]
x−3
p(x)
(c) By completing square, find the minimum value of
, x 6= 3, and the value of x at which it
x−3
occurs.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) a = 2, b = −5, (x − 3)(2x − 1)(x + 1) ; (b) {x : x ≤ −1,
1
≤ x < 3, x > 3} ; (c) Minimum
2
9
1
value=− , x = − ]
8
4
61. [STPM ]
√
The expression cos x − 3 sin x may be written in the form r cos(x + α) for all values of x, where r is
positive and α is a acute.
11
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
(a) Determine the values of r and α.
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(b) State the minimum and maximum values of cos x −
values of x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
√
(c) Sketch the curve y = cos x − 3 sin x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
√
1: Functions
[3 marks]
3 sin x, and determine the corresponding
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[3 marks]
[3 marks]
By drawing an appropriate line on the graph, determine the number of roots of the equation
√
3
x
cos x − 3 sin x =
4π
in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
(d) Solve the equation cos x −
[Answer : (a) r = 2, α =
√
[3 marks]
3 sin x = −1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
[3 marks]
π
2π
5π
π
; (b) minimum=2 when x =
, maximum=2 when x =
; (c) 3 roots ; (d) , π]
3
3
3
3
62. [STPM ]
Given that 2 − x − x2 is a factor of p(x) = ax3 − x2 + bx − 2. Find the values of a and b. Hence, find
the set of values of x for which p(x) is negative.
[6 marks]
1
2
[Answer : a = −2, b = 5 , {x : −2 < x < , x > 1}]
63. [STPM ]
√
Functions f and g ◦ f are defined by f (x) = ex+2 and (g ◦ f )(x) = x, for all x ≥ 0.
(a) Find the function g, and state its domain.
3
(b) Determine the value of (f ◦ g)(e ).
64. [STPM ]
[5 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) g(x) =
√
ln x − 2 , D={x : x ≥ e2 } ; (b) e3 ]
3
x
Solve the simultaneous equations log9
= and (log3 x)(log3 y) = 1.
y
4
65. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
(a) Find f −1 , and state its domain.
[8 marks]
[Answer : x = 9, y =
1
f : x → x2 − x, for x ≥ .
2
[Answer : (a) f
−1
66. [STPM ]
Sketch a graph of y = cos 2θ in the range of 0 ≤ θ ≤ π.
√
3 or x =
−1
1
(x) = +
2
−1
.
.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
r
x+
1
1
, D={x : x ≥ − } ; (b) (2,2)]
4
4
Hence, find the set of values of θ, where 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, satisfying the inequality 4 sin2 θ ≥ 2 −
12
1
3
,y = ]
3
9
[4 marks]
(b) Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of graph f and f
(c) Sketch, on the same coordinates axes, the graph of f and f
√
√
[2 marks]
3.[5 marks]
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
f : x 7→ e2x , x ∈ R;
g : x 7→ (ln x)2 , x > 0.
π
11π
≤x≤
}]
12
12
kkleemaths.com
67. [STPM ]
The functions f and g are defined by
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : {x :
(a) Find f −1 and state its domain.
1
= g(2), and state, with a reason, whether g has an inverse.
(b) Show that g
2
[Answer : (a) f −1 (x) =
68. [STPM ]
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
1
ln x , D={x : x > 0}]
2
1
Express cos x + sin x in the form r cos(x − α), where r > 0 and 0 < α < π. Hence, find the minimum
2
and maximum values of cos x + sin x and the corresponding values of x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
[7 marks]
(a) Sketch the graph of y = cos x + sin x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
[3 marks]
(b) By drawing appropriate lines on your graph, determine the number of roots in the interval 0 ≤
x ≤ 2π of each of the following equations.
1
[1 marks]
i. cos x + sin x = − ,
2
ii. cos x + sin x = 2,
[1 marks]
(c) Find the set of values of x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π for which  cos x + sin x > 1.
[Answer :
√
2 cos(x −
√
√
π
5π
π
) , minimum value=− 2 when x =
, maximum value= 2 when x = ; (b) (i) two
4
4
4
π
3π
roots , (ii) no roots ; (c) {x : 0 < x < , π < x <
}]
2
2
69. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by f (x) = ln(1 − 2x), x < 0.
(a) Find f −1 , and state its domain.
[3 marks]
(b) Sketch, on the same axes, the graphs of f and f −1 .
(c) Determine whether there is any value of x for which f (x) = f
70. [STPM ]
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
−1
(x).
1
2
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) f −1 (x) = (1 − ex ) ; D={x : x > 0} ; (c) No]
1
Sketch the graph of y = sin 2x in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ π. Hence, solve the inequality  sin 2x < , where
2
0 ≤ x ≤ π.
[6 marks]
[Answer : {x : 0 ≤ x <
13
π 5π
7π 11π
,
<x<
,
< x ≤ π}]
12 12
12 12
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
kkleemaths.com
(a) Determine the values of h and k.
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
71. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = hx4 + kx3 + 2x − 1, where h and k are constants, leaves a remainder of 4 when
divided by x − 1, and a remainder of −2 when divided by x + 1.
[3 marks]
2
(b) Express the polynomial p(x) in the form (x − 1)q(x) + r(x), where q(x) is quadratic and r(x) is
linear.
[4 marks]
(c) Express q(x) in a completed square form a(x + b)2 + c.
[2 marks]
i. Deduce that q(x) is always positive for all real values of x.
ii. Deduce the minimum value of q(x) and the corresponding value of x.
(d) Determine the set of values of x for which p(x) > 3x + 1.
[1 marks]
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) h = 2, k = 1 ; (b) (x2 − 1)(2x2 + x + 2) + (3x + 1) ;
(c) q(x) = 2 x +
1
4
2
72. [STPM ]
The function f is defined as f (x) =
(a) Show that f has an inverse.
+
15
1
15
(ii) minimum value= , when x = − ; (d) {x : x < −1, x > 1}]
8
8
4
1 x
e − e−x , where x ∈ R.
2
[3 marks]
(b) Find the inverse function of f , and state its domain.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (b) f −1 (x) = ln(x +
p
x2 + 1), D={x : x ∈ R}]
73. [STPM ]
Sketch, on the same axes, the graphs of y = 2x + 1 and y = 1 − x2 . Hence, solve the inequality
2x + 1 ≥ 1 − x2 .
[8 marks]
74. [STPM ]
Determine the set of values of x satisfying the inequality x + 4 ≤
75. [STPM ]
Functions f and g are defined by
√
[Answer : {x : x ≤ 1 − 3, x ≥ 0}]
3
.
x
[6 marks]
√
√
[Answer : {x : x ≤ −2 − 7, 0 < x ≤ −2 + 7}]
f (x) = x2 + 4x + 2, x ∈ R,
g(x) =
3
, x 6= −3, x ∈ R
x+3
(a) Sketch the graph of f , and find its range.
(b) Sketch the graph of g, and show that g is a onetoone function.
(c) Give a reason why g −1 exists. Find g −1 , and state its domain.
(d) Give a reason why g ◦ f exists. Find g ◦ f , and state its domain.
14
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1: Functions
3
− 3 , D={x : x ∈ R, x 6= 0} ;
x
2
(d) g ◦ f (x) = 2
, D={x : x ∈ R}]
x + 4x + 5
76. [STPM ]
Find the value of x such that (3 − log3 x) log3x 3 = 1.
77. [STPM ]
π
Express 12 cos θ − 5 sin θ in the form r cos(θ + α), where r > 0 and 0 < α < .
2
Hence,
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : (a) R={y : y ≥ −2} ; (c) g −1 (x) =
[4 marks]
[Answer : x = 3]
[4 marks]
(a) state the minimum and maximum values of 12 cos θ − 5 sin θ for real values of θ,
[1 marks]
(b) solve the equation 12 cos θ − 5 sin θ = 0, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π,
[3 marks]
(c) sketch the graph of y = 12 cos θ − 5 sin θ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π and determine the range of values of θ in
this interval satisfying the inequality −5 ≤ 12 cos θ − 5 sin θ ≤ 0.
[7 marks]
[Answer : 13 cos(θ + 0.395) ; (a) 13, −13 ; (b) 1.176, 4.317 ; (c) {θ : 1.176 ≤ θ ≤
π 5π
,
≤ θ ≤ 4.318}]
2 4
78. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = ax4 + x3 + bx2 − 10x − 4, where a and b are constants, has a factor (2x + 1).
When p(x) is divided by (x − 1), the remainder is −15.
(a) Determine the values of a and b.
(b) Factorise p(x) completely.
(c) Find the set of values of x which satisfies the inequality p(x) < 0
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
1
2
[Answer : (a) a = 2 b = −4 ; (b) (2x + 1)(x − 2)(x2 + 2x + 2) ; (c) {x : − < x < 2}]
79. [STPM ]
Solve the equation cos x − 2 sin x = 2 for 0◦ ≤ x ≤ 360◦ .
[7 marks]
[Answer : 270◦ , 323.1◦ ]
80. [STPM ]
√
Functions f and g are defined by f (x) = ln(x − 1), where x > 1 and g(x) = x − 2, where x ≥ 2.
(a) Sketch, on separate diagrams, the graphs of f and g.
(b)
−1
i. Explain why f exists.
ii. Hence, determine f −1 and state its domain.
(c) Find the composite function f ◦ g and state its domain and range.
p
(d) Express ln(x − 1) − 2 as a composition of functions which involves f and g.
[3 marks]
[6 marks]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b)(ii) f −1 (x) = ex + 1 , Domain={x : x ∈ R} ;
(c) f ◦ g(x) = ln(
p
(x − 2) − 1) , Domain={x : x > 3} , Range={y : y ∈ R} ; (d) g ◦ f (x)]
15
kkleemaths.com
81. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
1: Functions
f (x) = 2x2 + ax + 7, x ∈ R.
31
Without using differentiation, find the values of a if the range of f is
,∞ .
8
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[5 marks]
[Answer : a = ±5]
82. [STPM ]
The polynomial p(x) = x4 + mx3 + nx2 + 2x + 2, where m and n are real constants, has a quadratic
factor x2 − 1.
(a) Find the values of m and n.
[4 marks]
p(x)
≥ −3 for all x.
[4 marks]
x2 − 1
(c) By using long division, obtain the remainder when p(x) is divided by x2 − x − 6. Hence, deduce
the remainder when p(x) is divided by (x + 2).
[5 marks]
(b) Find the other quadratic factor of p(x) and hence, show that
(d) Find g(x) in terms of p(x) such that (x − 2) is a factor of g(x).
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) n = −3, m = −2 ; (b) x2 − 2x − 2 ; (c)14 − 2x , 18 ; (d) g(x) = (x − 2)p(x)]
16
kkleemaths.com
2: Sequences and Series
Evaluate
∞
X
1
.
102r
r=1
[2 marks]
¯ as a rational number in its lowest form.
Express 0.18
2. [STPM ]
Find the expansion of
kkleemaths.com
1. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
Sequences and Series
kkleemaths.com
2
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
[2 marks]
[Answer :
(1 + x2 )p
in ascending powers of x until the term in x3 .
(1 − x)q
2
1
,
]
99 11
[5 marks]
r
13
1
to be estimated using the above
(a) If p = q = , suggest a suitable value of x that enables
2
10
r
13
correct to four decimal places.
[7 marks]
expansion. Hence, estimate
10
1
[3 marks]
(b) If p = − and q lies in the interval [0,9], and the largest possible coefficient of x3 .
3
[Answer : 1 + qx + p +
q(q + 1)
2
q(q + 1)(q + 2)
1
x2 + pq +
x3 + . . . ; (a) x = , 1.1395 ; (b) 162]
6
5
3. [STPM ] √
√
Express ( 2 − 1)5 in the form a 2 + b, where a, b are integers.
[3 marks]
√
[Answer : 29 2 − 41]
4. [STPM ]
The sum of the first 2n terms of a series P is 20n − 4n2 . Find in terms of n, the sum of the first n
terms of this series. Show that this series is an arithmetic series.
[4 marks]
Series Q is an arithmetic series such that the sum of its first n even terms is more than the sum of its
first n odd terms by 4n. Find the common difference of the series Q.
[5 marks]
If the first term of series Q is 1, determine the minimum value of n such that the difference between
the sum of the first n terms of series P and the sum of the first n terms of series Q is more than 980.
5. [STPM ]
√
√
Simplify (1 + 2 3)5 − (1 − 2 3)5 .
6. [STPM ]
[6 marks]
[Answer : Sn = 10n − n2 ; d = 4 ; n = 21]
[4 marks]
√
[Answer : 1076 3]
1
− . . . and S∞ denotes the
3
sum to infinity of this series. Find the smallest n such that S∞ − Sn  < 0.0001.
[7 marks]
(a) Sn denotes the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series 3 − 1 +
17
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
(a) the nth term of the series is log pq 2n ,
8. [STPM ]
1
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
Expand (1+x) 5 in ascending power of x until the term in x3 . By taking x =
1
3
2
[Answer : (a) 10 ; (b) a = 12 , d = 6 , r = ]
7. [STPM ]
Given that the sum of the first n terms of a series is n log pq n+1 . Show that
(b) this is an arithmetic series.
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(b) The first and the second term of an arithmetic series equal respectively the first and the second
term of a geometric series. The third term of the geometric series exceeds the third term of the
arithmetic series by 3. The arithmetic series has a positive common difference and the sum of its
first three terms equals 54. Find the first term of both series. Find also the common difference
of the arithmetic series and the common ratio of the geometric series.
[8 marks]
1
, find the approximation
40
for 32.8 5 correct to four decimal places.
[7 marks]
1
1 + ax
and (1 + x) 5 are the same until the term in x2 , find the values of a and b.
If the expansion of
1 + bx
203
Hence, show that 32.8 ≈
.
[8 marks]
101
1
5
[Answer : 1 + x −
9. [STPM ]
2 2
6 3
3
2
x +
x + . . . , 2.0101 ; a = , b = ]
25
125
5
5
√
1
1
Expand (1 + 8x) 2 in the ascending power of x until the term in x3 . By taking x =
, find 3 correct
100
to five decimal places.
[4 marks]
10. [STPM ]
[Answer : 1 + 4x − 8x2 + 32x3 + . . . ; 1.73205]
a(1 − rn )
.
1−r
Give the condition on r such that lim Sn exists, and express this limit in terms of a and r. [5 marks]
Given that Sn = a + ar + ar2 + . . . + arn−1 , with a 6= 0. Show that Sn =
n→∞
(a) Determine the smallest integer n such that
(b) Find the sum to infinity
4
1+ +
3
2
n
4
4
+ ... +
> 21.
3
3
32 (1 − x)2 + 33 (1 − x)3 + . . . + 3r (1 − x)r + . . .
and determine the set of x such that this sum exists.
[Answer : r < 1,
18
[5 marks]
[5 marks]
a
9(1 − x)2
2
4
; (a) 7 ; (b)
, {x : < x < }]
1−r
3x − 2
3
3
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
11. [STPM ]
The sum and product of three consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression are −3 and 24 respectively.
Determine the three possible terms of the arithmetic progression.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 4,1,6 or 6,1,4]
12. [STPM ]
x n
Expand 1 −
where n is a positive integer in ascending powers of x until the term in x3 . If the
n
1
coefficient of x3 is − , find n.
[6 marks]
27
1
x n
(1 − x) 2 in ascending powers of x until the
With this value of n, obtain the expansion of 1 −
n
term in x3 .
[5 marks]
√
1
[4 marks]
Hence, by taking x = − , find the approximation of 10 accurate to 3 decimal places.
10
[Answer : 1 − x +
√
n − 1 2 (n − 1)(n − 2) 3
3
17
61 3
x −
x + . . . , n = 3 ; 1 − x + x2 −
x . . . ; 10 ≈ 3.162]
2
2n
6n
2
24
432
13. [STPM ]
Express
1
in partial fractions. Hence show that
(4r − 3)(4r + 1)
n
X
r=1
1
1
=
(4r − 3)(4r + 1)
4
14. [STPM ]
Given that y = √
1−
1
4n + 1
.
[6 marks]
[Answer :
1
1
−
]
4(4r − 3) 4(4r + 1)
1
1
√
, where x > − , show that, provided x 6= 0,
2
1 + 2x + 1 + x
y=
√
1 √
( 1 + 2x − 1 + x).
x
[3 marks]
Using the second form for y, express y as a series of ascending powers of x as far as the term in x2 .
Hence, by putting x =
1
, show that
100
√
[6 marks]
79407
10
√
≈
.
160000
102 + 101
[3 marks]
[Answer : y =
7
1 3
− x + x2 + . . .]
2 8
16
15. [STPM ]
Determine the set of x such that the geometric series 1 + ex + e2x + . . . converges. Find the exact value
of x so that the series converges to 2.
[6 marks]
19
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
Express
1
as partial fraction.
−1
4k 2
Hence, find a simple expression for Sn =
n
X
k=1
[4 marks]
1
and find lim Sn .
n→∞
−1
[4 marks]
4k 2
1
1
1
−
; Sn =
[Answer :
2(2k − 1) 2(2k + 1)
2
17. [STPM ]
1
1+x 2
Express
as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 .
1 + 2x
√
1
By taking x = , find 62 correct to four decimal places.
30
18. [STPM ]
1
2
7
8
[Answer : 1 − x + x2 −
r2
1−
1
2n + 1
;
1
]
2
[6 marks]
[3 marks]
√
25 3
x + . . . ; 62 = 7.8740]
16
2
in partial fractions.
+ 2r
Using the result obtained,
Express ur =
kkleemaths.com
16. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : {x : x < 0} ; x = − ln 2]
[3 marks]
1
1
1
1
(a) show that u2r = − + 2 +
+
,
[2 marks]
r r
r + 2 (r + 2)2
n
∞
∞
X
X
X
1
1
3
1
(b) show that
−
and determine the values of
ur = −
ur and
ur+1 + r .
2 n+1 n+2
3
r=1
r=1
r=1
[9 marks]
[Answer :
1
3 4
1
−
; (b) , ]
r
r+2
2 3
19. [STPM ]
√
1
Expand (1 − x) 2 in ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 . Hence, find the value of 7 correct
to five decimal places.
[5 marks]
1
2
1
8
[Answer : 1 − x − x2 −
20. [STPM ]
Prove that the sum of the first n terms of a geometric series a + ar + ar2 + . . . is
a(1 − rn )
.
1−r
1 3 √
x ; 7 ≈ 2.64609]
16
[3 marks]
(a) The sum of the first five terms of a geometric series is 33 and the sum of the first ten terms of
the geometric series is 1023. Find the common ratio and the first term of the geometric series.
3
− . . . are
2
respectively. Determine the smallest value of n such that Sn − S∞  < 0.001. [7 marks]
(b) The sum of the first n terms and the sum to infinity of the geometric series 6 − 3 +
Sn and S∞
[5 marks]
20
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : (a) r = −2, a = 3 ; (b) n = 12]
21. [STPM ]
For the geometric series 7 + 3.5 + 1.75 + 0.875 + ..., find the smallest value of n for which the different
between the sum of the first n terms and the sum to infinity is less than 0.01.
[6 marks]
22. [STPM ]
Express f (x) =
x2 − x − 1
in partial fractions.
(x + 2)(x − 3)
1
1
up to the term in 3 .
x
x
Determine the set of values of x for which this expansion is valid.
Hence, obtain an expansion of f (x) in ascending powers of
[Answer : 1 +
[5 marks]
[6 marks]
[2 marks]
1
5
5
1
−
, 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . , {x : x < −3, x > 3}]
x−3 x+2
x
x
23. [STPM ]
If x is so small that x2 and higher powers of x may be neglected, show that
x 10
≈ 29 (2 − 7x).
(1 − x)6 2 +
2
24. [STPM ]
[Answer : 11]
[4 marks]
10−Tn
5
The nth term of an arithmetic progression is Tn , show that Un = (−2)2( 17 ) is the nth term of a
2
geometric progression.
[4 marks]
∞
X
1
Un .
[4 marks]
If Tn = (17n − 14), evaluate
2
n=1
[Answer : −
10
]
3
25. [STPM ]
Express the infinite recurring decimal 0.72˙ 5˙ (= 0.7252525 . . . ) as a fraction in its lowest terms.[4 marks]
[Answer :
359
]
495
26. [STPM ]
At the beginning of this year, Mr. Liu and Miss Dora deposited RM10 000 and RM2000 respectively
in a bank. They receive an interest of 4% per annum. Mr Liu does not make any additional deposit
nor withdrawal, whereas, Miss Dora continues to deposit RM2000 at the beginning of each of the
subsequent years without any withdrawal.
(a) Calculate the total savings of Mr. Liu at the end of nth year.
(b) Calculate the total savings of Miss Dora at the end of nth year.
[3 marks]
[7 marks]
(c) Determine in which year the total savings of Miss Dora exceeds the total savings of Mr. Liu.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 10000(1.04)n ; (b) 52000[1.04n − 1]; (c) 6]
21
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
27. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
3
+ . . ., obtain the smallest value of n if the difference between the sum
2
45
.
[6 marks]
of the first n + 4 terms and the sum of first n terms is less than
64
For geometric series 6 + 3 +
[Answer : 5]
28. [STPM ]
Determine the set of values of x such that the geometric series e−x + e−2x + e−3x + . . . converges.
Find the exact value of x if the sum to infinity of the series is 3.
29. [STPM ]
Given f (x) =
x3 − 3x − 4
,
(x − 1)(x2 + 1)
[6 marks]
4
3
[Answer : {x : x > 0} ; x = ln ]
Cx + D
B
+ 2
,
[5 marks]
x−1
x +1
(b) when x is sufficiently small such that x4 and higher powers can be neglected, show that f (x) ≈
4 + 7x + 3x2 − x3 .
[4 marks]
(a) find the constants A, B, C and D such that f (x) = A +
30. [STPM ]
Show that
n
X
r2 + r − 1
r=1
r2 + r
=
n2
.
n+1
[Answer : (a) A = 1, B = −3, C = 4, D = 0]
[4 marks]
31. [STPM ]
The sum of the first n terms of a progression 3n2 . Determine the nth term of the progression, and
hence, deduce the type of progression.
[4 marks]
32. [STPM ]
Express in partial fractions
Show that
and hence, find
[Answer : 6n − 3, Arithmetic Progression]
3
.
(3r − 1)(3r + 2)
n
X
r=1
1
1
3
= −
,
(3r − 1)(3r + 2)
2 (3n + 2)
∞
X
r=1
1
.
(3r − 1)(3r + 2)
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer :
22
1
1
1
−
, ]
3r − 1 3r + 2 6
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
A sequence is defined by ur = e−(r−1) − e−r for all integers r ≥ 1. Find
deduce the value of
∞
X
ur .
r=1
34. [STPM ]
The sequence u1 , u2 , u3 , . . . is defined by un+1 = 3un , u1 = 2.
(a) Write down the first five terms of the sequence.
(b) Suggest an explicit formula for ur .
35. [STPM ]
n
X
r=1
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
33. [STPM ]
ur in terms of n, and
[5 marks]
[Answer : 1 − e−n ; 1]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 , ur = 2(3)r−1 ]
1 + ax
, where b < 1, in ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 . Determine
1 + bx
the set of values of x for which both the expansions are valid.
[7 marks]
2
Expand (1 + x) 3 and
If the two expansions are identical up to the term in x2 ,
(a) determine the values of a and b,
[3 marks]
√
212
1
3
.
[3 marks]
(b) use x = to obtain the approximation 81 ≈
8
49
(c) find, correct to five decimal places, the difference between the terms in x3 for the two expansions
1
with x = .
[2 marks]
8
2
3
1
9
[Answer : 1 + x − x2 +
4 3
5
1
x + . . . , 1 + (a − b)x + b(b − a)x2 + b2 (a − b)x3 + . . ., x < 1 ; (a) a = , b = ;
81
6
6
(c) 0.00006]
36. [STPM ]
A sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . is defined by an = 3n2 . The difference between successive terms of the
sequence forms a new sequence b1 , b2 , b3 , . . ..
(a) Express bn in terms of n.
[2 marks]
(b) Show that b1 , b2 , b3 , . . . is an arithmetic sequence, and state its first term and common difference.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the sum of the first n terms of the sequence b1 , b2 , b3 , . . . in terms of an and bn .
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 6n + 3 , (b) 9, 6 ; (c) an + bn − 3]
37. [STPM ]
˙
Write the infinite recurring decimal 0.131˙ 8(=
0.13181818 . . .) as the sum of a constant and a geometric
series. Hence, express the recurring decimal as a fraction in its lowest terms.
[4 marks]
[Answer :
23
29
]
220
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
1
in partial fractions, and deduce that
(r2 − 1)
1
1
1
1
.
≡
−
r(r2 − 1)
2 r(r − 1) r(r + 1)
kkleemaths.com
(a) Express
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
38. [STPM ]
[4 marks]
Hence, use the method of differences to find the sum of the first (n − 1) terms, Sn−1 , of the series
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...,
2
2 × 3 3 × 8 4 × 15
r(r − 1)
and deduce Sn .
[6 marks]
1
(b) Explain why the series converges to , and determine the smallest value of n such that
4
1
− Sn < 0.0025.
4
1
1
1
−
; (b) Sn−1 =
[Answer : (a)
2(r − 1) 2(r + 1)
2
[5 marks]
1
1
1 1
1
−
−
, Sn =
; (c) 13]
2 n(n + 1)
2 2 (n + 1)(n + 2)
39. [STPM ]
√
√
√
√
6
6
6
3
+
2)
and
(
3
−
2)
to
evaluate
(
3
+
2)
+
(
3 − 2)6 . Hence,
Use the binomial expansions
of
(
√
6
show that 2701 < ( 3 + 2) < 2702.
[7 marks]
40. [STPM ]
[Answer : 2702]
(a) Show that for a fixed number x 6= 1, 3x2 + 3x3 + . . . + 3xn is a geometric series, and find its sum
in terms of x and n.
[4 marks]
(b) The series Tn (x) is given by
Tn (x) = x + 4x2 + 7x3 + . . . + (3n − 2)xn , for x 6= 1.
By considering Tn (x) − xTn (x) and using the result from (a), show that
Hence, find the value of
Tn (x) =
20
X
r=1
x + 2x2 − (3n + 1)xn+1 + (3n − 2)xn+2
.
(1 − x)2
[5 marks]
2r (3r − 2), and deduce the value of
[Answer : (a) sum=
24
19
X
r=0
2r+2 (3r + 1).
[6 marks]
3x2 (xn−1 − 1)
; (b) 115343370 , 230686740]
x−1
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2: Sequences and Series
41. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
1
8
kkleemaths.com
1 − 5x
in ascending powers of x are
1 − 3x
the same. Determine the range of values of x for which both expansions are valid.
[6 marks]
1
1
−
5x
[3 marks]
Use the result (1 − 8x)4 ≈
to obtain an approximation of (0.84) 4 as a fraction.
1 − 3x
Show that the first three terms in the expansions of (1 − 8x)4 and
1
8
1
[Answer : {x : x < − , x > } , 0.84 4 ≈
42. [STPM ]
The rth term, ur , of an infinite series is given by
2r+1 2r−1
1
1
+
,
ur =
3
3
45
]
47
A
, where A is a constant.
[2 marks]
32r+1
(b) Find the sum of the first n terms of the series, and deduce the sum of the infinite series. [6 marks]
(a) Express ur in the form
[Answer : (a) ur =
10
32r+1
; (b)
n
1
5
5
]
1−
,
12
9
12
43. [STPM ]
A recursive formula for the general term of a sequence is given by ur+1 = ur + 2r + 3, where u0 = 1.
(a) Write down the first four terms of the sequence.
[2 marks]
(b) Suggest an explicit formula for the general term and verify your answer.
44. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) 1, 4, 9, 16 ; (b) ur = (r + 1)2 ]
1
A convergent sequence is defined by ur+1 = 1 + ur and u1 = 1.
3
(a) Write down each of the terms u2 , u3 and u4 in the form
r
3
1
formula for ur is given by ur =
1−
.
2
3
(b) Determine the limit of ur , as r tends to infinity.
45. [STPM ]
Show that
∞ k k−2
X
1
1
k=1
2
3
r−1 k
X
1
k=0
3
, and show that an explicit
is a convergent series. Give a reason for your answer.
Hence, determine the sum of the convergent series.
[3 marks]
[5 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b)
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer :
25
3
]
2
9
]
5
Work Smart, Not Hard
Do not share this past year paper.
Refer the full solution at kkleemaths.com.
26
2: Sequences and Series
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
3: Matrices
2
3 1
(a) Given M = −1 0 4.
1 −1 1
1 2
(b) Given matrices A = 2 3
3 1
neous equation
kkleemaths.com
1. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
Matrices
kkleemaths.com
3
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
Show that M3 − 3M2 + 8M − 24I3 = 0. Deduce M−1 .
[7 marks]
3
−5 1
7
1, B = 1
7 −5. Find AB, and hence solve the simulta2
7 −5 1
−5x + y + 7z = 8,
x + 7y − 5z = −16,
7x − 5y + z = 14.
[Answer : (a) A−1
4
1
5
=
24
1
2. [STPM
]
−4
1
5
[8 marks]
12
18 0
−9 ; (b) AB = 0 18
3
0 0
1 −2 −6
9 , find A2 and A3 . Hence, find A100 .
If A = −3 2
2
0 −3
−5
[Answer : A2 = 9
−4
3. [STPM ]
1 1 2
Given P = 1 2 1.
2 1 1
(a) Find R so that R = P2 − 4P − I3 .
(b) Show that PR + 4I3 = 0.
4. [STPM ]
The matrices A and B are given by
−6
10
−4
−6
1
9 , A3 = −3
−3
2
[4 marks]
−2
2
0
−6
−5
9 , A100 = 9
−3
−4
−6
10
−4
−6
9 ]
−3
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
1
[Answer : (a) R = 1
−3
5 0 0
−2 0
0
A = 1 8 0 , B = − −5 0 .
1 3 5
−1 −3 −2
(a) Determine whether A and B commute.
0
0 , x = 1, y = −1, z = 2]
18
1
−3
1
−3
1 ]
1
[3 marks]
(b) Show that there exist numbers m and n such that A = mB + nI, where I is the 3 x 3 identity
matrix, and find the values of m and n.
[6 marks]
27
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
3: Matrices
kkleemaths.com
5. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : (a) Commute. (b) m = −1, n = 3]
2b − 1
a2
b2
Determine the values of a, b, c so that the matrix 2a − 1
a
bc is a symmetric matrix.
b
b + c 2c − 1
6. [STPM ]
[5 marks]
[Answer : a = 1, b = 0, c = 0]
−10 4
9
2 3 4
Matrix M and N is given by M = 15 −4 −14 , and N = 4 3 1 .
−5
1
6
1 2 4
−1
Find MN and deduce N .
[4 marks]
Product X, Y , Z are assembled from three components A, B, C according to different proportions.
Each product X consists of two components of A, four components of B, and one component of C;
each product of Y consists of three components of A, three components of B, and two components of
C; each product of Z consists of four components of A, one component of B, and four components of
C. A total of 750 components of A, 1000 components of B, and 500 components of C are used. With
X, Y , Z representing the number of products of X, Y , and Z assembled, obtain a matrix equation
representing the information given.
[4 marks]
Hence, find the number of products of X, Y , and Z assembled.
[4 marks]
7. [STPM ]
[Answer : x=200, y=50, z=50.]
1 2 −3
The matrix A is given by A = 3 1 1 .
0 1 −2
(a) Find the matrix B such that B = A2 − 10I, where I is the 3× identity matrix.
(b) Find (A + I)B, and hence find (A + I)21 B.
−3
[Answer : (a) 6
3
8. [STPM ]
3 3
Matrix A is given by A = 5 4
1 2
Find the adjoint of A. Hence, find
4
1 .
3
A−1 .
1
−2
−1
5
−3
−10 ; (b) 6
−5
3
10 −1
[Answer : −14 5
6
−3
1
−2
−1
[3 marks]
[6 marks]
5
−3
−10 , 6
−5
3
1
−2
−1
5
−10]
−5
[6 marks]
5/6
−13
17 ; −7/6
1/2
−3
9. [STPM ]
The matrices P and Q, where PQ = QP, are given by
2 −2 0
−1 1
0
0 −1
P = 0 0 2 and Q = 0
a b c
0 −2 2
−1/12
5/12
−1/4
−13/12
17/12 ]
−1/4
Determine the values of a, b and c.
[5 marks]
Find the real numbers m and n for which P = mQ + nI, where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix.[5 marks]
28
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
3: Matrices
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
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[Answer : a = 0, b = 4, c = −4 ; m = −2, n = 0]
10. [STPM ]
A, B, C are square matrices such that BA = B−1 and ABC = (AB)−1 . Show that A−1 = B2 = C.
1 2 0
If B = 0 −1 0 , find C and A.
1 0 1
11. [STPM ]
The matrix A is given by
[3 marks]
[7 marks]
1
[Answer : A = 0
−2
k 1 5
A = 2 k 8 .
8 −3 2
0
1
−2
0
1
0 , C = 0
1
2
0
1
2
0
0]
1
Determine all values of k for which the equation AX = B, where B is a 3 × 1 matrix, does not have a
unique solution.
[3 marks]
For each of these values of k, find the solution, if any, of the equation
1
AX = −2 .
4
[7 marks]
[Answer : k = 3, k = 5 ; For k = 3, no solution. For k = 5, x =
12. [STPM ]
k
1 3
Determine the values of k such that the determinant of the matrix 2k + 1 −3 2 is 0. [4 marks]
0
k 2
13. [STPM ]
17
12 30
7
− t, y = − − t, z = t]
23 23
23 23
1
4
[Answer : k = − , k = 2]
5 2 3
a
1 −18
−1 12 and PQ = 2I, where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix,
If P = 1 −4 3 , Q = b
3 1 2
−13 −1
c
determine the values of a, b and c. Hence find P−1 .
[8 marks]
Two groups of workers have their drinks at a stall. The first group comprising ten workers have five
cups of tea, two cups of coffee and three glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM11.80. The second
group of six workers have three cups of tea, a cup of coffee and two glasses of fruit juice at a total cost
of RM7.10. The cost of a cup of tea and three glasses of fruit juice is the same as the cost of four cups
of coffee. If the costs of a cup of tea, a cup of coffee and a glass of fruit juice are RM x, RM y and
RM z respectively, obtain a matrix equation to represent the above information. Hence determine the
cost of each drink.
[6 marks]
11/2
1/2
[Answer : a = 11, b = −7, c = 22 ; −7/2 −1/2
−13/2 −1/2
29
−9
6 ; x=RM 1, y=RM 1.30, z=RM 1.40]
11
kkleemaths.com
14. [STPM ]
Consider the system of equations
x + y + pz = q,
3x − y − 2z = 1,
6x + 2y + z = 4,
for the two cases: p = 2, q = 1 and p = 1, q = 2.
3: Matrices
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
For each case, find the unique solution if it exists or determine the consistency of the system if there
is no unique solution.
[7 marks]
[Answer : For p = 2, q = 1, unique solution, x = 1/2, y = 1/2, z = 0.
For p = 1, q = 2, no unique solution. The system is not consistent.]
15. [STPM ]
The matrices A and B are given by
−35 19 18
−1 2 1
A = −3 1 4 , B = −27 −13 45 .
−3
12
5
0 1 2
Find the matrix A2 B and deduce the inverse of A.
Hence, solve the system of linear equations
[5 marks]
x − 2y − z = −8,
3x − y − 4z = −15,
y + 2z = 4.
121 0
[Answer : 0 121
0
0
16. [STPM ]
Consider the system of equations
[5 marks]
0
−2/11 −3/11 7/11
0 , 6/11 −2/11 1/11 ; x = −3, y = 2, z = 1]
121
−3/11 1/11 5/11
λx + y + z = 1,
x + λy + z = λ,
x + y + λz = λ2 ,
where λ is a constant.
(a) Determine the values of λ for which this system has a unique solution, infinitely many solutions
and no solution.
[5 marks]
(b) Find the unique solution in terms of λ.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) For unique solution, λ 6= 1, −2. For infinitely many solution, λ = 1.
17. [STPM ]
1
0 0
Matrix A is given by A = 1 −1 0 .
1 −2 1
30
For no solution, λ = −2.
λ+1
λ+1
(λ + 1)2
(b) x = −
,y = −
,z =
]
λ+2
λ+2
λ+2
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
matrix, and deduce A−1 .
4 3
2 1 .
0 2
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(a) Show that A2 = I, where I is the 3 × 3 identity
1
(b) Find the matrix B which satisfies BA = 0
−1
3: Matrices
1
[Answer : (a) 1
1
18. [STPM ]
(a) The matrix P, Q and R
1 5
2 −2
P=
1 −3
6x + 10y + 8z = 4500
x − 2y + z = 0
x + 2y + 3z = 1080
32
72
4 , 0
12
0
19. [STPM ]
The matrix A is given by
0
72
0
0
1/18
7/72
0 , 1/72 −5/72
72
−1/36 1/72
−13/72
−1/72 ; (b) x = 220, y = 190, z = 160
11/72
]
1 1 c
A = 1 2 3
1 c 1
(a) Find the values of c for which the equation AX = B does not have a unique solution.
(b) For each value of c, find the solutions, if any, of the equation
1
AX = −3 .
−11
20. [STPM ]
3
1]
2
[5 marks]
and B is a 3 × 1 matrix.
−10
−4
−4
[5 marks]
(b) Using the result in (a), solve the system of linear equations
24 40
[Answer : (a) 4 −8
4
8
8
0 0
−1 0 ; (b) 3
1
−2 1
[4 marks]
are given by
6
−13 −50 −33
4
7 −13
4 , Q = −1 −6 −5 , R = 1 −5 −1
2
7
20
15
−2 1
11
Find matrices PQ and PQR and hence, deduce (PQ)−1 .
[4 marks]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[3 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) c 6= 1, 4 ; (b) For c = 1, no solution. For c = 4, x = 5 − 5t, y = −4 + t, z = t]
1 2
1
3 .
Matrix P is given by P = 2 1
2 −1 −1
31
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
3: Matrices
(a) Find the determinant and adjoint of P. Hence, find P−1 .
[6 marks]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(b) A factory assembles three types of toys Q, R and S. The total time taken to assemble one unit
of R and one unit of S exceeds the time taken to assemble two units of Q by 8 minutes. One
unit of Q, two units of R and one unit of S take 31 minutes to be assembled. The time taken to
assemble two units of Q, one unit of R and three units of S is 48 minutes.
If x, y and z represent the time, in minutes, taken to assemble each unit of toys Q, R and S
respectively,
i. write a system of linear equations to represent the above information,
ii. using the results in (a), determine the time taken to assemble each type of toy.
2
[Answer : (a) 14, 8
−4
21. [STPM ]
A and B are two matrices such that
−4 −3 6
A = −2 −2 4
2
2 −3
1
−3
5
(b) Using A
obtained in (a), find B.
−2 6 0
and A2 B = 2 0 4 .
0 4 2
22. [STPM ]
Matrix A is given by
−2
[Answer : (a) 2 , 2
0
[6 marks]
[4 marks]
3 0
−1
0 4 , 1
2 2
0
3/2
0
1
1
x 1
A = −1 −1 0
1
0 0
and A2 = A−1 . Determine the value of x.
23. [STPM ]
Consider the system of equations
[5 marks]
1/14
5/14
−3/14 −1/14 ; (b)(ii) 5, 8, 10 ]
5/14 −3/14
1/7
5
−1, 4/7
−2/7
−3
(a) Find the determinant and adjoint of A. Hence, determine A−1 .
−1
[2 marks]
0
−8
2 ; (b) 9
1
0
27
2
18
0
18]
10
[7 marks]
[Answer : 2]
x + 3y + 2z = −2,
3x + ay + 2z = 2a − 1,
2x + 6y + az = b.
(a) If a 6= 9 and a 6= 4, show that the system has a unique solution.
(b) If a = 5 and b = 6, find the unique solution.
[5 marks]
[3 marks]
(c) If a = 4, show that the system does not have a solution unless b = −4.
[3 marks]
(d) If a = 9, determine whether there are any values of b for which the system has a solution.[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) x =
32
77
55
131
, y = − , z = 10 ; (d) b = −
]
4
4
4
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
3: Matrices
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
24. [STPM ]
The matrices P and Q, where PQ = QP, are given by
2 −2 0
−1 1
0
0 −1
P = 0 0 2 and Q = 0
a b c
0 −2 2
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
Determine the values of a, b and c.
[5 marks]
Find the real numbers m and n for which P = mQ + nI, where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix.[5 marks]
[Answer : a = 0, b = 4, c = −4 ; m = −2, n = 0]
25. [STPM ]
Using an augmented matrix and elementary row operations, find the solution of the system of equations
3x − 2y − 5z = −5,
x + 3y − 2z = −6,
5x − 4y + z = 11.
26. [STPM ]
A system of linear equations is given by
x + y + z = k,
x − y + z = 0,
4x + 2y + λz = 3.
[9 marks]
[Answer : x = 1, y = −1, z = 2]
where λ and k are real numbers. Show that the augmented matrix for the system may be reduced to
k
1 1
1
0 −2
−k .
0
0 0 λ − 4 3 − 3k
[5 marks]
Hence, determine the values of λ and k so that the system of linear equations has
(a) a unique solution,
(b) infinitely many solutions,
(c) no solution.
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
[Answer : (a) λ 6= 4 ; (b) λ = 4, k = 1 ; (c) λ = 4, k 6= 1]
27. [STPM ]
5
4 −2
5 −2.
Given that matrix M = 4
−2 −2 2
Show that there exist nonzero constants a and b such that M2 = aM + bI, where I is the 3 × 3 identity
matrix.
[6 marks]
Hence, find the inverse of the matrix M.
[3 marks]
33
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
3: Matrices
28. [STPM ]
A matrix P is given by
−5 0 2
P = 0 2 −1 .
−1 4 −2
By using elementary row operations, find the inverse of P.
29. [STPM ]
A system of linear equations is given by
x − 3y
=
2,
px
+ qz = −1,
py + z = −1.
−0.4
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2]
0.9
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0.6
[Answer : a = 11, b = −10 ; −0.4
0.2
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[5 marks]
0 2 −1
[Answer : 1/4 3 −5/4]
1/2 5 −5/2
(a) Write the augmented matrix for the system of linear equations, and show that it may be reduced
to
1 −3
0
2
0 p
1
−1 .
0 0 3 − q 2p − 2
[5 marks]
(b) Determine the values of p and q such that the system has infinitely many solutions, and find the
general solution.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) p = 1 an q = 3 ,x = −1 − 3t, y = −t − 1, z = t]
30. [STPM ]
The matrices M and N are given by
1 b ca
1 a bc
M = 1 b ca , N = 1 a bc .
3 3c 3ab
1 c ab
Show that det M = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a).
Deduce det N.
31. [STPM ]
The variables x, y and z satisfy the system of linear equations
where k is a real constant.
2x + y + 2z = 1,
4x + 2y + z = k,
8x + 4y + 7z = k 2 ,
(a) Write a matrix equation for the system of linear equations.
34
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[1 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
3: Matrices
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(b) Reduce the augmented matrix to rowechelon form, and show that the system of linear equations
does not have a unique solution.
[6 marks]
(c) Determine all the values of k for which the system of linear equations has infinitely many solutions,
and find the solutions in the case when k is positive.
[6 marks]
(d) Find the set of values of k for which the system of linear equations is inconsistent.
5
3
[Answer : (c) k = , 2 , x =
1−t
5
, y = t, z = 0 ; (d) {k : k ∈ R, k 6= − , k 6= 2}]
2
3
32. [STPM ]
Using Gaussian elimination, solve the system of linear equations
x + y − z = 0
2x − y − 2z = 4 .
5x − y + z = 2
33. [STPM ]
[8 marks]
2
(b) Show that P(P − 6P + 11I) = 6I, where I is 3 x 3 identity matrix, and deduce P
34. [STPM ]
A system of linear equations is given by
x + y +
z = 1,
2x + 3y + 2z = 3,
2x + 3y + mz = m2 − 1.
(a) Use Gaussian elimination to reduce the augmented matrix for the system above.
(b) Determine the value of m for which the system of linear equations
i. has a unique solutions,
ii. has infinitely many solutions,
iii. has no solution.
35
4
3
1
3
[Answer : x = , y = − , z = −1]
1 1 2
A matrix P is given by P = 0 2 2.
−1 1 3
(a) Find P2 − 6P + 11I.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
−1
.
[5 marks]
[Answer :
]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer :
]
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4: Complex Numbers
√
2 + ai
√ is a real number and find this real number.
Determine the value of a if
1 + 2i
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1. [STPM ]
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Complex Numbers
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4
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
[4 marks]
[Answer : a = 2,
2. [STPM ]
If (x + iy)2 = i, find all the real values of x and y.
√
2]
[6 marks]
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
[Answer : x = √ , y = √ ; x = − √ , y = − √ ]
3. [STPM ]
√
The complex numbers z1 and z2 satisfy the equation z 2 = 2 − 2 3i.
(a) Express z1 and z2 in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers.
(b) Represent z1 and z2 in an Argand diagram.
(c) For each of z1 and z2 , find the modulus, and the argument in radians.
[Answer : (a) z1 =
√
[6 marks]
[1 marks]
[4 marks]
√
5π
π
3 − i, z2 = − 3 + i ; (c) z1  = 2, z2  = 2 , arg(z1 )=− , arg(z2 )= ]
6
6
4. [STPM ]
√
Let zl = 1, z2 = x + iy, z3 = y + ix, where x, y ∈ R, x > 0 and i = −1. If z1 , z2 , . . ., zn is a geometric
progression,
(a) find x and y,
(b) express z2 and z3 in the polar form,
(c) find the smallest positive integer n such that z1 + z2 + . . . + zn = 0,
(d) find the product z1 z2 z3 . . . zn , for the value of n in (c).
√
[Answer : (a) x =
√
2(1 + 3i)
, where i = −1.
2
(1 − 3i)
6. [STPM ]
If z = cos θ + i sin θ, show that
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
[3 marks]
π
π
1
π
3
π
, y = ; (b) z2 = cos
+ i sin
, z3 = cos + i sin ; (c) 12 ; (d) 1]
2
2
6
6
3
3
5. [STPM ]
Simplify
(a)
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) −
13
9
− i]
25 25
1
1
1
= (1 − i tan θ) and express
in a similar form. [4 marks]
1 + z2
2
1 − z2
7. [STPM ]
Find the roots of the equation (z − iα)3 = i3 , where α is a real constant.
36
[Answer :
1
(1 + i cot θ)]
2
[3 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
4: Complex Numbers
[2 marks]
3
(b) Solve the equation [z − (1 + i)] = (2i) .
2
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3
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(a) Show that the points representing the roots of the above equation form an equilateral triangle.
[5 marks]
(c) If ω is a root of the equation ax + bx + c = 0, where a, b, c ∈ R and a 6= 0, show that its conjugate
ω ∗ is also a root of this equation. Hence, obtain a polynomial equation of degree six with three
of its roots also the roots of the equation (z − i)3 = i3 .
[5 marks]
[Answer : (1 + α)i , −
√
√
√
√
3
3
1
1
+ (α − )i ,
+ (α − )i ; (b) 1+3i , 1 − 3 1 + 3 ; (c) x6 + 3x4 − 3x2 + 4 = 0]
2
2
2
2
8. [STPM ]
1
.
1−z
If z is a complex number such that z = 1, find the real part of
[6 marks]
[Answer :
1
]
2
9. [STPM ]
The equation z 4 − 2z 3 + kz 2 − 18z + 45 = 0 has an imaginary root. Obtain all the roots of the equation
and the value of the real constant k.
[8 marks]
10. [STPM ]
[Answer : Roots=1 − 2i, 1 + 2i, 3i, −3i , k = 14]
(a) Find the roots of ω 4 = −16i, and sketch the roots on an Argand diagram.
11. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) 2 cos
4k − 1
8
π + i sin
4k − 1
8
(a) Find the fifth roots of unity in the form cos θ + i sin θ, where −π < θ ≤ π.
[Answer : (a) cos
2kπ
5
+ i sin
[5 marks]
2kπ
5
π , k = 0, 1, 2, 3]
[4 marks]
, k = −2, −1, 0, 1, 2]
12. [STPM ]
√
The complex number z is such that z − 2z ∗ = 3 − 3i, where z ∗ denotes the conjugate of z.
(a) Express z in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers.
(b) Find the modulus and argument of z.
[3 marks]
(c) Represent z and its conjugate in an Argand diagram.
13. [STPM ]
Show that
1 + cos 2θ + i sin 2θ
= i cot θ.
1 − cos 2θ − i sin 2θ
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
√
π
3
[Answer : (a) z = − 3 − i ; (b) modulus=2, argument=− ]
π
Hence, show that the roots of the equation (z + i)5 = (z − i)5 are ± cot
and ± cot
5
2 π
2 2π
2 π
2 2π
Deduce the values of cot
+ cot
and cot
cot
.
5
5
5
5
37
[2 marks]
2π
.[6 marks]
5
[4 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
4: Complex Numbers
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2i
.
(1 + 3i)2
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Given that z 2 =
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14. [STPM ]
(a) Find the real and imaginary parts of z 2 . Hence, obtain z1 and z2 which satisfy the above equation.
[10 marks]
2
(b) Given that z1 and z3 are roots of 5x + ax + b = 0, where a and b are integers.
i. Find the values of a and b.
ii. Determine z3 and deduce the relationship between z1 and z3 .
[Answer : (a) real part=
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
4
2 1
2 1
3
, imaginary part=−
, z1 = − i, z 2 = − + i
25
25
5 5
5 5
2
z3 = +
5
; (b)(i) a = −4, b = 1 (ii)
1
i. z3 is conjugate of z1 .]
5
15. [STPM ]
In an Argand diagram the points R and S represent the complex numbers w = u + iv and z = x + iy
z−i
respectively which are related by w =
.
1 − iz
(a) Express u and v in terms of x and y.
[Answer : u =
[3 marks]
x2 + y 2 − 1
2x
,
v
=
]
x2 + y 2 + 2y + 1
x2 + y 2 + 2y + 1
16. [STPM ]
√
Express the complex number z = 1 − 3i in polar form.
1
1
Hence, find z 5 + 5 and z 5 − 5 .
z
z
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
h
π
π i 1025 1023√3 1023 1025√3
+
i,
+
i]
[Answer : 2 cos −
+i −
,
3
3
64
64
64
64
17. [STPM ]
√
The complex number z is given by z = 1 + 3i.
(a) Find z and arg z.
[3 marks]
√
(b) Using de Moivre’s theorem, show that z = 16 − 16 3i.
(c) Express
z4
z∗
5
[3 marks]
in the form x + yi, where z ∗ is the conjugate of z and x, y ∈ R.
[Answer : (a) 2,
[3 marks]
√
π
; (c) 4 − 4 3i]
3
18. [STPM ]
√
√
√
√
Express the complex number 6−i 2 in polar form. Hence, solve the equation z 3 = 6−i 2.[9 marks]
19. [STPM ]
√
π
π
6
6
√
11π
11π √
13π
13π √
π
π
z = 2[cos(
) + i sin(
)], 2[cos(−
) + i sin(−
)], 2[cos(− ) + i sin(− )]]
18
18
18
18
18
18
The complex numbers z and w are given by z = −1 + i and w =
38
[Answer : 2 2[cos(− ) + i sin(− )] ;
i+z
.
1 − iz
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
4: Complex Numbers
[3 marks]
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(b) Express w in polar form.
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[3 marks]
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(a) Find w in the form x + yi, where x, y ∈ R. State the real and imaginary parts of w.
(c) Using de Moivre’s theorem, determine the cube roots of w. Give your answer in cartesian form.
[5 marks]
√
√
3 1
3 1
π
π
[Answer : (a) i ; (b) w = 1(cos + i sin ) ; (c)
+ i,−
+ i , i]
2
2
2
2
2
2
39
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5: Analytic Geometry
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Analytic Geometry
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5
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
Show that the midpoints of the parallel chords of the parabola y 2 = 4ax with gradient 2 lie on a
straight line parallel to the xaxis.
[7 marks]
2. [STPM ]
The sum of the distance of the point P from the point (4,0) and the distance of P from the origin is
(x − 2)2
y2
8 units. Show that the locus of P is the ellipse
+
= 1 and sketch the ellipse.
[7 marks]
16
12
3. [STPM ]
Find the perpendicular distance from the centre of the circle x2 + y 2 − 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 to the straight
line 3x + 4y = 28. Hence, find the shortest distance between the circle and the straight line. [7 marks]
[Answer : 4, 1]
4. [STPM ]
Show
that x2 + y 2 − 2ax − 2by + c = 0 is the equation of the circle with centre (a, b) and radius
p
a2 + b2 − c.
[3 marks]
C3
C1
C2
The above figure shows three circles C1 , C2 and C3 touching one another, where their centres lie on a
straight line. If C1 and C2 have equations x2 + y 2 − 10x − 4y + 28 = 0 and x2 + y 2 − 16x + 4y + 52 = 0
respectively. Find the equation of C3 .
[7 marks]
[Answer : 5x2 + 5y 2 − 74x + 12y + 156 = 0]
5. [STPM ]
The equation of a hyperbola is 4x2 − 9y 2 − 24x − 18y − 9 = 0.
(a) Obtain the standard form for the equation of the hyperbola.
(b) Find the vertices and the equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbola.
[Answer : (a)
[3 marks]
[6 marks]
(x − 3)2
(y + 1)2
2
−
= 1 ; (b) Vertices are (0,1) and (6,1). Asymptotes are y = x − 3 and
32
22
3
2
y = − x + 1]
3
6. [STPM ]
c
Show that the parametric equations x = ct and y = , where c is a constant, define a point on the
t
rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 .
[2 marks]
The points P , Q, R and S, with parameters p, q, r and s respectively, lie on the rectangular hyperbola
xy = c2 .
40
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
5: Analytic Geometry
(a) Show that pqrs = −1 if the chords P Q and RS are perpendicular.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) y = −
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(b) Find the equation of the line passing through the points P and Q. Deduce the equation of the
tangent to the rectangular hyperbola at the point P .
[4 marks]
c
c
1
2c
1
x + + , y = − 2x + ]
pq
p q
p
p
7. [STPM ]
The equation of an ellipse is 3x2 + y 2 + 30x + 10y + 79 = 0.
(a) Obtain the standard form for the equation of the ellipse.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the coordinates of the centre C, the focus F1 , and the focus F2 of the ellipse.
[4 marks]
(c) Sketch the ellipse, and indicate the points C, F1 and F2 on the ellipse.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a)
√
√
(x + 5)2
(y + 5)2
+
= 1 ; (b) C(−5, −5) , F1 (−5, −5 + 14) , F2 (−5, −5 − 14)]
7
21
8. [STPM ]
The parametric equations of a conic are x = a cos θ − 3 and y = b sin θ + 4, where a and b are positive
constants and 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.
(a) Find the standard form of the equation of the conic, and identify the type of conic.
[3 marks]
(b) If a = b = 5, determine and sketch the conic.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
41
(x + 3)2
(y − 4)2
+
= 1 ; (b) Circle]
2
a
b2
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6: Vectors
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Vectors
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6
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
Find a vector r that is perpendicular to the vectors p = i + j and q = 2j − k. Express vector w = 2j + k
in terms of p, q, and r.
[8 marks]
2
3
1
3
2
3
[Answer : r = −i + j + 2k ; w = p + q + r]
2. [STPM ]
Equation of plane π is given by r = j + 2k + λ(i − 3j − 2k) + µ(2i + j + k). Find the equation of the
plane that contains the point (0, 3, −3) and parallel to π.
[6 marks]
[Answer : x + 5y − 7z = 36]
3. [STPM ]
The position vector of points A and B respect to O are a = 2i − 2j − 9k and b = −2i + 4j + 15k
respectively. Find the vector equation for the line passes through the midpoint of AB and perpendicular
to the plane OAB.
[3 marks]
[Answer : r = j + 3k + λ(3i − 6j + 2k)]
4. [STPM ]
Given that origin, O and position vectors of P , Q, R, and S are 4i + 3j + 4k, 6i + j + 2k, 9j − 6k and
−i + j + k respectively. Find the equation of the plane OP Q.
[2 marks]
Show that the point S lies on the plane OP Q.
Show that the line RS are perpendicular to the plane OP Q.
Find the acute angle between the line P R and the plane OP Q.
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : x + 8y − 7z = 0 ; 60◦ ]
5. [STPM ]
Forces (4i+3j) N, (3i+7j) N, and (−5i−6j) N act at a point. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant
force and the cosine of the angle between the resultant force and the unit vector i.
[5 marks]
√
[Answer : 2 5 N,
√
5
]
5
6. [STPM ]
Position vectors of the points P and Q relative to the origin O are 2i and 3i + 4j respectively. Find
−−→
−−→
the angle between vector OP and vector OQ
[Answer : 53.1◦ ]
7. [STPM ]
Given that points O, P , and Q noncolinear, R lies on the line P Q. Position vector of P , Q, and R
respect to O are p, q, and r respectively. Show that r = µp + (1 − µ)q, where µ is a real number.
[2 marks]
8. [STPM ]
Prove that the planes ax + by + cz = d and a0 x + b0 y + c0 z = d0 are parallel if and only if a : b : c =
a0 : b0 : c0 . Find the equation of the plane π that is parallel to the plane 3x + 2y − 5z = 2 and contains
the point (1, 1, 3).
[5 marks]
Find the perpendicular distance between the plane π and the plane 3x + 2y − 5z = 2.
42
[2 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
6: Vectors
9√
38]
19
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[Answer : 3x + 2y − 5z = −16 ;
9. [STPM ]
Let u = cos φ i + sin φ j and v = cos θ i + sin θ j, where i and j are perpendicular unit vectors. Show
that
1
1
u − v = sin (φ − θ).
2
2
[5 marks]
10. [STPM ]
The vector equations of two intersecting lines are given by r = 2i + j + λ(i + j + 2k) and r =
2i + 2j − k + µ(i + 2j + k).
(a) Determine the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines.
(b) Find the acute angle between the two lines.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) (1, 0, −2) ; (b) 33.6◦ ]
11. [STPM ]
The line l has equation r = 2i + j + λ(2i + k) and the plane π has equation r = i + 3j − k + µ(2i +
k) + v(−i + 4j).
(a) The points L and M have coordinates (0, 1, −1) and (1, −5, −2) respectively. Show that L lies
on l and M lies on π.
[3 marks]
Determine the sine of the acute angle between the line LM and the plane π and the shortest distance
from L to π.
[6 marks]
12. [STPM ]
[Answer :
4
1
If the angle between the vectors a =
and b =
is 135◦ , find the value of p.
8
p
2
2
√ , ]
3 38 3
[6 marks]
[Answer : −3]
13. [STPM ]
The planes π1 and π2 with equations x − y + 2z = 1 and 2x + y − z = 0 respectively intersect in the
line l. The point A has coordinates (1,0, 1).
(a) Calculate the acute angle between π1 and π2 .
[2 marks]
1
2
(b) Explain why the vector −1 × 1 is in the direction of l. Hence, show that the equation
2
−1
of l is
0
−1
r = 1 + t 5 .
1
3
where t is a parameter.
[5 marks]
(c) Find the equation of the plane passing through A and containing l.
[3 marks]
(d) Find the equation of the plane passing through A and perpendicular to l.
[2 marks]
43
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
6: Vectors
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[3 marks]
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(e) Determine the distance from A to l.
r
◦
[Answer : (a) 80.4 ; (c) 3x + 3y − 4z + 1 = 0 ; (d) −x + 5y + 3z = 2 ; (e)
34
]
35
14. [STPM ]
The position vectors of the points A, B, C and D, relative to an origin, are i + 3j, −5i − 3j, (x − 3)i − 6j
and (x + 3)i respectively.
(a) Show that, for any value of x, ABCD is a parallelogram.
(b) Determine the value of x for which ABCD is a rectangle.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) x = 1]
15. [STPM ]
The diagram below shows noncollinear points O, A and B, with P on the line OA such that OP :
P A = 2 : 1 and Q on the line AB such that AQ : QB = 2 : 3. The lines P Q and OB produced meet
−→
−−→
at the point R. If OA = a and OB = b,
R
Q
B
A
P
O
−−→
1
2
(a) show that P Q = − a + b,
15
5
(b) find the position vector of R, relative to O, in terms of b.
[5 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) 4b]
16. [STPM ]
Two straight lines l1 and l2 have equations −2x + 4 = 2y − 4 = z − 4 and 2x = y + 1 = −z + 3
respectively. Determine whether l1 and l2 intersect.
[7 marks]
[Answer : No intersecton.]
17. [STPM ]
The position vectors of the points A, B and C, with respect to the origin O, are a, b and c respectively.
The points L, M , P and Q are the midpoints of OA, BC, OB, and AC respectively.
1
1
(a) Show that the position vector of any point on the line LM is a + λ(b + c − a) for some scalar
2
2
λ, and express the position vector of any point on the line P Q in terms of a, b and c. [6 marks]
(b) Find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line LM and the line P Q.
44
[4 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
6: Vectors
1
2
1
2
1
4
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[Answer : (a) b + µ(a + c − b) ; (b) (a + b + c)]
18. [STPM ]
Find the equation of the plane which is parallel to the plane 3x + 2y − 6z − 24 = 0 and passes through
the point (1, 0, 0). Hence, determine the distance between these two planes.
[6 marks]
19. [STPM ]
[Answer : 3x + 2y − 6z − 3 = 0 , 3]
0
1
The points A and B lie on the line r = 3 + λ −1, and the distance of each point is three units
6
−4
from the origin O.
(a) Determine the coordinates of A and B.
(b) Find the area of the triangle OAB.
20. [STPM ]
[6 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) A(1, 2, 2), B(2, 1, −2) ; (b) 4.5]
(a) Find the equation of line l1 , passing through points A and B, where the position vectors of points
A and B are a and b respectively.
[1 marks]
(b) R is a point on the line l1 in (a). If point C has position vector c,
−→
i. find CR in terms of vectors a, b and c.
−→ −−→
ii. prove that CR × AB = a × b + b × c + c × a,
21. [STPM ]
22. [STPM ]
The line l has the equation
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) r = a + λ(b − a) ; (b)(i) (1 − λ)a + λb − c]
Find the coordinates of the point P on the line
Q(9, 4, −3).
[1 marks]
y−1
z−3
x
=
=
which is closest to the point
5
1
−2
[6 marks]
[Answer : P (10, 3, −1)]
x+7
y−4
z−5
=
=
and the plane π has the equation 4x − 2y − 5z = 8.
1
−3
2
(a) Determine whether the line l is parallel to the plane π.
[5 marks]
(b) Find the equation of the plane that is perpendicular to the plane π and contains the points
Q(−2, 0, 3) and R(2, 1, 7).
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) parallel. (b) x + 12y − 4z = −14]
23. [STPM ]
The position vectors of three noncollinear points B, C and D relative to the origin O are b, c and d
respectively. If b · (c − d) = 0 and c · (d − b) = 0, show that BC is perpendicular to OD.
[4 marks]
45
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
6: Vectors
24. [STPM ]
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(a) Determine the values of p and q.
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1
3
5
1
0
The line r = 2 + λ p is perpendicular to the plane r = 0 + s −1 + t 1, where p and
3
1
1
q
2
q are constants.
[5 marks]
(b) Using the values of p and q in (a), find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line
and the plane.
[5 marks]
25. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) p = −2, q = −5 ; (b) 4i + 4k]
Find the equation of the plane which contains the straight line x − 3 =
dicular to the plane 3x + 2y − z = 3.
z+1
y−4
=
and is perpen3
2
[6 marks]
[Answer : x − y + z = −2]
26. [STPM ]
The position vectors a, b and c of three points A, B and C respectively are given by
a = i + j + k,
b = i + 2j + 3k,
c = i − 3j + 2k.
(a) Find a unit vector parallel to a + b + c.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the acute angle between a and a + b + c.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the vector of the form i + λj + µk perpendicular to both a and b.
[2 marks]
(d) Determine the position vector of the point D which is such that ABCD is a parallelogram having
BD as a diagonal.
[3 marks]
(e) Calculate the area of the parallelogram ABCD.
[4 marks]
1
5
[Answer : (a) √ (i + 2k) ; (b) 39.2◦ ; (c) i − 2j + k ; (d) i − 4j ; (e) 9]
27. [STPM ]
Show that the point A(2, 0, 0) lies on both planes 2x − y + 4z = 4 and x − 3y − 2z = 2. Hence, find
the vector equation of the line of intersection of both planes.
[5 marks]
[Answer : r = 2i + λ(14i + 8j − 5k)]
28. [STPM ]
−→
−−→
A tetrahedron OABC has a base OAB and a vertex C, with OA = 2i + j + k, OB = 4i − j + 3k and
−−→
OC = 2i − j − 3k.
−−→
−→
−−→
(a) Show that OC is perpendicular to both OA and OB.
◦
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate, to the nearest 0.1 , the angle between the edge AC and base OAB of the tetrahedron.
[5 marks]
(c) Calculate the area of the base OAB and the volume of the tetrahedron.
46
[7 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
6: Vectors
√
14,
14
]
3
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[Answer : (b) 56.8◦ ; (c)
29. [STPM ]
Three vectors a = pi + qj, b = −5i + j and c = 4i + 7j are such that a and b are perpendicular and
the scalar product of a and c is 78.
(a) Determine the values of p and q.
(b) Find the angle between a and c.
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) p = 2, q = 10 ; (b) 18.4◦ ]
30. [STPM ]
A parallelepiped for which OABC, DEF G, ABF E and OCGD are rectangles is shown in the diagram
below.
−→
−−→
The unit vectors i and j are parallel to OA and OC respectively, and the unit vector k is perpendicular
−→ −−→
−−→
to the plane OABC, where O is the origin. The vectors OA, OB and OD are 4i, 4i + 3j and i + 5k
respectively.
√
13 35
(a) Show that cos ∠BEG =
.
[6 marks]
175
(b) Calculate the area of the triangle AEG.
[6 marks]
(c) Find the equation of the plane AEG.
[Answer : (b)
47
[3 marks]
1√
634 ; (c) 15x + 20y − 3z = 60]
2
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7: Limits and Continuity
(
(x − 1)2 , x ≤ 1,
f (x) =
a
1− ,
x > 1.
x
If f is continuous at x = 1, determine the value of a and sketch the graph of f .
2. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
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1. [STPM ]
Function f is defined by
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Limits and Continuity
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7
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
[5 marks]
[Answer : a = 1]
x
x<1
1 + e ,
f (x) = 3,
x=1
2 + e − x, x > 1
(a) Find lim f (x) and lim f (x). Hence, determine whether f is continuous at x = 1.
[4 marks]
(b) Sketch the graph of f .
[3 marks]
x→1−
x→1+
3. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
x − 1,
f (x) = x + 2
ax2 − 1,
[Answer : (a) 1 + e , 1 + e ; not continuous ]
0≤x<2
x≥2
where a ∈ R. Find the value of a if lim f (x) exists. With this value of a, determine whether f is
x→2
continuous at x = 2.
[6 marks]
4. [STPM ]
[Answer : a =
5
; f continuous at x = 2]
16
1
1
The xcoordinate of the point of intersection of the curves y = x2 + and y = 2 , where x > 0, is p.
x
x
Show that 0.5 < p < 1.
5. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
(
x2 − 1,
x ≤ 1,
f (x) =
k(x + 1), x > 1.
(a) If f is continuous, find the value of k.
6. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
(√
f (x) =
x + 1,
x − 1,
48
−1 ≤ x < 1,
otherwise.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) k = 0]
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x→1−
√
[Answer : (a) 0 , 0 ,
7. [STPM ]
√
2 , 0 ; (b) continuous at x = −1 , discontinuous at x = 1]
f (x) − f (x + h)
.
h→0
h
x, find lim
8. [STPM ]
The graph of a function f is as follows:
(a) State the domain and range of f .
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x→1+
(b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = −1 and x = 1.
Given x > 0 and f (x) =
7: Limits and Continuity
lim f (x), lim f (x) and lim f (x).
x→−1+
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lim f (x),
x→−1−
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(a) Find
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1
[Answer : − √ ]
2 x
[2 marks]
(b) State whether f is a onetoone function or not. Give a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
(c) Determine whether f is continuous or not at x = −1. Give a reason for your answer.
[3 marks]
9. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
(a) Find lim f (x).
x→−1
[Answer : (a) D={x : −3 ≤ x < −1, −1 < x ≤ 2} , R={y : −1 < y < 2} ;
(b) f is not one to one function ; (c) f discontinuous at x = −1.]
(√
f (x) =
x + 1,
x − 1,
x ≥ −1;
otherwise.
(b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = −1.
10. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
4
√
,
x < 0,
√ 4 − x
f (x) =
2,
x = 0,
x
√
, x > 0.
1+x−1
(a) Show that lim f (x) exists.
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0 ; (b) Yes.]
[5 marks]
x→0
49
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
7: Limits and Continuity
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[2 marks]
[XXAnswer : (a) 2 ; (b) f is not continuous at x = 0.]
11. [STPM ]
Evaluate
√
2x2 + 25 − 5
,
x→0
x2
√
9x2 + 1
(b) lim
.
x→∞ 3x − 1
(a) lim
12. [STPM ]
Given that f (x) =
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(b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = 0.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
3x2 + x
. Find lim f (x) and lim f (x).
x→∞
3x2 − 8x − 3
x→− 13
13. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
1
; (b) 1]
5
[4 marks]
[XXAnswer :
x
1 − e , x < 0,
f (x) = 1,
x = 0,
x
e − 1, x > 0.
(a) Determine the existence of the limit of f (x) as x approaches 0.
1
, 1]
10
[4 marks]
(b) State, with a reason, whether f is continuous at x = 0. Hence, give the interval(s) on which f is
continuous.
[3 marks]
(c) Sketch the graph of f .
14. [STPM ]
Function f is defined by
[3 marks]
[XXAnswer : (a) 0, (b) (−∞, 0) ∪ (0, ∞)]
2
x − 4 , x 6= 2,
f (x) = x − 2
4,
x = 2.
Determine whether f is continuous at x = 2.
15. [STPM ]
A continuous function f is defined by
x3 − 1,
−1 ≤ x < 2,
f (x) =
1
− (x − 3)2 + c, 2 ≤ x ≤ 8,
2
where c is a constant.
50
[5 marks]
[XAnswer : No]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
7: Limits and Continuity
(a) Determine the value of c.
(c) Sketch the graph of f .
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(b) Find the values of x such that f (x) = 0.
(d) Find the maximum and minimum values of f .
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[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
(e) State whether f is a onetoone function or not. Give a reason for your answer.
[XXAnswer : (a) c =
16. [STPM ]
Evaluate
6(x − 2)
,
x3 − 8
x−8
,
(b) lim √
√
x→8
6− x−2
(a) lim
x→2
17. [STPM ]
[2 marks]
√
15
15
; (b) x = 1, 3 + 15 ; (d) max=
, min=−5 ; (e) onetoone]
2
2
(
x2 + 2x + 5,
The function g is defined by g((x) =
3ex + k
x < 0,
x ≥ 0.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
√
1
; (b) − 6]
2
(a) Find lim g(x) and lim g(x), and determine the value of k such that the function g is continuous
x→0−
x→0+
at x = 0.
(b) Describe the continuity of the function g for x = 0, x < 0 and x > 0.
18. [STPM ]
Function f is defined by
f (x) =
Determine whether lim f (x) exists.
x→3
1
,
2x
x ≤ 3,
x−3 ,
x2 − 9
x > 3.
51
[5 marks]
[3 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : Yes]
kkleemaths.com
8: Differentiation
1. [STPM ]
Differentiate with respect to x and simplify your answer as far as possible:
x2 − x + 1
,
x2 + x − 1
(b) e−2x [2 cos(3x) − 3 sin(3x)].
(a)
[Answer : (a)
2x(x − 2)
; (b) −13e−2x cos(3x)]
(x2 + x − 1)2
2. [STPM ]
Differentiate with respect to x and simplify your answer as far as possible:
cos x + sin x
,
cos x − sin x
(b) xn loge x.
(a)
[Answer : (a)
3. [STPM ]
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Differentiation
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8
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2
; (b) xn−1 (1 + n ln x)]
1 − sin 2x
dy
where
dx
i. y = (2x − 1)3 (3x + 2)4 and express your result in the form of its factors,
ii. y = e−3x (2 cos 2x + 3 sin 2x).
1
1
(b) If x = t − and y = 2t + , where t is a nonzero parameter, prove that
t
t
(a) Find
Deduce that −1 <
3
dy
=2− 2
.
dx
t +1
dy
< 2.
dx
4. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) (i) 42x(2x − 1)2 (3x + 2)3 ; (ii) −13e−2x sin 2x]
ln x
dy
Find the xcoordinate of the point on the curve y = 2 (x > 0) such that
= 0, and determine if
x
dx
it is a maximum or minimum point. Sketch the curve for x > 0. You can assume that y → 0 when
x → ∞.
5. [STPM ]
[Answer : x =
√
e]
1
tan3 x with respect to x, and express your answer in terms of tan x.
3
d2 y
dy
(b) Given y = ae−mx cos px, prove that
+ 2m
+ (m2 + p2 )y = 0.
2
dx
dx
(a) Differentiate x − tan x +
52
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
6. [STPM ]
Given that y =
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1
dy
(c) Given y = ln(1 + x) − x + x2 , show that
≥ 0 for all values of x > −1.
2
dx
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[Answer : (a) tan4 x]
d2 y
cos x − sin x
dy
, show that
= 0.
+ 2y
cos x + sin x
dx2
dx
7. [STPM ]
A curve with the equation y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e, where a, b, c, d, e are constants, has the
following characteristics:
(a) It is symmetrical about the yaxis,
(b) It passes through the point (2, −18) and has gradient zero at this point,
(c) y = 0 when x = 1.
Show that b = d = 0 and find the values of a, c and e. Sketch the curve and give the coordinates of
its turning points.
8. [STPM ]
(a) Given that y = (x + 2)2 (3x − 1)3 , find
(b) If y =
[Answer : a = 2, c = −16, e = 14]
dy
as a product of its factors.
dx
e−x
dy
, show that (1 + x2 )
+ (1 + x)2 y = 0.
1 + x2
dx
9. [STPM ]
The parametric equation of a curve are
[Answer : (a) (x + 2)(15x + 16)(3x − 1)2 ]
x = a cos3 θ, y = a sin3 θ
where a is a positive constant and 0 ≤ θ < 2π.
Find the equation of the tangent at the point with the parameter θ. This tangent meets the axes at
L and M . Prove that the length of LM is independent of θ.
[Answer : y cos θ + x sin θ = a sin θ cos θ , LM = a]
10. [STPM ]
A spherical balloon is being inflated at a constant rate of 500 m3 s−1 . Find the rate of increase in the
total surface area of the balloon when its radius is 20 m.
11. [STPM ]
Given that y = αe−2x sin(x + β), where α and β are constants, verify
d2 y
dy
+4
+ 5y = 0.
2
dx
dx
53
[Answer : 50]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
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12. [STPM ]
(a) For the curve y = sin x cos3 x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ π, find the x and y coordinates of the points where
dy
= 0. Sketch this curve.
dx
2
1
1
dy
2
3
= cot x(cos2 x − 3 sin2 x)2
(b) For the curve y = sin x cos x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ π, show that
2
dx
4
on the condition that x 6= 0. Sketch the curve.
[Answer :
√ !
π
π 3 3
,
,
,0 ,
6 16
2
13. [STPM ]
A curve is given by its parametric equations
1
x = t2 , y = 1 − , (t > 0).
t
√ !
5π 3 3
]
,−
6
16
The curve intersects the xaxis at P . Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at P .
14. [STPM ]
The parametric equations of a curve are x = t2 , y = t3 . Express
of the tangent to the curve at the point P (p2 , p3 ).
15. [STPM ]
If y = 3x + sin x − 8 sin
Deduce that
dy
in terms of t. Find the equation
dx
[Answer :
3
dy
= t ; 2y = 3px − p3 ]
dx
2
1
dy
1
x , find
and express your answer in terms of cos
x .
2
dx
2
dy
≥ 0 for all values of x.
dx
16. [STPM ]
[Answer : 2y − x + 1 = 0]
1
2
2
[Answer : 2 cos x − 1
]
x−3
.
(x − 2)(x + 1)
(b) Find the points where the curve intersects the axes, and find the stationary points on this curve.
(a) Find the equation of the asymptotes of the curve y =
(c) Sketch this curve.
(d) Find the values of k such that the equation (x − 3) = k(x − 2)(x + 1) does not have real roots.
1
9
[Answer : (a) x = 2, x = −1, y = 0 ; (b) (3, 0), (0, 1.5), (1, 1), (5, ) ; (d)
1
< k < 1]
9
17. [STPM ]
Find the coordinates of the stationary points of the curve y = x − ln(1 + x) and sketch the curve.
54
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
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18. [STPM ]
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[Answer : (0, 0)]
1
(a) Find the points on the xaxis intersected by the curve y = x3 − x2 − 2x. Find also the maximum
2
and minimum points, as well as any points of inflection on this curve.
(b) Sketch this curve.
1
(c) Find the value of k if the equation x3 − x2 − 2x = k has a repeated root, and state this root.
2
√
√
[Answer : (a) (0, 0), (1 + 5, 0), (1 − 5, 0) ;
2 20
2 44
Maximum point (− , ) , Minimum point (2, −4) , Point of inflection ( , − ) ;
3 27
3 27
20
2
(c) k = −4, repeated root=2; k =
, repeated root=− ]
27
3
19. [STPM ]
If y = etan x , show that
dy
d2 y
=
(1 + tan x)2 .
dx2
dx
20. [STPM ]
Show that the equation of the normal to the curve y = tan 2x at the point where the xcoordinate is
√
π
is 3x + 24y = π − 24 3.
3
21. [STPM ]
The parametric equations of a curve are x = t2 − 2, y = t3 − 3. Find the equation of the normal to
the curve at the point where the parameter t = 2.
22. [STPM ]
Differentiate with respect to x
(a) (x2 + 2x)ex
1 − x2
(b) √
,
1 + 2x
2 +2x
,
simplifying your answers.
[Answer : x + 3y = 17]
2
[Answer : (a) 2(x + 1)3 ex
+2x
; (b) −
3x2 + 2x + 1
3
(1 + 2x) 2
]
23. [STPM ]
Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve x2 y + xy 2 = 12 at the point (1, −4).
24. [STPM ]
A curve has the equation y 2 = x2 (x + 3).
[Answer : 8x − 7y = 36 ; 7x + 8y + 25 = 0]
Show that the curve is symmetric about the xaxis.
Show that for all points on this curve, x ≥ −3.
Find coordinates of the turning points of this curve.
Sketch the curve. Show clearly the shape of the curve near the origin.
Find the area bounded by the loop of this curve.
55
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
24 √
3]
5
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[Answer : (−2, 2), (−2, −2) ; Area=
25. [STPM ]
Two parallel sides of a rectangle respectively lengthen at a rate of 2 cm per second, while the other
two parallel sides shorten such that the area of the rectangle is always 50 cm2 . If, at the time t, the
length of each lengthening side is x, the length of each shortening side is y, and the perimeter of the
rectangle is p, show that
dp
y
.
=4 1−
dt
x
Find the rate of change in the perimeter when
(a) x=5 cm,
(b) y=5 cm.
√
Show that the perimeter of the rectangle is the least when x = y = 5 2 cm.
26. [STPM ]
Differentiate with respect to x
2
(a) (2x3 + 1)ex ,
(b) ln(x2 e−x ),
27. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) −4 ; (b) 2]
2
[Answer : (a) 2xex (2x3 + 3x + 1) ; (b)
x2
.
x2 − 4
Write the equations of the asymptotes of this curve.
A curve has the equation y =
2
− 1]
x
Find the coordinates of the turning point on this curve, and determine if this is a maximum or minimum
point. Determine if there are any points of inflection on this curve.
Sketch this curve.
[Answer : x = −2, x = 2, y = 1 ; (0,0) is a local maximum point ; No points of inflexion]
28. [STPM ]
If y = ln(sin px + cos px), show that
d2 y
+
dx2
dy
dx
2
29. [STPM ]
Differentiate each of the following with respect to x.
(a) (x2 + 1)e−x ,
√
(b) cos2 ( x).
+ p2 = 0.
2 −x
[Answer : (a) −(x − 1) e
56
√
sin 2 x
; (b) − √ ]
2 x
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30. [STPM ]
dy
x−1
Find
if ey =
.
dx
3−x
Determine the gradient of the curve y = ln
31. [STPM ]
x−1
3−x
8: Differentiation
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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at the point where it intersects the xaxis.
[Answer :
2
; 2]
(x − 1)(3 − x)
1
1
− .
2
x
x
Find the coordinates of the turning point of the curve, and determine if it is a maximum or minimum
point.
A curve has the following equation y =
Sketch this curve.
The tangent to the curve at the point A(1, 0) meets the curve once again at the point B. Find the
coordinates of B.
1
4
[Answer : (2, − ) is minimum point, B = (−1, 2)]
32. [STPM ]
The equation of a curve is x2 y + xy 2 = 2. Find the equations of both tangents to the curve at the
point x = 1.
33. [STPM√]
If y = sin x, show that
4y 3
[Answer : x + y = 2 ; y = −2]
d2 y
+ y 4 + 1 = 0.
dx2
34. [STPM ]
Differentiate each of the following with respect to x.
(a) e−x ln x3 ,
2x
(b)
.
1 + x4
35. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a)
2x [(1 + x4 ) ln 2 − 4x3 ]
3e−x
]
(1 − x ln x) ; (b)
x
(1 + x4 )2
√
dy
√
The variables x and y are connected by y x − y − x = 1. Find the values of y and
when x = 1.
dx
36. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
f (x) = cos x +
1
cos 2x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
2
57
4
3
[Answer : 4 , − ]
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
(c) Sketch the graph f .
(d) State the range of f .
[Answer : (a) 0.4π, 1.6π ; (b)
3
0,
2
2
4
1
3
3
3
3
3
, π, −
, 2π,
,
,
; (d) {y : − ≤ y ≤ }]
π, −
π, −
2
2
3
4
3
4
4
2
37. [STPM ]
If y 2 = ln(x2 y) where x, y > 0,
(a) show that
(b) find
dy
2y
=
,
dx
x(2y 2 − 1)
dy
when y = 1.
dx
38. [STPM ]
If x = sin3 2θ, y = cos3 2θ, find
dy
in terms of θ.
dx
39. [STPM ]
1
If y = (2ex − 6x + 5) 2 , show that
40. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(b) Find all the pairs (x, f (x)) when f 0 (x) = 0.
kkleemaths.com
(a) Find all values of x in the form of kπ, with k correct to one decimal place when f (x) = 0.
y
d2 y
+
dx2
dy
dx
2
= ex .
2
e
[Answer : (b) √ ]
[6 marks]
[Answer : − cot 2θ]
[4 marks]
Figure above shows a composite solid which consists of a cuboid and a semicylindrical top with a
common face ABCD.
58
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
3
1
[9600 − (8 + 5π)x2 ].
24x
kkleemaths.com
y=
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kkleemaths.com
The breadth and length of the cuboid is x cm and 2x cm respectively and its height is y cm. Given
that the total surface area of this solid is 2400 cm2 . Show that
[3 marks]
If the volume of this solid is V cm , express V in terms of x. Hence, show that V attains its maximum
40
.
[9 marks]
when x = √
4+π
Find this maximum volume.
[3 marks]
[Answer : V =
1
64000
[9600x − 2πx3 − 8x3 ] , √
]
12
3 π+4
41. [STPM ]
Find the gradient of the curve 2x2 + y 2 + 2xy = 5 at the point (2, −1).
42. [STPM ]
The parametric equations of a curve are
[3 marks]
[Answer : 3]
x = sec t − tan t; y = cosec t − cot t,
dy
1 + sin t
1
=−
.
with 0 < t < π. Show that
2
dx
1 + cos t
[4 marks]
−1 3
Tangent to the curve at the point A, with t = tan
, meets the tangent to the curve at the point
4
4
B, with t = tan−1
, at point N . Find the coordinates of N .
[8 marks]
3
43. [STPM ]
The equation of a curve is
[Answer : N =
x2
.
x2 − 3x + 2
Find the asymptotes and the stationary points of the curve.
Sketch the curve.
y=
[8 marks]
[4 marks]
2
2
Determine the number of real roots of the equation k(x − 1) (x − 2) = x where k > 0.
The equation of a curve is y =
[3 marks]
[Answer : Asymptotes are x = 1, x = 2, y = 1 ; 1 root]
44. [STPM ]
√
√
dy
Find
in terms of x if x = e t and y = et .
dx
45. [STPM ]
7 7
,
]
17 17
e2kx − 1
where k is a positive constant.
e2kx + 1
59
[4 marks]
[Answer :
e
(ln x)2
2
x
ln x]
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
dy
> 0 for all values of x.
dx
dy
d2 y
d2 y
(b) Show that
+ ky 2 = k. Hence, show that
≤
0
for
x
≥
0
and
≥ 0 for x ≤ 0.
dx
dx2
dx2
(c) Sketch the curve.
Given that y =
sin kx
, where k is a positive integer, show that
1 + cos kx
sin kx
d2 y
= k2 y2 .
dx2
[3 marks]
kkleemaths.com
46. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(a) Show that
[8 marks]
[4 marks]
[6 marks]
47. [STPM ]
The graphs of y = x3 + ax2 + bx + c passes through (3, −21) and has stationary points when x = 2
and x = −2. Find the values of a, b and c.
[5 marks]
Find the coordinates of these stationary points and determine if they are local extremums. Find also
the point of inflexion of the curve.
[7 marks]
dy
< 0.
[3 marks]
Determine the set of x so that
dx
[Answer : a = 0 , b = −12 , c = −12 ; (2,28) is local minimum , (2,4) is local maximum ;
point of inflexion is (0,12) ; {x : −2 < x < 2}]
48. [STPM ]
A curve has parametric equations x = e2t − 2t and y = et + t. Find the gradient of the curve at the
point with t = ln 2.
[5 marks]
[Answer :
1
]
2
49. [STPM ]
A curve with equation y = x3 + px2 + qx + r cuts the yaxis at y = −34 and has stationary points at
x = 3 and x = 5. Find the values of p, q, and r.
[6 marks]
Show that the curve cuts the xaxis only at x = 1, and find the gradient of the curve at that point.
Sketch the curve.
50. [STPM ]
Given a curve with parametric equation
with a > 0 and t ∈ R.
[7 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : p = −12 , q = 45 , r = −34 ; 24]
x = a(t − 3t3 ), y = 3at2 ,
Determine the values of t when the curve cuts the yaxis and sketch the curve.
2 2
dx
dy
Show that
+
= a2 (1 + 9t2 )2 .
dt
dt
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
√
[Answer : t = 0,
60
√
3
3
,−
]
3
3
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
52. [STPM ]
Given that y = e−x cos x, find
53. [STPM ]
Function f if defined by
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
51. [STPM ]
Find the equation of the normal to the curve x2 y + xy 2 = 12 at the point (3, 1).
dy
d2 y
and
when x = 0.
dx
dx2
f (x) =
2x
.
(x + 1)(x − 2)
Show that f 0 (x) < 0 for all values of x in the domain of f .
[6 marks]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : y =
38
15
x− ]
7
7
[4 marks]
[Answer :
d2 y
dy
= −1,
= 0]
dx
dx2
[5 marks]
Sketch the graph of y = f (x). Determine if f is a one to one function. Give reasons to your answer.
[6 marks]
Sketch the graph of y = f (x). Explain how the number of the roots of the equation f (x) = k(x − 2)
depends on k.
[4 marks]
54. [STPM ]
[Answer : f is not one to one function. If k ≥ 0, 1 root. If k < 0, 3 roots.]
dy
√
when y = 1.
If y = ln xy, find the value of
dx
55. [STPM ]
[5 marks]
[Answer :
1
]
e2
2
A curve is defined by the parametric equations x = 1 − 2t, y = −2 + . Find the equation of the
t
normal to the curve at the point A(3, −4).
[7 marks]
The normal of the curve at the point A cuts the curve again at point B. Find the coordinates of B.
56. [STPM ]
cos x
d2 y
dy
If y =
, where x 6= 0, show that x 2 + 2
+ xy = 0.
x
dx
dx
57. [STPM ]
[4 marks]
[Answer : x + y + 1 = 0 ; B(−1, 0)]
[4 marks]
1
Find the coordinate of the stationary point on the curve y = x2 + where x > 0; give the xcoordinate
x
and ycoordinate correct to three decimal places. Determine whether the stationary point is a minimum
point or a maximum point.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (0.794 , 1.890) , minimum]
58. [STPM ]
If y = x ln(x + 1), find an approximation for the increase in y when x increases by δx.
Hence, estimate the value of ln 2.01 given that ln 2 = 0.6931.
61
[6 marks]
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
The function f is defined by f (t) =
4ekt − 1
where k is a positive constant, t > 0.
4ekt + 1
(a) Find the value of f (0).
(b) Show that f 0 (t) > 0.
2
0
[1 marks]
[5 marks]
00
(c) Show that k[1 − f (t) ] = 2f (t) and hence show that f (t) < 0.
(d) Find lim f (t).
t→∞
(e) Sketch the graph of f .
60. [STPM ]
If y =
kkleemaths.com
59. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : 0.698]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a)
dy
x
, show that x2
= (1 − x2 )y 2 .
2
1+x
dx
61. [STPM ]
Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve y =
Sketch the curve.
[6 marks]
3
; (d) 1]
5
[4 marks]
x3
and determine their nature.
x2 − 1
[10 marks]
[4 marks]
Determine the number of real roots of the equation x3 = k(x2 − 1), where k ∈ R, when k varies.[3 marks]
√
√
√
3 3
3 3
) is local min. , (− 3, −
) is local max.
[Answer : (0, 0) is inflexion point , ( 3,
√
√
√2
√ 2
√
3 3
3 3
3 3
3 3
3 3
1 real root for −
<k<
, 2 real root for k = ±
, 3 real roots for k < −
or k >
]
2
2
2
2
2
√
62. [STPM ]
sin x − cos x
d2 y
dy
If y =
, show that
= 2y .
2
sin x + cos x
dx
dx
63. [STPM ]
Show that the curve y =
[6 marks]
x
is always decreasing.
[3 marks]
−1
Determine the coordinates of the point of inflexion of the curve, and state the intervals for which the
curve is concave upwards.
[5 marks]
x2
Sketch the curve.
64. [STPM ]
A curve is defined by x = cos θ(1 + cos θ) , y = sin θ(1 + cos θ).
(a) Show that
dx
dθ
2
+
dy
dθ
2
= 2(1 + cos θ).
[3 marks]
[Answer : (0, 0) ; (−1, 0) ∪ (1, ∞)]
[4 marks]
62
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
[Answer : p = 3, q = 5]
66. [STPM ]
A curve is defined by the parametric equations
x=t−
where t 6= 0.
2
t
and y = 2t +
1
t
dy
5
1
dy
=2− 2
, and hence, deduce that − <
< 2.
dx
t +2
2
dx
dy
1
(b) Find the coordinates of points when
= .
dx
3
(a) Show that
67. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
65. [STPM ]
The line y + x + 3 = 0 is a tangent to the curve y = px2 + qx, where p 6= 0 at the point x = −1. Find
the values of p and q.
[6 marks]
[8 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) (1,3) , (1,3)]
dy
1
1
,
=√
Given that u = (ex + e−x ), where x > 0 and y = f (u) is a differentiable function f . If
2
du
u2 − 1
dy
show that
= 1.
[5 marks]
dx
68. [STPM ]
The functions f and g are defined by
f : x → x3 − 3x + 2, x ∈ R.
g : x → x − 1, x ∈ R.
(a) Find h(x) = (f ◦ g)(x), and determine the coordinates of the stationary points of h.
[5 marks]
(b) Sketch the graph of y = h(x).
[2 marks]
1
(c) On a separate diagram, sketch the graph of y =
.
h(x)
Hence, determine the set of values of k such that the equation
i. one root,
ii. two roots,
iii. three roots.
[3 marks]
1
= k has
h(x)
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
1
4
1
4
1
{k : k > }]
4
[Answer : (a) h(x) = x3 − 3x2 + 4 , (0,4) , (2,0) ; (c) (i) {k : k < 0, 0 < k < } ; (ii) {k : k = } ; (iii)
69. [STPM ]
√
Given that y is differentiable and y x = sin x, where x 6= 0. Using implicit differentiation, show that
2
dy
1
2d y
2
x
+x
+ x −
y = 0.
dx2
dx
4
[6 marks]
63
kkleemaths.com
70. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
f (x) =
(a) State all asymptotes of f .
8: Differentiation
ln 2x
, where x > 0.
x2
[2 marks]
(b) Find the stationary point of f , and determine its nature.
(c) Obtain the intervals, where
i. f is concave upwards, and
ii. f is concave downwards.
[6 marks]
Hence, determine the coordinates of the point of inflexion.
(d) Sketch the graph y = f (x).
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[6 marks]
[2 marks]
1 1 2
2
is a maximum point.
e ,
[Answer : (a) x = 0, y = 0 ; (b)
2
e
(c)(i) (1.15, ∞) ; (ii) (0, 1.15) ; (1.15, 0.630)]
71. [STPM ]
Given that y = (2x)2x , find
dy
in terms of x.
dx
72. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
f (x) = √
(a) Show that
[4 marks]
[Answer : (2x)2x (2 + 2 ln(2x))]
e−x
, where x ∈ R,
1 + x2
f 0 (x) =
−e−x (x2 + x + 1)
3
(1 + x) 2
(b) Show that f is a decreasing function.
(c) Sketch the graph of f .
.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
73. [STPM ]
A curve is defined by the parametric equations x = ke−t cos t and y = ke−t sin t, where k is a constant.
(a) Show that
dx
dt
74. [STPM ]
2
+
dy
dt
2
= 2k 2 e−2t .
[4 marks]
Find the equation of the normal to the curve with parametric equations x = 1 − 2t and y = −2 +
at the point (3, −4).
2
t
[6 marks]
[Answer : y = −x − 1]
75. [STPM ]
A right circular cone of height a + x, where −a ≤ x ≤ a, is inscribed in a sphere of constant radius a,
such that the vertex and all points on the circumference of the base lie on the surface of the sphere.
64
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
(c) Sketch the graph of V against x.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
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kkleemaths.com
[6 marks]
kkleemaths.com
1
(a) Show that the volume V of the cone is given by V = π(a − x)(a + x)2 .
3
(b) Determine the value of x for which V is maximum and find the maximum value of V .
1
1
(d) Determine the rate at which V changes when x = a if x is increasing at a rate of
a per
2
10
minute.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) x =
1
a 32 3
,
πa ; (d) − πa3 ]
3 81
40
76. [STPM ]
Find the gradients of the curve y 3 + y = x3 + x2 at the points where the curve meets the coordinate
axes.
[6 marks]
[Answer : 0 , 1]
77. [STPM ]
The parametric equations of a curve are x = θ − sin θ and y = 1 − cos θ. Find the equation of the
1
[7 marks]
normal to the curve at a point with parameter π.
2
78. [STPM ]
A curve is defined implicitly by the equation x2 + xy + y 2 = 3.
π
2
[Answer : y = −x + ]
dy 2x + y
+
= 0.
[3 marks]
dx x + 2y
(b) Find the gradients of the curve at the points where the curve crosses the xaxis and yaxis.[5 marks]
(a) Show that
(c) Show that the coordinates of the stationary points of the curve are (1,2) and (1, 2).
[5 marks]
(d) Sketch the curve.
[2 marks]
79. [STPM ]
A rectangle with a width 2x is inscribed in a circle of constant radius r.
1
2
[Answer : (b) − , 2]
(a) Express the area A of the rectangle in terms of x and r.
√
(b) Show that the rectangle is a square of side r 2 when A has a maximum value.
80. [STPM ]
The graph of y = 2 cos x + sin 2x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π is shown below.
65
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
p
[Answer : (a) A = 4x r2 − x2 ]
8: Differentiation
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
The points A and C are local extremum points. The points B, D, E and F are points of inflexion.
(a) Determine the coordinates of
i. the points of local extremum.
ii. the points of inflexion.
(b) State the intervals where the graph is concave upward.
(c) Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis.
[5 marks]
[5 marks]
[1 marks]
[4 marks]
√ !
√ !
π 3 3
5π 3 3
,
,−
[Answer : (a) (i) A =
,C=
;
6 2
6
2
π
π
3π
3π
, 0 , D = (3.39, −1.45) , E =
, 0 , F = (6.03, 1.45) ; (b)
, 3.39 ∪
, 6.03 ; (c) 4]
(ii) B =
2
2
2
2
81. [STPM ]
The graph of y =
3x − 1
is shown below.
(x + 1)3
The graph has a local maximum at A and a point of inflexion at B.
66
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
(a) Write the equations of the asymptotes of the graph.
[1 marks]
84. [STPM ]
Differentiate with respect to t
2
(a) (t2 − 1)et −1 ,
r
1
(b) ln 1 + .
t
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
equation
[1 marks]
5 27
;
,
3 128
5
(i) {x : x < −1, −1 < x ≤ 1} ; (ii) (−∞, −1) ∪
,∞ ;
3
1
(c) (i) {k : 0 < k < } ; (ii) {k : −1 < k ≤ 0}]
4
(a) Find the stationary points on the curve, and determine it’s nature.
83. [STPM ]
p
If y sin−1 2x = 1 − 4x2 , show that
[9 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) x = −1 , y = 0 ; (b) A 1,
82. [STPM ]
The equation of a curve is y = x3 e3−2x .
(b) Sketch the curve.
kkleemaths.com
i. has three distinct real roots,
ii. has only one positive root.
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(b) Determine the coordinates of the points A and B.
Hence, state
dy
i. the set of values of x when
≥ 0,
dx
ii. the intervals where the graph is concave upward.
3x − 1
(c) Using the above graph of y =
, determine the set of values of k for which the
(x + 1)3
3x − 1 − k(x + 1)3 = 0
,B
[7 marks]
dy
+ 4xy + 2y 2 = 0.
dx
85. [STPM ]
For the graph of y = 3x4 + 16x3 + 24x2 − 6,
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) (0,0)=point of inflexion,
(1 − 4x2 )
1
4
3 27
,
=local maximum]
2 8
[5 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 2t3 et
2
−1
; (b) −
1
]
2(t2 + 1)
(a) determine the intervals on which the graph is concave upward and concave downward, [6 marks]
(b) find the points of inflexion,
[3 marks]
67
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
2
3
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(c) determine the extremum point and its nature.
Hence, sketch the graph of y = 3x4 + 16x3 + 24x2 − 6.
[Answer : (a) (−∞, −2) ∪ − , ∞ , −2, −
86. [STPM ]
A continuous function f is defined by
where c is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of c.
2
3
; (b)
[3 marks]
2 14
− ,
3 27
and (−2, 10) ; (c) (0, −6) minimum]
x3 − 1,
−1 ≤ x < 2,
f (x) =
1
− (x − 3)2 + c, 2 ≤ x ≤ 8,
2
(b) Find the values of x such that f (x) = 0.
(c) Sketch the graph of f .
[3 marks]
(d) Find the maximum and minimum values of f .
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(e) State whether f is a onetoone function or not. Give a reason for your answer.
[Answer : (a) c =
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
√
15
15
; (b) x = 1, 3 + 15 ; (d) max=
, min=5]
2
2
87. [STPM ]
A water storage tank ABCDEF GH is a part of an inverted right square based pyramid, as shown in
the diagram below.
The complete pyramid OABCD has a square base of sides 12 m and height 15 m. The depth of the
1
tank is 9 m. Water is pumped into the tank at the constant rate of m3 min−1 .
3
68
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8: Differentiation
[3 marks]
(c) Calculate the time taken to fill up the tank if initially the tank is empty.
88. [STPM ]
The equation of a curve is y = x(x − 2)3 .
[Answer : (b)
(a) Find the set of values of x for which y ≥ 0.
25
; (c) 33.7]
3888
[9 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) {x : x ≤ 0, x ≥ 2} ; (b) Extremum=
69
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
(b) Determine the extremum point and the points of inflexion on the curve.
(c) Sketch the curve.
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
(a) Show that the volume of water V m3 when the depth of water in the tank is h m is given by
16
V = h(h2 + 18h + 108).
[3 marks]
75
(b) Find the rate at which the depth is increasing at the moment when the depth of water is 3 m.
1 27
,−
2 16
, Inflexion=(1, −1), (2, 0)]
kkleemaths.com
9: Integration
1
Z
x
dx, give your answer correct to two decimal places.
4 − x2
Z
1
x
dx
(b) Using the substitution t = tan , or otherwise, find
2
3 − 5 cos x
√
(a) Evaluate
1
2
1
[Answer : (a) 0.20 ; (b) ln
4
2. [STPM ]
Z
(a) Find
π
4
tan3 θ dθ, giving your answer correct to two significant figures.
0
2
4
Z
√
(b) Using the substitution u = 2t + 1, or otherwise, evaluate
3. [STPM ]
Z
2a
(a) Find
a
x3
dx.
x4 + a4
0
4. [STPM ]
(a) Show that
0
4
x−1
dx = ln
2
2x + 3x + 1
1
Z
Z
(sin x + 3 cos x)2 dx.
Z 2
(x − 1)(5x + 2)
1
8
(b) Show that
dx = ln
.
2 + 2)
(2x
−
1)(x
2
3
1
(a) Find
0
r
70
2 tan x2 − 1
2 tan x2 + 1
+ c]
[Answer : (a)
Z
1
5
10
]
3
π
1−x
dx = − 1.
1+x
2
25
.
27
(b) Using the substitution u2 = 2x − 1, or otherwise, evaluate
5. [STPM ]
t
dt.
2t + 1
[Answer : (a) 0.15 ; (b)
(b) Using the substitution x = cos 2θ, or otherwise, prove that
Z
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1. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
Integration
kkleemaths.com
9
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
√
x 2x − 1 dx.
1
ln
4
[Answer : (b)
17
]
2
428
]
15
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
1
x3
dx, leaving your answer in a form involving logarithms.
2
0 x +2
Z 1p
1
1√
4 − x2 dx = π +
3.
(b) Show that
3
2
0
Z
(a) Evaluate
7. [STPM ]
Z
(a) Find
2 + cos x
dx.
sin2 x
1
[Answer : (a) + ln
2
Z
(b) Using the substitution x = 2 sin θ, or otherwise, evaluate
correct to two significant figures.
3
cos 2x + c]
2
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6. [STPM ]
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[Answer : (a) 5x + 2 sin 2x −
0
1
√
2
]
3
x2
dx, giving your answer
4 − x2
[Answer : (a) −2 cot x − cosec x + C ; (b) 0.118]
8. [STPM ]
Sketch the corresponding curves for the following equations in separate diagrams, showing the turning
points and any asymptotes parallel to the axes:
(a) y = (x − 1)(x − 3)
1
(b) y =
(x 6= 1, x 6= 3)
(x − 1)(x − 3)
4
intersects the graphs (b) at the points A and B.
3
Calculate the finite area bounded by the line AB and the portion of the graph between A and B,
giving your answer correct to three significant figures.
The line y = −
[Answer : (a) (2,1), minimum point ; (b) (2,1), maximum point , asymptotes are x = 1, x = 3, y = 0 ;
9. [STPM ]
Z
1
Find the exact value of
√
x x + 3 dx.
−2
10. [STPM ]
Z
(a) Evaluate
π
4
tan2 x dx.
0
71
Area=0.235]
8
5
[Answer : − ]
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
18 − 4x − x2
B
C
A
+
+
≡
, show that A = 2 and determine the
2
(4 − 3x)(1 + x)
4 − 3x 1 + x (1 + x)2
values of B and C.Z
1
7
3
18 − 4x − x2
dx = ln 2 +
Hence, show that
2
(4
−
3x)(1
+
x)
3
2
0
[Answer : (a) 1 −
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(b) Given that
π
; (b) B = 1, C = 3]
4
11. [STPM ]
A bowl in the shape of a hemisphere with a radius a and its rim horizontal, is filled with a liquid to a
height of h unit. Show, through integration, that the volume of the liquid in the bowl is
1 2
πh (3a − h).
3
12. [STPM ]
Z
(a) Show that
0
π
6
√
4π − 3 3
sin x cos x dx =
.
192
2
2
(b) Using the substitution u = x2 , or otherwise, evaluate
logarithmic form.
13. [STPM ]
Z
√
2
2
Z
0
x
dx, leaving your answer in
1 − x4
[Answer : (b)
2x + 1
√
dx.
x+1
Z 4
11x2 + 4x + 12
(b) Show that
dx = ln 675.
2
0 (2x + 1)(x + 4)
(a) Find
4
3
1
ln 3]
4
3
1
[Answer : (a) (x + 1) 2 − 2(x + 1) 2 + c]
14. [STPM ]
Using integration, find te area of the finite region bounded by the curve
√
√
√
x+ y = a
and the coordinate axes, if a is a positive constant.
[Answer :
1 2
a ]
6
15. [STPM ]
Find the coordinates of the points P , Q where the curve 2y = x + 3 meets the parabola y 2 = 4x.
Find the area bounded by the arc P Q of this parabola and the line P Q.
8
3
[Answer : P (1, 2) , Q(9, 6) ; ]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
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16. [STPM ]
By using the substitution x = sin θ, or otherwise, evaluate
1
2
Z
1
3
x2
√
1
dx
1 − x2
leaving your answer in the forms of surds.
17. [STPM ]
(a) Express
√
√
[Answer : 2 2 − 3]
17 + x
in partial fractions. Hence or otherwise, show that
(4 − 3x)(1 + 2x)
Z
1
2
− 13
17 + x
1
dx = (19 ln 2 + 9 ln 3).
(4 − 3x)(1 + 2x)
6
Z
(b) Using the substitution x = sin θ, or otherwise, find
18. [STPM ]
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0
x2
1
dx.
2 (1 − x2 ) 12
3
1
5
+
; (b)
[Answer : (a)
4 − 3x 1 + 2x
2
√ !
π
3
−
]
6
4
8
− 4 that intersects the xaxis at the point A.
x
The tangent to the curve at the point P (1, 4) intersects the xaxis at the point Q. Find the coordinates
of Q.
The diagram above shows a portion of the curve y =
Find the area of the shaded region bounded by the curve AP and the line segments P Q and QA.
19. [STPM ]
73
[Answer : Q =
3
, 0 ; A=8 ln 2 − 5]
2
9: Integration
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
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The diagram shows a hemispherical bowl with radius a and its rim horizontal. Show that when the
depth of water in the bowl is y, the volume V of water in the bowl is given by
1
V = πy 2 (3a − y).
3
Initially, the bowl is empty. Water is then poured into the bowl at a constant rate. The time taken to
1
fill the bowl is T . Find, in terms of T , the time taken for y to become a. Find, in terms of T and a,
2
1
the rate at which the water level rises when y = a.
2
[Answer :
8a
5
T ;
]
16
9T
20. [STPM ]
Determine the coordinates of the points of intersection between the graphs y 2 = x and y = −x + 2.
Find the area bounded by the two graphs.
Find also the volume of the solid generated when this area is rotated through 2π about the yaxis.
21. [STPM ]
(a) Using the substitution x = a tan θ, or otherwise, show that
√
Z a
x3
8−5 2
,
5 dx =
12a
0 (a2 + x2 ) 2
[Answer : (1, 1) , (4, −2) ;
9 72
;
π]
2 5
with a > 0.
Z 8
(x − 1)2
(b) Evaluate
, dx, giving your answer correct to three significant figures.
x2 − 4
3
22. [STPM ]
[Answer : (b) 3.89]
(a) Find the values of the constants A and B such that cos x ≡ A(3 cos x + 4 sin x) + B(−3 sin x +
Z π
2
cos x
4 cos x). Hence or otherwise, find the value of
dx giving your answer correct
0 3 cos x + 4 sin x
to three decimal places.
74
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
Z
3
r
correct to three significant figures.
0
e2
(b)
e
2
5−x
dx giving your answer
x−1
[Answer : (a) A =
23. [STPM ]
Evaluate
Z π
6
tan 2θ dθ,
(a)
Z
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(b) By using the substitution x = 3 − 2 cos 2θ, or otherwise, find
1
dx,
x ln x
4
3
,B=
, 0.235; (b) 1.32]
25
25
[Answer : (a)
24. [STPM ]
Find the area bounded by the curves y = 1 − x2 and y = x − 1.
25. [STPM ]
1
ln 2 ; (b) ln 2]
2
[Answer :
Z
(a) By using a suitable substitution or otherwise, find the value of
answer correct to three significant figures.
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1
2
9
]
2
x−1
dx, giving your
(2x − 1)2
d
(b) Show that
(tan3 θ) = 3 tan4 θ + 3 sec2 θ − 3. Hence, determine the value of
dx
Z
π
4
tan4 θ dθ.
0
[Answer : (a) 0.108 ; (b)
π 2
− ]
4
3
26. [STPM ]
√
π
Sketch the area R bounded by the yaxis, xaxis, line x = , and the curve y = 1 + sin x. Find the
2
volume of the solid formed when R is rotated through four right angles about the xaxis.
27. [STPM ]
Show that
d
(tan3 x) = 3 sec4 x − 3 sec2 x.
dx
Z
Hence, determine the value of
0
π
4
sec4 x dx.
28. [STPM ]
75
[Answer :
π
(π + 2)]
2
[Answer :
4
]
3
9: Integration
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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1
The shaded area shown in the diagram above is bounded by the curve y = e−x + , the curve y = ex −1,
2
and the yaxis. Find the area of the shaded region.
[Answer :
1
(3 ln 2 − 1)]
2
29. [STPM ]
dy
ln x
, where x > 0, determine the set of values for x such that
> 0 and the set of values for
If y =
x
dx
dy
1
x such that
< 0. Hence, show that the maximum value of y is .
dx
e
ln x
x
Sketch the curve y =
, where x > 0. Hence sketch the curve y =
, x > 0. Show that the area
x
ln x
1
ln x
, the xaxis, and the line x = is equal to the area bounded by the
bounded by the curve y =
x
e
ln x
curve y =
, the xaxis, and the line x = e.
x
30. [STPM ]
Z
Find the value of
1
√
x 1 + x dx.
0
31. [STPM ]
Express
x2
[Answer : {x : 0 < x < e} ; {x : x > e}]
1
in the form of partial fractions. Hence, show that
−1
Z
1
1 x−1
dx = ln
+ c,
2
x −1
2 x+1
where c is the constant.
Using integration by parts, show that
Z
Z
1
x
2x2
dx
=
+
dx.
x2 − 1
x2 − 1
(x2 − 1)2
Z
Deduce the value of
2
4
[Answer :
x2
dx. Give your answer correct to three decimal places.
(x2 − 1)2
76
√
4
(1 + 2)]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
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[Answer :
1
1
−
; 0.347]
2(x − 1) 2(x + 1)
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32. [STPM ]
Calculate the volume of the solid generated when the area bounded by the curves y = x2 and y 2 = 8x
is rotated completely about the xaxis.
[Answer :
48
π]
5
33. [STPM ]
Sketch the curve y = x(x + 1)(2 − x). Find the area bounded by the curve y = x(x + 1)(2 − x) and
the xaxis.
34. [STPM ]
Show that
Z
x ln x dx =
1
Z
Hence, find the value of
35. [STPM
Z ]
e
e
1
e
[Answer : 3
1 2
e +1 .
4
x(ln x)2 dx correct to three decimal places.
[Answer : 1.597]
(2x + 1) ln x dx. Give your answer in terms of e.
Find
1
1
]
12
[Answer :
1 2
(e + 3)]
2
36. [STPM ]
Sketch, on the same axes, the graphs of y 2 = x and y = 2 − x. Show the coordinates of the points of
intersection between the graphs.
Calculate the area bounded by y 2 = x and y = 2 − x.
If V1 is the volume of the solid formed when the area above the xaxis bounded by y 2 = x, y = 2 − x,
and the xaxis is rotated completely about the yaxis, and V2 is the volume of the solid formed when
the area under the xaxis bounded by y 2 = x, y = 2 − x, and the xaxis is rotated completely about
the yaxis, find V1 : V2 .
37. [STPM ]
Z
By using a suitable substitution, find the value of
3
9
2
[Answer : Area= ; V1 : V2 = 4 : 23]
√
x 1 + x dx.
0
[Answer : 7
11
]
15
38. [STPM ]
Find the coordinates of all the points of intersection between the line y = 12 − 4x and the curve
y = 12 − x3 . Show that there is a point of inflection on the curve y = 12 − x3 at x = 0.
Sketch, in the same diagram, the line y = 12 − 4x and the curve y = 12 − x3 .
The area bounded by the line y = 12 − 4x and the curve y = 12 − x3 is rotated through four right
angles about the xaxis. Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution formed.
77
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
Find
√
x
dx.
2x − 1
40. [STPM ]
Find
Z
x
√
(a)
dx,
2
4
−
x
Z
3
(b)
x2 e−x dx
kkleemaths.com
39. [STPM
Z ]
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[Answer : (0, 12), (−2, 20), (2, 4) ; Volume=192π]
1
[Answer :
p
(2x − 1) 2 (x + 1)
+ C]
3
1
3
3
[Answer : (a) − 4 − x2 + C ; (b) − e−x + C]
41. [STPM ]
The gradient of the tangent to a curve at the point (x, y) where x > 3, varies inversely with (x − 3),
and the curve passes through the points (4, 0) and (6, ln 9). Show that the equation of the curve is
y = 2 ln(x − 3).
Sketch the curve.
Find the finite area bounded by the curve, the xaxis and the line x = 6.
42. [STPM ]
Show that
43. [STPM ]
Function f is defined as
(a) Sketch the graph of f .
(b) Find the range of f .
Z
2
3
11
x2
dx =
+ ln 2.
3
(x − 1)
8
(
x(x − π),
0 ≤ x < 2π,
f (x) =
2
π sin(x − π), 2π ≤ x ≤ 3π.
[Answer : 2(3 ln 3 − 2)]
[6 marks]
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
(c) Determine whether f is a onetoone function. Give reasons for your answer.
[2 marks]
(d) Find the area of the region bounded by graph f and the xaxis.
[6 marks]
44. [STPM ]
If f (x) =
[Answer : (b) R={y : −π 2 ≤ y < 2π 2 } ; (d) π 3 + 2π 2 ]
x2
, find f 0 (x). Hence, evaluate
2x − 5
Z 2
1
x(x − 5)
dx.
(2x − 5)2
[5 marks]
78
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
11
2x(x − 5)
;− ]
(2x − 5)2
6
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45. [STPM ]
Sketch the curve y = x(x − 3)(x + 2).
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[Answer : f 0 (x) =
[2 marks]
If A1 and A2 respectively denote the area of the regions bounded by the curve and the xaxis above
and below the xaxis, find A1 : A2 .
[5 marks]
46. [STPM ]
[Answer :
64
]
189
1
.
[2 marks]
x
Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution when the region bounded by the above graphs is rotated
through 360◦ about the yaxis.
[5 marks]
Sketch the graphs y = 4, y = 8x2 and y =
47. [STPM ]
The function f is defined by
(
2 − x − 1,
f (x) =
x2 − 9x + 18,
(a) Sketch the graph of f .
Z 6
f (x)dx.
(b) Evaluate
0
48. [STPM ]
A curve has equation y 2 = x2 (4 − x2 ).
[Answer :
x < 3,
x ≥ 3.
1
π]
2
[5 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) 8 ]
Show that for any point (x, y) lying on the curve, then −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −2 ≤ y ≤ 2.
[3 marks]
Sketch the curve.
[3 marks]
Calculate the area of the region bounded by this curve.
[4 marks]
Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution when the region bounded by this curve and y = x in
the first quadrant is rotated through 360◦ about the xaxis.
[5 marks]
49. [STPM ]
Z
Find the value of
4
x
1
0
(5x2 + 1) 2
.
79
√
6 3
32
π]
[Answer : Area= ; Volume=
3
5
[6 marks]
[Answer :
8
]
5
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
50. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
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4
Sketch on the same coordinate system the curve y = , and y 2 = 4(x − 1). Find the coordinates of
x
the points of intersection of the two curves.
[6 marks]
4
20
Show that the area of the region bounded by y = , y 2 = 4(x − 1) and y = 4 is
− 4 ln 2 .[4 marks]
x
3
Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution when this region is rotated through 360◦ about the
yaxis.
[5 marks]
[Answer : Point of intersection=(2,2) ; Volume=
51. [STPM ]
Z
Evaluate the definite integral
π
2
x2 sin x dx.
0
52. [STPM ]
ln x
Show that the curve y =
has a stationary point at
x
local minimum point or a local maximum point.
Sketch the curve.
296
π]
15
[6 marks]
[Answer : π − 2]
1
e,
and determine whether this point is a
e
[6 marks]
[3 marks]
1
ln x
, the xaxis, and the line x = is
Show that the area of the region bounded by the curve y =
x
e
ln x
, the xaxis, and the line x = e. [5 marks]
equal to the area of the region bounded by the curve y =
x
53. [STPM ]
By using suitable substitution, find
Z
3x − 1
√
dx.
x+1
[5 marks]
3
1
[Answer : 2(x + 1) 2 − 8(x + 1) 2 + C]
54. [STPM ]
Find the point of intersection of the curves y = −x2 + 3x and y = 2x3 − x2 − 5x. Sketch on the same
coordinate system these two curves.
[5 marks]
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves y = −x2 + 3x and y = 2x3 − x2 − 5x. [6 marks]
55. [STPM ]
[Answer : Point of intersection=(0,0), (2,2), (2,10) ; Area=16 units2 .]
Z
Using the substitution u = 3 + 2 sin θ, evaluate
0
π
6
cos θ
dθ.
(3 + 2 sin θ)2
[5 marks]
[Answer :
1
]
24
56. [STPM ]
a
The curve y = x(b − x), where a 6= 0, has a turning point at point (2, 1). Determine the values of a
2
and b.
[4 marks]
Calculate the area of the region bounded bt the xaxis and the curve.
[4 marks]
Calculate the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the xaxis.
[4 marks]
80
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
Z
Show that
e
ln x dx = 1.
1
58. [STPM ]
1
8 32
,b=4; ;
π]
2
3 15
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57. [STPM ]
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[Answer : a =
[4 marks]
1
Sketch on the same coordinates axis y = x and the curve y 2 = x. Find the coordinate of the points
2
of intersection.
[5 marks]
1
Find the area of region bounded by the line y = x and the curve y 2 = x.
[4 marks]
2
Find the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the yaxis.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (0, 0) , (4, 2) ;
59. [STPM ]
Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the curves y = ex and y = 2 + 3e−x .
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the yaxis and the curves.
60. [STPM ]
[2 marks]
[6 marks]
[Answer : 2 ln 3]
Ax + B
C
2x + 1
in the form 2
+
where A, B and C are constants.
+ 1)(2 − x)
x +1
2−x
Z 1
2x + 1
dx.
Hence, evaluate
2
0 (x + 1)(2 − x)
Express
(x2
61. [STPM ]
Find
Z 2
x +x+2
(a)
dx,
x2 + 2
Z
x
(b)
dx.
ex+1
62. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) x +
[Answer :
[4 marks]
1
3
x
+
; ln 2]
+1 2−x 2
[4 marks]
1
1
x
ln(x2 + 2) + C ; (b) − x+1 − x+1 + C]
2
e
e
dy
3x − 5
= √ , where x > 0. If
dx
2 x
the curve passes through the point (1, −4),
(b) sketch the curve,
x2
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
The gradient of the tangent to a curve at any point (x, y) is given by
(a) find the equation of the curve,
4 64
;
π]
3 15
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
(c) calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis.
[5 marks]
3
1
[Answer : (a) y = x 2 − 5x 2 ; (c)
81
20 √
5]
3
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
sec x(sec x + tan x)2 dx = 1 +
0
64. [STPM ]
Z
Show that
2
3
5
(x − 2)2
dx = + 4 ln
2
x
3
√
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π
4
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Z
Show that
2.
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63. [STPM ]
[4 marks]
2
.
3
[4 marks]
65. [STPM ]
Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the curves y = 6 − ex and y = 5e−x , and find the coordinates of
the points of intersection.
[7 marks]
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves.
[4 marks]
Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the
xaxis.
[5 marks]
66. [STPM ]
Z
Using an appropriate substitution, evaluate
1
[Answer : (ln 5, 1) ; 6 ln 5 − 8 ; π(36 ln 5 − 48)]
1
x2 (1 − x) 3 dx.
[7 marks]
0
[Answer :
67. [STPM ]
Given a curve y = x2 − 4 and straight line y = x − 2,
(a) sketch, on the same coordinates axes, the curve and the straight line,
(b) determine the coordinate of their points of intersection,
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
(c) calculate the area of the region R bounded by the curve and the straight line,
◦
[4 marks]
(d) find the volume of the solid formed when R is rotated through 360 about the xaxis.
[Answer : (b) (−1, 3) , (2, 0) ; (c)
68. [STPM ]
0
[5 marks]
9
108
; (d)
π]
2
5
Z
2e
ln x dx.
Given that f (x) = x ln x, where x > 0. Find f (x), and hence, determine the value of
69. [STPM ]
Use the substitution u = ln x, evaluate
70. [STPM ]
2
Differentiate ex with respect to x.
Z
1
e
(x + 1) ln x
dx.
x2
Hence, determine integers a, b and c for which
Z 2
a
2
x3 ex dx = ec .
b
1
27
]
140
e
[6 marks]
[Answer : 2e ln(2)]
[6 marks]
[Answer :
3 2
− ]
2 e
[9 marks]
82
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
2
71. [STPM ]
Differentiate tan x with respect to x, and hence, show that
π
3
Z
0
72. [STPM ]
π
x sec2 xdx = √ − ln 2.
3
Using the substitution x = 4 sin2 u, evaluate
1r
Z
0
73. [STPM ]
Show that
Z
e
1
Z
Hence, find the value of
1
e
x(ln x)2 dx.
[6 marks]
[Answer : sec2 x]
x
dx.
4−x
x ln x dx =
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kkleemaths.com
[Answer : 2xex , a = 3, b = 2, c = 4]
[6 marks]
[Answer :
1 2
e +1 .
4
√
2
π − 3]
3
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
1
4
1
4
[Answer : − + e2 ]
74. [STPM ]
Sketch, on the same axes, the curve y 2 = x and the straight line y = 2 − x, showing the coordinates
of the points of intersection.
[4 marks]
(a) State whether the curve y 2 = x has a turning point. Justify your answer.
[2 marks]
(b) Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve y 2 = x and the straight line y = 2 − x.
[4 marks]
(c) Calculate the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region bounded by the curve y 2 = x
and the straight line y = 2 − x completely about the yaxis.
[5 marks]
75. [STPM ]
The equations of two curves are given by y = x2 − 1 and y =
[Answer : (b) 4.5 ; (c) 14.4π]
6
.
x2
(a) Sketch the two curves on the same coordinate axes.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the two curves.
[3 marks]
(c) Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the two curves and the line
x = 1 is revolved completely about the yaxis.
[6 marks]
√
√
[Answer : (b) (− 3, 2), ( 3, 2) ; (c) 2π(−1 + 3 ln 3)]
83
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
77. [STPM ]
Show that
Z
e
1
78. [STPM ]
Z
Find the value of
1
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
76. [STPM ]
Using the substitution u = x − 2, show that
Z 4
1
π
x−1
dx = ln 2 + .
2
2
8
2 x − 4x + 8
ln x
1
dx =
x5
16
[8 marks]
5
1− 4 .
e
[6 marks]
(1 + 2x) ln(1 + x)dx.
0
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[5 marks]
1
2
[Answer : 2 ln 2 − ]
79. [STPM ]
The curve y = ln(4x) is shown in the diagram below.
The tangent to the curve at the point P passes through the origin O.
e
(a) Show that the coordinates of the point P is
, 1 , and find the equation of the tangent to the
4
curve.
[5 marks]
(b) Calculate the area of the shaded region bounded by the curve, the tangent and the xaxis.[5 marks]
(c) Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the shaded region is revolved completely about
the yaxis.
[5 marks]
80. [STPM ]
Show that
4
e
1
8
[Answer : (a) y = x ; (b) e −
d
(cosec x) = − cosec x cot x.
dx
1
1
; (c)
π(e2 − 3)]
4
96
[2 marks]
84
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
9: Integration
x2
81. [STPM ]
Evaluate the definite integrals
Z
ln 2
(a)
0
Z
ex
dx,
1 + ex
3
(b)
√
0
x
dx.
1+x
82. [STPM ]
Z
1
Show that
0
2
x2 cos−1 x dx = .
9
83. [STPM ]
The equation of a curve is
dx
√
.
4 + x2
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
Z
x2 (y − 3)2
+
= 1.
4
9
(a) Sketch the curve.
(b) Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve.
kkleemaths.com
Using the substitution x = 2 tan θ, find
[6 marks]
[Answer : −
1 p
4 + x2 + C]
4x
[3 marks]
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) ln
8
3
; (b) ]
2
3
[6 marks]
[2 marks]
[9 marks]
(c) Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region is revolved completely about the yaxis.
84. [STPM ]
Z
3
ln x dx = 3 ln 3 − 2.
Show that
1
√
Z
Hence, evaluate
0
2
x ln(1 + x2 ) dx.
85
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) 6π ; (c) 16π]
[5 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer :
3
ln 3 − 1]
2
kkleemaths.com
10: Differential Equations
1. [STPM ]
Variables t and y, with t ≥ 0 and y > 0, are related by
1
dy
= y(2 − y),
dt
2
2et
.
1 + et
Show that y → 2 when t → ∞. Sketch the graph of y versus t.
6
9
Find the difference in the values of t when y changes from to .
5
5
with the condition y = 1 when t = 0. Show that y =
2. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
Differential Equations
kkleemaths.com
10
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
[8 marks]
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : 1.7917]
dy
A curve passes through point (2, 0) such that its gradient
at point (x, y) satisfies equation (x2 −
dx
dy
3)
= 4x(3 + y). Show that the equation of the curve is y = 3(x2 − 2)(x2 − 4).
[6 marks]
dx
Sketch the curve.
[3 marks]
Find the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis.
3. [STPM ]
[6 marks]
[Answer :
(a) Variables t and v, with 0 < t < 2, is related by the differential equation
t
dv
= v 2 − v,
dt
48 √
(6 2 − 4)]
5
with the condition v = 2 when t = 1. Find v in terms of t and sketch the graph of v versus t.
(b) Show that
[8 marks]
dy
y
√
= (1 + x2 )
− xy,
2
dx
1+x
where y is a function of x. Hence, solve the differential equation
d
(1 + x )
dx
2
3
2
(1 + x2 )
dy
− xy = x(1 + x2 ),
dx
with the condition y = 1 when x = 0.
4. [STPM ]
(a) Solve the differential equation
(1 − x)(1 + x2 )
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) v =
dy
+ (2 − x + x2 )y = (1 − x)2 , x < 1,
dx
with the condition y = 3 when x = 0.
2
; (b) y = 1 + x2 ]
2−t
[8 marks]
86
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5. [STPM ]
Solve the differential equation
10: Differential Equations
kkleemaths.com
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
dy
= (x + 1)(y + 1),
dx
with x > 0 and y > −1, and y = 2 when x = 1. Give your answer in the form y = f (x).
x
[Answer : y = 3xex−1 − 1]
6. [STPM ]
In a biochemical process, enzyme A changes continuously to enzyme B. Throughout the process, the
total amount of A and B is constant. At any time, the rate that B is produced is directly proportional
to the product of the amount of A and the amount of B at that time. At the beginning of the process,
the amount of A and the amount of B are a and b respectively. If x denotes the amount of B that has
been produced at time t after the process has begun, form a differential equation relating x and t to
describe the process.
[2 marks]
Show that the solution of the differential equation is
x=
where k is a positive constant.
ab(1 − e−(a+b)kt )
,
b + ae−(a+b)kt
[8 marks]
Sketch the graph of x against t. [There is a point of inflection on the graph.]
[2 marks]
7. [STPM ]
The rate of change of water temperature is described by the differential equation
dθ
= −k(θ − θs )
dt
where θ is the water temperature at time t, θs is the surrounding temperature, and k is a positive
constant.
A boiling water at 100◦ C is left to cool in kitchen that has a surrounding temperature of 25◦ C. The
3
water takes 1 hour to decrease to the temperature of 75◦ C. Show that k = ln .
[6 marks]
2
◦
◦
When the water reaches 50 C, the water is placed in a freezer at −10 C to be frozen to ice. Find the
time required, from the moment the water is put in the freezer until it becomes ice at 0◦ C. [6 marks]
[Answer : Time = 4 hours 25 minutes]
8. [STPM ]
Find the particular solution for the differential equation
x−2
1
dy
+
y=− 2
.
dx x(x − 1)
x (x − 1)
that satisfies the boundary condition y =
3
when x = 2.
4
[8 marks]
[Answer : y =
2x − 1
]
x2
9. [STPM ]
The rate of increase in the number of a species of fish in a lake is described by the differential equation
dP
= (a − b)P
dt
where P is the number of fish at time t weeks, a is the rate of reproduction, and b is the mortality
rate, with a and b as constants.
87
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
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(a) Assuming that P = P0 at time t = 0 and a > b, solve the differential equation and sketch its
solution curve.
[7 marks]
(b) At a certain instant, there is an outbreak of an epidemic of a disease. The epidemic results r
in no
1
more offspring of the fish being produced and the fish die at a rate directly proportional to
.
P
There are 900 fish before the outbreak of the epidemic and only 400 fish are alive after 6 weeks.
Determine the length of time from the outbreak of the epidemic until all the fish of that species
die.
[9 marks]
10. [STPM ]
The variables t and x are connected by
[Answer : (a) P = P0 e(a−b)t ; (b) 18 weeks]
dx
= 2t(x − 1),
dt
where x 6= 1. Find x in terms of t if x = 2 when t = 1.
[5 marks]
2
[Answer : x = et
−1
+ 1]
11. [STPM ]
A canal of width 2a has parallel straight banks and the water flows due north. The points A and B
are on opposite banks and B is due east of A, with the point O as the midpoint of AB. The xaxis
and yaxis are taken in the east and north directions respectively with O as the origin. The speed of
the current in the canal, vc , is given by
x2
vc = v0 1 − 2 ,
a
where v0 is the speed of the current in the middle of the canal and x is the distance eastwards from
the middle of the canal. A swimmer swims from A towards the east at speed vr relative to the
current inthe canal.
Taking y to denote the distance northwards travelled by the swimmer, show that
x2
dy
v0
[3 marks]
1− 2 .
=
dx
vr
a
If the width of the canal is 12 m, the speed of the current in the middle of the canal is 10 m s−1 and
the speed of the swimmer is 2 m s−1 relative to the current in the canal,
(a) find the distance of the swimmer from O when he is at the middle of the canal and his distance
from B when he reaches the east bank of the canal,
[7 marks]
(b) sketch the actual path taken by the swimmer.
12. [STPM ]
v
Using the substitution y = 2 , show that the differential equation
x
may be reduced to
2y
dy
+ y2 = −
dx
x
dv
v2
= − 2.
dx
x
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 20 , 40]
[3 marks]
Hence, find the general solution of the original differential equation.
88
[4 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
1
]
Ax2 − x
d
2
(ln tan x) =
.
dx
sin 2x
Hence, find the solution of the differential equation
Show that
for which y =
(sin 2x)
[2 marks]
dy
= 2y(1 − y)
dx
1
1
when x = π. Express y explicitly in terms of x in your answer.
3
4
14. [STPM ]
Find the general solution of the differential equation
x
dy
− 3y = x3 .
dx
Find the particular solution given that y has a minimum value when x = 1.
Sketch the graph of this particular solution.
kkleemaths.com
13. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : y =
[Answer : y =
[8 marks]
tan x
]
2 + tan x
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
1
3
[Answer : y = x3 ln x + Cx3 ; y = x3 ln x − x3 ]
15. [STPM ]
Find the general solution of the differential equation
x
dy
= y 2 − y − 2.
dx
[6 marks]
[Answer : y =
2 + Ax3
]
1 − Ax3
16. [STPM ]
A particle moves from rest along a horizontal straight line. At time t s, the displacement and velocity
of the particle are x m and v ms−1 respectively and its acceleration, in ms−2 , is given by
√
dv
= sin(πt) − 3 cos(πt).
dt
Express v and x in terms of t.
[7 marks]
Find the velocities of the particle when its acceleration is zero for the first and second times. Find also
the distance traveled by the particle between the first and second times its acceleration is zero.[7 marks]
[Answer : v =
i
√
√ i
1h
1 h√
1 − cos(πt) − 3 sin(πt) , x = 2
3 cos(πt) + πt − sin(πt) + 3 ;
π
π
√
1
1
4
3
1
2 3
t= ,v=− ;t= ,v= ;
+ 2 ]
3
π
3
π 3π
π
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
kkleemaths.com
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17. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x > 0, satisfy the differential equation
x2
dy
= y 2 − xy.
dx
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kkleemaths.com
Using the substitution y = ux, show that the given differential equation may be reduced to
x
du
= u2 − 2u.
dx
Hence, show that the general solution of the given differential equation may be expressed in the form
2x
y=
, where A is an arbitrary constant.
[10 marks]
1 + Ax2
Find the equation of the solution curve which passes through the point (1,4) and sketch this solution
curve.
[4 marks]
[Answer : y =
18. [STPM ]
Show that the substitution u = x2 + y transforms the differential equation
into the differential equation
(1 − x)
dy
+ 2y + 2x = 0
dx
(1 − x)
du
= −2u.
dx
4x
]
2 − x2
[3 marks]
19. [STPM ]
A 50 litre tank is initially filled with 10 litres of brine solution containing 20 kg of salt. Starting from
time t = 0, distilled water is poured into the tank at a constant
√ rate of 4 litres per minute. At the
same time, the mixture leaves the tank at a constant rate of k litres per minute, where k > 0. The
time taken for overflow to occur is 20 minutes.
(a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank at time t minutes. Show that the rate of change of Q is
given by
√
Q k
dQ
√ .
=−
dt
10 + (4 − k)t
Hence, express Q in terms of t.
[7 marks]
(b) Show that k = 4, and calculate the amount of salt in the tank at the instant overflow occurs.
[6 marks]
(c) Sketch the graph of Q against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20.
[2 marks]
h
√
[Answer : (a) Q = C 10 + (4 − k)t
20. [STPM ]
Find the particular solution of the differential equation
ex
dy
− y 2 (x + 1) = 0
dx
for which y = 1 when x = 0. Hence, express y in terms of x.
90
√
k+k
i− 416−k
; (b) 4kg]
[7 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
ex
]
2 + x − ex
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[Answer : y =
21. [STPM ]
One of the rules at a training camp of 1000 occupants states that camp activities are to be suspended
if 10 of the occupants are infected with a virus. A trainee infected with a flu virus enrolls in the camp
causing an outbreak of flu. The rate of increase of the number of infected occupants x at t days is
given by differential equation
dx
= kx(1000 − x),
dt
where k is a constant.
Assume that the outbreak of flu begins at the time the infected trainee enrolls and no one leaves the
camp during the outbreak,
1000e1000kt
,
[9 marks]
999 + e1000kt
(b) Determine the value of k if it is found that, after one day, there are five infected occupants,[3 marks]
(a) Show that x =
(c) Determine the number of days before the camp activities will be suspended.
22. [STPM ]
Using the substitution z =
may be reduced to
[Answer : (b) k = 0.0016134 or
1
, show that the differential equation
y
dy 2y
−
= y2
dx
x
2z
dz
+
= −1.
dx
x
1
ln
1000
[4 marks]
999
199
; (c) 3 days]
[2 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution y in terms of x for the differential equation given that y = 3 when
x = 1.
[6 marks]
Sketch the graph y.
23. [STPM ]
Find the general solution of the differential equation
2 ln x
1 dy
=
.
x dx
cos y
91
[3 marks]
[Answer : y =
3x2
]
2 − x3
[5 marks]
1
2
[Answer : sin y = x2 ln x − x2 + c]
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
may be reduced to
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
24. [STPM ]
Using the substitution y = vx, show that the differential equation
xy
dy
− x2 − y 2 = 0
dx
vx
dv
= 1.
dx
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[3 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution that satisfies y = 2 and x = 1.
[6 marks]
[Answer : y 2 = 2x2 (ln x + 2)]
25. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x > 0 and y > 0, satisfy the differential equation
y(y + x)
dy
=
.
dx
x(y − x)
Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the given differential equation into the differential
equation
2u
du
=
.
dx
x(u − 1)
[3 marks]
1
Hence, find the solution of the given differential equation for which y = 2 when x = .
2
[6 marks]
y
[Answer : y = 4x + x ln xy or xy = e x −4 ]
26. [STPM ]
Differentiate ye−x with respect to x. Hence, find the solution of the differential equation
for which y = 1 when x = 0.
dy
− y = ex cos x
dx
27. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x > 0, satisfy the differential equation
x2
dy
= 2xy + y 2 .
dx
[6 marks]
[Answer : e−x
dy
; ye−x = sin x + 1]
dx
Using the substitution y = ux, show that the given differential equation can be transformed into
x
du
= u + u2 .
dx
[3 marks]
Show that the general solution of the transformed differential equation can be expressed as u =
where A is an arbitrary constant.
x
,
A−x
[7 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution of the given differential equation which satisfies the condition that
y = 2 when x = 1.
[3 marks]
92
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
28. [STPM ]
Find the solution of the differential equation
2xy
dy
−
= ex (1 + x2 )
dx 1 + x2
given that y = 3 when x = 0.
29. [STPM ]
[8 marks]
[Answer : y = (ex + 2)(1 + x2 )]
x2
.
x−1
Hence, find the particular solution of the differential equation
Show that e
R
x−2
dx
x(x−1)
=
x−2
1
dy
+
y=− 2
dx x(x − 1)
x (x − 1)
which satisfies the boundary condition y =
3
when x = 2.
4
30. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x, y > 0, are related by the differential equation
Using the substitution y =
2y
dy
+ y2 = − .
dx
x
2x2
]
3 − 2x
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
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[Answer : y =
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : y =
2x − 1
]
x2
u
, show that the differential equation may be reduced to
x2
u2
du
= − 2.
dx
x
[3 marks]
Solve this differential equation, and hence, find y, in terms of x, with the condition that y = 1 when
x = 1.
[6 marks]
31. [STPM ]
Show that the substitution y = ux transform the differential equation
y
dy
x
= y − 2x cot
dx
x
into the differential equation
x
du
= −2 cot u.
dx
[Answer : y =
1
]
x(2x − 1)
[3 marks]
Hence, find the solution of the given differential equation satisfying the condition y = 0 when x = 1.
Give your answer in the form y = f (x).
[5 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
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[Answer : y = x cos−1 x2 ]
32. [STPM ]
The number of rabbits in a farm increases at a rate proportional to the number of rabbits at a certain
time. The number of rabbits doubled to 10000 from the beginning of the year 1985 until the beginning
of 1990. At that time, an outbreak of a certain disease occurred in the farm which caused the death
of rabbits at the rate of 100 rabbits per month. No vaccine was found until the beginning of the year
1992. Find the remaining number of rabbits that survived just before the vaccine was found. [9 marks]
[Answer : unable to solve]
33. [STPM ]
Using the substitution u = ln y, show that the nonlinear differential equation
x
dy
+ (3x + 1)y ln y = ye−2x
dx
can be transformed into the linear differential equation
x
du
+ (3x + 1)u = e−2x .
dx
[4 marks]
Solve this linear differential equation, and hence, find the solution of the original nonlinear differential
equation, given that y = 1 when x = 1.
[9 marks]
Find the limiting value of y as x → ∞.
[2 marks]
[Answer : y = e
34. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x, y > 0 are related by the differential equation
Show that the substitution u =
and find u2 in terms of x.
xy
dy
+ y 2 = 3x4 .
dx
e−2x
x
−e
1−3x
x
; 1]
y
transforms the above differential equation into
x2
du
1 − u2
=3
,
x
dx
u
[9 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution of the original differential equation which satisfies the condition
y = 2 when x = 1.
[3 marks]
[Answer : u2 = 1 −
A
3
; y 2 = x4 + 2 ]
x6
x
35. [STPM ]
Using the substitution z = cos y, find the general solution of the differential equation
dy
1
1
+ cot y = 2 cosec y.
dx x
x
[7 marks]
94
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
Show that the substitution u =
1
transforms the nonlinear differential equation
y
into the linear differential equation
y
dy
+ = y 2 ln x
dx x
du u
− = − ln x
dx x
1
+ Cx]
2x
kkleemaths.com
36. [STPM ]
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : cos y = −
[4 marks]
1
Solve this linear differential equation, and hence, obtain y in terms of x, given that y = when x = 1.
2
37. [STPM ]
Solve the differential equation
38. [STPM ]
[8 marks]
[Answer : y =
2
dy
− y = x2 e2x .
dx x
2
]
4x − x(ln x)2
[6 marks]
1
2
[Answer : y = x2 e2x + Cx2 ]
dy
Find the solution of the differential equation x
− y = 2 which satisfies the condition y = 0 when
dx
x = 1.
[5 marks]
39. [STPM ]
The rate of elimination of a certain drug from a bloodstream is k times the mass, x mg. of the drug
still present at time t. The halflife of the drug in the bloodstream is 100 minutes.
(a) A dose of x0 mg of the drug is injected directly into the bloodstream.
i. Write down a differential equation relating x and t, and solve this differential equation.[4 marks]
ii. Determine the value of k.
[2 marks]
(b) The drug is intravenously fed into the bloodstream at an infusion rate of r mg per minute such
dx
that
= −kx + r. Assuming that x = 0 when t = 0.
dt
i. express x in terms of t.
[6 marks]
ii. estimate the infusion rate that results in a longterm amount of 50 mg of drug in the bloodstream.
[3 marks]
40. [STPM ]
By making the change of variable z = x − 3y, show that the differential equation
x − 3y + 5
dy
=
dx
x − 3y − 1
may be reduced to a differential equation with separable variables.
[3 marks]
Solve this differential equation, and hence, obtain an equation which defines the relation between x
and y.
[4 marks]
95
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
10: Differential Equations
41. [STPM ]
Find the general solution of the differential equation
2x
1
dy
+ y = x 2 e−2x , x > 0.
dx
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
kkleemaths.com
[Answer : x − y − 3 ln x − 3y + 5 = A]
[5 marks]
1
Hence,find the particular solution of the differential equation which satisfies the condition y = e−2
2
when x = 1.
[3 marks]
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11: Maclaurin Series
1. [STPM ]
Given that y = ln(1 + cos x), where −π < x < π, show that
d2 y
+ e−y = 0.
dx2
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Maclaurin Series
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11
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
[4 marks]
6
Using Maclaurin theorem, find the expansion of y in ascending powers of x up to the term x .[7 marks]
Hence,
Z
(b) taking x =
1
ln(1 + cos x) dx, correct to three decimal places,
(a) estimate the value of
0
π
, estimate the value of ln 2 correct to three decimal places.
2
1
4
[Answer : ln 2 − x2 −
2. [STPM ]
1
1
Given ln y = sin−1 x, where − π < sin−1 x < π, show that
2
2
2
dy
(a) (1 − x2 )
− y 2 = 0,
dx
(b) (1 − x2 )
d2 y
dy
−x
− y = 0.
2
dx
dx
−1
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
1 4
1 6
x −
x + . . . ; (a) 0.608 ; (b) 0.691]
96
1440
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
Hence, find the Maclaurin expansion of esin x in ascending powers of x up to the term in x5 . State
the range of values of x for the expansion valid.
[7 marks]
Using a suitable value of x in the expansion, estimate the value of π correct to four significant figures.
Find the percentage error of estimation if π = 3.142.
[4 marks]
3. [STPM ]
Using Maclaurin expansion, find
4. [STPM ]
1
2
1
3
[Answer : 1 + x + x2 + x3 +
5 4 1 5
x + x + . . . , {x : −1 < x < 1} ; 3.130 ; 0.382%]
24
6
1 − cos2 x
.
x→0 x(1 − e−x )
lim
[4 marks]
[Answer : 1]
(a) Find the expansion for ex cos x and ex sin x in ascending powers of x up to the term x3 .
(b) Using Maclaurin theorem, find the expansion for sec x in ascending powers of x up to the term
x4 .
[5 marks]
Deduce the first three non zero terms in the expansion sec2 x and tan x in ascending powers of x.
[4 marks]
97
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1
3
1
3
1
2
5. [STPM ]
−1
If y = sin
d2 y
x, show that
=x
dx2
dy
dx
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[Answer : (a) 1 + x − x3 + . . . , x + x2 + x3 ; (b) 1 + x2 +
3
d3 y
and
=
dx3
dy
dx
11: Maclaurin Series
5 4
2
1
2
x ; 1 + x2 + x4 , x + x3 + x5 ]
24
3
3
15
3
+ 3x
2
dy
dx
5
.
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[4 marks]
Using Maclaurin theorem, express sin−1 x as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x5 .
State the range of values of x for the expansion valid.
[7 marks]
Hence,
(a) taking x = 0.5, find the approximation of π correct to two decimal places,
x − sin−1 x
(b) find lim
.
x→0 x − sin x
6. [STPM ]
Use the expansion of
x7 .
1
6
[Answer : x + x3 +
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
3 5
x , {x : x < 1} ; (a) 3.14 ; (b) −1]
40
1
to express tan−1 x as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in
1 + x2
[4 marks]
Hence find, in terms of π, the sum of the infinite series
1
1
1
−
+
− ...
2
3×3 5×3
7 × 33
[2 marks]
√
3
1 3 1 5 1 7
π]
[Answer : x − x + x − x ; 1 −
3
5
7
6
7. [STPM ]
If y = (sin−1 x)2 , show that, for −1 < x < 1,
(1 − x2 )
Find the Maclaurin series for (sin
−1
2
d2 y
dy
−x
− 2 = 0.
2
dx
dx
[3 marks]
6
x) up to the term in x .
[6 marks]
1
3
[Answer : x2 + x4 +
8 6
x ]
45
8. [STPM ]
√
Find the Maclaurin expansion of x cos x up to the term in x3 . State the range of values of x for which
the expansion is valid.
[7 marks]
9. [STPM ]
Using the result that tan
Hence, find lim
x→0
sin x
x
Z
x=
0
1
dt, show that
1 + t2
tan−1 x = x −
where x < 1.
tan−1 x
−1
x3 x5 x7
+
−
+ ...
3
5
7
.
1
4
[Answer : x − x3 ; {x : x < 1}]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
98
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
11: Maclaurin Series
10. [STPM ]
Given that y = x − cos−1 x, where −1 < x < 1.
d2 y
(a) Show that
=x
dx2
dy
−1
dx
3
.
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[Answer : 1]
[2 marks]
(b) Find the Maclaurin series for y in ascending powers of x up to the term in x5 .
1
2
[5 marks]
1
6
[Answer : − π + 2x + x3 +
3 5
x ]
40
11. [STPM ]
Using Maclaurin’s theorem, obtain the expansion of ln(1 + cos x) up to the term in x4 .
[6 marks]
√
π
sin x
π3
Hence, find the expansion of
up to the term in x3 , and show that 3 ≈ 2 −
−
.
1 + cos x
12
5184
If y = sin
d2 y
x, show that
=x
dx2
1
4
[Answer : ln(2) − x2 −
12. [STPM ]
−1
[5 marks]
dy
dx
3
d3 y
and
=
dx3
dy
dx
3
+ 3x
2
dy
dx
1 4
1
1
x + . . . ; x + x3 + . . .]
96
2
24
5
.
[5 marks]
Using Maclaurin’s theorem, express sin−1 x as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x5 .
State the range of values of x for which the expansion is valid.
[7 marks]
13. [STPM ]
Using the Maclaurin series for ln(1 + x), evaluate
14. [STPM ]
Given that y = sin−1 x.
(a) Show that
x − ln(1 + x)
x→0
x2
lim
(1 − x2 )
1
6
[Answer : x + x3 +
d2 y
dy
−x
= 0.
dx2
dx
3 5
x , {x : x < 1}]
40
[3 marks]
[Answer :
1
]
2
[4 marks]
1
3
(b) Using Maclaurin’s theorem, show that the series expansion for sin−1 x is x + x3 + x5 + . . ..
6
40
State the range of values of x for which the expansion is valid.
[8 marks]
1
(c) Using the series expansion in (b), where x = , estimate the value of π correct to three decimal
2
places.
[3 marks]
99
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
11: Maclaurin Series
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[Answer : (b) {x : x < 1} ; (c) 3.139]
15. [STPM ]
Using the Maclaurin theorem, find the expansion of ln(1 + sin x) up to the terms in x3 .
2x − ln(1 + sin x)2
.
x→0
2x2 − x4
Hence, evaluate lim
16. [STPM ]
−1
If y = ecos x , show that
(1 − x2 )
17. [STPM ]
The function g is defined by
for all values of x.
[2 marks]
1
2
−1
x
up to and including the term in x4 .
π
√
g(x) = e
sin
!
3
x .
2
(a) Show that g 00 (x) + g 0 (x) + g(x) = 0.
Hence, show that the Maclaurin series for g(x) is
√
√
√
3
3 2
3 4
x−
x +
x − ....
2
4
48
π
1
2
π
1
3
π
5 π 4
e2x ]
24
[5 marks]
[5 marks]
(b) Use the Maclaurin scries obtained in (a) to
g(x)
i. find the expansion of
ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 .
1 + 2x
g(x)
ii. find the value of lim
.
x→0 x
18. [STPM ]
If y = (cos−1 x)2 , show that
1
2
[8 marks]
[Answer : y = e 2 − e 2 x + e 2 x2 − e 2 x3 +
− 12 x
1
6
[Answer : x − x2 + x3 ; ]
d2 y
dy
− y = 0, for − 1 < x < 1.
−x
2
dx
dx
Hence, find the Maclaurin series for ecos
[5 marks]
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
√
√
√
5 3 2 5 3 3
3
3
[Answer : (b)(i)
x−
x +
x + . . . ; (ii)
]
2
4
2
2
2
(1 − x )
dy
dx
2
= 4y.
Show that the Maclaurin’s series for (cos−1 x)2 is
π2
π
− πx + x2 − x3 + . . . .
4
6
√
[3 marks]
[7 marks]
100
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
11: Maclaurin Series
[6 marks]
Hence, find the first three nonzero terms of the series expansion of e
−2x
tan x.
1
3
4
3
[2 marks]
7
3
[Answer : 1 − 2x + 2x2 − x3 + . . . ; tan x = x + x3 + . . . ; x − 2x2 + x3 + . . .]
20. [STPM ]
State the Maclaurin series for cos 2x up to four nonzero terms.
2x2
cos 2x +
x→0
6x4
Hence, find the value lim
−1
[1 marks]
.
[3 marks]
2
3
[Answer : 1 − 2x2 + x4 −
21. [STPM ]
−1
Show that y = esin x − 1 satisfies the differential equation
2
(1 − x )
Deduce that
(1 − x2 )
and
(1 − x2 )
Find the Maclaurin series for e
sin−1
x
−1
esin x − 1
,
(a) determine lim
x→2
sin x
Z
(b) approximate the value of
0.1
(esin
0
dy
dx
2
= (y + 1)2 .
d2 y
dy
−x
=y+1
2
dx
dx
d4 y
d3 y
d2 y
−
5x
−
5
= 0.
dx4
dx3
dx2
−1
x
− 1)dx, correct to five decimal places.
(1 + x2 )
(1 + x2 )
1
2
dy
=y
dx
d2 y
dy
+ (2x − 1)
= 0.
2
dx
dx
−1
Hence, find the Maclaurin expansion of etan
x
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
1
3
[Answer : x + x2 + x3 +
22. Given that ln y = tan−1 x, show that
4 6
1
x + ... ; ]
45
9
[7 marks]
− 1 in ascending powers of x up to the term in x4 .
Hence,
and
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19. [STPM ]
State the Maclaurin series for e−2x up to the term in x3 .
[1 marks]
dy
If y = tan x, show that
= 1 + y 2 . Obtain the Maclaurin series for tan x up to the term in x3 .
dx
[3 marks]
5 4
x + . . . ; (a) 1 ; (b) 0.00518]
24
in ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 .
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
dy
in terms of tan x, and hence show that
dx
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23. Given that y = tan2 x, express
d2 y
= 2 + 8y + 6y 2 .
dx2
11: Maclaurin Series
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By further differentiation, or otherwise, show that, if x is so small that x7 and higher powers of x can
be neglected,
2
17
tan2 x = x2 + x4 + x6 .
3
45
√
24. Given that y = e
1+x
, show that
4(1 + x)
d2 y
dy
+2
= y.
2
dx
dx
By further differentiation, or otherwise, show that Maclaurin series of y up to the term in x4 is
1
1
y = e 1 + x + x2 + kx4 ,
2
48
where k is a constant to be determined.
1
1
25. If y = (cos x)x , where − π ≤ x ≤ π, prove that
2
2
dy
= y(ln cos x − x tan x).
dx
Express y as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 .
1
1 4
, correct to 3 decimal places.
Hence, estimate the value of cos
4
102
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
(b) (1 − x2 )
d2 y
dy
−x
− y = 0.
2
dx
dx
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1
1
Given ln y = sin−1 x, where − π < sin−1 x < π, show that
2
2
2
dy
(a) (1 − x2 )
− y 2 = 0,
dx
−1
11: Maclaurin Series
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[2 marks]
[2 marks]
Hence, find the Maclaurin expansion of esin x in ascending powers of x up to the term in x5 . State
the range of values of x for the expansion valid.
[7 marks]
Using a suitable value of x in the expansion, estimate the value of π correct to four significant figures.
Find the percentage error of estimation if π = 3.142.
[4 marks]
103
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12: Numerical Methods
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Numerical Methods
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12
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
Use the Newton Raphson method with initial estimate, x0 = 0.5, find the root for equation 10x −
2 sin x = 5 correct to three decimal places.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.615]
2. [STPM ]
1
Draw, on the same axes, the graphs of y = e− 2 x and y = 4 − x2 . State the integer which is nearest to
the positive root of the equation
1
x2 + e− 2 x = 4.
[3 marks]
Find an approximation for this positive root by using the NewtonRaphson method until two successive
iterations agree up to two decimal places; give your answer correct to two decimal places.
[5 marks]
3. [STPM ]
Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graphs y = ex and y =
(1 + x)ex − 2 = 0 has a root in the interval [0, 1].
[Answer : 2 ; 1.90]
2
. Show that the equation
1+x
[7 marks]
Use the NewtonRaphson method with the initial estimate x0 = 0.5 to estimate the root correct to
three decimal places.
[6 marks]
[Answer : 0.375]
4. [STPM ]
Using the sketch graphs of y = x3 and x + y = 1, show that the equation x3 + x − 1 = 0 has only
one real root and state the successive integers a and b such that the real root lies in the interval (a, b).
Use the NewtonRaphson method to find the real root correct to three decimal places.
5. [STPM ]
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.683]
1
Find the coordinate of the stationary point on the curve y = x2 + where x > 0; give the xcoordinate
x
and ycoordinate correct to three decimal places. Determine whether the stationary point is a minimum
point or a maximum point.
[5 marks]
1
1
The xcoordinate of the point of intersection of the curves y = x2 + and y = 2 , where x > 0, is
x
x
p. Show that 0.5 < p < 1. Using the NewtonRaphson method to determine the value of p correct to
three decimal places and, hence, find the point of intersection.
[9 marks]
6. [STPM ]
[Answer : (0.794 , 1.890) , minimum ; p = 0.724 , (0.724 , 1.908)]
Z
Using trapezium rule, with five ordinates, evaluate
0
1p
4 − x2 dx.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 1.91]
104
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
12: Numerical Methods
7. [STPM ]
x + 4ex = 2 has a root in the interval [1,0].
4
. Show that the equation
2−x
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Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graphs y = e−x and y =
[6 marks]
Estimate the root correct to three decimal places by using NewtonRaphson method with initial estimate x0 = −0.4.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.479]
8. [STPM ]
Use the trapezium rule with subdivisions at x = 3 and x = 5 to obtain an approximation to
Z
7
x3
dx, giving your answer correct to three places of decimals.
[4 marks]
4
1 1+x
By evaluating the integral exactly, show that the error of the approximation is about 4.1%. [4 marks]
9. [STPM ]
[XAnswer : 1.701]
Two iterations suggested to estimate a root of the equation x3 − 4x2 + 6 = 0 are xn+1 = 4 −
1
1
xn+1 = (x3n + 6) 2 .
2
(a) Show that the equation x3 − 4x2 + 6 = 0 has a root between 3 and 4.
6
and
x2n
[3 marks]
(b) Using sketched graphs of y = x and y = f (x) on the same axes, show that, with initial approximation x0 = 3, one of the iterations converges to the root whereas the other does not.
[6 marks]
(c) Use the iteration which converges to the root to obtain a sequence of iterations with x0 = 3,
ending the process when the difference of two consecutive iterations is less than 0.05.
[4 marks]
(d) Determine whether the iteration used still converges to the root if the initial approximation is
x0 = 4.
[2 marks]
10. [STPM ]
Show that the equation x3 − 15x2 + 300 = 0 has a root between 5 and 6.
[3 marks]
Given that x0 = 5 as an initial approximation, use the NewtonRaphson method to find the root
correct to three decimal places.
[5 marks]
[XXAnswer : 5.671]
11. [STPM ]
By sketching the graphs of y = 3ex and y = 2x − 8 on the same diagram, show that the equation
3ex + 2x − 8 = 0 has only one real root.
[3 marks]
Use the NewtonRaphson method, with the initial approximation x0 = 1, to find the root correct to
three decimal places.
[5 marks]
[XAnswer : 0.768]
12. [STPM ]
Use the trapezium rule with five ordinates to estimate, to three decimal places, the value of
Z 1p
2 − x3 dx.
0
[5 marks]
105
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12: Numerical Methods
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[XXAnswer : 1.310]
13. [STPM ]
p
The curve y = x x2 + 5 and the straight line y = 3x in the first quadrant is shown in the diagram
below.
Using the trapezium rule with four intervals, determine the area of the region bounded curve and the
straight line.
[5 marks]
14. [STPM ]
[XAnswer : 0.683]
1
− 1 and y = −x3 − 2 on the same coordinate axes. Hence, show
Sketch the graphs of y =
2−x
that the equation x4 − 2x3 + x − 3 = 0 has two real roots.
[7 marks]
Using the NewtonRaphson method with the initial approximation x0 = 2, find the positive real root
of the equation x4 − 2x3 + x − 3 = 0, correct to four decimal places.
[6 marks]
State, with a reason, a situation in which the NewtonRaphson method fails.
[2 marks]
[XAnswer : 2.0977]
15. [STPM ]
Show that the equation x4 − 2x3 − x + 1 = 0 has at least a real root in the interval [2, 3].
[2 marks]
2x3n − 1
is more likely to give a
x3n − 1
convergent sequence of approximation to a root in the interval [2, 3]. Use your choice with x0 = 2.5 to
determine the root corrects to three decimal places.
[9 marks]
Determine which of the iterations xn+1 = x4n − 2x3n + 1 and xn+1 =
[XAnswer : 2.118]
16. [STPM ]
Using the NewtonRaphson method with the initial approximation x0 = 4, find the positive real root
of the equation ex = 12.5x + 1, correct to three decimal places.
[6 marks]
[XAnswer : 3.909]
106
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13: Data Description
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Data Description
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
The following is the systolic blood pressure, in mm Hg. of 10 patients in a hospital.
165 135 151 155 158 146 149 124 162 173
If a patient is selected randomly, find the probability his/her systolic blood pressure exceeds one
standard deviation above or below the mean.
[6 marks]
[Answer :
3
]
10
2. [STPM ]
The following table shows the age, in years, of 121 participants in a conference relating to health.
Age
1824
2531
3238
3945
4652
5359
Frequency
6
11
19
26
45
14
(a) Plot a histogram and a frequency polygon for the given grouped data. Give comments on the
distribution of the age of the participants.
[5 marks]
(b) Find the estimates for the median and the semiinterquartile range for the participants ages.
[8 marks]
(c) State whether the median is more suitable than the mean as the measure of base (central tendency)
for the age distribution of the participants. Give reason(s) for your answer.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) negatively skewed ; (b) 45. , 6.8 ; (c) median]
3. [STPM ]
The table below indicates the number of cars belonging to 30 houses in a housing area.
Number of cars
Frequency
0
2
1
15
2
10
3
2
4
1
(a) Find mode, median, and mean.
[3 marks]
(b) Determine, if the majority of the houses in the housing area have number of cars exceeding the
mean.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 1 , 1 , 1.5 ; (b) No]
4. [STPM ]
The table below shows the number of audiences according to age, in years, that watch a horror film
for a session at a mini theater.
Age, x
15≤ x <18
18≤ x <21
21≤ x <27
27≤ x <33
33≤ x <39
39≤ x <45
107
Frequency
14
38
44
16
6
2
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
(a) Plot a histogram for the data above.
[3 marks]
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(b) Plot a cumulative frequency curve for the data above. From the curve, estimate the median and
the semiinterquartile range.
[8 marks]
(c) If there were 8 audiences between the ages of 15 to 17 that were mistakenly entered into the age
group of 18 to 20 years, calculate the actual median.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) 21.8 , 2.6 ; (c) 22.09]
5. [STPM ]
The table below shows the scores obtained by a group of students in a mathematics quiz.
Score
Number of students
If the median is 1,
(a) find the value of x,
(b) find the mode and the mean score.
0
8
1
1
2
1
3
0
4
x
5
3
[1 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 4 ; (b) 0 , 2]
6. [STPM ]
The number of personal computers sold in a week by a company for a period of 25 weeks is given as
follows:
10
7
8
10
7
12
4
14
4
10
18
9
9
29
14
7
17
6
11
5
5
20
4
15
5
(a) Find the mean and the standard deviation of the number of personal computers sold in a week
in the given period.
[5 marks]
(b) Find the percentage of the weeks that the weekly sales of the personal computers are within one
standard deviation from the mean.
[3 marks]
(c) Construct a frequency distribution by grouping the number of personal computers sold per week
according to class intervals 15, 610, 1115, 1620 and 2130. Hence, plot a histogram corresponding to this grouped data and state the shape of the distribution.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) 10.4 , 5.88 ; (b) 72% ; (c) positively skewed]
7. [STPM ]
The number of hand phones sold each day by a firm during a promotion period of 14 days is as follows:
28
27
23
35
31
23
26
33
33
28
23
27
Find the median and semiquartile range for the above data.
24
31
[4 marks]
[Answer : 27.5 , 3.5]
8. [STPM ]
Wage per hour, RMx, paid to temporary workers in the Production Department and Marketing Department of a factory are as follows.
108
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
8 ≤ x < 10
10 ≤ x < 12
12 ≤ x < 14
14 ≤ x < 16
16 ≤ x < 20
13: Data Description
Number of temporary workers
Production Department Marketing Department
15
8
18
31
35
58
25
32
12
6
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Wages
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(a) Plot two histograms for the above data on separate diagrams. Based on your histograms, state
the spreads of the distributions of the temporary workers wages in the Production Department
and Marketing Department of the factory.
[6 marks]
(b) Calculate the estimated median, mean, and standard deviation of the hourly wages of all the
temporary workers in that factory.
[9 marks]
[Answer : (a) Positively skewed , symmetrical ; (b) 13.03 , 13.06 , 2.27]
9. [STPM ]
Find the median and the semiinterquartile range for the following numbers: 550, 450, 400, 750, 650,
700, 850, 500.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 600 , 125]
10. [STPM ]
The table below shows the number of women based on the number of their children according to result
of a survey conducted on 50 000 married women in the country.
Number of children
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Number of women
5011
8698
11633
19418
4848
307
85
(a) Determine the percentage of women whose number of children are within the range of one standard
deviation from the mean.
[7 marks]
(b) Let X represent the number of children of a woman that is chosen randomly. Tabulate the
probability distribution of X with each probability given to three decimal places.
[3 marks]
(c) If five women are chosen randomly, find the probability that three of them have more than two
children.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 62.1% ; (c) 0.308]
11. [STPM ]
The table below indicates the number of children of 1440 families in a town.
Number of children
Number of families
0
410
1
310
2
290
3
300
4
110
(a) Find mode, median, and mean number of children of the families.
109
5
20
[4 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
[2 marks]
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(b) Find the percentage of the number of families that have number of children exceeding the mean.
[Answer : (a) 0 , 1.5 , 1.618 ; (b) 50%]
12. [STPM ]
The table below shows the lengths of 200 fish of a certain type of tropical fish that are randomly
selected in a study carried out at a freshwater fish rearing centre.
Length of fish (x mm)
0 < x ≤ 29
29 < x ≤ 34
34 < x ≤ 39
39 < x ≤ 44
44 < x ≤ 49
49 < x ≤ 54
54 < x ≤ 59
59 < x ≤ 64
Frequency
0
8
19
42
69
34
23
5
(a) Plot a histogram for the data above, and draw the frequency polygon on the histogram. State
the shape of the distribution of the data above.
[5 marks]
(b) Calculate the approximate median length of the fish.
[3 marks]
(c) By using the coding method and taking 46.5 mm as the assumed mean, find the mean and the
standard deviation of the length of the fish.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) negatively skewed ; (b) 46.25 ; (c) 46.28 , 6.71]
13. [STPM ]
The data shown in the stemplot below are the marks in a statistics course obtained by a group of
students at a local institution of higher learning.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
0
2
1
4
2
2
3
2
3
2
3
7
6
4
9
8
Key: 91 means 91 marks
(a) Find the percentage of students who obtain less than 40 marks and the percentage of students
who obtain at least 80 marks.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the mean and standard deviation of the students marks.
(c) Find the median and semiinterquartile range of the students marks.
(d) Construct a boxplot for the above data.
[5 marks]
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 10% , 10% ; (b) 56.05 , 14.9 ; (c) 54 , 9.25]
110
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
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14. [STPM ]
Explain, with graphical illustrations, the relationship between the mean, median, and mode in a
negatively skewed frequency distribution and in a positively skewed frequency distribution. [3 marks]
15. [STPM ]
The following table shows the lengths, in minutes, of 90 telephone calls made in a month by a trading
company.
Length (minutes)
0.0 − 2.9
3.0 − 5.9
6.0 − 8.9
9.0 − 11.9
12.0 − 14.9
15.0 − 20.9
Frequency
12
19
35
13
8
3
(a) Draw a histogram for the above grouped data.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the median and the semiinterquartile range of the lengths of telephone calls made by
the trading company.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (b) 7.15 , 2.34]
16. [STPM ]
The table below shows the number of defective electronic components per lot for 500 lots that have
been tested.
Numbers of defective
components per lot
Relative frequency
0
0.042
1
2
3
4
5
6 or more
0.054
0.392
0.318
0.148
0.014
0.032
(a) State the mode and the median number of defective electronic components per lot.
[2 marks]
(b) For the lots with defective components of more than 5, the mean number of defective components
per lot is 6.4. Find the mean number of defective electronic components per lot for the given 500
lots.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 2 , 3 ; (b) 2.7]
17. [STPM ]
The number of teenagers, according to age, that patronize a recreation centre for a certain period of
time is indicated in the following table.
Age in Years
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
Number of teenagers
4
10
27
110
212
238
149
[ Age 12  means age 12 and more but less than 13 years ]
111
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
(a) Display the above data using histogram.
[3 marks]
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(b) Find the median and semiinterquartile range for the age of teenagers who patronize the recreation
centre. Give your answer to the nearest months.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (b) 17 years 1 month , 10 months]
18. [STPM ]
The number of hand phones that are sold in a week by 15 representatives in a town is as follows:
5
10
8
7
25
12
5
14
11
10
21
9
8
11
18
(a) Find the median, lower quartile, and upper quartile for this distribution.
[2 marks]
(b) Draw a box plot to represent the data.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 10 , 8 , 14]
19. [STPM ]
The frequency distribution of the final examination marks for statistics course at an institute of higher
learning is as follows.
Marks
1029
3039
4049
5059
6069
7079
8099
Number of students
6
7
12
19
15
13
8
(a) Plot a histogram for the above data.
[3 marks]
(b) Plot a cumulative frequency curve. Hence, estimate the median, semiquartile range, and the
percentage of students who obtained 45 to 70 marks.
[10 marks]
[Answer : (b) 57.5 , 12.25 , 26.25%]
20. [STPM ]
Show that, for the numbers x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , xn with mean x
¯,
X
X
(x − x
¯ )2 =
x2 − n¯
x2 .
[2 marks]
The numbers 4, 6, 12, 5, 7, 9, 5, 11, p, q, where p < q, have mean x
¯ = 6.9 and
Calculate the of p and q.
X
(x − x
¯)2 = 102.9.
[6 marks]
[Answer : 1, 9]
21. [STPM ]
The number of ships which anchor at a port every week for 26 particular weeks are as follows.
32
26
28
27
43
38
21
42
35
18
19
37
25
50
112
45
46
35
23
32
40
18
20
26
29
30
46
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
(a) Display the data in a stemplot.
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(b) Find the median and interquartile range.
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[2 marks]
[4 marks]
(c) Draw a boxplot to represent the data.
[3 marks]
(d) State the shape of the frequency distribution. Give a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) 31 , 15 ; (d) positively skewed]
22. [STPM ]
The time taken by 50 customers to browse through books in a bookshop is shown in the histogram
below.
(a) State the modal class.
[1 marks]
(b) Calculate the mean time taken by the customers to browse through books in the bookshop.[2 marks]
(c) If 25% of the customers take more than x minutes to browse through books in the bookshop,
determine the value of x.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 1215 ; (b) 13.3 ; (c) 17.5]
23. [STPM ]
The following data show the masses, in kg, of fish caught by 22 fishermen on a particular day.
23
69
48
22
51
42
25
46
39
23
37
52
(a) Display the above data in an ordered stemplot.
(b) Find the mean and standard deviation.
(c) Find the median and interquartile range.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the above data.
41
41
38
40
37
59
20
68
88
59
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
(e) State whether the mean or the median is more suitable as a representative value of the above
data. Justify your answer.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) 44 , 16.8 ; (c) 41 , 15 ; (e) median]
24. [STPM ]
The stemplot below shows the driving experience (in thousand km) of 15 express bus drivers.
113
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
3
2
5
8
1
6
8
1
9
5
6
1
0
13: Data Description
5
2
Key: 6k2 means 62 000 km
(a) Find the median, the first quartile and the third quartile.
[2 marks]
(b) Draw a boxplot to represent the data.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 15000 , 10000, 26000]
25. [STPM ]
The ages of 75 persons under the age of 50 years are shown in the table below.
Age at last birthday (in years)
Number of persons
09
3
10  14
6
15  19
15
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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20  24
25
25  29
16
(a) Calculate the mode and the median.
30  49
10
[4 marks]
(b) Calculate the percentage of persons whose ages are between 18 and 35 years.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 22.1 , 22.2 ; (b) 64.3%]
26. [STPM ]
Overexposure to a certain metal dust at the workplace of a factory is detrimental to the health of
its workers. The workplace is considered safe if the level of the metal dust is less than 198 µ g m−3 .
The level of the metal dust at the workplace is recorded at a particular time of day for a period of 90
consecutive working days. The results are summarised in the table below.
Metal dust level (µ g m−3 )
170  174
175  179
180  184
185  189
190  194
195  199
200  204
Number of days
8
11
25
22
15
7
2
(a) State what the number 11 in the table means.
[1 marks]
(b) Calculate estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the levels of the metal dust. [5 marks]
(c) Plot a cumulative frequency curve of the above data. Hence, estimate the median and the
interquartile range.
[7 marks]
(d) Find the percentage of days for which the workplace is considered unsafe.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 185 , 7.22 ; (c) 184.7 , 9.8 ; (d) 4.44%]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
21
8
17
22
19
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27. [STPM ]
Find the median and the interquartile range of the following numbers.
10
29
6
6
21
20
12
18
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25
[3 marks]
[Answer : 18.5 , 11]
28. [STPM ]
An advertising firm conducted a survey on television viewing habits in urban and rural areas. The
table below shows the number of hours per week spent watching television by 20 persons in urban
areas and 18 persons in rural areas.
Urban
35 36
34 45
39 40
40 31
43 36
35
34
29
26
47
38
30
40
35
35
Rural
16 48
24 50
48 34
34 40
8
45
47
40
40
25
31
32
42
44
(a) Construct a suitable stemplot for each of the above data set.
[3 marks]
(b) Comment on the skewness of the two distributions.
[2 marks]
(c) Calculate the mean and the standard deviation of the number of hours spent watching television
for each area.
[6 marks]
(d) Compare the dispersion of the two distributions.
[1 marks]
[Answer : (c) 36.4 , 5.15 ; 36 , 11.4]
29. [STPM ]
The times taken by 22 students to breakfast are shown in the following table.
Time (x minutes)
Number of students
2≤x<5
1
5≤x<8
2
8 ≤ x < 11
4
11 ≤ x < 14
8
14 ≤ x < 17
5
17 ≤ x < 20
2
(a) Draw a histogram of the grouped data. Comment on the shape of frequency distribution.[4 marks]
(b) Calculate estimates of the mean, median, and mode of the breakfast times. Use your calculations
to justify your statement about the shape of the frequency distribution.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (b) 12.23 , 12.50 , 12.71]
30. [STPM ]
The ages of patients visiting a clinic on a particular day are as follows.
18
19
21
19
21
18
20
51
20
62
20
8
20
19
19
115
30
19
19
64
20
26
21
20
19
22
28
43
22
18
19
18
19
20
19
23
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
13: Data Description
(a) Construct an ordered stemplot to display the above data.
[2 marks]
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(b) State a measure of central location that best describes the data. Give a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
31. [STPM ]
The table below shows the duration, in seconds, taken by 100 workers to finish a task.
Duration (x seconds)
0 < x ≤ 100
100 < x ≤ 200
200 < x ≤ 250
250 < x ≤ 300
300 < x ≤ 350
350 < x ≤ 400
400 < x ≤ 500
(a) Calculate an estimate of the mean.
Number of workers
2
10
20
26
24
10
8
[2 marks]
(b) Plot a histogram for the above data. Hence, estimate the mode.
[5 marks]
(c) Plot a relative cumulative frequency curve for the above data. Hence, determine the median and
the percentage of workers who finish the task in more than 270 seconds.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) 284 ; (b) 287.5 ; (c) 285 , 58%]
32. [STPM ]
The mean mark for a group of students taking a statistics test is 70.6. The mean marks for male
and female students are 68.5 and 72.0 respectively. Find the ratio of the number of male to female
students.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 2:3]
33. [STPM ]
The masses (in thousands of kg) of solid waste collected from a town for 25 consecutive days are as
follows:
41
48
53
33
44
46
55
55
48
49
57
50
50
52
(a) Construct a stemplot to represent the data.
(b) Find the median and interquartile range.
(c) Calculate the mean and standard deviation.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the data.
38
47
53
39
50
51
43
49
56
52
51
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
[3 marks]
(e) Comment on the shape of the distribution and give a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) 50 , 6 ; (c) 48.4 , 5.84 ]
34. [STPM ]
The following table shows the age distribution of drivers who are at fault in accidents during a onemonth period in a country.
116
Age (years)
1825
2635
3645
4655
5665
6680
(a) Draw a histogram for the data.
13: Data Description
Number of drivers
20
24
14
18
18
26
[3 marks]
(b) Estimate the mean and standard deviation of the ages of the drivers.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) 46.9 , 18.5]
35. [STPM ]
The marks for 26 students in a test are as follows:
22
22
90
51
13
83
43
11
59
32
52
43
32
34
40
73
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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58
81
68
65
76
62
(a) Construct a stemplot to represent the data.
53
38
37
45
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a randomly selected student has a mark between 53 and 65, inclusively.
(c) Determine the interquartile range.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the data.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 5/26 ; (c) 31]
36. [STPM ]
A sample of 100 fuses, nominally rated at 13 amperes, are tested by passing increasing electric current
through them. The current at which they blow are recorded and the following cumulative frequency
table is obtained.
Currents (amperes)
<10
<11
<12
<13
<14
<15
<16
<17
Cumulative frequency
0
8
30
63
88
97
99
100
Calculate the estimates of the mean, median and mode. Comment on the distribution.
[8 marks]
[Answer : 12.65 , 12.61 , 12.58 ; positively skewed]
37. [STPM ]
The time taken by 128 workers to complete a task is summarised in the table below.
117
Time (minutes)
40 − 44
45 − 49
50 − 54
55 − 59
60 − 64
65 − 74
13: Data Description
Number of works
6
14
23
42
30
13
Plot a cumulative frequency curve for the data.
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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[3 marks]
Hence, estimate the number of workers who take more than 66 minutes to complete the task. [2 marks]
[Answer : 10]
38. [STPM ]
The distribution of the selling prices of 80 houses in a city is shown below.
Selling price (RM ’000)
120−
150−
180−
210−
240−
270−
300−
330−
360−
Number of houses
8
23
17
18
8
4
1
1
0
The interval ‘120−’, for example, means RM 120 000 ≤ selling price < RM 150 000.
(a) Construct a histogram for the data above.
[3 marks]
(b) State the most appropriate measure of location to describe the selling prices. Give a reason.
[2 marks]
(c) Calculate the measure that you have selected in (b), and interpret your answer.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) median. Positively skewed. (c) 195882]
39. [STPM ]
The mean and standard deviation of Physics marks for 25 school candidates and 5 private candidates
are shown in the table below.
Number of candidates
Mean
Standard deviation
School candidates
25
55
4
Private candidates
5
40
5
Calculate the overall mean and standard deviation of the Physics marks.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 52.5 ; 6.98]
40. [STPM ]
The duration of telephone calls made by 175 individuals at a call center on a particular day is shown
in the table below:
118
Duration (minutes)
1−7
8 − 14
15 − 21
22 − 28
29 − 35
36 − 42
43 − 49
50 − 56
Frequency
15
32
34
22
16
12
9
5
(a) Construct a histogram to display the data.
(b)
i. Draw a frequency polygon on the histogram in (a).
ii. Comment on the skewness of the distribution obtained.
13: Data Description
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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[2 marks]
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
[Answer : (b) (ii) Positively skewed]
41. [STPM ]
Forty soil samples are collected from a certain area and tested for their pH values. The pH values and
the number of soil samples tested are given in the table below.
pH value
4.0 − 4.5
4.5 − 5.0
5.0 − 5.5
5.5 − 6.0
6.0 − 6.5
6.5 − 7.0
7.0 − 7.5
7.5 − 8.0
Number of soil samples
1
3
5
9
11
7
3
1
(a) Construct the cumulative frequency table for this distribution, and plot the cumulative frequency
curve.
[3 marks]
(b) Using the cumulative frequency curve, estimate the median and semiinterquartile range of the
distribution.
[4 marks]
(c) The pH value of a sample is wrongly recorded as 5.8, while its actual value is 5.0. State whether
the wrong pH value affects the median and semiinterquartile range. Justify your answers.[2 marks]
(d) Another four soil samples are collected from the same area, and their pH values are found to be
greater than 8.0.
i. Out of the 44 samples, find the percentage of samples which have a pH value greater than
7.0.
[2 marks]
ii. Using the curve in (a), estimate the median of the 44 samples. State a reason why the same
curve is used.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) 6.10, 0.5 ; (d)(i) 18.18% ; (ii) 6.20]
42. [STPM ]
The prices of houses sold, x, in hundred thousand RM, in a municipality in the year 2007 is shown
below.
119
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Price (hundred thousand RM)
2.5 < x ≤ 3.0
3.0 < x ≤ 3.4
3.5 < x ≤ 4.0
4.0 < x ≤ 4.5
4.5 < x ≤ 5.0
5.0 < x ≤ 5.5
5.5 < x ≤ 6.0
6.0 < x ≤ 6.5
13: Data Description
Frequency
15
10
14
8
10
7
5
3
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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(a) Plot a cumulative frequency curve for the above data. Hence, estimate the median and the
quartiles.
[5 marks]
(b) Draw a boxplot to represent the above data. Comment on the prices of the houses sold. [4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 3.90 hundred thousand , Q1 =3.15 hundred thousand , Q3 =4.85 hundred thousand]
43. [STPM ]
The lifespan, (in hours), of 50 light bulbs are summarised in the table below.
Lifespan (x hours)
1500 < x ≤ 1550
1550 < x ≤ 1575
1575 < x ≤ 1600
1600 < x ≤ 1625
1625 < x ≤ 1650
1650 < x ≤ 1675
1675 < x ≤ 1700
x > 1700
Number of bulbs
2
4
4
14
12
8
4
2
(a) Calculate the estimates of the median and mode, giving your answer to the nearest hour.[6 marks]
(b) If the upper boundary of the last class interval is k hours and the mean is 1630 hours, determine
the value of k.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 1627 , 1621 ; (b) 1875]
44. [STPM ]
Some summary statistics about the annual expenditure, in RM, of a sample of recreational golfers on
golf activities are shown in the table below.
Minimum
200.00
Maximum
15500.00
Mean
6285.67
Median
3500.00
(a) Comment on the shape of the distribution of expenditure. Give a reason for your answer.[2 marks]
(b) State, with a reason, the appropriate measure of central tendency to describe the expenditure of
the golfers.
[2 marks]
45. [STPM ]
The lengths (in minutes) of 200 telephone calls made by customers to a pizza customer call centre in
a particular day is shown in the table below.
120
Length of call (minutes)
0.0  3.0
3.0  4.5
4.5  6.0
6.0  7.5
7.5  9.0
9.0  10.5
10.5  12.0
12.0  15.0
13: Data Description
Number of calls
7
19
34
67
38
18
13
4
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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(a) Construct a histogram to display the data. Comment on the shape of the distribution obtained.
[4 marks]
(b) Use your histogram to estimate the mode and the median.
[5 marks]
(c) Calculate the mean of the length of calls made by the customers.
(d) Determine the percentage of calls whose lengths are at least 10 minutes.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 6.80, 6.90 ; (c) 7.00875 ; (d) 11.5%]
46. [STPM ]
X
The mass x, in gram, of each of 250 cat fish is observed. It is found that
(x − 300) = 1000 and
X
(x − 300)2 = 5000. Determine the mean and the standard deviation of the masses of the cat fish.
[7 marks]
[Answer : 304, 2]
47. [STPM ]
The frequency distribution table below shows the amount of rain x, in millimetres, for 60 days in a
particular year.
Amount of rain, x (mm)
5.6 ≤ x < 5.8
5.8 ≤ x < 6.0
6.0 ≤ x < 6.2
6.2 ≤ x < 6.4
6.4 ≤ x < 6.6
6.6 ≤ x < 6.8
(a) Calculate the mean of the amount of rain.
Number of days
2
7
16
21
12
2
[2 marks]
(b) Find the median, the first quartile and the third quartile of the amount of rain.
[4 marks]
(c) Using the information in (b), comment on the shape of the frequency distribution of the amount
of rain.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 6.23 ; (b) 6.25 , 6.08, 6.39]
48. [STPM ]
The cumulative frequency distribution of monthly charges, to the nearest RM, of 200 randomly chosen
postpaid subscribers to a particular telecommunication company is shown below.
121
Monthly charge
≤ 30
≤ 50
≤ 70
≤ 90
≤ 110
≤ 150
≤ 200
≤ 250
13: Data Description
Cumulative frequency
0
10
40
76
120
170
192
200
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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(a) Construct a histogram to display the data and draw a frequency polygon in the histogram.
(b) Calculate the mean of the monthly charges.
[3 marks]
(c) Determine the percentage of subscribers whose month charges are more than the mean. [4 marks]
[Answer : (b) RM 108.15 ; (c) 42%]
49. [STPM ]
Three groups of sales trainees of a company undergo different sales training programmes which are
Programme A, Programme B and Programme C. The boxplots below represent the sales (RM ’000)
earned by each group in the first month after the completion of the training programmes.
(a) Estimate the median of the three sales distributions. State the training programme which is most
effective.
[3 marks]
(b) Which of the sales distributions has a mean closest to its median? Give a reason for your answer.
(c) Which of the sales distributions has the largest dispersion?
(d) Comment on the skewness of the three sales distributions.
[2 marks]
[1 marks]
[3 marks]
(e) State the effect on the mean and median sales when the outlier of the sales distribution for
programme A is removed.
[2 marks]
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13: Data Description
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(c) Program B ;(d) Skewed to the left, skewed to the right, symmetrical ;
(e) Mean is larger, median almost unaffected]
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[Answer : (a) RM 77000 , RM 65000 , RM 65000, Program A ; (b) Program C, symmetrical;
50. [STPM ]
The number of ships anchored at a port is recorded every week. The results for 26 particular weeks
are as follows:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
32
26
28
27
43
38
21
42
35
18
19
37
25
50
45
46
35
23
32
40
18
20
26
29
30
46
Display the data in a stemandleat diagram.
Find the median and interquartile range.
Draw a boxandwhisker plot to represent the data.
State the shape of the frequency distribution, giving a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) 31 , 15]
51. [STPM ]
The lengths (in seconds) of 60 songs recorded by a certain group of singers are summarised in the table
below.
Song length, x
0 < x ≤ 120
120 < x ≤ 180
180 < x ≤ 240
240 < x ≤ 300
300 < x ≤ 360
360 < x ≤ 600
Number of songs
1
9
15
17
13
5
(a) Display the data on a histogram.
(b) Calculate the mean song length to the nearest half second.
(c) Calculate the standard deviation of the song lengths to the nearest half second.
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 264.0 ; (c) 90.5]
52. [STPM ]
A set of data has a mean of 6.1, a median of 5.4 and a standard deviation of 1.2. Calculate the Pearson
coefficient of skewness, and comment on your answer.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 1.75]
53. [STPM ]
The stemandleaf diagram below shows the average intake of fat weekly, in grams, of 60 adult volunteers in a medical research.
Stem
8
9
10
11
12
13
14







Leaf
1 2
2 3
0 2
0 0
2 3
3 3
0 1
5
4
2
1
3
6
7
5
5
3
2
4
6
7
6
3
2
4
7
8
6
4
3
5
8
7
5
4
6
9
5
5
6
6
5
7
7
5
8
5
9
7
8
8
9
9
Key: 100 means 100
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13: Data Description
(a) Determine the median and the interquartile range of the distribution.
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(b) Draw a boxandwhisker plot to represent the data.
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[4 marks]
[3 marks]
(c) The above circled observation was recorded wrongly from its actual value of 173. Show how this
actual value affect your boxandwhisker plot?
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 111.5 , 23.5]
54. [STPM ]
The numbers of letters received by a company for 24 days are shown below.
5
23
13
10
7
6
14
4
7
4
8
6
20
8
12
7
7
4
4
16
10
4
7
10
(a) Determine the median and the mean of the number of letter received.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate Pearson’s coefficient of skewness.
[4 marks]
(c) State whether the median or the mean is a more appropriate measure of central tendency. Give
a reason.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 7 , 9 ; (b) 1.2 ; (c) median]
55. [STPM ]
The number of graduates employed within six months of graduation against the duration of industrial
training are summarised as follows:
Durations (weeks)
1−4
5−8
9 − 12
13 − 16
17 − 20
21 − 24
Number of graduates employed
2
7
19
16
15
16
(a) Calculate the mean and median of the duration of training of the graduates.
[5 marks]
(b) Determine the Pearsons coefficient of skewness, and interpret your answer.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 14.9 , 14.875]
56. [STPM ]
In a survey, each respondent is required to rank the hygienic status of the school canteen based on five
aspects: food, drink, dishware, kitchen utensils and surrounding. The ranking score ranges from 1 to
5, where 1 implies extremely unhygienic and 5 implies extremely hygienic. The average ranking score
of each respondent for teachers and students are summarised by the boxandwhisker plots below.
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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Comment on the measure of central tendency, measure of dispersion and the skewness of the average
ranking scores of the teachers and the students.
[3 marks]
[XXAnswer : The median of two groups are the same. The interquartile range or semiinterquartile
range of the average ranking score of the students is larger than teachers. Both are positively skewed.]
57. [STPM ]
A man has to take a train from station X to his office on every working day. The train is scheduled
to arrive at station X at 0830 hours every day. The actual time of arrival of the train is recorded over
a period of 90 working days and the results are shown in the following table.
Time of arrival (t)
0824 < t ≤ 0826
0826 < t ≤ 0828
0828 < t ≤ 0830
0830 < t ≤ 0832
0832 < t ≤ 0834
0834 < t ≤ 0836
Number of days
2
10
15
33
23
7
(a) If the man reaches the station at exactly 0825 hours every morning, calculate the average minutes,
he has to wait before the train arrives for the 90 working days.
[2 marks]
(b) Construct a cumulative frequency table for the time of arrival of the train.
(c) Calculate the median and the mode for the time of arrival of the train.
(d) Calculate the semiinterquartile range for the lime of arrival of the train.
(e) Determine the percentage of the days that the train is late.
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
[2 marks]
[XXAnswer : (a) 5.91 ; (c) 0831.09, 0831.29 ; (d) 1.625 minutes (e) 70%]
58. [STPM ]
The height of a group of 118 participants who take part in the National Service Training Programme
are summarised in the frequency table below.
125
Height (cm)
158 − 162
163 − 167
168 − 172
173 − 177
178 − 182
183 − 187
13: Data Description
Frequency
6
9
17
33
45
8
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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Given that the approximate values of the mean and the standard deviation for the heights of participants are 175.34 cm and 6.23 cm respectively.
(a) Calculate the median for the heights of the participants.
[5 marks]
(b) Find the Pearson coefficient of skewness and comment on the shape of this distribution. [3 marks]
[XAnswer : (a) 176.59 ; (b) −0.602]
59. [STPM ]
The distances travelled (x km) by cars brought in for a 20 000 kilometre service centre in a particular
week are summarised in the table below.
Distance (km)
19000 ≤ x < 20000
20000 ≤ x < 21000
21000 ≤ x < 22000
x ≥ 22000
Number of cars
4
22
18
6
(a) Calculate, to the nearest km, the median and semiinterquartile range of the distance travelled.
[6 marks]
(b) Give a reason why the median and semiinterquartile range might be more appropriate summary
measures for these data than that of the mean and standard deviation.
[1 marks]
[XXAnswer : (a) median=20955 km, semiinterquartile range=626 km]
60. [STPM ]
The student affairs officer of a college keeps a record on the number of hours spent on parttime jobs in
a semester amongst students. The number of hours spent on parttime jobs for a sample of 20 students
are displayed in the stemandleaf diagram below.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
3
4
0
1
1
8
9
8
4
3
2
9
5
4
4
7
5
5
6
8
Key: 53 means 53 hours
(a) Find the mean and standard deviation of the distribution.
[4 marks]
(b) Determine the quartiles and interquartile range of the distribution.
[4 marks]
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13: Data Description
(c) Determine whether there is any outlier.
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(d) Construct a boxandwhisker plot to represent the data.
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[2 marks]
[3 marks]
(e) State a measure that best describes the central tendency, and a measure that best describes the
dispersion of the data. Give a reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
[XXAnswer : (a) 48.30, 16.01 ; (b) 36, 54.50, 18.50 ; (c) Yes. There is 1 outlier ; (e) Median,
interquartile range]
61. [STPM ]
The time, to the nearest minute, taken by 200 participants to complete a crosscountry are recorded
and summarised in the table below.
Time (minutes)
50 to less than 55
55 to less than 60
60 to less than 65
65 to less than 70
70 to less than 75
75 to less than 80
80 to less than 90
Number of participants
10
15
35
56
45
27
12
(a) Construct a cumulative frequency table for the distribution, and plot a cumulative frequency
curve.
[4 marks]
(b) Use your cumulative frequency curve to estimate the median and interquartile range.
[Answer : 68.5 , 10]
62. [STPM ]
The numbers of trees planted in 21 housing estates are as follows:
108
75
64
42
140
44
81
137
47
53
76
72
70
45
83
[5 marks]
53
41
95
44
77
40
(a) Find the median and the interquartile range of the numbers of trees planted.
[4 marks]
(b) Determine the outlier(s), it any.
[2 marks]
(c) Draw, on the graph paper provided, a boxandwhisker plot to represent the data.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 70 , 36 ; (b)137 , 140]
63. [STPM ]
The pH values of water in a river at 10 different locations are measured by using a pH meter. The
results obtained are shown below.
6.95
7.08
6.98
6.98
6.94
6.75
6.98
6.95
6.86
6.96
Calculate the Pearson coefficient of skewness and comment on the shape of the distribution of the pH
values.
[6 marks]
[Answer : −0.45]
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13: Data Description
4.9
2.0
7.0
6.2
6.6
4.1
7.2
6.0
6.9
7.0
6.3
4.0
4.4
2.9
6.7
2.8
(a) Calculate the mean and the standard deviation of the profit earned.
7.0
5.5
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3.1
6.8
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64. [STPM ]
Profits, in RM million, earned by 20 trading company in a particular year are given below.
[5 marks]
(b) Determine the Pearson coefficient of skewness, and sketch the shape of the distribution. [4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 5.37 , 1.656 ; (b) −1.322]
65. [STPM ]
The times, in minutes, taken to commute from home to work place for 25 workers of a company are
as follows:
40
26
38
50
32
45
65
47
60
33
7
56
48
55
44
5
59
51
69
43
43
39
51
66
22
(a) Construct a stemandleaf diagram for this data. Comment on your diagram.
[3 marks]
(b) State, with a reason, the appropriate measure of central tendency and the measure of dispersion
to summarise the data. Determine their values.
[6 marks]
128
[Answer : ]
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14: Probability
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1. [STPM ]
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Probability
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14
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
2
1
1
Events A and B are such that P(A) = and P(B) = and P[(A ∩ B 0 ) ∪ (A0 ∩ B)] = . Find P(A ∩ B)
5
4
6
and determine if events A and B are independent.
[5 marks]
[Answer :
29
]
120
2. [STPM ]
A factory producing electronic equipments obtains 40% of the electronic components from supplier A,
25% from supplier B, and 35% from supplier C. The percentages of defective electronic components
supplied by supplier A, B and C are respectively 5%, 2% and 1%.
(a) Find the probability that an electronic component selected randomly from overall supply to the
factory, is defective.
[6 marks]
(b) Find the probability, from two electronic components selected randomly from the overall supply
as received by the factory,
i. at least one electronic component is defective.
ii. both the electronic components are defective and are supplied by supplier A.
[5 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0285 ; (b) (i) 0.0562 , (ii) 0.0004]
3. [STPM ]
A factory producing bulbs uses three types of machines A, B and C which respectively contribute
25%, 35% and 40% of the bulbs produced by the factory. 5% of the bulbs produced by machine A, 4%
by machine B, and 2% by machine C are found to be defective. Find the probability that a randomly
selected bulb, produced by the factory is defective.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.0345]
4. [STPM ]
A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.6, and P(A ∪ B) = 0.85. Find P(A ∩ B),
P(A ∩ B 0 ), P(A0 ∩ B) and P(A0 ∪ B 0 ).
[6 marks]
[Answer : 0.25 , 0.25 , 0.35 , 0.75]
5. [STPM ]
As many as 35 out of 40 light bulbs in a box are in good conditions. Two light bulbs are randomly
selected, one after another, from the box. Find the probability that only one of the two bulbs selected
is in good conditions
(a) if the first selected bulb is replaced in the box.
(b) if the first selected bulb is not replaced in the box.
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a)
35
7
; (b)
]
32
156
6. [STPM ]
The probability that Mimi taking tuition for Statistics is 0.3. If Mimi takes tuition, the probability
that she will pass the Statistics paper is 0.8. If Mimi does not take tuition, the probability that she
will pass the Statistics paper is 0.6.
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14: Probability
(a) Find the probability that Mimi passes the Statistics paper.
[3 marks]
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(b) Find the probability that Mimi takes tuition if she passes her Statistics paper.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.66 ; (b) 0.3636]
7. [STPM ]
One in a thousand foreign workers is known to have a certain disease. Result from a routine screening
of a foreign worker may be positive or negative. A positive result suggests that the worker has the
disease, but the test is not perfect. If a foreign worker has the disease, the probability of a negative
result is 0.02. If a foreign worker does not have the disease, the probability of a positive result is 0.01.
If the result of a test on a foreign worker is positive, find the probability that this worker has the
disease. Comment on the answer you obtain.
[6 marks]
[Answer : 0.0893]
8. [STPM ]
Among 100 students in a school, 40 like lemons, 62 like mangosteens, 56 like nutmegs, 18 like lemons
and nutmegs, 15 like lemons and mangosteens, 10 like all the three fruits, and 11 do not like any of
the three fruits. Find the probability that
(a) a student chosen at random likes only lemons,
[3 marks]
(b) a student chosen at random likes mangosteens and nutmegs but does not like lemons.
9. [STPM ]
If A and B are two events with P(A) =
[Answer : (a)
[4 marks]
17
; (b) 0.36]
100
4
2
1
, P(B) = , P[(A ∩ B 0 ) ∪ (A0 ∩ B)] = , find P(A ∩ B).
7
5
3
[3 marks]
[Answer :
67
]
210
10. [STPM ]
A construction contractor orders sand, cement, and bricks from three different suppliers. The probabilities that the sand, cement, and bricks are sent to the project site on or before the agreed date are
0.80, 0.90, and 0.95 respectively. Find the probability that
(a) all supplies delivered to the project site are not late,
(b) at most one kind of supply delivered to the project site is late.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.684 ; (b) 0.967]
11. [STPM ]
Three balls are selected at random from one blue ball, three red balls and six white balls. Find the
probability that all the three balls selected are of the same color.
[3 marks]
130
[Answer :
7
]
40
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
14: Probability
A: A female student of the university is selected.
B: A student of the university, who studies the business program is selected.
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12. [STPM ]
In a university, 48% of the students are females and 17.5% of the students are taking business programs.
4.7% of the university students are female students who study business programs. A student is selected
randomly. Events A and B are defined as follows:
(a) Determine whether A and B are mutually exclusive and whether A and B are independent.
(b) Find P(AB).
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) Not mutually exclusive. Not independent. (b) 0.269]
13. [STPM ]
A factory has 36 male workers and 64 female workers, with 10 male workers earning less than
RM1000.00 a month and 17 female workers earning at least RM1000.00 a month. At the end of
the year, workers earning less than RM1000.00 are given a bonus of RM1000.00 whereas the others
receive a month’s salary.
(a) If two workers are randomly chosen, find the probability that exactly one worker receives a bonus
of one month’s salary.
[3 marks]
(b) If a male worker and a female worker are randomly chosen, find the probability that exactly one
worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.495 ; (b) 0.604]
14. [STPM ]
The following table, based on a survey, shows the numbers of male and female viewers who prefer
either documentary or drama programmes on television.
Male
Female
Documentary
96
45
Drama
24
85
A television viewer involved in the survey is selected at random. A is the event that a female viewer
is selected, and B is the event that a viewer prefers documentary programmes.
(a) Find P(A ∩ B) and P(A ∪ B).
[4 marks]
(b) Determine whether A and B are independent and whether A and B are mutually exclusive.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.180 , 0.904 ; (b) Not mutually exclusive. Not independent.]
15. [STPM ]
Three companies X, Y , and Z offer taxi services in a town. The percentages of residents in the
town using the taxi services from companies X, Y and Z are 40%, 50%, and 10% respectively. The
probabilities of taxis from companies X, Y , and Z being late are 0.09, 0.06, and 0.20 respectively. A
taxi is booked at random. Find the probability that
(a) the taxi is from company X and is not late,
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14: Probability
[6 marks]
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(b) the taxi is from company Y given that it is late.
[Answer : (a) 0.364 ; (b) 0.349]
16. [STPM ]
Two transistors are chosen at random from a batch of transistors containing ninety good and ten
defective ones.
(a) Find the probability that at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective.
[3 marks]
(b) If at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective, find the probability that both
transistors are defective.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.191 ; (b) 0.0476]
17. [STPM ]
According to a survey conducted in a company on job satisfaction, salary and pension benefits are two
important issues. It is found that 74% of the employees are of the opinion that salary is important
whereas 65% think that pension benefits are important. Among those who think that pension benefits
are important, 60% think that salary is also important. Determine the percentage of employees who
are of the opinion that salary and pension benefits are important.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 36%]
18. [STPM ]
The letters in the word BANANA are to be rearranged. A word can be considered formed without
being meaningful. The events R, S and T are defined as follows.
R: The word starts and ends with an A.
S: All the N’s in the word are kept together.
T : All the A’s in the word are kept together.
(a) Find P(R), P(S) and P(T ).
[5 marks]
(b) Find P(R ∩ S), P(R ∪ S), P(R ∩ T ) and P(R ∪ T ).
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a)
1 13
2
1 1 1
, , ; (b)
,
,0, ]
5 3 5
10 30
5
19. [STPM ]
A fourdigit number, in the range 0000 to 9999 inclusive, is formed. Find the probability that
(a) the number begins or ends with 0,
(b) the number contains exactly two nonzero, digits.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.19 ; (b) 0.0486]
20. [STPM ]
Two archers A and B take turns to shot, with archer A taking the first shot. The probabilities of A
1
1
and B hitting the bull’s eye in each shot are and respectively. Show that the probability of archer
6
5
1
A hitting the bulleye first is .
[4 marks]
2
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21. [STPM ]
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1
The probability that it rains in a certain area is . The probability that an accident occurs at a
5
1
1
if it rains and
if it does not rain. Find the probability
particular corner of a road in that area is
20
50
that it rains if an accident occurs at the corner.
[4 marks]
[Answer :
22. [STPM ]
A teacher, 3 male students and 2 female students line up for a photograph.
5
]
13
(a) Find the number of different arrangements if the teacher stands at the end of the line. [2 marks]
(b) Find the number of different arrangements if all the male students stand together.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 240 ; (b) 144]
23. [STPM ]
The amounts of purchase and the modes of payment of 300 customers of a supermarket are shown in
the following table.
Amount of
purchase
Less than RM50
RM50 or more
Mode of payment
Cash Credit card
50
25
75
150
A customer is selected at random from this group of customers.
(a) Find the probability that the payment is made by cash.
[1 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the amount of purchase is less than RM50 and the payment is made by
cash.
[1 marks]
(c) If the amount of purchase is at least RM50, find the probability that the payment is made by
cash.
[1 marks]
(d) Find the probability that the amount of purchase is less than RM50 given that the payment is
made by cash.
[1 marks]
(e) State, with a reason, whether the events “the amount of purchase is less than RM50” and “the
payment is made by cash” are mutually exclusive.
[2 marks]
(f) State, with a reason, whether the events “the amount of purchase is less than RM50” and “the
payment is made by cash” are independent.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.417 ; (b)
1
1
; (c) ; (d) 0.4]
6
3
24. [STPM ]
There are eight parking bays in a row at a taxi stand. If one blue taxi, two red taxis and five yellow
taxis are parked there, find the probability that two red taxis are parked next to each other. [3 marks]
[Assume that a taxi may be parked at any of the parking bays.]
[Answer :
133
1
]
4
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14: Probability
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3
1
1
Two events A and B are such that P (A) = , P (B) = and P (AB) = .
8
4
6
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25. [STPM ]
(a) Show that the events A and B are neither independent nor mutually exclusive.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the probability that either one of the events A and B occurs.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b)
13
7
; (c)
]
12
24
26. [STPM ]
A study on 100 visitors to a book fair shows that 60 visitors have seen the advertisement about the
fair. Out of 40 visitors who make purchases, 30 have seen the advertisement. Find the probability
that a visitor who has not seen the advertisement makes a purchase.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 0.25]
27. [STPM ]
There are 12 towels, two of which are red. If five towels are chosen at random, find the probability
that at least one is red.
[4 marks]
[Answer :
15
]
22
28. [STPM ]
In a basket of mangoes and papayas, 70% of mangoes and 60% of papayas are ripe. If 40% of the fruits
in the basket are mangoes,
(a) find the percentage of the fruits which are ripe,
(b) find the percentage of the ripe fruits which are mangoes.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 64% ; (b) 43.75%]
29. [STPM ]
Eight persons are invited to be seated in the front row of eight seats to watch a concert. If two of them
have to sit next to each other, find the number of different ways in which this can be done. [3 marks]
[Answer : 10080]
30. [STPM ]
A student applies for two scholarships S and T to further study. The probability that he is offered
scholarship S is 0.4. If he is offered scholarship S, the probability of him being offered scholarship T
is 0.2. If he is not offered scholarship S, the probability of him being offered scholarship T is 0.7.
(a) Find the probability that he is offered both scholarships.
(b) Find the probability that he is offered only one scholarship.
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
(c) State, with a reason, whether the events ‘he is offered scholarship S’ and ‘he is offered scholarship
T ’ are mutually exclusive.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.08 ; (b) 0.74 ; (c) Not mutually exclusive]
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14: Probability
(a) Find the probability that three doctors are selected.
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31. [STPM ]
There are 20 doctors and 15 engineers attending a conference. The number of women doctors and that
of women engineers are 12 and 5 respectively. Four participants from this group are selected randomly
to chair some sessions of panel discussion.
[2 marks]
(b) Given that two women are selected, find the probability that both of them are doctors. [2 marks]
[Answer : (a)
855
33
; (b)
]
2618
68
32. [STPM ]
A survey was carried out among mothers in Town A and Town B on the issue whether pupils should
be allowed to bring handphones to school. The data obtained are shown in the table below.
Town A
Town B
Agree
100
20
Neutral
50
60
Disagree
50
120
(a) Find the probability that a mother agrees if she is from Town A.
(b) Determine whether
i. the events ‘Town B’ and ‘disagree’ are independent,
ii. the events ‘Town A’ and ‘disagree’ are mutually exclusive.
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[1 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.5 ; (b) (i) not independent , (b) not mutually exclusive]
33. [STPM ]
The probability that it rains in a day is 0.25, and the probability that a student carries an umbrella
is 0.6. The probability that it rains or the student does not carry an umbrella is 0.5. If it rains on a
particular day, find the probability that the student does not carry an umbrella.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 0.6]
34. [STPM ]
A company has 400 employees of whom 240 are females. There are 57 female employees with degree
qualifications and 85 male employees with nondegree qualifications.
(a) Find the probability that a randomly chosen employee has a degree qualification.
[1 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a randomly chosen employee has a degree qualification given that the
employee is a female.
[2 marks]
(c) Determine whether the events ‘an employee has a degree qualification’ and ‘an employee is a
female’ are independent.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.33 ; (b) 0.2375]
35. [STPM ]
Mr. Tan works five days a week and he takes either a bus, a commuter or a taxi to his office. The
probability that he takes a taxi is 0.20 and the probability that he takes a commuter is 0.50. The
probabilities that he will arrive late at his office if he takes a bus, a commuter, or a taxi are 0.30, 0.10
and 0.15 respectively.
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(a) Find the probability that Mr. Tan will arrive late at his office on any given day.
[3 marks]
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(b) Mr. Tan arrives late at his office on a given day. Determine the mode of transport that he is
likely to take. Give a reason for your answer.
[4 marks]
(c) Determine the probability that in a given week, Mr. Tan arrives late at his office on alternate
days.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.17 ; (c) 0.0199]
36. [STPM ]
The number of shirts by colour and size in a batch of 100 is shown in the table below.
Blue
White
Small
11
22
Medium
20
24
Large
9
14
Two shirts are selected at random, without replacement. Calculate the probability that
(a) both shirts are of the same colour,
(b) at least one shirt is large.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
92
17
; (b)
]
33
225
37. [STPM ]
There are eight male and four female architects in a consultant company. Three architects are randomly
chosen to be posted to Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur and Miri. Find the probability that
(a) three male architects are posted to the three cities,
[2 marks]
(b) one male architect is posted to Kuala Lumpur, one female architect is posted to Johor Bahru and
one female architect is posted to Miri.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a)
14
4
; (b)
]
55
55
38. [STPM ]
An opinion poll on a certain political party is conducted on 1000 voters, of whom 600 are males. It is
found that 250 voters are in favour of the party. It is also found that 450 male voters are not in favour
of the party.
(a) Construct a twoway classification table based on the above information.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a randomly chosen voter is in favour of the party if the voter is a female.
[1 marks]
(c) Find the probability that a randomly chosen voter is a male or not in favour of the party.[2 marks]
(d) Determine whether the events “a voter is a male” and “a voter is in favour of the party” are
independent.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.25 ; (c) 0.9]
39. [STPM ]
There are nine boxes, three of which contain oranges and the rest apples. Three girls and six boys
randomly select a box each. Find the probability that
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14: Probability
(a) the girls select more boxes which contain oranges than the boys,
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(b) none of the girls has a box which contain oranges.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
5
19
; (b)
]
84
21
40. [STPM ]
There are three male and two female workers who will be assigned to four different tasks. Each worker
has an equal chance of being assigned to any task and may perform at most one task.
(a) Determine the number of different ways the workers can be assigned to the tasks, with two of the
tasks allocated to the female workers.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the female workers are assigned to two of the tasks.
[2 marks]
3
5
[Answer : (a) 72 ; (b) ]
41. [STPM ]
At a cineplex 70% of the moviegoers buy popcorn at the snack counter. Of those who buy popcorn,
80% of them buy drinks. Among those moviegoers who do not buy popcorn, 10% of them buy drinks.
(a) Find the probability that a moviegoer buys a drink.
[4 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a moviegoer does not buy popcorn if he buys a drink.
42. [STPM ]
The events A and B are such that P(A) 6= 0 and P(B) 6= 0.
(a) Show that P(A0 B) = 1−P(AB).
0
0
(b) Show that P(A B) =P(A ) if A and B are independent.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.59 ; (b) 0.05085]
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
43. [STPM ]
Two companies X and Y operate calltaxi services in a town. The percentages of residents in the town
using the taxi services from companies X and Y are 40% and 60% respectively. The probabilities of
taxis from companies X and Y being late are 0.02 and 0.01 respectively. A taxi is booked at random.
Find the probability that
(a) the taxi is late and it is from company X,
(b) the taxi is late.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.008 ; (b) 0.014]
44. [STPM ]
In a woman single badminton match, the first player who wins two out of three sets wins the match.
The probability of a particular player winning a set is 0.7 if she has won the previous set. The
probability of the player winning a set is 0.4 if she has lost the previous set.
(a) Find the probability that the player wins the match given that she has lost the first set. [2 marks]
(b) If the probability that the player wins the match is 0.64, find the probability that she wins the
first set.
[6 marks]
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14: Probability
2
3
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[Answer : (a) 0.28 ; (b) ]
45. [STPM ]
It is known that of the customers buying laptops, 75% buy an antivirus software, 40% buy additional
memory card and 30% buy both.
(a) Find the probability that a randomly selected customer does not buy any of those items [3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a randomly selected customer buys an antivirus software given that an
additional memory card is bought.
[2 marks]
(c) Determine whether the event “an additional memory card is bought” is independent of the event
“an antivirus software is bought”.
[2 marks]
46. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) 0.15 ; (b) 0.75 ; (c) Yes]
1
1
1
Two events A and B are such that P(A) = , P(B) = and P(A ∪ B) = . Find P(BA0 ). [5 marks]
7
5
3
47. [STPM ]
[Answer :
2
]
9
1
1
3
Two events A and B are such that P(A ∩ B) = , P(A ∩ B 0 ) = and P(A0 ∩ B) = .
8
4
8
(a) Find P(A), P(B) and P(A ∪ B).
[5 marks]
(b) Determine whether events A and B are independent.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a)
3 1 3
, , ; (b) Dependent. ]
8 2 4
48. [STPM ]
A student goes to school by bus, taxi or motorcycle. The probability that he travels by motorcycle is
0.44 and he is equally likely to take a bus or a taxi. The probability that he is late for school if he
1 1
1
goes by bus, taxi or motorcycle is , or
respectively. Calculate the probability that
5 6
10
(a) he is late for school on a randomly chosen school day,
[2 marks]
(b) he goes to school by bus if he is late for school,
[3 marks]
(c) he is not late for school if he goes to school by bus or motorcycle.
[Answer : (a)
[4 marks]
11
21
31
; (b)
; (c)
]
75
55
36
49. [STPM ]
A study of job satisfaction is conducted for accountants and lawyers, where the satisfaction score is
measured on a scale of 0 to 100. The number of respondents from these two occupations for each
category of job satisfaction score is shown in the table below.
Occupation of respondents
Accountant
Lawyer
Score < 50
5
6
138
Number of respondents
Score 50 − 64 Score 65 − 70
10
30
6
21
Score > 79
5
7
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14: Probability
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(a) Find the probability that a randomly chosen respondent has a satisfaction score of less than 65
given that the respondent is an accountant.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a randomly chosen respondent is an accountant and has a satisfaction
score of less than 65.
[2 marks]
(c) Find the probability that two randomly chosen respondents each has a satisfaction score of less
than 65.
[3 marks]
(d) Determine whether the event “the respondent is an account” and the event “the satisfaction score
is less than 65” are independent.
[3 marks]
50. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a)
1
39
3
; (b) ; (c)
; (d) Independent ]
10
6
445
4
1
3
Two events X and Y are such that P(X) = , P(Y ) = and P(XY ) = . Find the probability that
7
2
4
(a) both events occur,
(b) both events do not occur,
(c) only one of the events occurs.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
17
9
3
; (b)
; (c)
]
8
56
28
51. [STPM ]
In an undergraduate programme at a private university, there are 132 male students and 22 international students. 8 of the male students are international students. The event “a student is a male”
and the event “a student is an international student” are independent.
(a) Determine the total number of students in the programme.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a student in the programme selected at random is a male or an international student.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 363 ; (b)
146
]
363
52. [STPM ]
A box contains 3 blue balls, 4 red balls and 5 green balls. Six balls are taken out at random from the
box without replacement. Calculate the probability that
(a) at least one ball is green,
(b) exactly four are red balls, given that at least one ball is green.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a)
131
25
; (b)
]
132
917
53. [STPM ]
Based on a market survey, 70% of respondents in a certain area own smartphones. Among those who
own smartphones, 45% of them own tablet computers. It is also found that 80% of the respondents
own smartphones or tablet computers.
(a) Find the probability that a respondent selected at random owns
i. a smartphone and a tablet computer.
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14: Probability
[2 marks]
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ii. a tablet computer.
iii. a smartphone but not a tablet computer.
[2 marks]
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(b) Determine whether the events ”a respondent owns a smartphone” and ”a respondent owns a
tablet computer” are independent.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a)(i) 0.315 , (ii) 0.415 , (iii) 0.385 ; (b) Dependent. ]
54. [STPM ]
The frequency distribution of blood types of 100 residents in a village is given below.
Blood type
Frequency
A
20
B
18
AB
4
O
58
Four residents are chosen at random. Find the probability that
(a) all the four residents are of different blood types.
[3 marks]
(b) at least one of the four residents is of blood type AB, given that all of them are not of blood type
A.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
5921
5568
; (b)
]
261415
316316
55. [STPM ]
An office security system has a four digit personal identification number (PIN). The door will not open
alter three unsuccessful attempts to enter the PIN. Assume that a worker does not try the same wrong
PIN twice.
(a) If a worker remembers the first two digits and knows that the last digit is either 8 or 9. find the
probability that he will guess the correct PIN
i. in the first attempt,
ii. in the second attempt.
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
(b) If a worker remembers the first two digits only, find the probability that
i. all his three attempts are unsuccessful,
ii. he will guess the correct PIN within three attempts.
[Answer : (a) (i)
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
1
1
97
3
, (ii)
; (b) (i)
, (ii)
]
20
20
100
100
56. [STPM ]
The participants in a competition have to choose five important features from 10 possible features of
a product and list them in order of preference. Any entry that matches the predetermined order of
preference will win a luxurious holiday. Assume that each feature is equally likely to be selected.
(a) Find the probability that a participant who submits one entry will win a luxurious holiday.[2 marks]
(b) Determine the minimum number of different entries that a participant needs to submit in order
that the probability of winning a luxurious holiday is at least 0.25.
[3 marks]
140
[Answer : (a)
1
; (b) 7560 ]
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Probability Distributions
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
At a factory that employs many workers, 30% of the workers are members of the trade union A, 60%
are members of the trade union B, and 10% are not members of any trade union. A sample of five
workers are selected from the workers of the factory.
(a) Determine the mean and standard deviation for the number of workers in the sample who are
members of A.
(b) Find, correct to three significant figures, the probability that the sample contains not more than
2 members of A.
(c) Given that exactly 4 workers in the sample are members of trade unions, find the probability that
the majority of the workers in the sample are members of A.
2
9
[Answer : (a) 1.5 , 1.025 ; (b) 0.837 ; (c) ]
2. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X can takes the values in the range 0 to 4. The probability that X
takes a value larger than x is equal to αx2 + β, 0 ≤ x ≤ 4.
(a) Determine the values of α and β.
(b) Find f (x), the probability density function of X.
8
(c) Show that the value µ, expectation for X is .
3
2√
2.
(d) Show that the standard deviation σ for X is
3
(e) Show that the probability (µ − σ) ≤ x ≤ (µ + σ) is
4√
2.
9
[Answer : (a) α = −
1
, β = 1]
16
3. [STPM ]
Each Supabrek packet contains a card from a set of n picture cards. A packet selected at random has
the same probability of containing any one of the a cards.
The Smith family already possess k (< n) different picture cards. They purchase a few more packets,
selected one by one randomly, until they find a card that is different from the k cards they already
have. If this happens when they have bought R packets, show that
Given the result
∞
X
r=1
P (R = r) =
n−k
n
r−1
k
.
n
rxr−1 = (1 − x)−2 for 0 < x < 1, show that E(R) =
n
.
n−k
For the case n = 4, deduce that the expected total number of packets that a family must buy if they
1
do not possess any yet, and picks the packets one by one until they have a complete set is 8 .
3
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4. [STPM ]
Two fair dice are rolled and the numbers obtained are D1 , and D2 . In a game, the score S is the
smaller of the two numbers and D1 and D2 , unless D1 = D2 when the score would be 0.
35
Obtain the probability distribution for S. Show that the expected value of S is
. Find the variance
18
for S. Find P(D1 > S).
The total score, T , obtained by a player is given by T = S1 + 2S2 + 3S3 where S1 , S2 and S3 are
the scores obtained as described above, for three successive throws of the two dice. Determine the
4655
expected value of T , and show that the variance of T is
.
162
[Answer :
665 7 35
,
,
]
324 12 3
5. [STPM ]
A box contains ten balls; six of the balls are numbered 1 and the other four are numbered 2. A
sample of two balls are drawn at random from the box, replacing the first ball into the box before the
second ball is drawn. The sum of the numbers on the two balls is denoted by R. The second ball is
returned to the box. Another sample of two balls are drawn at random from the box, this time without
replacement. The sum of the numbers on these two balls is denoted by W. Determine the probability
distribution for R and for W .
(a) Show that E(R)=E(W ).
(b) Show that 8 Var(R)=9Var(W ).
6. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X takes the values in the range 1 ≤ x ≤ 4. The cumulative distribution
function F (x), for X is a linear function that differ for the ranges 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 3 ≤ x ≤ 4, and takes
the values 0, 0.5, and 1 corresponding with x = 1, 3 and 4, as shown in the following diagram.
(a) Sketch the graph for the probability density function of X.
11
(b) Show that the expectation value, µ, of X is equal to
.
4
(c) Find the standard deviation of X, leaving your answer in the form of surds.
(d) Find the probability that X − µ exceeds 1.
1
[Answer : (c)
4
r
37
5
; (d)
]
3
16
7. [STPM ]
The assembly of the students of a school begins 15 minutes after 8 oclock every school day. A male
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15: Probability Distributions
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student changes his shoes as soon as he arrives at school. The time taken in minutes, from the moment
he arrives at school, to change his shoes, can be assumed to have a normal distribution with mean 2
and standard deviation 1.5. The time after eight oclock, in minutes, the student arrives at school can
be assumed to be normally distributed with mean 10 and standard deviation 2. The time taken to
change his shoes can be assumed to be independent of the time he arrives at the school.
(a) Show that, on a day selected at random, the probability that the student has changed his shoes
before assembly begins is 0.885 (correct to three significant figures).
(b) Find the probability that, for 10 days selected at random, the student has changed his socks
before assembly starts on less than 9 days out of the 10 days.
(c) By using a suitable approximation, find the probability that, for 100 days selected randomly, the
student has changed his socks before assembly starts on less than 95 days out of the 100 days.
[Answer : (b) 0.322 ; (c) 0.970]
8. [STPM ]
For each of the functions f , g, h defined below, state if it is a probability density function, giving a
reason for your answer for each case.
(
4x − 5, 1 ≤ x ≤ 2;
(a) f (x) =
0,
otherwise
3 x2 , 1 ≤ x ≤ 2;
(b) g(x) = 7
0,
otherwise
1 (3 − x), 1 ≤ x ≤ 2;
(c) h(x) = 2
0,
otherwise
9. [STPM ]
[Answer : (a) No ; (b) Yes ; (c) No]
(a) A drawer contains 2 black socks, 2 white socks and 2 green socks, The socks are removed from
the drawer randomly, one at a time, until 2 socks of the same colour are removed, The random
2
variable X is the number of socks removed from the drawer. Show that P(X = 3)= . Find the
5
expected value and variance of X.
(b) A 6sided fair dice is tossed repeatedly until the total score is 3 or more. The random variable Y
is the number of throws needed. Find the expected value of Y .
[Answer : (a) 3.2 , 0.56 ; (b)
49
]
36
10. [STPM ]
A fair dice is rolled once. If the score is 3 or more, then the result X is the score. If the score is 1 or
2, then the dice is rolled once again and the result X is the sum of the scores of the two rolls. Show
2
1
that P(X = 6)= dan P(X = 7)= .
9
18
14
Show that E(X)= .
3
The procedure is repeated 6 times and N is the number of times the result 6 or 7 is obtained. Find
E(N ) and Var(N ). Find P(N = 4), giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.
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5 65
,
, 0.047]
3 54
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[Answer :
11. [STPM ]
The number of theft cases reported every day at a small police station has a Poisson distribution with
mean 2.
(a) Show that the probability that, on a particular day, at least one theft is reported, is 0.865, correct
to 3 decimal places.
(b) Find the probability that the total number of theft cases reported on 3 particular days is at least
3.
(c) Find the probability that, for 5 particular days, no theft cases were reported on 2 days.
(d) Find the probability that, for 100 particular days, at least one theft is reported on less than 80
days.
[Answer : (b) 0.9380 ; (c) 0.1179 ; (d) 0.0203]
12. [STPM ]
The marks obtained by the candidates for a paper in an examination are distributed normally with
mean 50 and standard deviation 10.
(a) If a candidate must obtain 70 marks to get a distinction for that paper, find the percentage of
the candidates who score distinctions for this paper in the examination.
(b) If 70% of the candidates pass the paper in this examination, find the minimum marks required
for a passing grade for that paper.
[Answer : (a) 2.28% ; (b) 45]
13. [STPM ]
An institute of higher learning is supplied with 500 microcomputer discs. To determine if the discs
supplied are in good condition, 10 discs are selected at random and inspected. If none or only one of
the discs is defective, then the supply of 500 discs will be accepted. Suppose that the entire supply of
500 discs contains 25 defective discs. Find
(a) the probability that the supply will be accepted entirely,
(b) the probability that exactly one disc will be found to be defective if it is known that the entire
supply has been accepted.
[Answer : (a) 0.914 ; (b) 0.345]
14. [STPM ]
A committee consisting of 3 people will be chosen at random from 6 men and 3 women. If X represents
the number of men selected,
(a) tabulate the probability distribution P(X = x).
(b) calculate the mean and variance of X.
(c) write down the distribution function F (x) = P (X ≤ x).
If Y represents the number of women selected, determine the mean and variance for Y , without
calculating the probability distribution P (Y = y).
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15. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X has the probability density function
(
ax + b, −1 ≤ x ≤ c
f (x) =
0,
otherwise
1
7
1
1
=
= .
with P X ≤ −
and P X ≥
2
16
2
16
Find the values of a, b, and c. Calculate the median and mean of X.
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[Answer : (b) 2 , 0.5 ; 1 , 0.5]
[Answer :
1
1 1
; ; 1 ; 0.414 ; ]
2 2
3
16. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X which represents the amount of sugar (in kg) used by a family per
week, has the probability density function
(
c(x − 1)(2 − x), 1 ≤ x ≤ 2,
f (x) =
0,
otherwise.
(a) Determine the value of the constant c.
(b) Obtain the cumulative distribution function F (x) = P (X ≤ x).
(c) Calculate the mean and variance of X.
(d) Find the probability that the family uses less than 1.8 kg sugar but more than 1.3 kg in a week.
[Answer : (a) 6 ; (c) 1.5 , 0.05 ; (d) 0.68]
17. [STPM ]
Five patients need to undergo an operation that has a success rate of 0.8. Assuming that each operation
is independent of each other, find
(a) the probability that none of the operations fail,
(b) the probability that at least four of the patients will undergo the operation successfully.
[Answer : (a) 0.328 ; (b) 0.737]
18. [STPM ]
A bank manager starts work at 0900 hours. He notices that his journey from his house to his office
follows a normal distribution with a mean of 38 minutes and a standard deviation of 5 minutes.
(a) If the manager leaves his house at 0820 hours every day, find the probability that he arrives late
for work on a day selected normally. Find also, by using a suitable approximation, the probability
that the manager will be late for work for, at the most, 33 out of 100 working days.
(b) Determine at what time, correct to the nearest minute, the manager should leave his house, if
the probability that he will be late is 0.1.
[Answer : (a) 0.3446 , 0.4199 ; (b) 0816 hours]
145
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15: Probability Distributions
(a) the probability that no accidents occur one week.
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19. [STPM ]
At a busy road junction, the numbers of accidents that occur are distributed according to the Poisson
distribution. If the mean number of accidents that occur is 1.8 per week, find
(b) the smallest integer n such that the probability that n accidents occur in one week is less than
0.02.
(c) the probability that no accidents occur in a period of 2 weeks.
(d) the largest integer k such that the probability that no accidents occur in a period of k successive
weeks exceeds 0.0001.
[Answer : (a) 0.1653 ; (b) 6 ; (c) 0.0273 ; (d) 5]
20. [STPM ]
An electrical company sells X television sets a day with the probabilities P(X = x) = a(5 − x), where
a is a constant, for x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and zero for any other value of x.
(a) Determine the value of a.
(b) Write down the probability distribution function of X.
(c) Find P( X − E(X)  < 1).
None of the customers will buy only the aerial, and the probability that a customer who buys a
2
television set also buys an aerial is . Find the probability that the number of aerials sold one day
5
is 3, and find also the probability that the number of television sets sold is 4 if it is known that the
number of aerials sold is 3.
[Answer : (a)
21. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X has the probability density function
2 (x − 2)(5 − x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 5,
f (x) = 9
0,
otherwise.
(a) Sketch the graph f (x), and determine the mode of X.
(b) Find the mean and variance of X.
(c) Find the cumulative distribution function of X, and P(X > 3).
[Answer : (a) 3.5 ; (b) 3.5 , 0.45 ; (c)
22. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X takes the value k with the probability
where c is a constant.
3
P (X = k) = c − k, k = 0, 1, 2,
2
(a) Determine the value of c.
146
7
1
; (c)
; 0.0188 ; 0.5456]
15
15
20
]
27
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15: Probability Distributions
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(c) Calculate the mean and variance of X.
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(b) Tabulate the values of P (X = k), k = 0, 1, 2.
(d) Write down the cumulative distribution function of X, and sketch the graph of this function.
[Answer : (a)
23. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable Y has the probability density function
(
y(a − by), 0 ≤ y ≤ 2,
f (y) =
0,
otherwise.
with E(Y ) = 1.
(a) Find the values of a and b.
(b) Determine the variance of Y .
(c) Find the cumulative distribution function of Y .
3
1
≤Y ≤
(d) Find P
2
2
[Answer : (a)
2
3 16
; (c) ,
]
5
5 25
11
3 3
, ; (b) 0.2 ; (d)
]
2 4
16
24. [STPM ]
A chocolate manufacturer labels each piece of chocolate it produces as having a mass of 200 g. It is
known that the actual mass of the pieces of chocolates are distributed normally with mean 204 g and
standard deviation 2 g.
(a) Find the probability that the mass of a piece of chocolate selected at random is less than 200 g.
(b) By using a Poisson approximation, estimate the probability that at the most, a piece of chocolate
has a mass less than 200 g in a box containing 100 pieces of chocolate.
[Answer : (a) 0.0228 ; (b) 0.3355]
25. [STPM ]
At a flower pot kiln, 20% of the pots produced are cracked. For a sample of five pots selected at
random, find the probability that
(a) exactly one pot is cracked,
(b) at least one pot is cracked.
26. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X has the probability density function.
(
cx2 (1 − x), 0 < x < 1,
f (x) =
0,
otherwise.
where c is a constant.
147
[Answer : (a) 0.410 ; (b) 0.672]
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15: Probability Distributions
(c) Plot the graph y = F (x).
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(b) Find the cumulative distribution function, F , of X.
(d) Estimate, from your graph, the median and P(0.39 < X < 0.61).
[Answer : (a) 12 ; (d) 0.61 , 0.32]
27. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X has the probability.
k(x + 2)
, x = −1, 0, 1, 2
P (X = x) =
8
0,
otherwise
(a) Determine the value of k.
(b) Calculate P (−1 < X < 1.5).
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(a) Find the value of c.
[Answer : (a)
1
4
; (b) ]
5
2
28. [STPM ]
From a study, it was found that 75% of the cars that stop at a petrol station are Proton Saga. Of
these Proton Saga cars, 20% have not been installed with the third brake light.
(a) In a particular period of time, 10 cars stop at the station.
i. Find the probability that 8 of the cars are Proton Saga.
ii. Find the probability that 2 of the cars are Proton Saga that have the third brake light
installed.
(b) On a particular day, 500 cars stop at the station. By using a suitable approximation,
i. find the probability that 95 to 150 of the cars are not Proton Saga.
ii. find the probability that less than 60 Proton Saga cars do not have the third brake light.
[Answer : (a) (i) 0.282 ; (ii) 0.0106 ; (b) (i) 0.99496 ; (ii) 0.02621]
29. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X represents the period, in minutes, of a telephone call at an office.
The cumulative distribution function of X is
2
x ,
0 ≤ x ≤ 2.
8
F (x) =
4
1 − , x > 2
x3
(a) Sketch the graph F (x).
(b) Find the probability density function for X.
(c) Determine the mean and standard deviation of X.
(d) Calculate the probability that a telephone call in the office is more than 1 minute long.
(e) Calculate the probability that a telephone call in the office is between 1 to 4 minutes long.
[Answer : (c)
148
13
7
13
, 1.518 ; (d) ; (d)
]
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8
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
15: Probability Distributions
(a) Determine the value of a.
(b) Sketch the graph of f (x).
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30. [STPM ]
The probability density function of the continuous random variable x is
0 ≤ x < a,
2x,
f (x) = 6 − 6x, a ≤ x ≤ 1,
0,
otherwise.
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1
2
[Answer : (a) ]
31. [STPM ]
A random variable X is distributed normally with mean µ and standard deviation σ. If P(X < 32) =
0.0228 and P(X > 45) = 0.1056, find the values of µ and σ.
32. [STPM ]
The cumulative distribution function of the discrete
0,
2,
F (x) = 15
5
,
15
1,
[Answer : 40 , 4]
random variable X is
x < 1;
1 ≤ x < 2;
2 ≤ x < 9;
x ≥ 9.
(a) Find the probability distribution function of X.
(b) Find E(15X + 2).
x + 1 , x = 1, 2, 9
; (b) 100]
[Answer : (a) P (X = x) =
15
0,
otherwise
33. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X is distributed uniformly in the interval [a, b]. Write down the
probability density function of X. Hence, find the mean and variance of X in terms of a and b.
3
3
If the mean and variance of X respectively are and , find the values of a and b.
2
4
Hence, show the the probability density function of X is
1 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 3,
f (x) = 3
0, otherwise.
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X, and sketch its graph.
1
(b) Find P X − 1 >
2
[Answer :
149
a+b 1
2
,
(a − b)2 , a = 0 b = 3 ; (b) ]
2
12
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
15: Probability Distributions
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
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34. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X has the cumulative distribution function
0,
x < 0,
2
ax ,
0 ≤ x < 1,
1
1
1 ≤ x < 2,
F (x) = 2 x − 4 ,
1
5
− x2 + bx − , 2 ≤ x < 3,
4
4
1,
x ≥ 3.
Determine the values of a and b.
Calculate P(0.5 ≤ X < 1.5).
Find the probability density function of X.
Find the mean and variance of X.
[Answer : (a)
35. [STPM ]
Determine if each of the following is a probability density function.
1 + x , x = −1, 0, 1;
(a) P (X = x) =
2
0,
otherwise.
1 + x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1;
(b) f (x) =
2
0,
otherwise
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3 5
1 3
, ; (b) 0.4375 ; (d) ,
]
4 2
2 12
[Answer : (a) No ; (b) Yes]
36. [STPM ]
During an election, a state constituency has 20 000 male residents and 30 000 female residents. 60%
of the male residents are qualified to vote and 75% of them are registered voters. 50% of the female
residents are qualified to vote and 80% of them are registered voters. Only residents registered as
voters are allowed to cast their votes, and the percentage of male residents and female residents who
voted were 80% and 65% respectively.
(a) Find the probability that a male resident in that constituency who is a registered voter, voted in
the election.
(b) Find the probability that a resident in that constituency picked at random, voted in the election.
(c) If 10 residents in that constituency are selected at random from the male residents who are
registered voters, find the probability that at least 8 of them voted in the election.
(d) If 100 residents in that constituency are selected at random, find the probability that more than
20 of them voted in the election.
[Answer : (a) 0.8 ; (b) 0.3 ; (c) 0.6778 ; (d) 0.9809]
37. [STPM ]
A factory uses cables of radius 15 mm to 25 mm. The supply of cables are obtained from Syarikat
Utama Berhad and Syankat Wawasan Berhad respectively in the ratio 2:3. The radii of the cables
supplied by Syarikat Utama Berhad are distributed normally with mean 18 mm and standard deviation
3 mm, while the radii of the cables supplied by Syarikat Wawasan Berhad are distributed uniformly
between 12 to 26 mm.
150
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15: Probability Distributions
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(a) Find the probability of a cable produced by Syarikat Utama Berhad, that is selected at random,
can be used by the factory.
(b) Find the probability of a cable produced by Syarikat Wawasan Berhad, that is selected at random,
can be used by the factory.
(c) Find the probability of a cable obtained by the factory that is selected at random has a radius of
less than 16 mm.
[Answer : (a) 0.8315 ; (b) 0.7143 ; (c) 0.2723]
38. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X can only take the values of 1, 2, 3, and 4, with the probabilities
P (X = 1) = P (X = 2) and P (X = 3) = P (X = 4) = 2P (X = 1). If A = {1, 3}, find P(A).
[Answer : 0.5]
39. [STPM ]
The probability distribution of the random variable X is as follows
X=x
P(X = x)
(a) Determine of the value of c.
1
(b) Find E (X − 2) .
2
1
0.40
2
c
3
0.10
4
0.09
5
0.06
[Answer : (a) 0.35 ; (b) 0.03]
40. [STPM ]
The mathematics paper in an examination is scheduled from 0900 to 1200 hours. From the experience
of the years before, the time taken by the candidates to complete the paper have a mean of 150 minutes
and a standard deviation of 25 minutes. By assuming that the time needed to complete the paper is
distributed normally,
(a) find the probability that a candidate can complete the paper in the time given.
(b) find the probability that a candidate can complete the paper in the time given if he enters the
examination hall at 0945.
41. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X has the probability density function
2
kx
, 0 < x < 1,
f (x) =
3
0,
otherwise
(a) Determine the value of k.
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
(c) Find the mean and median of X.
(d) Find variance of X.
151
[Answer : (a) 0.8849 , (b) 0.2743]
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15: Probability Distributions
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(e) If Y = 2X, calculate P(1 < Y ≤ 4).
x ≤ 0,
0,
[Answer : (a) 9 ; (b) F (x) = x3 , 0 < x < 1, ;
1,
x ≥ 1.
7
(c) 0.75 , 0.7937 ; (d) 0.0375 ; (e) ]
8
42. [STPM ]
A computer program has an error that causes the program not to function perfectly. n programmers
are assigned separately to detect the error. The probability that each programmer will detect the error
is 0.875. Determine the value of n if the probability that at least one programmer detects the error is
0.998.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 3]
43. [STPM ]
The amount of petrol X, in thousand litres, sold in a day by a petrol station is a random variable with
probability density function
f (x) =
1
(x2 − 18x + 81), 0 ≤ x ≤ 9.
243
Find the expected amount of petrol sold by the petrol station in 30 days.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 67500 litres]
44. [STPM ]
The number of trees of a certain species of tree in a forest is believed to have a Poisson distribution
with a tree per hectare. Find the probability there are at least 3 trees of that species in a circular area
of radius 100 m in that forest. Give your answer correct to three decimal places. [1 hectare = 104 m2 ]
45. [STPM ]
Discrete random variable X has the following probability function:
1 x(9 − x)n , x = 5, 7, 8
p(x) = 116
0,
otherwise
where n is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of n.
(b) Sketch the graph of the probability function of X.
(c) Calculate the mean and variance of X.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.608]
[6 marks]
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 2 ; (c)
165 934
,
]
29 841
46. [STPM ]
A sugar factory has two packaging machines which operate simultaneously and independently. Machine
A is two times faster than machine B. Mass of packets of sugar packed by machine A are distributed
normally with mean 1 000 g and standard deviation 4 g, whereas mass of packets of sugar packed by
machine B are distributed normally with mean 995 g and standard deviation 5 g.
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15: Probability Distributions
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(a) Show that the probability of the mass of a packet of sugar that is selected randomly is less than
997 g is 0.370.
[8 marks]
(b) If a packet of sugar selected randomly has a mass less than 997 g, find the probability that the
packet is packed by machine B.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the probability that from 5 packets of sugar selected randomly, at least 2 packets have
masses less than 997 g.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.591 ; (c) 0.609]
47. [STPM ]
The number of computers, X, sold in a day by a computer shop has the probability distribution as
follows:
0.25 − 0.05x, x = 0, 1, 2, 3;
P (X = x) = a,
x = 4, 5
0,
otherwise.
(a) Determine the value of the constant a,
(b) Find the probability that 3 or 4 computers have been sold in a day.
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.15 ; (b) 0.25]
48. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X is normally distributed with P(X < 17.8) = 0.75 and P(X >
19.2) = 0.15. Find the mean and standard deviation of X.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 15.19 , 3.87]
49. [STPM ]
The annual revenue of a company is distributed normally with mean RM2.5 million and standard
deviation RM0.3 million. The annual expenditure of the company consists of two parts, namely fixed
expenditure of RM 1.8 million and variable expenditure which is of the annual income.
(a) If Y is the annual profit of the company when its annual revenue is X, show that Y = 0.95X −1.8.
Hence, find the expected annual profit and its standard deviation.
[9 marks]
(b) The company management promises to pay bonus to its workers if the annual profit is more than
30% of the annual revenue. Find the probability that bonus will not be paid to its workers.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) RM 0.575 million , RM 0.285 million ; (b) 0.721]
50. [STPM ]
X and Y are two independent random variables with E(X)=7, E(X 2 )=51, E(Y )=1, and E(Y 2 )=103.
Find
(a) E(5X + Y − 2).
(b) Var(5X + Y − 2).
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 34 ; (b) 152]
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15: Probability Distributions
(a) the probability that one randomly chosen year is free from accident.
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51. [STPM ]
The number of accidents that occur on an assembly line has a Poisson distribution with a mean of 3
accidents a year. Find, correct to three significant figures,
[2 marks]
(b) the probability that two years out of five years chosen at random are free from accidents.[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0498 ; (b) 0.0213]
52. [STPM ]
Continuous random variable X has the following probability density function:
1 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 9;
f (x) = 8
0, otherwise.
Continuous random variable Y is defined by Y = ln X.
(a) Show that,
1
P (Y ≤ y) = (ey − 1), 0 ≤ y ≤ ln 9.
8
[4 marks]
(b) Find and sketch the cumulative distribution function of Y .
[4 marks]
(c) Find the probability density function of Y .
9
(d) Show that E(Y )= ln 3 − 1.
4
53. [STPM ]
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
(a) The probability that a pair of brand A shoes will be spoilt within the period of 6 months of usage
is 0.2. By using a suitable approximation, find the probability that there are 75 to 100 pairs of
shoes from 500 randomly chosen pairs which will be spoilt within the period of 6 months.[6 marks]
(b) A large quantity of shoes from brand B is inspected before been distributed to sales out lets. It
is found that 1% of the left side shoes are defective while 2% of the right side shoes are defective.
By assuming that the defects occur independently and using suitable approximation, calculate
the probability that in a random sample of 50 pairs of shoes,
i. there are two pairs of shoes with defects on their left side.
ii. there is a pair of shoes with defects on both sides.
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.520 ; (b)(i) 0.076 ; (ii) 0.251]
54. [STPM ]
The profit for one lot of shares of BOD and its probability distribution are shown in the table below.
Profits (RM)
Probability
100
0.20
210
0.25
315
0.30
(a) Calculate the expected profit for one lot of the shares.
525
0.15
1050
0.10
[2 marks]
(b) An investor will buy the shares if the expected profit is more than 10% of the share price. If
the price of one lot of the shares is RM2200, determine whether the investor will buy the shares.
[2 marks]
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[Answer : (a) RM350.75 ; (b) Yes.]
55. [STPM ]
Discrete random variable X represents the number of radios sold by a company in a week. X has a
Poisson distribution with mean µ and E(X 2 )=6.
(a) Find the value of µ.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that five radios are sold by the company in four weeks.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 2 ; (b) 0.0916]
56. [STPM ]
A survey shows that 60% of the housewives have seen the advertisement of a new product in televisions.
The probability that a housewife who has seen the advertisement buys the new product is 0.9 while
the probability that a housewife has not seen the advertisement buys the new product is 0.3.
(a) Find the probability that a housewife buys the new product.
[6 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a housewife who buys the new product has seen the advertisement.
[3 marks]
(c) Using appropriate approximation, find the probability of less than 10 of 50 housewives who buy
the new product, have not seen the advertisement.
[8 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.66 ; (b) 0.8182 ; (c) 0.541]
57. [STPM ]
The cumulative distribution function of the time T , in minutes, of a student spends every morning
waiting for bus to school is given by
0,
t < 0;
1
t2 ,
0 ≤ t < 5;
F (t) = 751 1
1 2
t , 5 ≤ t < 15;
− + t−
2
5
150
1,
t ≥ 15.
(a) Find the probability density function of T and sketch its graph.
(b) Calculate the mean waiting time of the student.
[5 marks]
[4 marks]
(c) Find the probability that the student waited less than 10 minutes for at least 3 days out of 5
schooling days.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (b) 6.67 ; (c) 0.9645]
58. [STPM ]
Continuous random variable X has the following cumulative distribution function.
0,
x ≤ 0;
1
0 < x ≤ 1;
x,
2
F (x) =
3
x − a, 1 < x <≤ ;
2
3
b,
x> .
2
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1
(a) Show that a = and state the value of b.
2
5
1
.
(b) Find P
≤X≤
2
4
[2 marks]
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[3 marks]
1
2
[Answer : (a) B = 1 ; (B) ]
59. [STPM ]
On average, the number of cars stopping over at a petrol station is one car per minute. Using Poisson
distribution, find, correct to three decimal places, the probability
(a) that exactly three cars stop over at the petrol station in a period of one minute,
[2 marks]
(b) that more than two cars stop over at the petrol station in a period of five minutes.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.061 ; (b) 0.875]
60. [STPM ]
Random variable T , in hours, represents the lifespan of a system of heat detector. The probability
that the system do not function at time t hour is given by
21
P (T < t) = 1 − e− 5500 t
(a) Find the probability that the system functions for at least 250 hours.
[4 marks]
(b) Find the probability distribution function of the lifespan of the system and sketch its graph.
(c) Calculate the expected lifespan of the system.
[5 marks]
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.385 ; (c) 261.9 hours]
61. [STPM ]
A company sells two types of rice, brand A and brand B, in a 10 kg bag. The mass of brand A rice in
each bag is normally distributed with a mean of 10.05 kg and a standard deviation of 0.2 kg, whereas
the mass of brand B rice in each bag is normally distributed with a mean of 10.05 kg and a standard
deviation of 0.05 kg.
(a) Find the probability that a bag of brand A rice and a bag of brand B rice selected at random
both are more than 10 kg.
[6 marks]
(b) If T represents the total mass of 2 bags of brand A rice and 6 bags of brand B rice, find the mean
and variance of T . Hence or otherwise, find the probability that the total mass of the 8 bags of
rice is less than 80 kg.
[9 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.5037 ; (b) mean=80.4 , variance=0.095 , 0.097]
62. [STPM ]
The probability distribution of the number of typing errors in a page of document in an office is given
in the following table.
156
Number of errors
0
1
2
3
4
5
Probability
0.01
0.10
0.25
0.25
0.30
0.09
15: Probability Distributions
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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(a) Find the probability that at least two errors happen in one page of document.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the mean number of typing errors in one page of document.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.89 ; (b) 3]
63. [STPM ]
The mass of an empty cereal box is normally distributed with a mean of 7 g and a standard deviation
of 0.05 g, whereas the mass of a box filled with cereal is also normally distributed but with a mean of
230 g and a standard deviation of 2 g. Find the probability that the net weight of a box of cereal is
less than 220 g.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.0668]
64. [STPM ]
The following is the graph of the probability density function of continuous random variable X which
only takes values of 2 to 4 inclusive.
1
(a) Show that a = .
3
(b) Find the probability density function of X.
(c) Calculate the mean and variance of X.
(d) Find P[X + 3E(X) < 4].
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[6 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (c)
1
4 14
,
; (d) ]
3 9
6
65. [STPM ]
In a production process of flower vases, is known that on average 45 flower vases have racks in every
1000 flower vases produced.
(a) Find the probability that there are at most two flower vases having cracks in a random sample
of size 5.
[4 marks]
(b) If the probability that no flower vases, in n flower vases selected at random, having cracks is 0.1,
determine the value of n.
[5 marks]
(c) By using suitable approximation, find the probability that more than three flower vases have
cracks in a random sample of size 100.
[6 marks]
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[Answer : (a) 0.9992 ; (b) 50 ; (c) 0.658]
66. [STPM ]
A random variable X has a Poisson distribution with P(X = 0)=P(X = 1). Find E(X 2 ).
[5 marks]
[Answer : 2]
67. [STPM ]
The distance travelled by a newspaper vendor in a residential district for each weekday (Monday to
Friday) has mean 13 km and standard deviation 0.8 km. For Saturdays and Sundays, the daily distance
travelled has mean 11 km and standard deviation 0.7 km. The distances travelled on different days
may be assumed to be independent.
If D is the average daily distance travelled by the newspaper vendor in a week, find E(D) and Var(D).
Assuming that D has a normal distribution, find the probability that, in a randomly chosen week, the
mean daily distance travelled by the newspaper vendor is less than 12 km.
[7 marks]
[Answer : 12.429 , 0.0853 , 0.0708]
68. [STPM ]
A manufacturer produces a type of car battery with a lifetime of X years which is a random variable
having the probability density function
ax2 + bx − 9 , 1 ≤ x ≤ 3;
f (x) =
4
0,
otherwise,
where a and b are constants.
(a) It is found that 50 out of 100 batteries produced by the manufacturer have lifetimes of less than
2 years. Determine the values of a and b.
[7 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a battery produced by the manufacturer lasts more than 2 years and 4
months.
[3 marks]
3
4
[Answer : (a) a = − , b = 3 ; (b)
7
]
27
69. [STPM ]
A discrete random variable X can take only the values 1, 2, 3, and 4, with P(X = 1)=P(X = 2) and
P(X = 3)=P(X = 4)=2P(X = 1). If A = {1, 3}, find P(A).
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.5]
70. [STPM ]
The marks of a test are normally distributed with mean 55 and standard deviation 12. A student who
obtains 75 marks or more is given grade A, and a student who obtains 85 marks or more is awarded a
certificate of excellence. Find the probability that
(a) a student receives grade A,
[2 marks]
(b) a student who receives grade A is also awarded a certificate of excellence.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0478 ; (b) 0.1299]
158
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71. [STPM ]
Two percent of the bulb produced by a factory are not usable. Find the smallest number of bulbs
that must be examined so that the probability of obtaining at least one nonusable bulb exceeds 0.5.
[6 marks]
[Answer : 35]
72. [STPM ]
The mass of yellow water melon produced by a farmer is normally distributed with a mean of 4 kg
and a standard deviation of 800 g. The mass of red water melon produced by the farmer is normally
distributed with a mean of 6 kg and a standard deviation of 1 kg.
(a) Find the probability that the mass of a red water melon, selected at random, is less than 5 kg.
Hence, find the probability that a red water melon with mass less than 5 kg has mass less than
4 kg.
[5 marks]
(b) If Y = M − 2K, where M represents the mass of a red water melon and K the mass of a yellow
water melon, determine the mean and variance of Y .
Assuming that Y is normally distributed, find the probability that the mass of a red water melon
selected at random is more than twice the mass of yellow water melon selected at random.[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.1587 , 0.144 ; (b) 2 , 3.56 ; 0.1446]
73. [STPM ]
Continuous random variable X is defined in the interval 0 to 4, with
1 − ax, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3
P (X > x) =
1
b − x, 3 < x ≤ 4
2
with a and b as constants,
1
and b = 2,
6
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph.
(a) Show that a =
(c) Find the probability density function of X.
(d) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of X.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[6 marks]
[Answer : (d)
5
, 1.190]
2
74. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X can only take the values 1, 3, 5 and 9, with probabilities: P(X=1)=0.2,
P(X=3)=0.3, P(X=5)=0.4, and P(X=9)=0.1. Find E(X) and Var(X).
[4 marks]
[Answer : 4.0 , 5]
75. [STPM ]
The probability of a person allergic to a type of anaesthetic is 0.002. A total of 2000 persons are
injected with the anaesthetic. Using a suitable approximate distribution, calculate the probability
that more than two persons are allergic to the anaesthetic.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.7619]
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76. [STPM ]
Tea bags are labelled as containing 2 g of tea powder. In actual face, the mass of tea powder per bag
has mean 2.05 g and standard deviation 0.05 g. Assuming that the mass of tea powder of each bag is
normally distributed, calculate the expected number of tea bags which contain 1.95 g to 2.10 g of tea
powder in a box of 100 tea bags.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 82]
77. [STPM ]
The lifespan of a species of plant is a random variable T (tens of days). The probability density
function is given by
1 e− 18 t , t > 0
f (t) = 8
0,
otherwise
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of T and sketch its graph.
[6 marks]
(b) Find the probability, to three decimal places, that a plant of that species randomly chosen has a
lifespan of more than 20 days.
[3 marks]
(c) Calculate the expected lifespan of that species of plant.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.779 ; (c) 80 days]
78. [STPM ]
The probability distribution of a random variable X is given by P(X = 0) = P(X = 2) = 3k, P(X=
l)=P(X=3)=2k, and P(X ≥ 4)=0.
(a) Find the value of k.
[2 marks]
(b) If Y = 2X + 3, find the probability distribution of Y , and hence find the expected value of Y .
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) k =
1
; (b) 5.8]
10
79. [STPM ]
The time taken by the customers of a company to settle invoices is normally distributed with mean 20
days and standard deviation 5 days. A discount is given for every invoice which is settled in less than
12 days.
(a) Find the probability that an invoice is settled in less than 12 days.
(b) Find the probability that an invoice is settled in 18 to 26 days.
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
(c) Determine, out of 200 invoices, the expected number of invoices which are given discounts.[2 marks]
(d) Find the probability that at most 2 out of 10 invoices are given discounts.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0548 ; (b) 0.5403 ; (c) 11 ; (d) 0.9853]
80. [STPM ]
A type of seed is sold in packets which contain ten seeds each. On the average, it is found that a seed
per packet does not germinate. Find the probability that a packet chosen at random contains less than
two seeds which do not germinate.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 0.7361]
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81. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has the probability density function
4 x2 (3 − x), 0 < x < 3,
f (x) = 27
0,
otherwise.
3
.
(a) Calculate P X <
2
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
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[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
5
]
16
82. [STPM ]
The lifespan of an electrical instrument produced by a manufacturer is normally distributed with a
mean of 72 months and a standard deviation of 15 months.
(a) If the manufacturer guarantees that the lifespan of an electrical instrument is at least 36 months,
calculate the percentage of the electrical instruments which have to be replaced free of charge.
[4 marks]
(b) If the manufacturer specifies that less than 0.1% of the electrical instruments have to be replaced
free of charge, determine the greatest length of the guarantee period correct to the nearest month.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.82% ; (b) 25 months]
83. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X has the probability function
(
k(4 − x)2 , x = 1, 2, 3,
P (X = x) =
0,
otherwise
where k is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of k and tabulate the probability distribution of X.
(b) Find E(7X − 1) and Var(7X − 1).
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) k =
84. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X has the probability function
(
k(4 − x)2 , x = 1, 2, 3,
P (X = x) =
0,
otherwise
where k is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of k and tabulate the probability distribution of X.
(b) Find E(7X − 1) and Var(7X − 1).
[3 marks]
10
1
; (b)
, 19]
14
7
[3 marks]
[7 marks]
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1
; (b) 9 , 19]
14
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[Answer : (a)
85. [STPM ]
A courier service company claims that 95% of the letters sent using its service reach their destinations
within a day. If six letters are randomly chosen, find
(a) the probability that at least two letters take more than a day to reach their destinations,[4 marks]
(b) the mean and variance of the number of letters that reach their destinations within a day.[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0328 ; (b) 5.7 , 0.285]
86. [STPM ]
The mass of a small loaf of bread produced in a bakery may be modelled by a normal random variable
with mean 303 g and standard deviation 4 g. Find the probability that a randomly chosen loaf has a
mass between 295 g and 305 g.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 0.6687]
87. [STPM ]
A computer accessories distributor obtains its supply of diskettes from manufacturers A and B, with
60% of the diskettes from manufacturer A. The diskettes are packed by the manufacturers in packets
of tens. The probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer A is defective is 0.05 whereas the
probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer B is defective is 0.02. Find the probability that
a randomly chosen packet contains exactly one defective diskette.
[7 marks]
88. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has probability density function
1
1
25 (1 − 2x), −2 ≤ x ≤ 2
1
3
f (x) =
(2x − 1),
≤x≤3
25
2
0,
otherwise.
(a) Sketch the graph of y = f (x).
13
(b) Given that P (0 ≤ X ≤ k) =
, determine the value of k.
100
89. [STPM ]
The probability distribution function of the discrete random variable Y is
P (Y = y) =
y
, y = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 100
5050
(a) Show that E(Y ) = 67 and find Var(Y ).
(b) Find P (Y − E(Y ) ≤ 30).
[Answer : 0.2558]
[2 marks]
[6 marks]
[5 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 561 ; (b)
162
3
2
[Answer : k = ]
4087
]
5050
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90. [STPM ]
The time taken by year 1 pupils of a school to complete a task is normally distributed with mean µ
and standard deviation 5.1 minutes.
(a) Given that 97.5% of the pupils require less than 40 minutes to complete the task, find the value
of µ.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that a pupil chosen at random takes more than 35 minutes to complete the
task.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 30 ; (b) 0.1635]
91. [STPM ]
The number of requests, X, received by a company to deliver pianos in a day is a discrete random
variable having probability distribution function
2
2k , x = 0, 3,
P(X = x) = kx, x = 1, 2,
0,
otherwise.
(a) Determine the value of the constant k and construct a probability distribution table for X.[4 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the company receives at least two requests in a day.
[2 marks]
(c) Find the expected number of requests per day.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) k =
1
5
13
; (b) ; (c)
]
4
8
8
92. [STPM ]
The probability that an employee of a company is late for work is 0.15 in any working day and 0.35 if
it rains. The probability that it rains is 0.24. Calculate
(a) the probability that it rains and the employee is late,
[2 marks]
(b) the probability that it rains if the employee is late,
[2 marks]
(c) the probability that the employee is late on at least 2 out of 5 consecutive working days.[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.084 ; (b) 0.56 ; (c) 0.1648]
93. [STPM ]
The independent Poisson random variables X and Y have parameters 0.5 and 3.5 respectively. The
random variable W is defined by W = X − Y .
(a) Find E(W ) and Var(W ).
(b) Give one reason why W is not a Poisson random variable.
94. [STPM ]
The probability that a heart patient survives after surgery in a country is 0.85.
[4 marks]
[1 marks]
[Answer : (a) 2 , 4]
(a) Find the probability that, out of five randomly chosen heard patients undergoing surgery, four
survive.
[3 marks]
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[Answer : (a) 0.3915 ; (b) 0.97]
95. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has probability density function
r
x−1
, 1≤x≤b
f (x) =
12
0,
otherwise
where b is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of b.
[4 marks]
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph.
(c) Calculate E(X).
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(b) Using a suitable approximate distribution, find the probability that more than 160 survive after
surgery in a random sample of 200 heart patients.
[6 marks]
[5 marks]
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) b = 4 ; (c)
14
]
5
96. [STPM ]
The time taken by a manager to travel from his home to his workplace is normally distributed with
mean 45 minutes and standard deviation 3 minutes. Determine the time when the manager has to
leave his house so that he is 95% confident of arriving at the workplace by 8:00 am.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 7:10 am]
97. [STPM ]
The probability distribution of a random variable X is as shown in the table below.
(a) Determine the value of p.
x
P(X = x)
0
p
1
5
21
2
10
21
3
5
21
4
p
(b) Calculate the mean and variance of X.
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a)
2
1
; (b) 2 , ]
42
3
98. [STPM ]
The random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation 100. It is known
that P (X > 1169) ≤ 0.117 and P (X > 879) ≥ 0.877. Determine the range of the values of µ. [7 marks]
99. [STPM ]
The probability that a lemon sold in a fruit store is rotten is 0.02.
[Answer : {µ : 995 ≤ µ ≤ 1050}]
(a) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in packets, determine the maximum number of lemons
per packet so that the probability that a packet chosen at random does not contain rotten lemons
is more than 0.85.
[5 marks]
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(b) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in boxed each containing 60 lemons, find using a
suitable approximation, the probability that a box chosen at random contains less than three
rotten lemons.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 8 ; (b) 0.8795]
100. [STPM ]
In a country, one person in 20 is lefthanded. Find the probability that, in a random sample of 20
persons, at least three will be lefthanded.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.0755]
101. [STPM ]
A random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and variance 25. Find the least value of µ
for which P (X ≥ 500) > 0.9.
[5 marks]
102. [STPM ]
[Answer : 506.41]
1
The random variable X has a binomial distribution with parameters n = 500 and p = .
2
Using a suitable approximate distribution, find P (X − E(X) ≤ 25).
103. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has probability density function
0,
x < 0,
5
f (x) = 4 − x, 0 ≤ x < 1,
1 ,
x ≥ 1.
4x2
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
[6 marks]
[Answer : 0.9774]
[7 marks]
(b) Calculate the probability that at least one of two independent observed values of X is greater
than three.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (b)
23
]
144
104. [STPM ]
A car rental shop has four cars to be rented out on a daily basis at RM50.00 per car. The average
daily demand for cars is four.
(a) Find the probability that, on a particular day,
i. no cars are requested,
ii. at least four requests for cars are received.
(b) Calculate the expected daily income received from the rentals.
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
(c) If the shop wishes to have one more car, the additional cost incurred is RM20.00 per day. Determine whether the shop should buy another car for rental.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) (i) 0.0183 , (b) 0.5665 ; (b) 160.93 ; (c) No]
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(a) Given that E(X) = 6 and Var(X) =
(b) Calculate P(X = 5).
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105. [STPM ]
A random variable X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p.
12
, determine the values of n and p.
5
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[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) p = 0.6 , n = 10 ; (b) 0.201]
106. [STPM ]
A discrete random variable X takes the values of 0, 1 and 2 with the probabilities of a, b and c
5
4
[6 marks]
respectively. Given that E(X) = and Var(X) = , find the values of a, b and c.
3
9
[Answer : a =
1
1 1
,b= , ]
6
3 2
107. [STPM ]
The independent random variable Yi , where i = 1, 2, . . . , n, takes the values of 0 and 1 with the
probabilities of q and p respectively, where q = 1 − p.
(a) Show that E(Yi ) = p and Var(Yi ) = pq.
[3 marks]
(b) If X = Y1 + Y2 + . . . + Yn , determine E(X) and Var(X). Comment on the distribution of X.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) np, npq ; binomial distribution]
108. [STPM ]
The number of hours spent in a library per week by arts and science students in a college is normally
distributed with mean 12 hours and standard deviation 5 hours for arts students, and mean 15 hours
and standard deviation 4 hours for science students.
A random sample of four arts students and six science students is chosen. Assuming that X is the
mean number of hours spent by these 10 students in a week,
(a) calculate E(X) and Var(X),
[7 marks]
(b) find the probability that in a given week, the mean number of hours spent by this sample of
students is between 11 hours and 15 hours.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 13.8 , 1.96; (b) 0.0.7814]
109. [STPM ]
The time to repair a certain type of machine is a random variable X (in hours). The probability
density function is given by
0.01x − p, 10 ≤ x < 20,
f (x) = q − 0.01x, 20 ≤ x ≤ 30,
0,
otherwise,
where p and q are constants.
(a) Show that p = 0.1 and q = 0.3.
[6 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the repair work takes at least 15 hours.
[4 marks]
(c) Determine the expected value of X.
[4 marks]
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[Answer : (b)
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(d) If the total cost of repair of the machine comprises a surcharge of RM500 and an hourly rate of
RM100, express the total cost of repair in terms of X, and determine the expected total cost of
repair.
[3 marks]
7
; (c) 20 hours ; (d) RM 2500]
8
110. [STPM ]
A rice dispenser is capable of filling up a cup of rice with an average weight of 130 g. Given that the
weight of the rice is normally distributed with a standard deviation of 6 g.
(a) Find the percentage number of cups of rice that weigh more than 140g.
[3 marks]
(b) If a cup can hold a maximum of 150 g of rice, find the probability that an overflow occurs.[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 4.78% ; (b) 0.000430 or 0.000429]
111. [STPM ]
The probability distribution of the number of cars owned by households in a city is as follows:
x
P(X = x)
0
0.02
1
m
2
n
3
0.07
Given that the mean number of cars owned is 1.38.
(a) Determine the values of m and n.
(b) Calculate the variance of X.
(c) Find the probability that a randomly chosen household owns at least two cars.
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) m = 0.65 , n = 0.26 ; (b) 0.4156 ; (c) 0.33]
112. [STPM ]
The random variable X is normally distributed with mean 48 and standard deviation 10. Find the
least integer k such that P(X − 48 > k) < 0.3.
[5 marks]
113. [STPM ]
A discrete random variable X has cumulative distribution function
0,
x < 1,
0.6, 1 ≤ x < 3,
F (x) =
0.9, 3 ≤ x < 5,
1,
x ≥ 5.
(a) Construct the probability distribution table for X.
(b) Find the mean and variance of X.
167
[Answer : 11]
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[Answer : 2,1.8]
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114. [STPM ]
The lifespan, in months, of a type of bulb is a random variable X. The probability density function is
given by
1 xe− x3 , x ≥ 0,
f (x) = 9
0,
x < 0.
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X, and hence, sketch the graph.
[6 marks]
(b) Determine the probability that a randomly chosen bulb has a lifespan of more than 9 months.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.199]
115. [STPM ]
The probability that a chicken egg placed in an incubator fails to hatch is 0.01.
(a) Determine the maximum number of eggs that may be placed in the incubator so that the probability that all the eggs hatch is more than 0.75.
[6 marks]
(b) Using a suitable approximate distribution, find the probability that more than three out of 200
eggs fail to hatch.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 28 ; (b) 0.1429]
116. [STPM ]
Five per cent of credit card holders of a bank do not pay their monthly bills on time. A random sample
of 10 credit card holders is taken.
(a) Find the probability that at least one card holder do not pay his/her bills on time.
[4 marks]
(b) State the modal number of card holders who do not pay their monthly bills on time. Give a
reason for your answer.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.401 ; (b) X = 0]
117. [STPM ]
A supervisor claims that five in every 1000 compact discs produced by his factory are defective. The
compact discs are packed into boxes containing 200 compact discs in each box.
(a) Using a suitable approximate distribution, find the probability that a randomly chosen box
i. does not contain any defective compact disc,
ii. contains at least four defective compact discs.
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
(b) Two boxes are chosen randomly. If X and Y represent the number of defective compact discs
in the first and second boxes respectively, calculate P(X + Y = 2) using a suitable approximate
distribution.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)(i) 0.3679 , (ii) 0.01899 ; (b) 0.2707]
118. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has the probability density function
√ 1
, 1 ≤ x ≤ 5,
f (x) = 2 2x − 1
0,
otherwise.
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13
and deduce E(X).
3
(b) Given that E[(2X − 1)2 ] = 24.2, find Var(X).
[4 marks]
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(a) Show that E(2X − 1) =
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
61
8
; (b)
]
3
45
119. [STPM ]
There are two boxes which contains four marbles each numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4. One marble is drawn
from each box. Let X denotes the difference of the numbers on the marbles.
(a) Construct a probability distribution table of X.
(b) Calculate E(X).
(c) Calculate P(X − E(X) ≤ 1).
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
5
8
[Answer : (b) 1.25 ; (c) ]
120. [STPM ]
The mass of a durian from a local farm is normally distributed with a mean of 1.2 kg and a standard
deviation of 0.32 kg. The durians are classified as small, medium, or large. The durian is small if its
mass is less than 1.0 kg and large if its mass is more than 1.6 kg.
(a) Find the percentages of small, medium and large durians in the farm.
(b) Calculate the probability that the mass of a small durian is at least 0.7 kg.
(c) Calculate the probability that two randomly selected durians are both small.
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
(d) Calculate the probability that the total mass of two randomly selected durians is at least 1.7 kg.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 26.6%, 62.8%, 10.6% ; (b) 0.778 ; (c) 0.0708 ; (d) 0.939]
121. [STPM ]
A discrete random variable X has probability distribution function
x
1
3 , x = 1, 2, 3, 4,
P(x) =
k,
x = 5, 6,
0,
otherwise.
(a) Determine the value of the constant k.
[2 marks]
(b) State the mode, and calculate the mean of X.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)
122. [STPM ]
Experience shows that 40% of the throws of a bowler result in strikes.
41
1
; (b) mode=1 , mean=3 ]
162
2
(a) Find the probability that, out of ten throws made by the bowler, at least two throws result in
strikes.
[4 marks]
169
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15: Probability Distributions
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(b) Find the probability that at most five throws need to be made by the bowler so that four throws
result in strikes.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.954 ; (b) 0.08704]
123. [STPM ]
The lifespan of a certain torch battery is normally distributed with a mean of 150 hours and a standard
deviation of 10 hours.
(a) Find the probability that a randomly chosen torch battery has a lifespan of not less than 160
hours.
[2 marks]
(b) Determine the value of t, to the nearest integer, if it is found that 5% of the batteries are exhausted
after t hours.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.1587 ; (b) 134]
124. [STPM ]
A discrete random variable X which takes the values of 1, 4, 9, 16 and 25 has cumulative distribution
function
0,
x < 1,
1
F (x) =
n, n2 ≤ x < (n + 1)2 , where n = 1, 2, 3 and 4,
5
1,
x ≥ 25.
(a) Tabulate the probability distribution of X.
(b) Find P(X ≥ 9).
√
√
(c) Calculate E( X) and Var( X).
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b)
3
; (c) 3 , 2]
5
125. [STPM ]
The result of a diagnostic test for a certain infection may be negative or positive, but the test is not
completely reliable. If an individual has the infection, the probability that the result will be negative
is 0.01. If an individual does not have the infection, the probability that the result will be negative is
0.95. In a certain population, the percentage of the population affected by the infection is 8%.
(a) An individual is chosen at random and tested.
i. Find the probability that the result of the test is negative.
[4 marks]
ii. If the result of the test is negative, show that the probability of the individual not infected
is 0.999, by giving your answer correct to three decimal places.
[2 marks]
(b) Estimate the percentage of the population which shows positive results for two independent
diagnostic tests.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the probability that in a sample of ten independent diagnostic tests, more than two results
are positive.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) (i) 0.8748 ; (b) 1.57% ; (c) 0.120]
126. [STPM ]
There are two boxes which each contain three golf balls numbered 1, 2 and 3. A player draws one ball
at random from each box, and the score X of the player is the sum of the numbers on the two balls.
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15: Probability Distributions
[3 marks]
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(b) Find E(X) and Var(X).
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(a) Determine the probability distribution function of X.
[4 marks]
1
3
[Answer : (b) 4 , 1 ]
127. [STPM ]
The amount of time devoted to studying Economics each week by students who achieve a grade A in
an examination is normally distributed with a mean of 8.0 hours.
(a) Given that 14% of the grade A students study more than 10.7 hours weekly, show that its standard
deviation is 2.5 hours.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the percentage of the grade A students who study less than 5 hours weekly.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the probability that all three randomly selected grade A students study less than 5 hours
weekly.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (b) 11.5% ; (c) 0.00152]
128. [STPM ]
The number of defective electrical components per 1000 components manufactured on a machine may
be modelled by a Poisson distribution with a mean of 4.
(a) Calculate the probability that there are at most 3 defective electrical components in the next 100
components manufactured on the machine.
[3 marks]
(b) State the assumptions that need to be made about the defective electrical components in order
that the Poisson distribution is a suitable model.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.999]
129. [STPM ]
A random variable T , in hours, represents the lifespan of a thermal detection system. The probability
that the system fails to work at time t hour is given by
21
P (T < t) = 1 − e− 5500 t .
(a) Find the probability that the system works continuously for at least 250 hours.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the median lifespan of the system.
[3 marks]
(c) Find the probability density function of the lifespan of the system and sketch its graph.[4 marks]
(d) Calculate the expected lifespan of the system.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.385 ; (b) 181.54 ; (d) 261.9]
130. [STPM ]
The probability density function of a continuous random variable X is given by
(
ax(b − x), 0 ≤ x ≤ b,
f (x) =
0,
otherwise,
where a and b are positive constants. It has a value of
171
1
at the mean value of X.
2
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
15: Probability Distributions
(a) Determine the values of a and b.
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(b) Sketch the graph of the probability density function.
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[7 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) a = 6, b = 1]
131. [STPM ]
An insurance company finds that 8% of the people who are insured with the company against a certain
risk make claims within a year.
(a) Calculate the probability that at least one out of two randomly selected people who are insured
against the risk makes a claim within a year.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the probability that at least 3 out of 60 randomly selected people who are insured
against the risk make claims within a year. Comment on the validity of the probability model
you use.
[6 marks]
(c) Using an approximate probability distribution, estimate the probability that at least 12 out of
100 randomly selected people who are insured against the risk make claims within a year. Justify
your use of this approximation.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.1536 ; (b) 0.8683 ; (c) 0.0985]
132. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has the probability density function
k,
0 ≤ x < 1,
k
f (x) =
, 1 ≤ x < 4,
2
x
0,
otherwise.
4
(a) Show that k = .
7
(b) Calculate the mean and Var(X).
[3 marks]
[7 marks]
[Answer : (b) 1.08 , 0.743]
133. [STPM ]
Studies conducted in the past show that the mean number of serious accidents in a certain factory is one
per year. The factory wishes to find the probability of the number of serious accidents occurring on a
yearly basis for the purpose of revising the insurance premium of its employees. The factory is required
to increase the insurance premium if the probability of having less than two serious accidentfree years
out of five years is more than 0.35.
(a) Define the relevant random variable, and identify its distribution.
(b) Find the probability that
i. there is no serious accident occuring in the next one year,
ii. there are at least three serious accidents occuring in the next two years.
iii. there are less than two accidentfree years occurring out of five years.
[3 marks]
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[5 marks]
(c) Based on the result in (b)(iii), state whether the factory is required to increase the insurance
premium or not.
[1 marks]
[Answer : (b) (i) 0.368 ; (ii) 0.323 ; (iii) 0.394]
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15: Probability Distributions
(a) exactly six calls are received in one hour,
[3 marks]
(b) at least three calls are received in half an hour.
135. [STPM ]
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134. [STPM ]
On the average, the number of telephone calls received by the staff at the reservation desk of an airline
company is six calls per hour. Assuming that the number of calls are random and independent, find
the probability that
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.160 ; (b) 0.577]
(a) State the parameters of a binomial distribution and the conditions under which a binomial distribution can be approximated by a normal distribution. Determine the parameters of the approximate distribution.
[4 marks]
(b) An article in an IT magazine states that 25% of hand phones are installed with a certain application software.
i. Calculate the probability that exact 3 out of 10 randomly selected hand phones are installed
with the application software.
[3 marks]
ii. Calculate the probability that at most 3 out of 10 randomly selected hand phones are installed
with the application software.
[3 marks]
iii. Calculate the probability that at least 60 out of 200 randomly selected hand phones are
installed with the application software.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) (i) 0.2503 ; (ii) 0.776 ; (iii) 0.0605]
136. [STPM ]
The discrete random variable X has the probability distribution as follows:
x
P(X = x)
It is given that P(X ≤ 20) = 0.25.
(a) Determine the values of p and q.
2
(b) Find E(X) and E{[X − E(X)] }.
137. [STPM ]
−60
p
20
0.10
24
q
60
0.25
[2 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) p = 0.15, q = 0.5 ; (b) 20 , 1368]
(a) Describe briefly the standard normal random variable.
[2 marks]
(b) The life span of a certain light bulb is a normal random variable with a mean of 950 hours and a
standard deviation of 50 hours.
i. Find the probability that a randomly chosen light bulb has a life span of more than 1000
hours.
[3 marks]
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15: Probability Distributions
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ii. Determine the value of h such that 99% of the light bulbs have life span between (950 − h)
hours and (950 + h) hours.
[5 marks]
iii. Find the probability that at most one out of eight independently selected light bulbs has a
life span of more than 1000 hours.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.1587 ; (b) 128.8 ; (c) 0.630]
138. [STPM ]
The number of new members in a fitness centre recruited by an agent in a month has a Poisson
distribution with a mean of 2. The fitness centre offers an incentive of RM 1000 if an agent recruits
more than five new members in two months.
(a) Find the probability that an agent fails to recruit any new members in a month period. [2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that an agent receives an incentive in a twomonth period.
[4 marks]
(c) Determine the expected amount of incentive that an agent receives in a twomonth period.[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.135 ; (b) 0.215 ; (c) RM214.87]
139. [STPM ]
A stall sells a type of durian either in packets at RM15 per packet or as whole durians at RM8 per
kg. On any day, the number of packets sold is a discrete random variable X which has a binomial
distribution with parameters n = 10 and p = 0.6, and the weight, in kilograms. of whole durians sold
is a continuous random variable Y which has probability density function
(
k(y + 1), 0 ≤ y ≤ 25,
f (y) =
0,
otherwise,
where k is a constant.
(a) Find the probability that, on any day, at least 8 packets of durians are sold.
[3 marks]
2
(b) Show that k =
and calculate the probability that, on any day, the weight of whole durians
675
sold is between 15 kg and 20 kg.
[5 marks]
(c) Determine the expected revenue of the sale of durians on any day.
[Answer : (a) 0.167 ; (b)
140. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has probability density function
x − 1, 1 < x ≤ 2,
f (x) = k,
2 < x ≤ 3,
0,
otherwise.
1
(a) Show that k = .
2
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function.
(c) Sketch the graph of the cumulative distribution function.
5
3
≤X≤
.
(d) Find P
2
2
174
[7 marks]
37
; (c) RM 220.86]
135
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
15: Probability Distributions
5
8
141. [STPM ]
A discrete random variable X has cumulative distribution function given by
0,
x<0
0.3, 0 ≤ x < 1,
0.6, 1 ≤ x < 2,
P(X ≤ x) =
0.8, 2 ≤ x < 3,
0.9, 3 ≤ x < 4,
1,
x ≥ 4.
(a) Find P(X > 3).
(b) Show that E(X) = 1.4.
(c) Find P[X − E(X) < 1].
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[Answer : (d) ]
[2 marks]
[4 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.1 ; (c) 0.5]
142. [STPM ]
On average, 48 cars enter a car park of a shopping complex per hour. The number of cars which enter
the car park has a Poisson distribution.
(a) Find the probability that at most two cars enter the car park in a fiveminute interval. [3 marks]
(b) Determine time interval, in minutes, if the probability that at least one car enters the car park
in this interval is 0.85.
[4 marks]
143. [STPM ]
A continuous random variable X has probability density function
0 ≤ x ≤ 2,
k,
m
, 2 < x ≤ 5,
f (x) =
x2
0,
otherwise.
It is given that 3P(X ≤ 2)=2P(X > 2).
1
and find the value of m.
5
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
(a) Show that k =
(c) Determine P(1 ≤ X ≤ 3).
(d) Calculate the median value of X.
[Answer : (a) 0.238 ; (b) 2.37]
[5 marks]
[5 marks]
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) m = 2 ; (c)
8
20
; (d)
]
15
9
144. [STPM ]
The average number of electrical appliances returned by customers to hypermarket H in a week is 2.
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15: Probability Distributions
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(a) State an appropriate probability distribution model for the random variable involved and the
conditions for this model.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the probability that at least three electrical appliances are returned in a particular
week.
[3 marks]
(c) Calculate the probability that no electrical appliances are returned on a particular Sunday.[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.323 ; (c) 0.751]
145. [STPM ]
An office sends a number of faxes on every working day. The probability of a fax is successfully sent
from the office is 0.8.
(a) Find the smallest number of faxes to be sent so that the probability that at least a fax is successfully sent is more than 0.99.
[4 marks]
(b) Calculate the probability that, out of 15 faxes, the number of faxes successfully sent is more than
the expected number.
[4 marks]
(c) Using a suitable approximation, calculate the probability that, out of 50 faxes, between 38 and
45 faxes are successfully sent. Justify your choice of the approximate distribution.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) 3 ; (b) 0.398 ; (c) 0.6461]
146. [STPM ]
The number of car accidents at a particular junction is not more than four accidents in a day. The
probability that there is no car accidents in a day is 0.4 and the probabilities that there are at most
one, two and three car accidents in a day are 0.7, 0.85 and 0.95 respectively.
(a) Construct a probability distribution table for the number of car accidents at the junction in a
day.
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the mean of the number of car accidents at the junction in a day.
[2 marks]
[Answer :
]
147. [STPM ]
In a given population, 25% of the population choose jogging as their leisure activity.
(a) Find the probability that, of the 20 people selected at random,
i. exactly five people choose jogging as their leisure activity,
ii. at most 17 people do not choose jogging as their leisure activity.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
(b) Use a suitable approximation to find the probability that, out of 60 people selected at random,
12, 13, 14 or 15 choose jogging as their leisure activity. Justify the choice of your approximation.
[8 marks]
[Answer :
]
148. [STPM ]
A binomial random variable X has mean 1 and variance 0.75. Find the parameters and state the
probability functions of X.
[5 marks]
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15: Probability Distributions
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of T .
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149. [STPM ]
The probability that the departure time ofa flight, randomly chosen at an airport, is delayed by more
1
than t hours is (t − 2)2 where 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. No flights leave earlier than scheduled and none is delayed
4
for more than 2 hours. The delay time, in hours, for a randomly chosen flight is denoted by T .
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability density function of T and sketch its graph.
[3 marks]
(c) Show that the expected delay time is 40 minutes.
[4 marks]
(d) Find the probability that a flight from the airport is delayed less than 40 minutes.
1
(e) Determine the value of m such that P( T < m)= .
2
[Answer : (d)
[2 marks]
[3 marks]
5
; (e) 0.586]
9
150. [STPM ]
A laboratory equipment shop gets 45% of the electronic weighing scale supplies from country Q. Five
electronic weighing scales are selected at random.
(a) Determine the mean and standard deviation for the number of the electronic weighing scales
supplied by country Q.
[4 marks]
(b) Find the probability that less than three electronic weighing scales are supplied by country Q.
[4 marks]
[Answer :
]
151. [STPM ]
An investor makes an average of 18 stock transactions in a year. Assume that the probability of transaction is the same for any month and that transactions in one month are independent of transactions
in any other month. Find the probability that he makes more than one transaction in a month.[5 marks]
152. [STPM ]
The continuous random variable X has probability density function f given by
(
cx2 (1 − x), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1,
f (x) =
0,
otherwise,
where c is a constant.
(a) Show that c = 12.
(b) Calculate the mean and variance of X.
(c) Find P(X >E(X)).
[Answer :
]
[3 marks]
[6 marks]
[3 marks]
(d) Find the probability that, out of three independent observed values of X, exactly two are greater
than E(X).
[3 marks]
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15: Probability Distributions
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[Answer :
]
153. A crossword puzzle is published in a newspaper every day except on Sundays. A man can solve, on
average, 8 of the 10 puzzles.
(a) Find the expected value and standard deviation of the number of puzzles solved in a week.
(b) Show that the probability that the man solves at least 5 puzzles in a week is 0.655 (correct to 3
significant figures).
(c) Given that he solves the puzzle on Monday, find to 3 significant figures, the probability that he
can solve at least 4 puzzles in the remaining days of the week.
(d) Find, to 3 significant figures, the probability that in 4 weeks, he solves 4 or less puzzles in only
one of the 4 weeks.
178
[Answer : (a) 4.8 , 0.98 ; (c) 0.737 ; (d) 0.388]
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16: Sampling and Estimation
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1. [STPM ]
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Sampling and Estimation
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16
STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
(a) All the Upper Six students in a state sat for a special English test. The mean and standard
deviation of the marks obtained by the students are 100 and 25 respectively.
i. Find the number of students from a random sample of 200 students who are expected to
obtain not less than 80 marks but not more than 120 marks.
ii. If the 50 best students from the sample will be awarded prizes, find the minimum marks
obtained by a student to be awarded a prize.
(b) The monthly wages of the workers at a factory are distributed normally with mean RM500 and
standard deviation RM100.
i. Find the probability that the mean monthly wage of a sample of 25 workers selected randomly
is RM450.
ii. Find the size of the random sample required so that the mean of the sample is within a range
of RM10 from the mean of the population with a probability of 0.9.
[Answer : (a) (i) 118 ; (ii) 117 ; (b) (i) 0.00621 ; (ii) 271]
2. [STPM ]
A supermarket reports that its daily sale is distributed normally with mean RM20 000 and standard
deviation RM4000.
(a) Estimate the number of days, in a period of 25 days selected at random, when the daily sale of
the supermarket is less than RM19 000.
(b) Calculate the probability that the mean daily sale of the supermarket in a period of 25 days
selected at random, is within a range of RM 1000 from RM20 000.
(c) Find the maximum estimation error that occurs with a probability of 0.9, for the daily sale of the
supermarket in the period of 25 days selected at random. Explain your answer.
[Answer : (a) 8 ; (b) 0.789 ; (c) 1316]
3. [STPM ]
A drink manufacturer intends to estimate the percentage of Malaysians who likes the flavour of its
new drink. In a market survey, 224 people from 400 people who tasted the drink say that they like the
flavour of the drink. Obtain a 95% confidence interval for the percentage of Malaysians whose likes
the flavour of the new drink.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (51.14%, 60.86%)]
4. [STPM ]
The mass of a pill made by a factory is distributed normally with mean p and standard deviation 1.5
g.
(a) If µ = 7 g, find the probability that the mean mass of a random sample of 9 pills is less than 6
g.
[4 marks]
(b) If the mean mass of a random sample of 9 pills is 6.8 g, obtain a 95% confidence interval for µ.
State, giving reasons, whether the managements claim that µ = 7.5 g is true or false. [6 marks]
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16: Sampling and Estimation
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(c) Determine the smallest sample size needed so that the value of µ obtained is less than 0.5 g at a
95% confidence level.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0228 ; (b) (5.82,7.78) ; (c) 35]
5. [STPM ]
In a certain bank, the service time for each customer is normally distributed with a mean of 2.5 minutes
and a standard deviation of 0.9 minutes. Find the probability that the mean service time for a random
sample of 49 customers is at least 2.5 minutes but not more than 2.7 minutes.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 0.4401]
6. [STPM ]
A company sells two brands of batteries A and B. For a random sample of 50 brand A batteries, its
50
50
X
X
lifespan (in months), are summarised by
xi = 1600 and
x2i = 51641. For a random sample of
i=1
i=1
40 brand B batteries, its lifespan (in months), are summarised by
40
X
i=1
yi = 1240 and
40
X
yi 2 = 39064.
i=1
(a) Calculate the unbiased estimate of the mean and variance of the lifespan for brand A battery and
brand B battery. Explain what is meant by unbiased estimate.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) 32 , 9 ; 31 , 16]
7. [STPM ]
An independent random sample is taken from a normally distributed population with mean 80 and
variance 25. Determine the smallest sample size so that the sample mean exceeds the population mean
by at least 2 with a probability not exceeding 0.01.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 34]
8. [STPM ]
In a survey of 400 supermarkets throughout the country, it is found that 136 of them sell a daily
essential product which contains a certain chemical exceeding the governmentapproved level.
(a) Estimate the percentage of supermarkets in the country which sell the product.
[3 marks]
(b) Obtain a 95% confidence interval for the percentage of supermarkets which sell the product. Give
an interpretation of the confidence interval you obtain.
[6 marks]
(c) Determine the smallest sample size of supermarkets which should be surveyed so that there is a
probability of 0.95 that the percentage of supermarkets which sell the product can be estimated
with an error of less than 2%.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 34% ; (b) (29.4%, 38.6%) ; (c) 2156]
9. [STPM ]
In a sample of 50 moths from the National Park, there are 27 female moths. Obtain a 95% confidence
interval for the proportion of female moths in the National Park.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (0.4019,0.6781)]
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16: Sampling and Estimation
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10. [STPM ]
A normal population has a mean of 75 and a variance of 25. Obtain the smallest sample size needed
so that the probability that the error of estimation is less than 1 is at least 0.90.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 68]
11. [STPM ]
The height of a certain type of mustard is distributed normally with mean 21.5 cm and variance 90
cm2 . A random sample of size 10 is taken.
(a) State the distribution of the sample mean with its mean and variance.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the sample mean is located between 18 cm and 24 cm.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.676]
12. [STPM ]
In a survey of 500 motorists on a certain highway, it is found that 120 of them have exceeded the speed
limit.
(a) Obtain a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of motorists who have exceeded the speed
limit on the highway.
[5 marks]
(b) Determine the smallest sample size which should be surveyed so that the error of estimation is
not more than 0.04 at the 90% confidence level.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) (0.203,0.277) ; (b) 309]
13. [STPM ]
A survey carried out in an area to estimate the proportion of people who have more than one house.
This proportion is estimated using 95% confidence interval. If the estimated proportion is 0.35, determine the smallest sample size required so that estimation error did not exceed 0.03 and deduce the
smallest sample size required so that the estimation error did not exceed 0.01.
[7 marks]
[Answer : 972 , 8740]
14. [STPM ]
The mean and standard deviation of the sleeping period of a sample of 100 students chosen at random
in a school are 7.15 hours and 1.10 hours respectively.
(a) Estimate the mean and standard deviation of the sleeping period of all the students in the school.
(b) Estimate the standard error of the mean.
[3 marks]
[1 marks]
[Answer : (a) 7.15 , 1.106 ; (b) 0.1106]
15. [STPM ]
A survey carried out by a manufacturer of decorative lamps finds that 136 out of 400 shops sell the
decorative lamps at prices less than the recommended prices.
(a) Find the 90% symmetric confidence interval for the proportion of shops selling the decorative
lamps at prices less than the recommended prices.
[5 marks]
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16: Sampling and Estimation
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(b) Determine the smallest sample size required so that the estimated proportion of shops selling the
decorative lamps at prices less than the recommended prices is within 2% of the actual proportion
at the 90% confidence level.
[5 marks]
(c) Calculate the probability that more than 60% of a random sample of 500 shops sell the decorative
lamps at prices less than the recommended prices.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) (0.301,0.379) ; (b) 1519 ; (c) 0]
16. [STPM ]
A random sample X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn is taken from a normal population with mean µ and variance 1.
¯ lies within 0.2 of
Determine the smallest sample size which is required so that the probability that X
µ is at least 0.90.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 68]
17. [STPM ]
A factory receives its supply of raw materials in packages. The mass of each package is normally
distributed with mean 300 kg and standard deviation 5 kg. A random sample of four packages is
selected. Find the probability that the mean mass of the sample lies between 292 kg and 296 kg.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 0.0541 or 0.0548]
18. [STPM ]
A telecommunications company wants to estimate the proportion of customers who require an additional line. A random sample of 500 customers is taken and it is found that 135 customers require an
additional line.
(a) Obtain the 99% symmetric confidence interval for the proportion of customers who require an
additional line. Interpret the confidence interval obtained.
[6 marks]
(b) If the company wants to estimate the proportion of customers who require an additional line at
a different location, determine the smallest sample size required so that the error of estimation
does not exceed 0.03 at the 95% confidence level.
[5 marks]
19. [STPM ]
A normal population has mean µ and variance σ 2 .
(a) Explain briefly what a 95% confidence interval for µ means.
[Answer : (a) (0.219,0.321) ; (b) 842]
[2 marks]
(b) From a random sample, it is found that the 95% confidence interval for µ is (−1.5, 3.8). State
whether it is true that the probability that µ lies in the interval is 0.95. Give a reason. [2 marks]
(c) A total of 120 random samples of size 50 are taken from the population and for each sample a
95% confidence interval for µ is calculated. Find the number of 95% confidence intervals which
are expected to contain µ.
[1 marks]
[Answer : (c) 114]
20. [STPM ]
A marketing research firm believes that 40% of the subscribers of a magazine will participate in a
competition held by the magazine. A preliminary survey of 100 subscribers is conducted to find out
their participation in the competition.
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(a) Determine the sampling distribution of the proportion of the subscribers who will participate in
the competition, stating its mean and variance.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that at least 30% of the subscribers will participate in the competition.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (b) 0.9839]
21. [STPM ]
In a study on the petrol consumption of cars, it is found that the mean mileage per litre of petrol for
24 cars of the same engine capacity is 15.2 km with a standard deviation of 4.2 km. Calculate the
standard error of the mean mileage and interpret this standard error.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 0.876]
22. [STPM ]
The lifespan of a type of tyre is normally distributed with mean 70000 km and standard deviation 10
000 km.
(a) Determine the probability that a randomly chosen tyre has a lifespan of less than 80 000 km.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the mean lifespan of 10 randomly chosen tyres is more than 68 000 km
but less than 75 000 km.
[4 marks]
(c) Determine the minimum number of tyres to be chosen so that the standard error does not exceed
3500 km at the symmetric 99% confidence interval.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.8413 ; (b) 0.6795 ; (c) 55]
23. [STPM ]
A survey is to be carried out to estimate the proportion p of households having personal computers.
This estimate must be within 0.02 of the population proportion at a confidence level of 95%.
(a) If p is estimated to be 0.12, find the smallest sample size required.
[4 marks]
(b) If the value of p is unknown, determine whether a sample size of 2500 is sufficient.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 1015 ; (b) No]
24. [STPM ]
A market survey is conducted at a number of shopping complexes. A random sample of 1250 shoppers
are asked whether they consume vitamins and 83% of them say “Yes”.
(a) Obtain a symmetric 95% confidence interval for the proportion of shoppers who say “Yes” and
interpret this confidence interval.
[6 marks]
(b) Explain why an interval estimate is more informative than a point estimate.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) (0.809,0.851)]
25. [STPM ]
The lengths of petals taken from a particular species of flowers have mean 80 cm and variance 30 cm2 .
Determine the sampling distribution of the sample mean if 100 petals are chosen at random. [3 marks]
Hence, find the probability that the sample mean is at least two standard deviations from the mean.
[3 marks]
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[Answer : X¯ ∼ (80, 0.3) ; 0.0456]
26. [STPM ]
It is found that 5% of doctors in a particular country play golf. Find, to three decimal places, the
probability that, in a random sample of 50 doctors, two play golf.
[2 marks]
Hence, state the sampling distribution of the proportion of the doctors who play golf, and construct a
98% confidence interval for the proportion.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 0.2611 , pˆ ∼ (0.05, 0.00095 , (0.022,0.122)]
27. [STPM ]
A researcher wishes to estimate the number of vehicles that pass by a location.
(a) According to a previous study, the standard deviation of the number of vehicles passing by the
location per day is 245. Calculate the number of days required so that he is 99% confident that
the estimate is within 100 vehicles of the true mean.
[3 marks]
(b) The standard deviation of the number of vehicles is actually 356. Based on the sample size
obtained in (a), determine the confidence level for the estimate to be within 100 vehicles of the
true mean.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 40 days ; (b) 92.4%]
28. [STPM ]
In a country, 78% of consumers are in favour of government control over prices. A random sample of
400 consumers is selected.
(a) Find the mean and standard deviation of the distribution of the sample proportion.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the sample proportion is at least 5% lower than the population proportion.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.78 , 0.0207 ; (b) 0.0093 or 0.00787 or 0.00790]
29. [STPM ]
A machine is regulated to dispense a chocolate drink into cups. From a random sample of 100 cups of
the chocolate drink dispensed, it is found that the cocoa content in one cup of the chocolate drink has
mean 5 g and standard deviation 0.5 g. The owner of the machine uses the confidence interval (4.900
g, 5.100 g) to estimate the mean cocoa content in one cup of the chocolate drink.
(a) Identify the population parameter under study.
(b) Determine the confidence level for the confidence interval used.
[1 marks]
[5 marks]
[Answer : (b) 95.34%]
30. [STPM ]
On the average, a button making machine is known to produce 6% defective buttons. A random sample
of 100 buttons is inspected and if eight or more buttons are found to be defective, the operation of the
machine will be stopped.
(a) State the sampling distribution for the sample proportion of defective buttons.
[1 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the operation of the machine will be stopped.
[3 marks]
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[Answer : (a) pˆ ∼ (0.06, 0.000564) ; (b) 0.264 or 0.2638]
31. [STPM ]
A random sample of 200 students of a university is selected and it is found that 120 of them stay in
university hostels.
(a) Estimate the proportion of the students who stay in the hostels and determine the standard error.
[3 marks]
(b) Construct a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of the students who stay in hostels, and
interpret your answer.
[4 marks]
(c) What is the effect on the confidence interval if the confidence level is increased from 95% to 99%?
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.60 , 0.0346 ; (b) (0.532,0.668) ; (c) (0.511,0.689), wider]
32. [STPM ]
A census conducted in a school shows that the total hours per week pupils spent watching television
has a mean of 16.87 hours and a standard deviation of 5 hours. If a random sample of 100 pupils is
taken, find
3
hour of the population mean,
4
(b) the probability that the sample mean is more than 17 hours.
(a) the probability that the sample mean is within
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.866 ; (b) 0.397]
33. [STPM ]
According to a report, 80% of the adult population is in favour of banning cigarettes. A proportion of
a random sample of 100 adults is found to be in favour of banning cigarettes.
(a) State the sampling distribution.
[2 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the sample proportion in favour of banning cigarettes is
i. at least 6% lower than the population proportion,
ii. within one standard deviation of the population proportion.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) pˆ ∼ (0.8, 0.0016) ; (b) (i) 0.0845 ; (ii) 0.6186
if without continuity correction, (i) 0.0668 ; (ii) 0.683]
34. [STPM ]
A food company carries out a market survey in a state on its new flavoured yoghurt. Three hundred
randomly chosen consumers taste the yoghurt. Their responses are shown in the table below.
Response
Number of consumers
Like
195
Dislike
70
Neutral
35
(a) Estimate the proportion of consumers in the state who like the yoghurt. Hence, calculate the
probability that the proportion of consumers who like the yoghurt is at least 0.70.
[5 marks]
(b) Construct a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of consumers in the state who like the
yoghurt.
[4 marks]
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[Answer : (a) 0.65 , 0.0397 ; (b) (0.596,0.704)]
35. [STPM ]
In a preliminary sample of 40 postgraduate students in a university, 32 students are satisfied with the
services at the main library of the university.
(a) Determine the smallest sample size needed to estimate the population proportion with an error
not exceeding 0.05 at the 90% confidence level. State any assumption made.
[5 marks]
(b) State the effect on the sample size
i. if the error is larger than 0.05 with the confidence level unchanged.
ii. if the confidence level is higher than 90% with the error unchanged.
[1 marks]
[1 marks]
[Answer : (a) 174]
36. [STPM ]
The age of women in country A suffering from kidney problems is found to be normally distributed
with mean 40 years and standard deviation 5 years.
(a) Find the probability that 10 randomly selected women who suffer from kidney problems have the
mean age less than 42 years.
[3 marks]
(b) Find the probability that four randomly selected women who suffer from kidney problems have a
total age of more than 145 years.
[3 marks]
(c) The ages of eight randomly selected women from country B who suffer from kidney problems are
as follows:
52, 68, 22, 35, 30, 56, 39, 48.
Assuming that the ages of the women who suffer from kidney problems are normally distributed,
determine the 95% confidence interval for the mean age of the women. Hence, conclude whether
the mean age differs from that of country A, and explain your answer.
[6 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.8971 ; (b) 0.9332 ; (c) (33.3,54.2)]
37. [STPM ]
A random sample of size n is taken to estimate the mean length of a particular aluminum rod produced
by a factory. Assuming that the length of the rod is normally distributed with a standard deviation
of 2 mm, determine the smallest value of n so that the width of the confidence interval for the mean
length of the rod is 1 mm with a confidence level of at least 90%.
[5 marks]
[Answer : 44]
38. [STPM ]
A random variable X is normally distributed with mean 20 and variance 6.25. The mean of a random
¯
sample of size n is X.
¯
(a) State the sampling distribution of X.
¯ < 18) = 0.0057, find the value of n.
(b) If P(X
[1 marks]
[4 marks]
6.25
[Answer : (a) X¯ ∼ N (20,
) ; (b) 10]
n
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39. [STPM ]
According to a recent census, children under 18 years of age spend an average of 16.87 hours per week
surfing the Internet with a standard deviation of 5 hours per week.
Find the probability that in a random sample of 100 children under 18 years of age, the mean time
spent surfing the internet per week is
(a) between 16.5 and 17.5 hours, inclusive.
[4 marks]
(b) within 0.75 hour of the population mean,
[3 marks]
(c) at least 0.75 hour lower than the population mean.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.6666 ; (b) 0.8664 ; (c) 0.0668]
40. [STPM ]
The masses of bags of flour produced in a factory have mean 1.004 kg and standard deviation 0.006
kg.
(a) Find the probability that a randomly selected bag has a mass of at least 1 kg. State any assumptions made.
[4 marks]
(b) Find the probability that the mean mass of 50 randomly selected bags is at least 1 kg. [4 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.7477 ; (b) 1]
41. [STPM ]
A population distribution has a mean of 205 and variance of 520. If 25 samples, each of size 40, are
taken from this population,
(a) calculate the probability that the sample mean is less than 200,
(b) determine the number of samples with mean less than 200.
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.0827 ; (b) 2]
42. [STPM ]
The manufacturer of a closedcircuit television (CCTV) claims that the proportion of households
installed with CCTV for security purposes in a city is 0.15. A random sample of 250 households is
taken from the city.
(a) Assuming that the claim of the manufacturer is true, calculate the probability that the sample
proportion is within 0.05 of the population proportion.
[5 marks]
(b) If 30 households from the random sample install CCTV. construct a 95% confidence interval for
the proportion of households with CCTV.
[5 marks]
(c) If the number of persons, y, per household for the 30 households from the random sample is
30
30
X
X
summarised by
yi = 130 and
yi 2 = 967, construct a 95% confidence interval for the
i=1
i=1
average size of households with CCTV.
[5 marks]
[Answer : (a) 0.9664 ; (b) (0.0799, 0.160) ; (c) (2.998,5.669)]
43. [STPM ]
A random sample of 100 measurements taken from a population gives the following results:
X
X
x = 2980 and
(x − x
¯)2 = 3168.
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(a) Determine a 95% confidence interval for the population mean.
[7 marks]
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(b) Suggest two ways to reduce the width of the confidence interval that you obtain.
[2 marks]
44. [STPM ]
A random of 15 independent measurements, in Pascal second, of the viscosity of a light machine oil is
taken. The values obtained are shown below.
25.2
24.3
24.8
25.1
Find the unbiased point estimates for
25.0
25.3
24.0
25.2
24.5
24.5
24.6
24.4
25.0
24.5
25.6
(a) the mean and variance of the population from which the sample is drawn,
(b) the proportion of population having a viscosity of more than 25.0 Pascal seconds.
[6 marks]
[1 marks]
1
3
[Answer : (a) 24.8 , 0.196 ; (b) ]
45. [STPM ]
A health survey is made on daily calcium intake and osteoporosis for senior citizens in a particular
area.
(a) It is known that the daily calcium intake per person has a mean of 1100 mg and a standard
deviation of 450 mg. For a random sample of 50 senior citizens,
i. determine the distribution of the sample mean,
[3 marks]
ii. find the probability that the mean daily calcium intake lies between 970 mg and 1230 mg.
[4 marks]
State the effect on the probability in (a)(ii) if the sample size is increased and justify your answer.
[2 marks]
(b) It is estimated that 64% of the senior citizens have osteoporosis. If a sample of 125 senior citizens
are selected at random,
i. determine the distribution of the sample proportion,
ii. find the probability that at least 70% of them have osteoporosis.
[3 marks]
[3 marks]
[Answer : (a)(i) X¯ N (100, 4050) , (ii) 0.9588 ; (b)(i) pˆ N (0.64, 0.0018432) ; (ii) 0.0962]
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Hypothesis Testing
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
A random sample of 40 batteries produced by a company is found to have a mean lifespan of 17 months
and standard deviation of lifespan of 4 months. Determine, at 5% significance level, whether the mean
lifespan of the batteries produced by the company is less than 18 months.
[6 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=−1.581 > −1.645]
2. [STPM ]
A random sample of 80 voters in an area showed that 57 voters supported party Y . Test, at 2%
significance level, the claim by party Y that more than 65% of the voters in that area supported them.
[7 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=1.172 < 2.054]
3. [STPM ]
A company sells two brands of batteries A and B. For a random sample of 50 brand A batteries, its
50
50
X
X
x2i = 51641. For a random sample of
xi = 1600 and
lifespan (in months), are summarised by
i=1
i=1
40 brand B batteries, its lifespan (in months), are summarised by
40
X
i=1
yi = 1240 and
40
X
yi2 = 39064.
i=1
(a) Calculate the unbiased estimate of the mean and variance of the lifespan for brand A battery and
brand B battery. Explain what is meant by unbiased estimate.
[7 marks]
[Answer : (a) 32 , 9 ; 31 , 16]
4. [STPM ]
A box contains a large number of identical beads of various colours. The proportion of white beads is
p. A random sample of size 100 is taken to test the null hypothesis H0 : p = 0.5 against the alternative
hypothesis H1 : p < 0.5. If the significance level is fixed as 1%, determine the critical region. [5 marks]
[Answer : pˆ < 0.3837]
5. [STPM ]
Random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and variance 36. The significance tests
performed on the null hypothesis H0 : µ = 70 versus the alternative hypothesis H1 : µ 6= 70 with
a probability of type I error equal to 0.01. A random sample of 30 observations of X are taken and
¯ taken as the test statistic. Find the range of the test statistic lies in the critical region.
sample mean X
[8 marks]
[Answer : x¯ < 67.18, x¯ > 72.82]
6. [STPM ]
The mean and standard deviation of the yield of a type of rice in Malaysia are 960 kg per hectare and
192 kg per hectare respectively. From a random sample of 30 farmers in Kedah who plant this rice,
the mean yield of rice is 996 kg per hectare. Test, at the 5% significance level, the hypothesis that the
mean yield of rice in Kedah is more than the mean yield of rice in Malaysia. Give any assumptions
that need to be made in the test of this hypothesis.
[8 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=1.027<1.645]
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7. [STPM ]
In a survey on the quality of service provided by a bank, 12 out of 150 customers think that the service
is unsatisfactory while the other 138 customers think otherwise.
Test the hypothesis that the proportion of customers who think that the service is unsatisfactory is
0.10
(a) by using a 99% confidence interval,
[7 marks]
(b) by carrying out a significance test at the 1% significance level.
[6 marks]
Comment on methods (a) and (b) used in the test of the hypothesis.
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) (0.0229, 0.1371)]
8. [STPM ]
The lifespan of a type of bulb is known to be normally distributed with standard deviation 150 hours.
The supplier of the bulbs claims that the mean lifespan is more than 5500 hours. The lifespans, in
hours, of a random sample of 15 bulbs are as follows.
5260
5600
5400
5780
5820
5520
5530
5500
5380
5360
5460
5620
5510
5430
5520
(a) State the appropriate hypotheses to test the supplier’s claim and carry out the hypothesis test at
the 5% significance level.
[8 marks]
(b) If the true mean lifespan is 5550 hours, find the probability that the test gives a correct decision.
[4 marks]
[Answer : (a) Test statistic=0.328<1.645 ; (b) 0.3617]
9. [STPM ]
The mean mark of an English test for a random sample of 50 form five students in a particular state is
47.7. A hypothesis test is to be carried out to determine whether the mean mark for all the form five
students in the state is greater than 45.0. Using a population standard deviation of 13 marks, carry
out the hypothesis test at the 10% significance level.
[6 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=1.469]
10. [STPM ]
The proportion of fans of a certain football club who are able to explain the offside rule correctly is
p. A random sample of 9 fans of the football club is selected and 6 fans are able to explain the offside
rule correctly. Test the null hypothesis H0 : p = 0.8 against the alternative hypothesis Hl : p < 0.8 at
the 10% significance level.
[6 marks]
11. [STPM ]
A random sample of 48 mushrooms is taken from a farm. The diameter in centimetres, of each
48
48
X
X
mushroom is measured. The results are summarised by
xi = 300.4 and
xi 2 = 2011.01.
i=1
i=1
(a) Calculate unbiased estimates of the population mean and variance of the diameters of the mushrooms.
[3 marks]
(b) Determine a 90% confidence interval for the mean diameter of the mushrooms.
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(c) Test, at the 10% significance level, the null hypothesis that the mean diameter of the mushrooms
is 6.5cm.
[6 marks]
(d) Relate the confidence interval obtained in (b) with the result of the test in (c).
[2 marks]
[Answer : (a) 6.2583 , 2.787 ; (b) (5.862,6.655)]
12. [STPM ]
A farmer claims that 95% tomatoes produced in his farm meet the food safety specifications. A random
sample of 100 tomatoes is taken from the farm and it is found that 92 tomatoes meet the food safety
specifications. Carry out a test, at the 5% significance level, whether the tomatoes from the farm
meets the food safety specifications.
[7 marks]
[Answer : Insufficient evidence to reject the farmer’s claim]
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Chisquared Tests
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
1. [STPM ]
A car manufacturing company claims that the colours preferred by its customers are white, grey, blue,
and red in the ratio 7 : 3 : 3 : 1. It is found that, from 420 prospective buyers listed in the companys
record of order, 225 persons choose white, 90 grey, 85 blue, and 20 red. Based on this record of orders,
test whether the claim made by the company can be accepted at the 5% significance level. [6 marks]
2. [STPM ]
2
In a chisquare test, the test statistic is given by χ =
[Answer : Test statistic=4.683]
k
X
(Oi − Ei )2
i=1
Ei
, where Oi is the observed
frequency, Ei the expected frequency, and k > 2. Show that
where N =
k
X
i=1
Oi =
k
X
(Oi − Ei )2
i=1
k
X
Ei .
i=1
Ei
=
k
X
O2
i=1
i
Ei
− N,
[2 marks]
A car model has four colours: white, red, blue, and green. From a random sample of 60 cars of that
model in Kuala Lumpur, 13 are white, 14 are red, 16 are blue, and 17 are green. Test, at the 5%
significance level, whether the number of cars of each colour of that model in Kuala Lumpur is the
same.
[5 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=0.668<7.815]
3. [STPM ]
In order to investigate whether the level of education and the opinion on a social issue are independent,
1300 adults are interviewed. The following table shows the results of the interviews.
Level of education
University
College
High school
Total
Opinion on the social issue
Agree
Disagree
450
18
547
30
230
25
1227
73
Total
468
577
255
1300
Determine, at the 1% significance level, whether the level of education and the opinion on the social
issue are independent.
[9 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=11.392>9.21]
4. [STPM ]
Explain what is meant by significance level in the context of hypothesis testing.
[2 marks]
In a goodnessoffit test for the null hypothesis that the binomial distribution is an adequate model
for the data, the test statistic is found to have the value 19.38 with 7 degrees of freedom. Find the
smallest significance level at which the null hypothesis is rejected.
[2 marks]
[Answer : 1%]
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5. [STPM ]
What is meant by a contingency table?
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A survey is carried out on a random sample of 820 persons who are asked whether students who break
school rules should be caned. The results of the survey are as follows.
hhh
hh
hhh
Education level
High school
College
University
Opinion
hhhh
h
hhh
h
Yes
No
Not sure
125
98
100
65
68
80
100
64
120
Carry out chisquared tests to determine whether educational level is related to the opinion on caning
at the significance levels of 1% and 2%.
[10 marks]
Comment on the conclusions of these tests.
[2 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=12.59<13.28]
6. [STPM ]
In a psychological study, 50 persons are asked to answer four multiplechoice questions. The answers obtained are compared with the predetermined answers. The data is recorded as a frequency
distribution as follows:
Number of matched answers
Frequency
0
10
1
15
2
8
3
5
4
12
A psychologist suggests that the data fits the following probability distribution.
Number of matched answers
Probability
0
0.08
1
0.10
2
0.15
3
0.25
4
0.42
(a) Calculate the expected frequencies based on the probability distribution.
[2 marks]
(b) Determine whether there is significant evidence, at the 5% significant level, to reject the suggestion.
[8 marks]
proposed model in (a).
[7 marks]
7. [STPM ]
It is thought that there is an association between the colour of a person’s eyes and the reaction of the
person’s skin to ultraviolet light. In order to investigate this, each of a random sample of 120 persons
is subjected to a standard dose of ultraviolet light. The degree of the reaction for each person is noted,
”” indicating no reaction, ”+” indicating a slight reaction and ”++” indicating a strong reaction.
The results are shown in the table below.
```
```
Reaction
colour
``Eye
Blue
```
```
+
++
7
29
21
Grey or green
Brown
8
10
9
18
16
2
Test whether the data provide evidence, at the 5% significance level, that the colour of a person’s eyes
and the reaction of the person’s skin to ultraviolet light are independent.
[10 marks]
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Presence
Absence
Heavy smokers
22
16
Smoking habit
Moderate smokers
25
18
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Symptom of hypertension
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8. [STPM ]
The symptom of hypertension and smoking habit for 120 individuals is shown in the contingency table
below.
Nonsmokers
15
24
Using a chisquared test, at the 5% significance level, determine whether the symptom of hypertension
is independent of smoking habit.
[11 marks]
[Answer : Test statistic=4.035<5.991]
9. [STPM ]
The power lines across a range of mountains are constantly struck by lightning. The number of
occurrence per week is recorded for the past 72 weeks. The results obtained are shown below.
Number of lightning strikes per week
Number of weeks
0
14
1
21
2
17
3
12
≥4
8
Perform a χ2 goodnessoffit test, at 1% significance level, to determine whether the data fits a Poisson
distribution with a mean of 2.
[8 marks]
You may use the probability distribution of a Poisson random variable with mean 2 given below.
Number of occurrence
Probability
0
0.1353
1
0.2707
2
0.2707
3
0.1804
≥4
0.1429
[Answer : Test statistic=2.88<13.28]
10. [STPM ]
An environmentalist investigates whether there is association between temperature and quality. Temperature and air quality of 200 randomly selected days are recorded as follows:
Temperature
Low
Moderate
High
Good
25
28
18
Air quality
Moderate Unhealthy
20
11
27
16
21
34
Perform a chisquared test at the 5% significance level to determine whether there is an association
between temperature and air quality.
[11 marks]
[XXAnswer : There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is an association between
temperature and air quality at the 5% significance level.]
11. [STPM ]
A survey of 200 participants to study the preferred communication methods of two generations is
carried out. The results of the survey is shown in the table below.
194
Generation
X
Y
Preferred communication method
Internet Phone call
SMS
28
43
39
47
17
26
18: Chisquared Tests
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STPM MATHEMATICS (T)
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Determine, at the 5% significance level, whether there is evidence to reject the null hypothesis that
preferred communication methods and the generations are independent.
[10 marks]
195
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